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Sample records for oligoryzomys flavescens rodentia

  1. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    R. Maestri

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal’s development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932, we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species.

  2. Comparison between Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens by RAPD and genetic diversity in O. nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    AJ Mossi

    Full Text Available The genus of Oligoryzomys includes species of small size, morphologically similar, which may impede taxonomic identification, mainly between O. flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 and O. nigripes (Olfers, 1818. The main objective of this work was to investigate whether the RAPD markers are capable of genetically differentiating the specimens O. nigripes and O. flavescens, coming from Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC states, and also to estimate the genetic variability among populations of O. nigripes, with the Uruguay River as a geographical barrier. For this purpose, samples were collected in fragments of forests situated in the North of RS, at FLONA (Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo and in fragments from SC, close to the Uruguay River. The karyotyping of two samples for each species was carried out and compared using the RAPD technique together with non- karyotyped individuals. Samples of O. nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, with submetacentric arms on the largest chromosomes, while samples of O. flavescens showed 2n = 64; NA = 66, with the largest chromosomes presenting acrocentric morphology, making such a result the main difference between the species. The analysis was able to detect two distinct groups, being the first one with karyotyped O. flavescens and the second with karyotyped O. nigripes. Identification afforded 211 loci, among them 181 (85.78% polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was in the range of 0.45 to 0.87. The UPGMA and Main Coordinate Analysis techniques demonstrated the existence of heterogeneous genetics among populations, but did not separate them completely in terms of geographical standards, and they are not influenced by the Uruguay River, which did not act as an efficient barrier.

  3. Anatomia comparada e morfometria de oligoryzomys nigripes e o. flavescens (rodentia, sigmodontinae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Leonardo F. Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligoryzomys nigripes e O. flavescens são amplamente distribuídos e simpátricos em diversos biomas. Os caracteres diagnósticos para seus reconhecimentos não são claramente estabelecidos. Neste estudo, foram realizadas a descrição e comparação da morfologia externa, anatomia do crânio, dentes, esqueleto pós crânio, morfologia estomacal e peniana. Análises estatísticas foram geradas a partir de dados morfométricos. A amostra consiste de 208 exemplares provenientes de 24 localidades do Brasil. O. nigripes é maior, com pelagem dorsal mais escura e pelagem ventral esbranquiçada e salpicada de preto. Crânio maior e mais robusto que O. flavescens. O. flavescens é menor, com pelagem dorsal levemente mais clara e ventre amarelado. O padrão de circulação cefálica das duas espécies é derivada de segundo tipo. Em O. flavescens são visualizados acidentes proeminentes na escápula e úmero, enquanto O. nigripes demonstrou maiores diferenças localizadas na crista íliaca, orientação do ísquio e acidentes proeminentes na tíbia e fíbula. A morfologia estomacal de ambos os táxons possui padrão Unilocular-hemiglandular. A morfologia do pênis consiste de báculo central tri-digitado. A análise de função discriminante reconhecem claramente a distinção de dois grupos homogêneos representados pelas espécies. Segundo o teste t duas variáveis morfométricas (largura da placa zigomática e largura do primeiro molar superior não são relevantes (P > 0.05 para a discriminação dos táxons. Dimorfismo sexual baseado na morfometria foi sustentado pelo teste t para O. nigripes. Em O. flavescens esta condição não é estatisticamente verificada.

  4. Ectoparasite occurrence associated with males and females of wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) and Akodon azarae (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in the Punta Lara wetlands, Argentina.

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    Lareschi, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study infestation parameters and indexes of ectoparasites associated with each sex of the wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) andAkodon azarae (Fischer) in the Punta Lara wetlands, Argentina. A trend towards higher mean abundance (MA) and ectoparasite specific richness was observed in males of O. flavescens whereas those values were similar for both A. azarae sexes. The prevalence of the following ectoparasites was significantly higher on males (Prodent hosts, these results are epidemiologically important.

  5. A new species, Litomosoides odilae n. sp (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

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    Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela

    2002-10-01

    A new species of Litomosoides was collected from the abdominal cavity of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in a semideciduous secondary rainforest of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides odilae n. sp. belongs to the carinii group and is characterized by the amphids displaced dorsally; buccal capsule with an anterior segment transparent and an annular asymmetrical thickening; esophagus divided, with the posterior glandular portion slightly wider than the muscular; male cloacal aperture strongly protruded; and microfilaria sheathed with an attenuated tail. The morphology of the new species, which is similar to that of L petteri, a parasite of marsupials in Brazil, suggests that host-switching events may have occurred in the diversification of this genus.

  6. Glaciation Effects on the Phylogeographic Structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in the Southern Andes

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    Eduardo Palma, R.; Dusan Boric-Bargetto; Fernando Torres-Pérez; Cristián E Hernández; Terry L. Yates

    2012-01-01

    The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae), the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial dis...

  7. Glaciation effects on the phylogeographic structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in the southern Andes.

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    Palma, R Eduardo; Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, Cristián E; Yates, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae), the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000-13,000 years ago). Neutrality tests and the "g" parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia). From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats.

  8. Glaciation effects on the phylogeographic structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in the southern Andes.

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    R Eduardo Palma

    Full Text Available The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae, the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000-13,000 years ago. Neutrality tests and the "g" parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia. From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats.

  9. Comparative chromosome painting in six species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae and the karyotype evolution of the genus.

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    Camilla Bruno Di-Nizo

    Full Text Available Oligoryzomys belongs to the tribe Oryzomyini, and contains about 22 species. Diploid numbers range from 2n = 44 in Oligoryzomys sp. 2 to 2n = 72 in O. utiaritensis and phylogenetic relationships are not well defined. The high morphological convergence leads to misidentification of taxonomic entities and the species are often identified by chromosomal characters. Until now, the genus has been studied only by classical cytogenetic approaches. To understand the chromosomal evolution of Oligoryzomys, we developed chromosome probes from a female of Oligoryzomys moojeni (OMO with 2n = 70 and hybridized to other five Oligoryzomys species. The probes painted 31 segments on O. fornesi (OFO with 2n = 62; 32 segments on O. microtis (OMI, 2n = 64; 33 segments on O. nigripes (ONI, 2n = 62 and on O. rupestris (ORU, 2n = 46; and 34 on Oligoryzomys sp. 2 (OSP, 2n = 44. OMO probes 4 and 5 showed a syntenic association in O. fornesi, O. microtis and O. nigripes and were also presented in the same pair, although disrupted, in O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2. Concerning O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2, species with the lowest diploid numbers of the genus, a total of 8 probes hybridized to 11 segments on the largest pair of ORU 1 and 9 probes hybridized to 12 segments on OSP 1. Also, OMO 6 painted three segments in ORU, corresponding to the proximal segment of ORU 2q, and the whole of ORU 19 and 20. In OSP, the segment corresponding to ORU 20 was homologous to OSP 1p. OMO X showed signals of hybridization in both X and Y chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal rearrangements, that could not be detected by classical cytogenetic techniques, such as pericentric inversions or repositioning of centromeres, Robertsonian rearrangements and tandem fusions/fissions, as well as gain/activation or loss/inactivation of centromeres and telomeric sequences have driven the huge genome reshuffling in these closely related species.

  10. Comparative chromosome painting in six species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) and the karyotype evolution of the genus.

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    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Ventura, Karen; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Silva, Maria José de J

    2015-01-01

    Oligoryzomys belongs to the tribe Oryzomyini, and contains about 22 species. Diploid numbers range from 2n = 44 in Oligoryzomys sp. 2 to 2n = 72 in O. utiaritensis and phylogenetic relationships are not well defined. The high morphological convergence leads to misidentification of taxonomic entities and the species are often identified by chromosomal characters. Until now, the genus has been studied only by classical cytogenetic approaches. To understand the chromosomal evolution of Oligoryzomys, we developed chromosome probes from a female of Oligoryzomys moojeni (OMO) with 2n = 70 and hybridized to other five Oligoryzomys species. The probes painted 31 segments on O. fornesi (OFO) with 2n = 62; 32 segments on O. microtis (OMI), 2n = 64; 33 segments on O. nigripes (ONI), 2n = 62 and on O. rupestris (ORU), 2n = 46; and 34 on Oligoryzomys sp. 2 (OSP), 2n = 44. OMO probes 4 and 5 showed a syntenic association in O. fornesi, O. microtis and O. nigripes and were also presented in the same pair, although disrupted, in O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2. Concerning O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2, species with the lowest diploid numbers of the genus, a total of 8 probes hybridized to 11 segments on the largest pair of ORU 1 and 9 probes hybridized to 12 segments on OSP 1. Also, OMO 6 painted three segments in ORU, corresponding to the proximal segment of ORU 2q, and the whole of ORU 19 and 20. In OSP, the segment corresponding to ORU 20 was homologous to OSP 1p. OMO X showed signals of hybridization in both X and Y chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal rearrangements, that could not be detected by classical cytogenetic techniques, such as pericentric inversions or repositioning of centromeres, Robertsonian rearrangements and tandem fusions/fissions, as well as gain/activation or loss/inactivation of centromeres and telomeric sequences have driven the huge genome reshuffling in these closely related species.

  11. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

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    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  12. Characterization of Juquitiba Virus in Oligoryzomys fornesi from Brazilian Cerrado

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    Alexandro Guterres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Juquitiba virus, an agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome, is one of the most widely distributed hantavirus found in South America. It has been detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon montensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon paranaensis in Brazil and in O. nigripes, Oryzomys sp. and Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents in Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. Here, we report the genomic characterization of the complete S segment from the Juquitiba strain, isolated from the lung tissues of O. fornesi, the presumed rodent reservoir of Anajatuba virus in Brazilian Amazon, captured in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil.

  13. New species and records of the mite genus Prolistrophorus (Acariformes: Listrophoridae) from rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

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    Bochkov, Andre V; Lareschi, Marcela; Barreto, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Six fur-mite species of the genus Prolistrophorus Fain, 1970 (Acariformes: Listrophoridae) were recorded from Central and South American rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Among them, Prolistrophorus (Aprolistrophorus) parabidentatus sp. nov. from Akodon azarae from Argentina and Prolistrophorus (Aprolistrophorus) tylomys sp. nov. from Tylomys nudicaudus from Guatemala are described as new for science. New hosts are recorded for the following species: Prolistrophorus (Prolistrophorus) grassii (Radford, 1954) from Zygodontomys brevicauda from Colombia, P. (P.) frontalis (Hirst, 1921) from Oligoryzomys sp. from Argentina, P. (P.) argentinus (Hirst, 1921) from Melanomys caliginosus, Akodon affinis from Colombia and Scapteromys aquaticus from Argentina, Prolistrophorus (Beprolistrophorus) hirstianus Fain, 1973 from Scapteromys aquaticus from Argentina.

  14. On the Origin and Evolution of the Extant System of B Chromosomes in Oryzomyini Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

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    Ventura, Karen; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; do Nascimento Moreira, Camila; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous supernumerary chromosomes (Bs) are recognized in the oryzomyines Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus, N. squamipes, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya, representing about 10% of all known B-containing rodent species. They provide an outstanding model for understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of Bs in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, whole chromosome-specific probes were generated from flow-sorted Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) autosomes 11 and 25+26 and chromosomes X, Y and Bs. Hybridizations were performed on male metaphases of 15 Oryzomyini species of which 3 are B-containing species. The results reveal that among the species sampled, 12 of them, belonging to a monophyletic Oryzomiyini subclade, are positive for an anonymous Oryzomyini shared heterochromatic region (OSHR) on both sex chromosomes. The OSHR is also present on Bs of Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus and N. squamipes but not on Bs of O. flavescens and S. angouya. Two distinct additional OSHR/autosome associations are observed on S. angouya. The three species that are OSHR negative belong to an outgroup. Molecular dating suggests that the OSHR originated between 7.8 and 3 Mya on ancestral sex chromosomes. A tentative explanation for the OSHR-positive nature of B regions in three species could be that transposable elements (TEs) from this specific sex chromosome region may have invaded existing B chromosomes. The presence of the OSHR on entire Xp and Yp adjacent to interstitial telomeric sequences at pericentromeric positions, as observed in Drymoreomys albimaculatus, show a similar organization as on B chromosomes in Nectomys squamipes. The diversity of the Oryzomyini Bs in number, size, morphology and genetic content may be explained by the independent origin of B chromosomes in different subgroups of species, with Bs in Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys squamipes and N. rattus sharing the OSHR with sex chromosomes, and those in Oligoryzomys

  15. Antifatigue properties of dragonfly Pantala flavescens wings.

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    Li, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liang, Yun-Hong; Ren, Lu-Quan; Jie, Meng; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-05-01

    The wing of a dragonfly is thin and light, but can bear high frequent alternating stress and present excellent antifatigue properties. The surface morphology and microstructure of the wings of dragonfly Pantala flavescens were observed using SEM in this study. Based on the biological analysis method, the configuration, morphology, and structure of the vein were studied, and the antifatigue properties of the wings were investigated. The analytical results indicated that the longitudinal veins, cross veins, and membrane of dragonfly wing form a optimized network morphology and spacially truss-like structure which can restrain the formation and propagation of the fatigue cracks. The veins with multilayer structure present high strength, flexibility, and toughness, which are beneficial to bear alternating load during the flight of dragonfly. Through tensile-tensile fatigue failure tests, the results were verified and indicate that the wings of dragonfly P. flavescens have excellent antifatigue properties which are the results of the biological coupling and synergistic effect of morphological and structural factors.

  16. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

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    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  17. Modeling potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus) reservoir, in Argentina.

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    Andreo, Verónica; Glass, Gregory; Shields, Timothy; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    We constructed a model to predict the potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the reservoir of Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus), in Argentina. We developed an extensive database of occurrence records from published studies and our own surveys and compared two methods to model the probability of O. longicaudatus presence; logistic regression and MaxEnt algorithm. The environmental variables used were tree, grass and bare soil cover from MODIS imagery and, altitude and 19 bioclimatic variables from WorldClim database. The models performances were evaluated and compared both by threshold dependent and independent measures. The best models included tree and grass cover, mean diurnal temperature range, and precipitation of the warmest and coldest seasons. The potential distribution maps for O. longicaudatus predicted the highest occurrence probabilities along the Andes range, from 32°S and narrowing southwards. They also predicted high probabilities for the south-central area of Argentina, reaching the Atlantic coast. The Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome cases coincided with mean occurrence probabilities of 95 and 77% for logistic and MaxEnt models, respectively. HPS transmission zones in Argentine Patagonia matched the areas with the highest probability of presence. Therefore, colilargos presence probability may provide an approximate risk of transmission and act as an early tool to guide control and prevention plans.

  18. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800

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    Mario González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  19. Campylobacter Insulaenigrae: First Isolation Report from South American sea lion (Otaria Flavescens, (Shaw, 1800).

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    González, Mario; Paz Villanueva, Maria; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  20. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)

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    Mario González; Maria Paz Villanueva; Lies Debruyne; Peter Vandamme; Heriberto Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  1. A new lavandulyl flavonoid from Sorphora flavescens Ait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new lavandulyl flavonoid was isolated from the rhizome of Sorphora flavescens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including 2D NMR. And it showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hela cells with IC50 of 1.1 μmol/L.

  2. Description of the pupae of Ochlerotatus flavescens and Ochlerotatus melanimon.

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    Darsie, Richard F

    2011-06-01

    The previously unknown pupae of Ochlerotatus flavescens and Oc. melanimon are described and illustrated. They will both be included in a forthcoming key to known pupae of genera Aedes and Ochlerotatus in the Nearctic Region. Characters to recognize each are explained.

  3. Extraction of Genistein from Sophora flavescens with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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    Han, Chang-Nam; Kang, Choon-Hyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This study was directed to finding an optimum extraction condition of genistein from the S. flavescens with supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent. In this effort, effects of the extraction conditions including pressure, temperature and a co-solvent on the extraction efficiency were investigated. The aqueous ethanol and methanol solutions were used as co-solvents while the tested operating pressure and temperature ranges were from 200 bar to 300 bar and from 308.15 K to 323.15 K, respectively. The concentration of genistein was determined by means of HPLC equipped with a UV detector. From the results, it was observed that an increase in pressure led to the higher extraction efficiency. Further, methanol showed better performance as a co-solvent than ethanol. The DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured to compare antioxidant activities of S. flavescens extracts.

  4. Anembryonic Gestation in Wild South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens.

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    Grandi, M F; Crespo, E A; Dans, S L

    2016-10-01

    We present the first record and description of an anembryonic gestation in a wild South America sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora, Pinniped). This is the first report of an anembryonic gestation in a wild marine mammal species. This description furthers the knowledge of general aspects of the reproduction of an otariid species, which presents the particularities of delayed implantation and polygynic breeding system, and adds information on a reproductive abnormality in marine mammals.

  5. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tis...

  6. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  8. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  9. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to th

  10. Muridae (Rodentia) from the lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fauna of Muridae (Rodentia) from the Lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, SE Spain) contains species attributed to the genera Huerzelerimys, Parapodemus, and Occitanomys. The material described allows a detailed biostratigraphy of Upper Miocene deposits of SE Spain. En este trabajo se estudi

  11. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to

  12. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Koutaka, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped.

  13. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; UNE, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped. PMID:27052463

  14. Rhizobial Diversity and Nodulation Characteristics of the Extremely Promiscuous Legume Sophora flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yin Shan; Liu, Yuan Hui; Yan, Hui; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2015-12-01

    In present study, we report our extensive survey on the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with Sophora flavescens, a sophocarpidine (matrine)-containing medicinal legume. We additionally investigated the cross nodulation, infection pattern, light and electron microscopies of root nodule sections of S. flavescens infected by various rhizobia. Seventeen genospecies of rhizobia belonging to five genera with seven types of symbiotic nodC genes were found to nodulate S. flavescens in natural soils. In the cross-nodulation tests, most representative rhizobia in class α-Proteobacteria, whose host plants belong to different cross-nodulation groups, form effective indeterminate nodules, while representative rhizobia in class β-Proteobacteria form ineffective nodules on S. flavescens. Highly host-specific biovars of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. trifolii and bv. viciae) and Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli could establish symbioses with S. flavescens, providing further evidence that S. flavescens is an extremely promiscuous legume and it does not have strict selectivity on either the symbiotic genes or the species-determining housekeeping genes of rhizobia. Root-hair infection is found as the pattern that rhizobia have gained entry into the curled root hairs. Electron microscopies of ultra-thin sections of S. flavescens root nodules formed by different rhizobia show that the bacteroids are regular or irregular rod shape and nonswollen types. Some bacteroids contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), while others do not, indicating the synthesis of PHB in bacteroids is rhizobia-dependent. The extremely promiscuous symbiosis between S. flavescens and different rhizobia provide us a basis for future studies aimed at understanding the molecular interactions of rhizobia and legumes.

  15. Sophora flavescens Ait.: Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xirui; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Xiaoqiang

    2015-08-22

    Sophora flavescens (Fabaceae), also known as Kushen (Chinese: ), has been an important species in Chinese medicine since the Qin and Han dynasties. The root of Sophora flavescens has a long history in the traditional medicine of many countries, including China, Japan, Korea, India and some countries in Europe. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Sophora flavescens has been used extensively, mainly in combination with other medicinal plants in prescriptions to treat fever, dysentery, hematochezia, jaundice, oliguria, vulvar swelling, asthma, eczema, inflammatory disorders, ulcers and diseases associated with skin burns. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicology of Sophora flavescens and to discuss possible trends and opportunities for further research on Sophora flavescens. We systematically searched major scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, ACS, "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)", China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI) and Web of Science) for information published between 1958 and 2015 on Sophora flavescens. Information was also acquired from local classic herbal literature, conference papers, government reports, and PhD and MSc dissertations. The broad spectrum of biological activities associated with Sophora flavescens has been considered a valuable resource in both traditional and modern medicine. Extracts are taken either orally or by injection. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and the major components have been identified as flavonoids and alkaloids. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that at least 50 pure compounds and crude extracts from Sophora flavescens possess wide-ranging antitumor, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory pharmacological abilities. The anticancer and anti

  16. Development of 10 microsatellite markers from Pantala flavescens and their applicability in studying genetics diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingzhen; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Kongming

    2015-08-01

    Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) is one of the most common species among migration dragonflies. It is often encountered in large swarms during migration or directed dispersal flights. For a better understanding of its gene flow, genetic structure and migration patterns throughout the world, 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated in this study. We respectively collected 32 P. flavescens from three places (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang) and 20 P. flavescens from Beijing. Partial genomic libraries containing microsatellite sequences were constructed with magnetic-bead enrichment method. By screening, sequence analysis, PCR amplification and so on, ten 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. In order to assess their applicability, genetic diversity of these novel markers was tested in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang). These markers were highly polymorphic, with 3-12 alleles per markers. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged 0.321-0.667 and from 0.531 to 0.948 respectively. The genetic difference between Hunan and Liaoning is 0.429, while the genetic difference between Liaoning and Heilongjiang is 0.0508. These microsatellite markers for P. flavescens were developed for the first time, and will be a powerful tool for studying population genetic diversity and dispersal behavior of P. flavescens in China and worldwide.

  17. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from south american sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)

    OpenAIRE

    González, M.; M. P. Villanueva; Debruyne, L.; Vandamme, P.; Fernández, H.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  18. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  19. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  20. Acariform mites (Acariformes - permanent symbionts of Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia, Muridae in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bochkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of parasitic acariform mites (Acariformes are described from the Delacour’s marmoset rat Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae in Vietnam: Afrolistrophorus (Afrolistrophorus hapalomys sp. n. (Listrophoridae and Radfordia (Radfordia mirabilis sp. n. (Myobiidae. Based on morphological evidences, we show that species of both mite genera associated with Hapalomys Blyth do not demonstrate clear phylogenetic links with respective congeners from rodents of the closest genus Chiropodomys Peters (Rodentia: Muridae.

  1. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Eui-seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST Gangneung Institute), Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bo Mi [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Biosafety Research Team, National Institute of Environmental Research, Kyungseo-Dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, SungChul [Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee, E-mail: jaehee@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ∼ 90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens. - Graphical abstract: Variations in (a) the concentrations of major antimicrobial chemical compounds on S. flavescens nanoparticle-coated filters: kurarinone, kuraridin, and sophoraflavanone-G and (b) the inactivation rate of antimicrobial filters as a function of time.

  2. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial activated carbon fiber filters using Sophora flavescens nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Seo, SungChul; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2014-09-15

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters have a wide range of applications, including air purification, dehumidification, and water purification, due to their large specific surface area, high adsorption capacity and rate, and specific surface reactivity. However, when airborne microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi adhere to the carbon substrate, ACF filters can become a source of microbial contamination, and their filter efficacy declines. Antimicrobial treatments are a promising means of preventing ACF bio-contamination. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Sophora flavescens in antimicrobial nanoparticles coated onto ACF filters. The particles were prepared using an aerosol process consisting of nebulization-thermal drying and particle deposition. The extract from S. flavescens is an effective, natural antimicrobial agent that exhibits antibacterial activity against various pathogens. The efficiency of Staphylococcus epidermidis inactivation increased with the concentration of S. flavescens nanoparticles in the ACF filter coating. The gas adsorption efficiency of the coated antimicrobial ACF filters was also evaluated using toluene. The toluene-removal capacity of the ACF filters remained unchanged while the antimicrobial activity was over 90% for some nanoparticle concentrations. Our results provide a scientific basis for controlling both bioaerosol and gaseous pollutants using antimicrobial ACF filters coated with S. flavescens nanoparticles.

  3. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  4. Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis abundance in poorly known sites: a spatial expansion of colonies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Szteren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe establishment of new pinniped colonies is a consequence of complex dynamics in which some colonies may transform from haul-outs into breeding sites. The aim of this article was to estimate the abundance of Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis at two poorly known sites of Uruguay, the easternmost “Isla Verde-Islote Coronilla” (IV-IC and the westernmost “Las Pipas” (LP. From June 2008 to June 2009 count from boats were conducted at LP, and aerial censuses at Isla Verde. At LP both pinniped species were recorded, and the abundance was maximum in July with a total of 202 animals.O. flavescens was present throughout the year, mainly adult males, while A. australis was only observed from June to October. LP is defined as a haul-out structure used as resting area, especially for O. flavescens. At IV-IC between 225 and 521 O. flavescens were recorded. The number of animals increased in Spring and Summer. Females were the most abundant category and pups were recorded in March. According to the age structure and the presence of pups, we propose it would have and incipient reproductive activity. This colony should be monitored in relation with its category as a marine protected area.

  5. Karyotype restructuring in Rodentia: from evolution to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Louzada Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Genética Molecular Comparativa e Tecnológica A ordem Rodentia representa a mais abundante e diversificada ordem de mamíferos. A análise dos cariótipos/genomas de roedores da superfamília Muroidea tem revelado a ocorrência de elevadas taxas de evolução para estas espécies, o que as torna bons modelos para o estudo da evolução de cromossomas, dos rearranjos cromossómicos e das consequências dos mesmos durante o processo tumoral. O principal objectivo desta...

  6. Fingerprint of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two populations of southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, L; Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Savelli, C; Jimenez, B; Junin, M; Castello, H

    1997-02-01

    The fingerprint of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in biopsy, fur, blood, liver and faeces of live and dead specimens of two Argentinian population of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens). One colony lives in Mar del Plata harbour which is particularly polluted with petroleum, the second (control) colony lives at Punta Bermeja (Patagonia). The highest concentrations of the five carcinogenic PAHs were found in the Mar del Plata sea lions.

  7. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hermosilla; Liliana M R Silva; Mauricio Navarro; Anja Taubert

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  8. Tissue culture and generation of autotetraploid plants of Sophora flavescens Aiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sophora flavescens Aiton is an important medicinal plant in China. Early in vitro researches of S. flavescens were focused on callus induction and cell suspension culture, only a few were concerned with in vitro multiplication. Objective: To establish and optimize the rapid propagation technology of S. flavescens and to generate and characterize polyploid plants of S. flavescens. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and kinetin (KT were used to establish and screen the optimal rapid propagation technology of S. flavescens by orthogonal test; 0.2% colchicine solution was used to induce polyploid plants and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Results: A large number of buds could be induced directly from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants on the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS; 1962 supplemented with 1.4-1.6 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.3 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. More than 50 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. The chromosome number of the autotetraploid plantlet was 2n = 4x = 36. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploid characteristics. Conclusion: Obtained autotetraploid lines will be of important genetic and breeding value and can be used for further selection and plant breeding.

  9. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eui-Seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Nho, Chu Won; Kwon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Seo, Sungchul; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2013-02-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ~90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens.

  10. Phenomenon in the Evolution of Voles (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekovets L. I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical results of the study of adaptatiogenesis within the family Arvicolidae (Mammalia, Rodentia based of morphological changes of the most functional characters of their masticatory apparatus — dental system — through time. The main directions of the morphological differentiation in parallel evolution of the arvicolid tooth type within the Cricetidae and Arvicolidae during late Miocene and Pliocene were identified and substantiated. It is shown that such unique morphological structure as the arvicolid tooth type has provided a relatively high rate of evolution of voles and a wide range of their adaptive radiation, as well as has determined their taxonomic and ecological diversity. The optimality of the current state of this group and evaluation of evolutionary prospects of Arvicolidae were presented and substantiated here as a phenomenon in their evolution.

  11. Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, Barbara; Lacave, Geraldine; Magi, Gian Enrico; Rossi, Giacomo

    2010-07-01

    A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E). The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The nuclei were uniformly small and round to oval. The supporting stroma contained thecal cells. The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor.

  12. Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis abundance in poorly known sites: a spatial expansion of colonies?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Szteren

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe establishment of new pinniped colonies is a consequence of complex dynamics in which some colonies may transform from haul-outs into breeding sites. The aim of this article was to estimate the abundance of Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis at two poorly known sites of Uruguay, the easternmost “Isla Verde-Islote Coronilla” (IV-IC) and the westernmost “Las Pipas” (LP). From June 2008 to June 2009 count from boats were conducted at LP, and aerial c...

  13. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) from Peruvian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Omar Gonzales-Viera

    2015-01-01

    Dos especies de ectoparásitos fueron colectados de un lobo marino sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) hallado varado en las playas de Chorrillos, en Lima, Perú. Los ectoparásitos fueron identificados como Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera) y Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari). Algunas características morfológicas son descritas en el presente reporte. El hallazgo de estos ectoparásitos constituyen los primeros registros en el Perú. Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South...

  14. [Molecular characterization of Sigmodon hirsutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) populations in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Arrivillaga, Jazzmín; Aguilera, Marisol

    2011-06-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies based on cytochrome b gene sequence, have determined that the species historically known as Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia) from South America comprises a species S. hirsutus of paraphyletic origin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that populations from Venezuela, represent the sensu strict form, ancestral haplotypes, and monophyletic subspecieS. For this, 12 individual sequences from three localities of different biogeographic regions in Venezuela were evaluated and sequenced based on cyto b. Additionally, the sequences were used to develop a cladistic analysis and genetic distance calculations, and to compare this information with two individual sequences of Sigmodon specimens available in Genbank. Phylogenetic analyses show that the three populations of S. hirsutus of Venezuela form an ancestral and monophyletic subclade supported by high bootstrap values and significant genetic distance between subclade within the S. hirsutus. Besides, the existence of two lineages suggests two subspecies, S. hirsutus hirsutus from Venezuela, and S. hirsutus mexicanus from Mexico-Central America, but, both species need formal description.

  15. A Transitional Gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae from the Miocene of Israel.

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    Raquel López-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae: Ctenodactylinae, Sayimys negevensis, on the basis of cheek teeth from the Early Miocene of the Rotem Basin, southern Israel. The Rotem ctenodactylid differs from all known ctenodactylid species, including Sayimys intermedius, which was first described from the Middle Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Instead, it most resembles Sayimys baskini from the Early Miocene of Pakistan in characters of the m1-2 (e.g., the mesoflexid shorter than the metaflexid, the obliquely orientated hypolophid, and the presence of a strong posterolabial ledge and the upper molars (e.g., the paraflexus that is longer than the metaflexus. However, morphological (e.g., presence of a well-developed paraflexus on unworn upper molars and dimensional (regarding, in particular, the DP4 and M1 or M2 differences between the Rotem gundi and Sayimys baskini distinguish them and testify to the novelty and endemicity of the former. In its dental morphology, Sayimys negevensis sp. nov. shows a combination of both the ultimate apparition of key-characters and incipient features that would be maintained and strengthened in latter ctenodactylines. Thus, it is a pivotal species that bridges the gap between an array of primitive ctenodactylines and the most derived, Early Miocene and later, gundis.

  16. The Extract of Roots of Sophora flavescens Enhances the Recovery of Motor Function by Axonal Growth in Mice with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Kazuma, Kohei; Konno, Katsuhiro; Tohda, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    Although axonal extension to reconstruct spinal tracts should be effective for restoring function after spinal cord injury (SCI), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) levels increase at spinal cord lesion sites, and inhibit axonal regrowth. In this study, we found that the water extract of roots of Sophora flavescens extended the axons of mouse cortical neurons, even on a CSPG-coated surface. Consecutive oral administrations of S. flavescens extract to SCI mice for 31 days increased the density of 5-HT-positive axons at the lesion site and improved the motor function. Further, the active constituents in the S. flavescens extract were identified. The water and alkaloid fractions of the S. flavescens extract each exhibited axonal extension activity in vitro. LC/MS analysis revealed that these fractions mainly contain matrine and/or oxymatrine, which are well-known major compounds in S. flavescens. Matrine and oxymatrine promoted axonal extension on the CSPG-coated surface. This study is the first to demonstrate that S. flavescens extract, matrine, and oxymatrine enhance axonal growth in vitro, even on a CSPG-coated surface, and that S. flavescens extract improves motor function and increases axonal density in SCI mice. PMID:26834638

  17. The extract of roots of Sophora flavescens enhances the recovery of motor function by axonal growth in mice with a spinal cord injury

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    Norio eTanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although axonal extension to reconstruct spinal tracts should be effective for restoring function after spinal cord injury (SCI, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG levels increase at spinal cord lesion sites and inhibit axonal regrowth. In this study, we found that the water extract of roots of Sophora flavescens extended the axons of mouse cortical neurons, even on a CSPG-coated surface. Consecutive oral administrations of S. flavescens extract to SCI mice for 31 days increased the density of 5-HT-positive axons at the lesion site and improved the motor function. Further, the active constituents in the S. flavescens extract were identified. The water and alkaloid fractions of the S. flavescens extract each exhibited axonal extension activity in vitro. LC/MS analysis revealed that these fractions mainly contain matrine and/or oxymatrine, which are well-known major compounds in S. flavescens. Matrine and oxymatrine promoted axonal extension on the CSPG-coated surface. This study is the first to demonstrate that S. flavescens extract, matrine and oxymatrine enhance axonal growth in vitro, even on a CSPG-coated surface, and that S. flavescens extract improves motor function and increases axonal density in SCI mice.

  18. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging "Urban" South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging "urban" colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  19. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

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    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  20. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. PMID:27051860

  1. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  2. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium. Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  3. Compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante de Leiothrix flavescens (Bong. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae

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    M. A. SILVA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo químico foi realizado com extrato metanólico de Leiothrix flavescens (Bong. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae por HSCCC. Fracionamento do extrato metanólico dos capítulos de L. flavescens por métodos cromatográficos preparativos e identificação das substâncias isoladas por (IV, UV, RMN forneceu as flavonas apigenina, luteolina e 6-metoxiluteolina e o 1,3-di-Oferuloilglicerol. O extrato metanólico de L. flavescens foi avaliado quanto à sua atividade antioxidante utilizando- se o reagente de DPPH, enquanto que a quantificação de fenóis totais foi determinada utilizando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocalteau. Os resultados evidenciaram que o extrato metanólico dos capítulos L. flavescens possui uma significativa atividade antioxidante. Estes resultados permitiram aprofundar a discussão taxonômica da família Eriocaulaceae. Palavras-chave: Eriocaulaceae; Leiothrix; HSCCC; atividade antioxidante.

  4. Synergistic Action between Jasmonic Acid and Nitric Oxide in Inducing Matrine Accumulation of Sophora flavescens Suspension Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Secondary metabolites not only play important ecological roles in plants but also are important pharmaceutical and source compounds for derivative synthesis. Production of plant secondary metabolites is believed to be controlled by the endogenous signal network of plants. However, the molecular basis is still largely unknown. Here we show that matrine production of Sophora flavescens Ait. cells treated with low levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) is significantly increased although treatment with low concentrations of JA or NO alone has no effects on matrine production, showing that JA and NO may act synergistically in triggering matrine production. Moreover, treatment with NO triggers lipoxygenase(LOX) activity and enhances JA levels of the cells, showing that NO may activate the endogenous JA biosynthesis of S.flavescens cells. External application of JA induces nitric oxide synthase-like activities and stimulates NO generation of S. flavescens cells, which suggests that JA may trigger NO generation of the cells. Thus, the results reveal a mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO in S. flavescens cells. Furthermore, JA and NO inhibitors suppress not only the mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO but also the synergistic effects of NO and JA on matrine production.Therefore, the data demonstrate that the synergistic action of JA and NO in inducing matrine production might be due to the mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO in the cells.

  5. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia, from Vietnam

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    Alexei Abramov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of H. delacouri is 38 (NFa=48, consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for H. delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon H. pasquieri described from north-central Laos. The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48, consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  6. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia), from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Alexei V; Aniskin, Vladimir M; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae) and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae) from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of Hapalomys delacouri is 38 (NFa=48), consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for Hapalomys delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon Hapalomys pasquieri described from north-central Laos.The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48), consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  7. Organochlorine residues in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800): bioaccumulation and time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Garcia-Solà, A; Aguilar, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A

    2010-06-01

    Blubber from stranded South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) was sampled between 1991 and 2005 on the Peninsula Valdés in Argentina and analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pollutants. Mean blubber concentrations, expressed on an extractable basis, were 686 (SD = 1,060) ng g(-1) for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (tDDT) and 735 (SD = 787) ng g(-1) for polychlorinated byphenils (PCB). The OC levels were well below those associated with adverse sublethal effects and lethality in mammals. OC concentrations showed statistically significant associations with age that were positive in males and negative in females. These trends are consistent with the majority of marine mammal populations studied. There were no trends in the levels of tDDT or PCB over time. In spite of the low levels detected, OC contamination was present consistently over the 14-year period, suggesting continuous inputs from geographic redistribution.

  8. Sexual harassment and female gregariousness in the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2008-07-01

    Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.

  9. Meios de cultivo e sacarose no crescimento inicial in vitro de Miltonia flavescens

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    Camila Soares Rosa Lemes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O cultivo in vitro tem sido utilizado para propagação de plantas ornamentais. A escolha do meio de cultivo e a concentração ideal de produtos orgânicos utilizados no enriquecimento dos meios, como a sacarose, são decisivos na elaboração de protocolos. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento inicial de Miltonia flavescens, cultivada por 90 e 180 dias, em quatro meios de cultivo com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. Plantas com 12 meses e germinadas in vitro foram cultivadas nos meios MS, MS 1/2, K e VW, cada um deles suplementado com 1,5g L-1 de carvão ativado, 6,5g L-1 de ágar bacteriológico e com 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45g L-1 de sacarose. Aos 90 e 180 dias, foram avaliadas quanto à massa fresca, número de raízes, de folhas e de brotos e quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea e da maior raiz. As maiores médias para número de raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e massa fresca total foram obtidas nas plantas cultivadas por 180 dias em meio MS 1/2, suplementado com 25g L-1 de sacarose. O maior comprimento de raiz foi verificado nas plantas cultivadas por 180 dias em meio MS suplementado com 45g L-1 de sacarose. Já o número de brotos e de folhas não foram influenciados pelas concentrações de sacarose. M. flavescens apresentou maior crescimento da parte aérea e raiz, quando cultivada por 180 dias em meio MS 1/2, suplementado com 25g L-1 de sacarose.

  10. Isotopic evidence that dragonflies (Pantala flavescens migrating through the Maldives come from the northern Indian subcontinent.

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    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Large numbers of the Globe Skimmer dragonfly (Pantala flavescens appear in the Maldives every October-December. Since they cannot breed on these largely waterless islands, it has recently been suggested that they are "falling out" during a trans-oceanic flight from India to East Africa. In addition, it has been suggested that this trans-oceanic crossing is just one leg of a multi-generational migratory circuit covering about 14,000-18,000 km. The dragonflies are presumed to accomplish this remarkable feat by riding high-altitude winds associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. While there is considerable evidence for this migratory circuit, much of that evidence is circumstantial. Recent developments in the application of stable isotope analyses to track migratory dragonflies include the establishment of direct associations between dragonfly wing chitin δ(2H values with those derived from long-term δ(2H precipitation isoscapes. We applied this approach by measuring wing chitin δ(2H values in 49 individual Pantala flavescens from the November-December migration through the Maldives. Using a previously established spatial calibration algorithm for dragonflies, the mean wing δ(2H value of -117±16 ‰ corresponded to a predicted mean natal ambient water source of -81 ‰, which resulted in a probabilistic origin of northern India, and possibly further north and east. This strongly suggests that the migratory circuit of this species in this region is longer than previously suspected, and could possibly involve a remarkable trans-Himalayan high-altitude traverse.

  11. Isotopic evidence that dragonflies (Pantala flavescens) migrating through the Maldives come from the northern Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A; Anderson, R Charles; Soto, David X; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of the Globe Skimmer dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) appear in the Maldives every October-December. Since they cannot breed on these largely waterless islands, it has recently been suggested that they are "falling out" during a trans-oceanic flight from India to East Africa. In addition, it has been suggested that this trans-oceanic crossing is just one leg of a multi-generational migratory circuit covering about 14,000-18,000 km. The dragonflies are presumed to accomplish this remarkable feat by riding high-altitude winds associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). While there is considerable evidence for this migratory circuit, much of that evidence is circumstantial. Recent developments in the application of stable isotope analyses to track migratory dragonflies include the establishment of direct associations between dragonfly wing chitin δ(2)H values with those derived from long-term δ(2)H precipitation isoscapes. We applied this approach by measuring wing chitin δ(2)H values in 49 individual Pantala flavescens from the November-December migration through the Maldives. Using a previously established spatial calibration algorithm for dragonflies, the mean wing δ(2)H value of -117±16 ‰ corresponded to a predicted mean natal ambient water source of -81 ‰, which resulted in a probabilistic origin of northern India, and possibly further north and east. This strongly suggests that the migratory circuit of this species in this region is longer than previously suspected, and could possibly involve a remarkable trans-Himalayan high-altitude traverse.

  12. On subspecific taxonomy of Microtus savii (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

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    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di Microtus savii (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di Microtus (Terricola savii, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanus, dei Monti della Tolfa e Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericus, del Gargano.

  13. Separation of matrine and oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens extract through cation exchange resin coupled with macroporous absorption resin

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    Chen Haohao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for separation of matrine and oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens was developed with cation exchange resin coupled with macroporous resin. Based on the adsorption characteristics of matrine and oxymatrine, 001×732 cation exchange resin was used to absorb target alkaloids for removing most of the foreign matter, while BS-65 macroporous resin was chosen to purify these alkaloids. The result showed that the equilibrium adsorption data of matrine and oxymatrine on 001×732 resin and BS-65 resin at 30°C was fitted to Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm, respectively. The contents of matrine and oxymatrine were increased from 0.73% and 2.2% in the crude extract of the root of Sophora flavescens to 67.2% and 66.8% in the final eluent products with the recoveries of 90.3% and 86.9%, respectively.

  14. Estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos especies de Leones marinos (Otaria flavescens y Zalophus californianus) en Aquanatura (Benidorm)

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens García, Inés

    2016-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es un método de reducir el estrés y los comportamientos inadecuados de animales en cautiverio, ayudando a su vez a aumentar el bienestar de estos. En este trabajo se pretende realizar un estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos leones marinos de California (Zalophus Californianus) y dos leones marinos de la Patagonia (Otaria flavescens). Así, se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los cuatro individuos sobre un dispensador de alimento nuevo para ellos, midiendo...

  15. Nutritional Composition of Grewia Species (Grewia tenax (Forsk. Fiori, G. flavescens Juss and G. Villosa Willd Fruits

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    S.M. Yagi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the nutritional composition of fruits of three species of Grewia (G. tenax, G. flavescensand G. villosa were carried out. The proximate composition as well as the content of amino acids, mineralelements (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, tannin and pectic substances was determined. The results, which referredto (% dry weight, showed that G. tenax, G. flavescence and G. villosa contained 13, 15 and 14% moisture;20.5, 42.8 and 25.5% crude fibre; 5.2, 3.4 and 4.0% ash and 66, 75 and 84% carbohydrates, respectively.G. tenax had the highest value of reducing sugar (13.8 % and starch content (44.4%. The three speciescontained low amount of protein and fats, which ranged from 6.7% (G. villosa to 8.7% (G. flavescens and1.30% (G. flavescens to 1.7% (G. tenax respectively. They all had similar distribution of amino acids but invarying amounts. The essential amino acids detected in G. tenax fulfil the requirements of the FAO/WHO‘standard protein’. The predominant mineral in the three species was potassium, which ranged from 817mg/100 g (G. tenax to 966 mg/100 g (G. villosa. The three Grewia spp contained remarkably high amountsof iron with values ranged from 20.8 mg/100 g (G. tenax to 29.6 mg/100 g (G. villosa. This finding supportsthe traditional use of Grewia spp in the treatment of anaemia. Tannin content was low and ranged from 1.13%(G. flavescens to 2.46% (G. villosa. Pectic substances content was higher in G. tenax (13.02% and G. villosa(11.72% than in G. flavescens (6.26%. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditionalfruits could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of rural and urban people.

  16. Diversity, Bacterial Symbionts and Antibacterial Potential of Gut-Associated Fungi Isolated from the Pantala flavescens Larvae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Wei; Lu, Yi-Hui; Miao, Shuang; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Ying-Lao

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of fungi associated with the gut of Pantala flavescens larvae was investigated using a culture-dependent method and molecular identification based on an analysis of the internally transcribed spacer sequence. In total, 48 fungal isolates were obtained from P. flavescens larvae. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the fungal isolates were grouped in 5 classes and 12 different genera. Fourteen bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from total genomic DNA extractions of fungal mycelia were obtained. The majority of the sequences were associated with Proteobacteria (13/14), and one Bacillaceae (1/14) was included. Leclercia sp., Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi and Methylobacterium extorquens, were reported for the first time as bacterial endosymbionts in fungi. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that bacterial symbionts produced specific metabolites and also exerted an inhibitory effect on fungal metabolites. The biological activity of the fungal culture extracts against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) was investigated, and 20 extracts (42%) exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains. This study is the first report on the diversity and antibacterial activity of symbiotic fungi residing in the gut of P. flavescens larvae, and the results show that these fungi are highly diverse and could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  17. Ecophysiological adaptations to dry thermal environments measured in two unrestrained Namibian scorpions, Parabuthus villosus (Buthidae) and Opisthophthalmus flavescens (Scorpionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C R; le Roux, J M; van Aardt, W J

    1997-01-01

    The daily changes in body temperature experienced by Parabuthus villosus (Buthidae), a scorpion found on the gravel plains around Gobabeb, Namibia, and by Opisthophthalmus flavescens (Scorpionidae), a dune-dwelling species from the same area, were measured under similar field conditions. Thermocouples implanted under the segments of the mesosoma measured maximum temperatures as high as 43 degrees C in the shade. Air temperatures reached a maximum of 33 degrees C during the daytime and a minimum of 12 degrees C at night. Very low metabolic rates compared with those of other nonsedentary invertebrates were recorded in both species; oxygen consumption ranged from 8 microL g-1 h-1 at 16 degrees C to 115 microL g-1 h-1 at 40 degrees C. A pulsed Doppler system was used to measure heart rate in situ in free-moving scorpions. At night, heart rate declined to about 4 beats min-1 in resting undisturbed scorpions. During daylight excursions and while scorpions hunted for food, heart rates as high as 180 beats min-1 were observed. Heart rate was linearly correlated with temperature in P. villosus, with a slope of 2.37 (Q10 = 2.18), but in O. flavescens only a limited correlation was observed, with a slope of 1.18 (Q10 = 1.69). In O. flavescens, heart rate showed hysteresis as body temperature rose during daylight and then decreased during the late afternoon and evening; the reverse was observed in P. villosus. In both species, haemocyanin-oxygen affinity was independent of temperature, with a higher oxygen affinity and a larger pH sensitivity in O. flavescens. The Q10's of oxygen consumption and heart rate are quite different in O. flavescens but not as different in P. villosus. Although changes in the cardiovascular system, such as stroke volume, may also play a role in meeting increased oxygen demand, the features of the haemocyanin oxygen transport system, such as the absence of temperature sensitivity and a marked pH sensitivity, can also influence the maintenance of VO2

  18. Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsgren Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens, a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1% of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.

  19. Joint effects of parasitism and pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers in yellow perch Perca flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcogliese, David J; Brambilla, Lila Gagnon; Gagné, François; Gendron, Andrée D

    2005-01-25

    Yellow perch Perca flavescens were collected from a contaminated site and a reference site in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Fish were assessed for oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione levels) and parasitism by the nematode Raphidascaris acus and metacercariae of the digenean Apophallus brevis. Lipid peroxidation is not only considered a measure of oxidative stress, but of stress in general, and thus serves as an indicator of fish health. Fish from the contaminated site exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than those from the reference site, independent of parasitic infections. However, fish infected with R. acus at the contaminated site tended to have higher levels of lipid peroxidation than uninfected fish at the same site, whereas no difference was observed between infected and uninfected fish at the reference site. Yellow perch infected with > 10 metacercariae of A. brevis expressed higher levels of lipid peroxidation than those infected with < 10 metacercariae at both the contaminated and the reference sites. No differences were found in levels of reduced glutathione in liver or muscle in relation to site or either parasite species. Results support the use of lipid peroxidation as a biomarker of water contamination. They further suggest that lipid peroxidation may be used as a biomarker of pathological effects caused by parasitism. Most importantly, results demonstrate that contaminants and parasites occurring together exacerbate oxidative stress in fish, suggesting that parasitized fish in polluted environments are in a poorer state of health than uninfected fish.

  20. The alkaloid matrine of the root of Sophora flavescens prevents arrhythmogenic effect of ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Wu, Yun; Deng, Lin; Chen, Lanlan; Zhao, Dandan; Lv, Lifang; Chen, Xu; Man, Jinyu; Wang, Yansong; Shan, Hongli; Lu, Yanjie

    2014-06-15

    Matrine, a alkaloid of the root of Sophora flavescens, has multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac arrhythmias. However, the molecular and ionic mechanisms of matrine have not been well investigated. Our study aimed at to shed a light on the issue to investigate the antiarrhythmic effects of matrine by using ouabain to construct an arrhythmic model of cardiomyocytes. In this experiment, matrine significantly and dose-dependently increased the doses of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias and decreased the duration of arrhythmias in guinea pigs. In cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs, ouabain 10 μM prolonged action potential duration by 80% (pMatrine 100 μM shortened the prolongation of APD and prevented the increase of L-type Ca(2+) currents and Ca(2+) transients induced by ouabain. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that matrine possessed arrhythmogenic effect of ouabain by inhibiting of L-type Ca(2+) currents and Ca(2+) overload in guinea pigs.

  1. Computed tomographic examination of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) with suspected Mycobacterium pinnipedii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczynski, K; Scharpegge, J; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Ley, S; Cracknell, J; Lyashchenko, K; Greenwald, R; Schenk, J P

    2011-12-03

    Ten South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) were presented for clinical evaluation and diagnosis of tuberculosis following known exposure to Mycobacterium pinnipedii. CT was used to determine whether foci of calcification in mediastinal lymph nodes, typically associated with pinniped tuberculosis, could be detected and whether CT was a useful diagnostic modality, in conjunction with other tests, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in this species. Blood was collected from the caudal gluteal vein of each animal for serological testing using commercially available serological tests (ElephantTB STAT-PAK and DPP Vet; Chembio Diagnostic Systems) and a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), carried out at Chembio to verify the in-house kits. In four of nine animals that underwent CT scanning, lesions consistent with pinniped tuberculosis were apparent and these were confirmed at subsequent postmortem examination. The five remaining animals did not show any abnormalities on CT, with three being negative on serological tests, which were considered to be normal and potentially used as reference images for healthy sea lions. One animal could not be CT scanned due to its large size and weight (510 kg).

  2. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  3. Extraction, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Sophora flavescens Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihong; Yu, Jingbo; Zhang, Leifang; Hu, Meiqun; Xu, Yan; Su, Weike

    2016-12-01

    Four water-soluble polysaccharides, designated as SF1, SF2, SF3 and SF4, were efficiently extracted from the roots of Sophora flavescens by mechanochemistry under the conditions of rotational speed of 400rpm, grinding time of 10min, powder to ball weight ratio of 1:20, and Na2CO3 loading of 7wt%. The results obtained indicated that all of these four acid heteropolysaccharides are composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with the average molecular weights of 400.9, 98.6, 99.3, 42.7kDa, respectively. In vitro, SF4 showed the most significant scavenging activity on superoxide radical, ABTS, and DPPH radical, while SF3 had the most significant scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical. Immunological tests demonstrated that SF1, SF2, SF3 and SF4 significantly stimulated nitric oxide production without cytotoxicity in macrophages and promoted splenocyte proliferation. These data suggest that the four polysaccharides fractions have the potential as novel natural sources of antioxidative and immunopotentiating agents.

  4. Influence of aquatic plants on the predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae by Pantala flavescens = Influência de macrófitas aquáticas na predação de larvas de Piaractus mesopotamicus por Pantala flavescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to study the influence of the aquatic plants E. najas, P. stratiotes and S. auriculata on the predation of P. mesopotamicus larvae by P. flavescens. One hundred and twenty larvae of P. mesopotamicus and 24 larvae of P. flavescens were placed in 24aquariums with capacity of 12 L, with one Odonate per aquarium. Treatments were different regarding the species of aquatic plants E. najas, S. auriculata and P. stratiotes, with one control treatment without aquatic plants. One aquarium (12 L containing one Odonate and 30 P. mesopotamicus larvae was considered one experimental unit. After 18 hours, the Odonates were removed from the aquariums and fish larvae left (alive were counted in each experimental unit. The survival rate of P. mesopotamicus larvae in the treatment without aquatic plants (control was significantly lower than in the treatmentwith E. najas. However, the survival rates in the aquariums with floating aquatic plants did not differ from the control. The morphological characteristics of E. najas promoted higher structural complexity in the environment, offering more protection to the fish larvae, and increasing their survival. We concluded that the presence of the submerged aquatic plant E. najas promoted the reduction of predation of P. mesopotamicus larvae by Pantala flavescens.O experimento teve como objetivo estudar a influência de macrófitas aquáticas na predação de larvas de peixe P. mesopotamicus por larvasde P. flavescens Foram utilizadas 720 larvas de P. mesopotamicus e 24 larvas de P. flavescens, distribuídas em 24 aquários com volume útil para 12 L, sendo colocada uma larva de Odonata por aquário. Os tratamentos diferiram quanto à espécie de macrófita E. najas (E,S. auriculata (S e P. stratiotes (P sendo mantido um tratamento controle (C sem macrófitas. Um aquário contendo uma larva de Odonata e 30 larvas de P. mesopotamicus foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Após 18 horas do in

  5. Projecto Rodentia : etologia aplicada na sala de aula do 1º Ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    p. 275-279 O Projecto Rodentia, implementado no ano 2006/2007, visa promover a cultura científica em alunos do 1º ciclo do Ensino Básico, familiarizando-os com o Método Científico e desenvolvendo competências conceptuais, processuais e atitudinais, com base na Etologia Aplicada e na reflexão ética sobre o bem-estar animal. Foram instalados em três salas de aula habitats especialmente desenhados, contendo cada um dois ratos de laboratório. Inicialmente orien...

  6. Identification of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus in house mouse (Mus musculus, Rodentia) in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Tirera, Sourakhata; Donato, Damien; Bouchier, Christiane; Catzeflis, François; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-seven house mice (Mus musculus, Rodentia) caught in different localities in French Guiana were screened to investigate the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV). Two animals trapped in an urban area were found positive, hosting a new strain of LCMV, that we tentatively named LCMV "Comou". The complete sequence was determined using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this strain is related to genetic lineage I composed of strains inducing severe disease in humans. These results emphasize the need for active surveillance in humans as well as in house mouse populations, which is a rather common rodent in French Guianese cities and settlements.

  7. First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. WEITZMANN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the first documented occurrence of the yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens and of the clown triggerfish Balistoides conspicillum in the Mediterranean Sea. These tropical fishes were photographed in October 2008 off Sitges (Costa Daurada, Spain: 41°13'27.09" N; 1°47'22.35" E and in July 2012 in front of Palamós (Costa Brava, Spain: 41°50'56.19" N; 3°8'26.29" E, respectively. Their possible release from private aquaria is discussed.

  8. Dimeric Matrine-Type Alkaloids from the Roots of Sophora flavescens and Their Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Bo; Zhan, Li-Qin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Ying; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-08-01

    Six unusual matrine-type alkaloid dimers, flavesines A-F (1-6, respectively), together with three proposed biosynthetic intermediates (7-9) were isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. Compounds 1-5 were the first natural matrine-type alkaloid dimers, and compound 6 represented an unprecedented dimerization pattern constructed by matrine and (-)-cytisine. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and a chemical method. The hypothetical biogenetic pathways of 1-6 were also proposed. Compounds 1-9 exhibited inhibitory activities against hepatitis B virus.

  9. Cuantification poblacional de lobo marino Comun (Otaria flavescens) en el litoral de la XV, I y II Regiones.

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Von Meyer, Francisco; Bartheld Villagra, José Luis; Moreno Gómez, Felipe; Torres, Juan Pablo; Montecinos, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Este informe fue desarrollado en respuesta al censo de Lobos Marinos desarrollado en la XV Región de Arica y Parinacota, I Región de Tarapacá y II Región de Antofagasta.Con el fin de actualizar la información que existe de las poblaciones de Otaria flavescens en la zona Norte de Chile (se efectuaron dos censos, el primero durante la temporada post-reproductiva del año 2012 y el segundo durante la temporada reproductiva del año 2013. Los censos fueron ejecutados mediante dos metodo...

  10. Microhabitat ecology of semi-aquatic Varanus flavescens (Reptilia: Varanidae in altered habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur K. M. Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A potential microhabitat is very important for the survival and successful reproduction of any wildlife species. In this study we assessed the microhabitat characteristics of Varanus flavescens in the human altered ecosystems of Chalan beel area, Baraigram, Natore by flowing the Visual Encounter Survey method and by using several important material. A semi-aquatic microhabitat of canal and river was preferred by the species as compared to other identified microhabitats. The slow moving water of the river and canal was fresh and somewhat cloudy in character but stagnant water of the pond and beel (floodplain was semitransparent having lots of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The soil was mostly silty clay. As the study species is cold blooded, the environmental variables like soil, air and water temperatures inside and outside of the microhabitat play major roles for their activity patterns. In order to regulate their body temperature, during a hot sunny day they were more active within the shady area of the microhabitats but at dawn and dusk they were more seen in the sunny areas where temperature was relatively higher. In winter months, the monitor lizards were almost inactive. During that time of the year they live inside the burrow to avoid the extreme cold and foggy weather but during heavy sunshine they come outside of the hole for thermoregulation purpose for a certain time. We noticed that extensive agricultural practice and the excessive use of insecticides may be having a detrimental effect on the microhabitat features important to this semiaquatic lizard. Still the study species is more seen in the human altered ecosystems of Bangladesh. So, to ensure their existence in our close proximity there is an urgent need to create consciousness of the people regarding this beneficial non-venomous species and their respective microhabitat.

  11. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J A; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Pinkney, A E; Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S

    2015-03-15

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin-fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  12. Evidence of hypoxic foraging forays by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and potential consequences for prey consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Grecay, Paul A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in a variety of ecosystems have shown that ecologically and economically important benthic and bentho-pelagic fishes avoid hypoxic (−1) habitats by moving vertically or horizontally to more oxygenated areas. While avoidance of hypoxic conditions generally leads to a complete shift away from preferred benthic prey, some individual fish continue to consume benthic prey items in spite of bottom hypoxia, suggesting complex habitat utilisation and foraging patterns. For example, Lake Erie yellow perch (Perca flavescens) continue to consume benthic prey, despite being displaced vertically and horizontally by hypolimnetic hypoxia. We hypothesised that hypolimnetic hypoxia can negatively affect yellow perch by altering their distribution and inducing energetically expensive foraging behaviour. To test this hypothesis, we used drifting hydroacoustics and trawl sampling to quantify water column distribution, sub-daily vertical movement and foraging behaviour of yellow perch within hypoxic and normoxic habitats of Lake Erie’s central basin during August-September 2007. We also investigated the effects of rapid changes in ambient oxygen conditions on yellow perch consumption potential by exposing yellow perch to various static and fluctuating oxygen conditions in a controlled laboratory experiment. Our results indicate that, while yellow perch in general avoid hypoxic conditions, some individuals undertake foraging forays into hypoxic habitats where they experience greater fluctuations in abiotic conditions (pressure, temperature and oxygen concentration) than at normoxic sites. However, laboratory results suggest short-term exposure to low oxygen conditions did not negatively impact consumption potential of yellow perch. Detailed understanding of sub-daily individual behaviours may be crucial for determining interactive individual- and ecosystem-level effects of stressors such as hypoxia.

  13. Respiratory Function in Voluntary Participating Patagonia Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) in Sternal Recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Madigan, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths. The average sCL of sea lions was 0.41 ± 0.11 cmH2O(-1), which is similar to those measured in anesthetized sea lions and awake cetaceans, and significantly higher as compared to humans (0.08 cmH2O(-1)). The average estimated [Formula: see text]O2 and [Formula: see text]CO2 using breath-by-breath respirometry were 1.023 ± 0.327 L O2 min(-1) (range: 0.695-1.514 L O2 min(-1)) and 0.777 ± 0.318 L CO2 min(-1), (range: 0.510-1.235 L CO2 min(-1)), respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from California and Steller sea lions using conventional flow-through respirometry. Our data provide end-tidal gas composition and offer novel data for respiratory physiology in pinnipeds, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts.

  14. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin–fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  15. Population genetic structure and historical population dynamics of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, in north-central Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túnez, Juan I; Cappozzo, Humberto L; Nardelli, Maximiliano; Cassini, Marcelo H

    2010-08-01

    The north-central Patagonian coast is the sea lions most abundant area in Argentina. As occurs along the entire Atlantic coast, the distribution of breeding colonies at this smaller geographical scale is also patchy, showing at least three areas with breeding activity. We study the genetic structure and historical population dynamics of the species in five colonies in this area, analysing a 508 base-pair segment of the D-loop control region. Otaria flavescens showed 10 haplotypes with 12 polymorphic sites. The genealogical relationship between haplotypes revealed a shallow pattern of phylogeographic structure. The analysis of molecular variance showed significant differences between colonies, however, pairwise comparisons only indicate significant differences between a pair of colonies belonging to different breeding areas. The pattern of haplotype differentiation and the mismatch distribution analysis suggest a possible bottleneck that would have occurred 64,000 years ago, followed by a demographic expansion of the three southernmost colonies. Thus, the historical population dynamics of O. flavescens in north-central Patagonia appears to be closely related with the dynamics of the Late Pleistocene glaciations.

  16. Antagonist cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 3C colonization of wheat heads when applied with triazole fungicides and the effect on scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the best available approach for reducing Fusarium head blight (FHB; caused by Fusarium graminearum) and the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat grain. Utilizing FHB biological control agent Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 (NRRL Y-30216) as part ...

  17. Development of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) broodstocks: initial characterization of growth and quality traits following grow-out of different stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodstocks of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were initiated from fertilized gametes obtained from wild fish taken from the Perquimans River (North Carolina), Choptank River (Maryland), Lake Winnebago (Wisconsin), and Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin). Populations at these sites were chosen based on the ...

  18. Reference Intervals of Mineral Elements in Plasma of Anesthetized Free-Ranging Adult Females of South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Paula S; Boudet, L N Chiodi; de León, A Ponce; Quiroga, M; Rodríguez, D H; Atkinson, S; Gerpe, M S

    2016-12-01

    Levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) in plasma of Otaria flavescens females (n = 29) were evaluated. Reference intervals were established for each element, being the first report for this species.

  19. The helminth community of Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain

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    Fuentes, M. V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish mountain range of Gredos was included in the studies conducted on the Iberian peninsula to investigate helminth fauna of small mammals. The helminth community of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae, was analysed. Qualitatively, 13 helminth species were detected: Plagiorchis sp. I and Plagiorchis sp. II (Trematoda; Taenia parva larvae, T. martis larvae, T. taeniaeformis larvae, Rodentolepis straminea and R. fraterna (Cestoda; and Trichuris muris, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma, S. frederici, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Rictularia proni (Nematoda. Quantitatively, the highest prevalence (65.0% and the mean abundance (36.9% of H. polygyrus stand out. In comparison with the other mountain ranges studied, analysis of the global results demonstrates that the helminth fauna of the host species studied is diverse despite the adverse climatic conditions. This could be related to both the particular ecological characteristics and the appropriate state of preservation of this ecosystem.

  20. Patrones reproductivos del lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, en el centro-sur de Chile Breeding patterns in southern sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, in south-central Chile

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    HÉCTOR J PAVÉS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El desfase latitudinal de los eventos reproductivos en Otaria flavescens sugiere la existencia de una adaptación fisiológica y conductual a condiciones ambientales locales. La identificación de cambios en los patrones conductuales intraespecíficos frente a modificaciones ambientales sugieren una relación entre estos. Se pretende revisar los patrones reproductivos del O. flavescens, determinando la existencia de una sincronización y estabilidad en ellos durante las temporadas 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la colonia de Punta Lobería, Chile. Se realizaron observaciones directas de las agrupaciones y conductas reproductivas empleando binoculares, y apoyadas por el uso de material fílmico y fotográfico. Los resultados evidenciaron modificaciones en, (a el número de harenes (de 28 disminuye a 19, (b la distribución espacial de los harenes (70 % de los harenes durante 1997-1998 se establecieron en el lado norte de la playa reproductiva, durante la temporada anterior estos se distribuyeron a lo largo de toda la playa, (c proporción etaria (un macho: 12 hembras: un juvenil: siete cachorros, desciende a un macho: nueve hembras: dos juveniles: seis cachorros, (d índice de poliginia (de 12,4 a 7,8 HPMT y de 11 a 9 HP, y (e la población organizada en harenes (disminución del 10,3 %. Estas variaciones estarían relacionadas con la reducción del espacio óptimo para el establecimiento de harenes debido a la incorporación de suelo/roca posterior a un derrumbe invernal. Los patrones conductuales reproductivos que se mantuvieron invariables durante las temporadas fueron, (a la estacionalidad de los harenes (constitución durante la cuarta semana de diciembre y disolución en la cuarta semana de febrero, (b el período de partos (inicio durante la segunda semana de enero, finalización durante la cuarta semana de enero, y (c el período de cópulas (inicio durante la tercera semana de enero, finalización durante la segunda semana de febrero. Por lo

  1. Selective extraction and separation of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. extract by silica-confined ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted the application of a two-stepped extraction method for extraction and separation of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. extract by utilizing silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbent. The optimized silica-confined ionic liquid was firstly mixed with plant extract to adsorb oxymatrine. Simultaneously, some interference, such as matrine, was removed. The obtained suspension was then added to a cartridge for solid phase extraction. Through these two steps, target compound was adequately separated from interferences with 93.4% recovery. In comparison with traditional solid phase extraction, this method accelerates loading and reduces the use of organic solvents during washing. Moreover, the optimization of loading volume was simplified as optimization of solid/liquid ratio.

  2. A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-08-01

    We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

  3. Rhizobium sophorae sp. nov. and Rhizobium sophoriradicis sp. nov., nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbionts of the medicinal legume Sophora flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yin Shan; Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Liu, Yuan Hui; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2015-02-01

    Five bacterial strains representing 45 isolates originated from root nodules of the medicinal legume Sophora flavescens were defined as two novel groups in the genus Rhizobium based on their phylogenetic relationships estimated from 16S rRNA genes and the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD. These groups were distantly related to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370(T) (95.6 % similarity for group I) and Rhizobium phaseoli ATCC 14482(T) (93.4 % similarity for group II) in multilocus sequence analysis. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the reference strains CCBAU 03386(T) (group I) and CCBAU 03470(T) (group II) showed levels of relatedness of 17.9-57.8 and 11.0-42.9 %, respectively, with the type strains of related species. Both strains CCBAU 03386(T) and CCBAU 03470(T) contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone and possessed 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 8 and summed feature 2 as major fatty acids, but did not contain 20 : 3 ω6,8,12c. Phenotypic features distinguishing both groups from all closely related species of the genus Rhizobium were found. Therefore, two novel species, Rhizobium sophorae sp. nov. for group I (type strain CCBAU 03386(T) = E5(T) = LMG 27901(T) = HAMBI 3615(T)) and Rhizobium sophoriradicis sp. nov. for group II (type strain CCBAU 03470(T) = C-5-1(T) = LMG 27898(T) = HAMBI 3510(T)), are proposed. Both groups were able to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris and their hosts of origin (Sophora flavescens) effectively and their nodulation gene nodC was phylogenetically located in the symbiovar phaseoli.

  4. Influence of aquatic plants on the predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae by Pantala flavescens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5167 Influence of aquatic plants on the predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae by Pantala flavescens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5167

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    Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to study the influence of the aquatic plants E. najas, P. stratiotes and S. auriculata on the predation of P. mesopotamicus larvae by P. flavescens. One hundred and twenty larvae of P. mesopotamicus and 24 larvae of P. flavescens were placed in 24 aquariums with capacity of 12 L, with one Odonate per aquarium. Treatments were different regarding the species of aquatic plants E. najas, S. auriculata and P. stratiotes, with one control treatment without aquatic plants. One aquarium (12 L containing one Odonate and 30 P. mesopotamicus larvae was considered one experimental unit. After 18 hours, the Odonates were removed from the aquariums and fish larvae left (alive were counted in each experimental unit. The survival rate of P. mesopotamicus larvae in the treatment without aquatic plants (control was significantly lower than in the treatment with E. najas. However, the survival rates in the aquariums with floating aquatic plants did not differ from the control. The morphological characteristics of E. najas promoted higher structural complexity in the environment, offering more protection to the fish larvae, and increasing their survival. We concluded that the presence of the submerged aquatic plant E. najas promoted the reduction of predation of P. mesopotamicus larvae by Pantala flavescens. Larvae; Piaractus mesopotamicus; Pantala flavescens; predation; aquatic plantsThe experiment aimed to study the influence of the aquatic plants E. najas, P. stratiotes and S. auriculata on the predation of P. mesopotamicus larvae by P. flavescens. One hundred and twenty larvae of P. mesopotamicus and 24 larvae of P. flavescens were placed in 24 aquariums with capacity of 12 L, with one Odonate per aquarium. Treatments were different regarding the species of aquatic plants E. najas, S. auriculata and P. stratiotes, with one control treatment without aquatic plants. One aquarium (12 L containing one Odonate and 30 P. mesopotamicus larvae was

  5. Antifungal Activity of Sophora flavescens extracts against Capsicum Blight ( Fusarium oxysporum )%苦参对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨苦参对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性.[方法]采用生长速率法和悬滴法测试不同溶剂、浓度苦参提取物对辣椒枯萎病菌的抑制作用.[结果]乙酸乙酯与丙酮提取苦参所得粗提物的抑菌率显著高于乙醇.随着苦参乙酸乙酯粗提液浓度的增大,其对枯萎病痛菌菌丝生长及孢子萌发抑制作用均显著增强;在质量浓度为40g/L时,其对辣椒枯萎菌菌丝生长、孢子萌发抑制率分别达到94.48%、89.01%.[结论]苦参根中所含活性物质对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性较强,具有进一步研究开发的价值.%[ Objective ] The paper was to explore the antifungal activity of Sophora flavescens extracts against capsicum blight. [ Method ] Growth rate method and suspend-drop method were used to measure different solvents and concentrations of S. Flavescens extracts against capsicum blight. [ Result]The inhibition rate of crude extracts of S.flavescens extracted from ethyl acetate and acetone was significantly higher than ethanol. With the increasing concentration of ethyl acetate crude extracts of S. Flavescens,its inhibition effect against mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum significantly increased. When the mass concentration was 40 g/L,its inhibition rates against mycelial growth and spore germination of capsicum blight were 94.48% and 89.01% .respectively. [ Conclusion]The active substance contained in S. Flavescens roots had strong inhibition activity against capsicum blight,which had the potential value for further research and development.

  6. Two new species of Litomosoides (Nemata:Onchocercidae) from Ctenomys opimus (Rodentia:Ctenomyidae) on the altiplano of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, S V; Gardner, S L

    1997-08-01

    Two filarioid nematodes, Litomosoides andersoni n. sp. and Litomosoides ctenomyos n. sp. (Nemata: Onchocercidae), are described from the mesenteries of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys opimus (Rodentia: Hystrichognathi) collected on the altiplano of Bolivia. Specimens collected near Rancho Huancaroma (Oruro Dept.) in 1984 and 1986 can be recognized as undescribed by the structures of the spicules and stoma and the shape of the ovijector. This record represents the first time members of the genus Litomosoides have been recovered from rodents of the family Ctenomyidae; this also represents the first published report of these nematodes from mammals in Bolivia.

  7. A new genus and species of Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasitic in Delomys dorsalis (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M

    2014-10-01

    Alippistrongylus bicaudatus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) is described from the striped Atlantic forest rat, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), from the province of Misiones in Argentina. The new genus and species is characterised by a synlophe of 21 unequal ridges in both sexes without a gradient in size, with two ridges weakly sclerotised and oriented perpendicularly in the dorsal left quadrant; males with a highly dissymmetrical bursa with a hypertrophied right lobe, and females with a dorsal conical appendage just posterior to the vulva, conferring a two-tailed appearance to the female worms.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Microtus fortis calamorum (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) and its phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianhuan; Gao, Jun; Ni, Liju; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Kai; Sun, Fengping; Xie, Jianyun; Bo, Xiong; Gao, Chen; Xiao, Junhua; Zhou, Yuxun

    2012-05-01

    Microtus fortis is a special resource of rodent in China. It is a promising experimental animal model for the study on the mechanism of Schistosome japonicum resistance. The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence for Microtus fortis calamorum, a subspecies of M. fortis (Arvicolinae, Rodentia), was reported in this study. The mitochondrial genome sequence of M. f. calamorum (Genbank: JF261175) showed a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and one major noncoding region (CR region).The extended termination associated sequences (ETAS-1 and ETAS-2) and conserved sequence block 1 (CSB-1) were found in the CR region. The putative origin of replication for the light strand (O(L)) of M. f. calamorum was 35bp long and showed high conservation in stem and adjacent sequences, but the difference existed in the loop region among three species of genus Microtus. In order to investigate the phylogenetic position of M. f. calamorum, the phylogenetic trees (Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) were constructed based on 12 protein-coding genes (except for ND6 gene) on H strand from 16 rodent species. M. f. calamorum was classified into genus Microtus, Arvcicolinae for the highly phylogenetic relationship with Microtus kikuchii (Taiwan vole). Further phylogenetic analysis results based on the cytochrome b gene ranged from M. f. calamorum to one of the subspecies of M. fortis, which formed a sister group of Microtus middendorfii in the genus Microtus.

  9. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

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    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  10. Historical Review and Notes on Small Mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia in Korea

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    Lee, Jeong-Boon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of small mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha and Rodentia was conducted in order to find out the scientific names which have been used in Korea. The synonymy of each species and taxonomical research was reviewed and confirmed in this study. The species names are rearranged based on recent studies. Among the various confused names, available names were adopted such as follows: C. shantungensis shantungensis known as Crocidura suaveolens; C. shantungensis quelpartis known as C. dsinezumi; Rattus tanezumi known as R. rattus, called black rat, roof rat and ship rat, respectively. Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae, wood mouse is excluded in the checklist based on indistinct previous records and ambiguous habitation on the Korean Peninsula, and neighbors. In addition, we provide a new Korean vernacular name for Myocastor coypus, called the "Nutria" in Korea. We reflect that several species are repositioned to other genera. A checklist of Korean small mammals and synonym list for each species is provided to avoid confusion of scientific names in Korea. In this study, the list of small mammals in Korea is arranged to 33 species, 20 genera, 8 families, and 3 orders.

  11. Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia infected with Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

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    Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Nitric oxide (NO generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L. mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 10 2 and 2.5 x 10 6 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001 in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L. mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection.

  12. Mast cells in the eyes of Calomys callosus(Rodentia: Cricetidae) infected by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Cristiane D; Mineo, José R; Smith, Ricardo L; Oliani, Sonia M

    2002-06-01

    The mast cell is a powerful effector cell for the innate immune system, acting through the secretion of several distinct mediators. Few studies have demonstrated the relationship between mast cells and toxoplasmosis. In this study, mast cells were investigated in two experimental Toxoplasma infections using Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as the host. Animals were inoculated either intraperitoneally or via the conjunctiva with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) and sacrificed after 5 days or 24 h, respectively. Enucleated eyes were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Neither experimental infection altered the localization of mast cells compared to control eyes, but they did lead to an accumulation in some tissues as well as to their activation. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells within 5 days and 24 h after infection. The ocular lesions were characterized by the presence of tachyzoites, inflammatory cells and vasodilatation in the iris and retina. In conclusion, mast cells were mobilized in these experimental infections, suggesting that they play an important role in the host inflammatory response after infection with T. gondii.

  13. Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René

    2009-01-01

    Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.

  14. Codivergence in heteromyid rodents (Rodentia: heteromyidae) and their sucking lice of the genus Fahrenholzia (Phthiraptera: anoplura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Jessica E; Hafner, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    Although most studies of codivergence rely primarily on topological comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies, temporal assessments are necessary to determine if divergence events in host and parasite trees occurred contemporaneously. A combination of cophylogenetic analyses and comparisons of branch lengths are used in this study to understand the host-parasite association between heteromyid rodents (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) and their sucking lice of the genus Fahrenholzia (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). Cophylogenetic comparisons based on nucleotide substitutions in the mitochondrial COI gene reveal a significant, but not perfect, pattern of cophylogeny between heteromyids and their sucking lice. Regression analyses show a significant functional relationship between the lengths of analogous branches in the host and parasite trees, indicating that divergence events in hosts and parasites were approximately contemporaneous. Thus, the topological similarity observed between heteromyids and their lice is the result of codivergence. These analyses also show that the COI gene in lice is evolving two to three times faster than the same gene in their hosts (similar to the results of studies of other lice and their vertebrate hosts) and that divergence events in lice occurred shortly after host divergence. We recommend that future studies of codivergence include temporal comparisons and, when possible, use the same molecular marker(s) in hosts and parasites to achieve the greatest insight into the history of the host-parasite relationship.

  15. Helminth fauna of the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae) introduced in suburban French forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Benoît; Jerusalem, Christelle; Huchery, Cindy; Marmet, Julie; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-05-01

    The spread of an immigrant host species can be influenced both by its specific helminth parasites that come along with it and by newly acquired infections from native fauna. The Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae), a northeastern Eurasiatic ground nesting Sciurid, has been introduced in France for less than three decades. Thirty individuals were collected from three suburban forests in the Ile-de-France Region between 2002 and 2006. Two intestinal nematode species dominated the helminth fauna: Brevistriata skrjabini [Prevalence, P, 99% C.I., 87% (64-97%); mean intensity, M.I., 99% C.I., 43 (28-78)] and Aonchotheca annulosa [P, 47% (25-69%); M.I., 35 (3-157)]. B. skrjabini is a direct life cycle nematode species of North Eurasiatic origin, with a restricted spectrum of phylogenetically related suitable hosts. This result indicates that B. skrjabini successfully settled and spread with founder pet chipmunks maintained in captivity and released in natura. Chipmunks acquired A. annulosa, a nematode species with a large spectrum of phylogenetically unrelated suitable host species, from local Muroid rodent species with similar behavior, life-history traits and habitats. Quantitative studies are needed to evaluate the potential for both B. skrjabini and A. annulosa to impede the spread of Tamias and for B. skrjabini to favor chipmunk colonization through detrimental effects upon native co-inhabiting host species.

  16. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

  17. 苦参水提液的杀菌效果%Germicidal Efficacy of the Sophora flavescens Aqueous Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈羽; 徐威

    2015-01-01

    The germicidal efficacy of the Sophora flavescens aqueous extract ( SFAE) was studied using suspension quantitative germicidal test in the laboratory.It was found that SFAE had obvious germicidal efficacy against Staphylo-coccus aureus ATCC 6538, E.coli 8099, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Canidia albicans ATCC 10231 and Aspergillius niger ATCC 16404.On-the-spot simulation test, the SFAE had obvious germicidal efficacy.%采用悬液定量杀菌试验,对苦参水提液的杀菌效果进行实验室研究。研究发现,苦参水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、枯草芽胞杆菌、白假丝酵母菌和黑曲霉均具有明显的杀菌作用。通过模拟现场试验,苦参水提液起到了显著地杀菌效果。

  18. Myxobolus neurophilus Guilford 1963 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae): a common parasite infecting yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchell, 1814) in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S J; Griffin, M J; Quiniou, S; Khoo, L; Bollinger, T K

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify a myxosporidian parasite infecting the central nervous system of yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchell, 1814) observed while investigating a fish kill in Saskatchewan, Canada. Fish were collected from seven different lakes, from two distinct watersheds. Sixty-four per cent (54/86) of yellow perch contained myxozoan pseudocysts located throughout the spinal cord and brain. Myxospores measured 16.5 μm (range 16.2-16.8) long and 8.2 μm (range 7.9-8.4) wide and contained two pyriform, mildly dissymmetrical, polar capsules measuring 7.7 μm (range 7.3-8.1) long and 2.7 μm (range 2.4-3.0) wide. The polar capsules each contained a single polar filament, with 7-9 turns per polar filament coil. Sequencing of the 18S SSU rDNA gene demonstrated >99% similarity to Myxobolus neurophilus. In 60% of infected fish, there was a mild to moderate, non-suppurative myelitis or encephalitis, or both, associated with myxospores. Axonal degeneration was present in rare cases. These findings extend the geographical distribution of M. neurophilus and suggest it may be widespread in yellow perch populations in Saskatchewan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Linear Quantitative Profiling Method Fast Monitors Alkaloids of Sophora Flavescens That Was Verified by Tri-Marker Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhifei; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the use of the Linear Quantitative Profiling Method (LQPM) to evaluate the quality of Alkaloids of Sophora flavescens (ASF) based on chromatographic fingerprints in an accurate, economical and fast way. Both linear qualitative and quantitative similarities were calculated in order to monitor the consistency of the samples. The results indicate that the linear qualitative similarity (LQLS) is not sufficiently discriminating due to the predominant presence of three alkaloid compounds (matrine, sophoridine and oxymatrine) in the test samples; however, the linear quantitative similarity (LQTS) was shown to be able to obviously identify the samples based on the difference in the quantitative content of all the chemical components. In addition, the fingerprint analysis was also supported by the quantitative analysis of three marker compounds. The LQTS was found to be highly correlated to the contents of the marker compounds, indicating that quantitative analysis of the marker compounds may be substituted with the LQPM based on the chromatographic fingerprints for the purpose of quantifying all chemicals of a complex sample system. Furthermore, once reference fingerprint (RFP) developed from a standard preparation in an immediate detection way and the composition similarities calculated out, LQPM could employ the classical mathematical model to effectively quantify the multiple components of ASF samples without any chemical standard. PMID:27529425

  20. Linear Quantitative Profiling Method Fast Monitors Alkaloids of Sophora Flavescens That Was Verified by Tri-Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhifei; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the use of the Linear Quantitative Profiling Method (LQPM) to evaluate the quality of Alkaloids of Sophora flavescens (ASF) based on chromatographic fingerprints in an accurate, economical and fast way. Both linear qualitative and quantitative similarities were calculated in order to monitor the consistency of the samples. The results indicate that the linear qualitative similarity (LQLS) is not sufficiently discriminating due to the predominant presence of three alkaloid compounds (matrine, sophoridine and oxymatrine) in the test samples; however, the linear quantitative similarity (LQTS) was shown to be able to obviously identify the samples based on the difference in the quantitative content of all the chemical components. In addition, the fingerprint analysis was also supported by the quantitative analysis of three marker compounds. The LQTS was found to be highly correlated to the contents of the marker compounds, indicating that quantitative analysis of the marker compounds may be substituted with the LQPM based on the chromatographic fingerprints for the purpose of quantifying all chemicals of a complex sample system. Furthermore, once reference fingerprint (RFP) developed from a standard preparation in an immediate detection way and the composition similarities calculated out, LQPM could employ the classical mathematical model to effectively quantify the multiple components of ASF samples without any chemical standard.

  1. Larval dispersal underlies demographically important inter-system connectivity in a Great Lakes yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnik, Reed M.; Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; Carreon-Martinez, Lucia; DeVanna, Kristen M.; Heath, Dan D.; Reichert, Julie M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Ability to quantify connectivity among spawning subpopulations and their relative contribution of recruits to the broader population is a critical fisheries management need. By combining microsatellite and age information from larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in the Lake St. Clair – Detroit River system (SC-DRS) and western Lake Erie with a hydrodynamic backtracking approach, we quantified subpopulation structure, connectivity, and contributions of recruits to the juvenile stage in western Lake Erie during 2006-2007. After finding weak (yet stable) genetic structure between the SC-DRS and two western Lake Erie subpopulations, microsatellites also revealed measurable recruitment of SC-DRS larvae to the juvenile stage in western Lake Erie (17-21% during 2006-2007). Consideration of pre-collection larval dispersal trajectories, using hydrodynamic backtracking, increased estimated contributions to 65% in 2006 and 57% in 2007. Our findings highlight the value of complementing subpopulation discrimination methods with hydrodynamic predictions of larval dispersal by revealing the SC-DRS as a source of recruits to western Lake Erie and also showing that connectivity through larval dispersal can affect the structure and dynamics of large-lake fish populations.

  2. Redescription of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M Soledad; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2009-10-01

    Antarctophthirus microchir was originally described from Phocarctos hookeri on the basis of 1 female and 1 male only. We redescribe adults and describe, for the first time, the 3 nymphal stages from specimens collected from Otaria flavescens from Patagonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy. The present material can be distinguished from other Antarctophthirus species by the presence of a fringe of setae on the back of the head, only present in Antarctophthirus trichechi and Antarctophthirus callorhini. However, A. trichechi also possess a prominent proboscis with large hooks, and A. callorhini presents less abundant and nonuniform abdominal scales in shape and size. Other differential features of A. microchir are the pattern of ovoid and uniform scales and longitudinal grooves in the surface of spines. Nymphal stage 1 differs from 2 and 3 mainly by the absence of scales and thorax without ventral spines or hairs. Nymphal stages 2 and 3 may be distinguished by the disposition of the occipital apophyses. Antarctophthirus microchir has been reported from 5 sea lion species from both hemispheres. Considering the conservative morphology, and ecological and evolutionary features of sucking lice, we raise the question of whether A. microchir from different sea lion hosts may represent a complex of cryptic species.

  3. Population dynamics of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae) in pups from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, in Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, F J; Leonardi, M S; Berón Vera, B; Vales, D G; Ameghino, S; Raga, J A; Crespo, E A

    2009-03-01

    We analysed population dynamics of the louse Antarctophthirus microchir in pups of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, at the Punta León rookery (Argentina) over a period of 2 years. A total of 136 pups were aged and marked at the beginning of the lactation period ashore, then sampled for lice at different times within 30 days. Sampling was restricted to the chest and belly, two sites where lice were especially abundant. This concentration on ventral areas might protect lice from thermal stress in the austral summer. Infestation patterns in pups 3 days old suggested that the potential for transmission increased from first nymphs to adults. Population trends of each instar with pup age, based on standardised values of abundance, were conserved between years, reflecting the basic dynamics of recruitment and reproduction. However, trends based on log-transformed abundances varied significantly between years; apparently, environmental conditions affected growth of lice populations differently each year. Stage-based deterministic models for population growth of A. microchir suggested generation times from 18 to 23 days. Accordingly, only 2 lice generations might be produced before pups start going to the sea. Shortening the cycle to accommodate a third generation might be risky, whereas a 2-generation cycle might at least result in larger females producing higher numbers of viable offspring.

  4. Foraging behavior of lactating South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and spatial-temporal resource overlap with the Uruguayan fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Marín, Yamandú; Chocca, Julio; González, Bernardo; Beathyate, Gastón; Louise Chilvers, B.; Hückstadt, Luis A.

    2013-04-01

    Resource competition between fisheries and marine mammal continue to raise concern worldwide. Understanding this complex conflict requires data on spatial and dietary overlap of marine mammal and fisheries. In Uruguay the South American sea lions population has been dramatically declining over the past decade. The reasons for this population decline are unknown but may include the following: (1) direct harvesting; (2) reduced prey availability and distribution as a consequence of environmental change; or (3) biological interaction with fisheries. This study aims to determine resource overlap and competition between South American sea lions (SASL, Otaria flavescens, n=10) and the artisanal fisheries (AF), and the coastal bottom trawl fisheries (CBTF). We integrated data on sea lions diet (scat analysis), spatial and annual consumption estimates; and foraging behavior-satellite-tracking data from lactating SASL with data on fishing effort areas and fisheries landings. We found that lactating SASL are benthic divers and forage in shallow water within the continental shelf. SASL's foraging areas overlapped with CBTF and AF fisheries operational areas. Dietary analysis indicated a high degree of overlap between the diet of SASL and the AF and CBTF fisheries catch. The results of our work show differing degrees of spatial resource overlap with AF and CBTF, highlighting that there are differences in potential impact from each fishery; and that different management/conservation approaches may need to be taken to solve the fisheries-SASL conflict.

  5. JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Cortegana-Arias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

  6. Long-lasting concentrations of cefovecin after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration to Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Párraga, D; Gilabert, J A; García-Peña, F J; Álvaro, T; Ros-Rodríguez, J M; Valls, M; Encinas, T

    2016-02-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin developed as an aqueous solution for use by the subcutaneous route in dogs and cats. This study evaluated the duration of cefovecin plasma concentrations after single intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injection at different doses in 10 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Blood samples were collected serially from the day of the injection up to 60-90 days post-injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. No reactions or side effects associated with the drug were observed in any of the studied animals. Both routes showed very similar pharmacokinetic behaviour. Elimination half-life (11.3-21.6 days, SC; 13.1-15.9 days, IM) and mean residence time (17.6-36.8 days SC; 16.5-25.4 days IM) were, in all cases and doses, considerably longer than those previously reported for any other species. Based on these findings, and preliminary data on specific pathogen sensitivity, cefovecin was found to be a very promising antimicrobial for Patagonian sea lions, in particular those that are difficult to access or that are under certain rehabilitation conditions.

  7. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1 mouth surrounded by six lips; 2 extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxynematinae by the following main traits: reduced; and 3 lack of caudal alae.Con base en la revisión del material tipo de Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier y Mehra, 1959 y de nuevos ejemplares recolectados en Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, en Veracruz, México, se describe un nuevo género (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., al que A. ackerti es transferido como Lamotheoxyuris ackerti (Kruidener y Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Este nuevo género se distingue de todos los demás géneros incluidos en Heteroxynematinae por las siguientes características: 1 presencia de seis labios rodeando la boca; 2 extensión reducida del ala lateral; y 3 carencia de ala caudal.

  8. RODENTIA: MURIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The aquarium was ... The totals registered on the counter for each activity were noted at .... holds the food with its forepaws while biting pieces off with the incisors. The food is .... The sex ratio of male: ..... Johannesburg: Central News Agency.

  9. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

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    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  10. Effect of Ionic Liquids as the Mobile Phase Additives on the HPLC Resolution of Four Active Compounds from Sophora flavescens Ait

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    Junyu Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The retention behaviour of four active compounds from Sophora Flavescens Ait using three ionic liquids as mobile phase modifiers was examined. The effect of the pH and the amount of ionic liquid modifier on the retention of these compounds was determined in methanol/water (v/v as the mobile phase containing different ionic liquids ranging in concentration from 0.1 mmol/L to 3.0 mmol/L. The ionic liquids showed promise as additives in high-performance liquid chromatography.

  11. Effect of ionic liquids as the mobile phase additives on the HPLC resolution of four active compounds from Sophora flavescens Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Liu, Junyu; Row, Kyung Ho

    2009-06-11

    The retention behaviour of four active compounds from Sophora Flavescens Ait using three ionic liquids as mobile phase modifiers was examined. The effect of the pH and the amount of ionic liquid modifier on the retention of these compounds was determined in methanol/water (v/v) as the mobile phase containing different ionic liquids ranging in concentration from 0.1 mmol/L to 3.0 mmol/L. The ionic liquids showed promise as additives in high-performance liquid chromatography.

  12. Escaping paradise: Larval export from Hawaii in an Indo-Pacific reef fish, the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, Jeff A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Sorenson, Laurie; Basch, Larry V.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The depauperate marine ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago share a high proportion of species with the southern and western Pacific, indicating historical and/or ongoing connections across the large oceanic expanse separating Hawaii from its nearest neighbors. The rate and direction of these interactions are, however, unknown. While previous biogeographic studies have consistently described Hawaii as a diversity sink, prevailing currents likely offer opportunities for larval export. To assess interactions between the remote reefs of the Hawaiian Archipelago and the species rich communities of the Central and West Pacific, we surveyed 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nDNA; n = 857) and a 614 bp segment of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtDNA; n = 654) in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). Concordant frequency shifts in both nDNA and mtDNA reveal significant population differentiation among three West Pacific sites and Hawaii (nDNA F′CT = 0.116, mtDNA ϕCT = 0.098, P < 0.001). SAMOVA analyses of microsatellite data additionally indicate fine scale differentiation within the 2600 km Hawaiian Archipelago (F′SC = 0.026; P < 0.001), with implications for management of this heavily-exploited aquarium fish. Mismatch analyses indicate the oldest contemporary populations are in the Hawaiian Archipelago (circa 318,000 y), with younger populations in the West Pacific (91,000 – 175,000 y). Estimates of Yellow Tang historical demography contradict expectations of Hawaii as a population sink, and instead indicate asymmetrical gene flow, with Hawaii exporting rather than importing Yellow Tang larvae. PMID:25505806

  13. Extended Longevity of Reproductives Appears to be Common in Fukomys Mole-Rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Philip; Šumbera, Radim; Maßmann, Christina; Scherag, André; Burda, Hynek

    2011-01-01

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive “helpers” in their natal families, often for several years. This “reproductive subdivision” of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli), breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5–2.2fold depending on the sex), irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis) showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats. PMID:21533255

  14. The tubular compartment and the spermatogenic dynamics of the wild rodent Oxymycterus nasutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Carolina Torre; Balarini, Maytê Koch; Lopes, Elizabeth Oliveira; Menezes, Tatiana Prata; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Gomes, Marcos de Lucca M; Matta, Sérgio Luis P da

    2014-10-01

    Despite the order Rodentia present worldwide distribution and large number of species in the Brazilian fauna, detailed studies on testicular morphophysiology are still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the dynamics of the spermatogenic process of Oxymycterus nasutus using morphometrical and stereological tools. Testicles from ten sexually mature males were used, showing a gonadosomatic index of 0.89%. The testicular parenchyma showed one of the highest tubulesomatic indexes reported among wild rodents - 0.82% - from which 65.12% was allocated into seminiferous epithelium. The average tubular diameter was 249.89 μm, whereas the epithelium height was 62.47 μm and the total length was 18.62 m per gram of testis. Eight different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were described. Stage 1 was used for counting the germ cell population as well as the Sertoli cells. On average, 3.47 type-A spermatogonia, 24.39 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 24.13 primary spermatocytes in pachytene, 68.38 round spermatids and 7.33 Sertoli cells were found per tubular cross section. There were 91.02 × 10(6) Sertoli cells per gram of testis and each cell was able to support 9.33 spermatids and 16.43 germ cells. The coefficient of spermatogonial mitosis was 7.02, while 2.83 spermatids were produced for each primary spermatocyte in pachytene. The overall efficiency of spermatogenesis was 19.70 cells, whereas the sperm reserve per gram of testis totalized 849.63 × 10(6) spermatids. Therefore, the presented data showed that O. nasutus shows a high energetic investment in reproduction, corroborating the findings for other species of the Cricetidae family.

  15. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  16. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  17. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  18. Squamasnema amazonica n. gen. n. sp. (Heligmonellinae): A new parasite of Proechimys roberti (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Helrik da Costa; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2015-08-01

    A new species of nematode, Squamasnema amazonica n. gen. n. sp., is described based on specimens found parasitizing the small intestine of Proechimys roberti (Rodentia: Echimyidae) collected during a survey of the fauna of Tapirapé-Aquirí National Forest (Brazil, Eastern Brazilian Amazon). The nematodes were fixed and processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nematodes were classified under the family Heligmonellidae and the subfamily Heligmonellinae. Although several species in the family Heligmonellidae exhibit discontinuous ridges, Squamasnema n. gen. and Trichotravassosia are the only genera with columns of scales along their entire body, as an apomorphy of the synlophe. Squamasnema n. gen. has columns of cuticular cells along its body, except for on the left flank, and exhibits a synlophe with no size gradient or inclination and does not present chitinized structures supporting the synlophe. Therefore, due to these morphological differences of Squamasnema n. gen., the creation of a new genus was necessary.

  19. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  20. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  1. A classification of the Gliridae (Rodentia on the basis of dental morphology

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    Remmert Daams

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The supra-familiar relationships of the Gliridae are discussed. The criterion used for subdividing the Gliridae is the morphology of the cheek teeth because this is the only character known for all taxa. This limitation leads to the undesirable "synonymy" of Glamys and Gliravus, two genera whose type species have a very different skull morphology, and to the incorporation into the Dryomyinae of Graphiurus and Leithia, despite the fact that Dryomys has a myomorph, Graphiurus a hystricomorph and Leithia a sciuromorph skull. The hundred and seventy-seven species and thirty eight genera of dormice are grouped into five subfamilies. One of these, the Bransatoglirinae, is new. The subfamily Graphiurinae is supressed and Graphiurus is assigned to the Dryomyinae. The genera of the Gliridae and the species allocated to them are listed in the appendix in alphabetical order. The original diagnoses of the genera are given in English and the type locality, type level and synonymy of each species is given. Riassunto Una classificazione di Gliridae (Rodentia sulla base della morfologia dentale - Vengono discusse le relazioni soprafamiliari dei Gliridi. I1 criterio utilizzato per la suddivisione dei Gliridi è la morfologia dei denti molari poiché è l'unico carattere noto per tutti i taxa. Questa limitazione porta alla "sinonimia" non voluta di Glamys e Gliravus, due generi le cui specie tipiche presentano una struttura del cranio molto diversa, ed alla incorporazione di Graphiurus e Leithia nei Dryomyinae, sebbene Dryomys abbia un cranio miomorfo, Graphiurus un cranio istricomorfo e Leithia un cranio sciuromorfo. Le centosettantasette specie ed i trentotto generi di Gliridi sono raggruppati in cinque sottofamiglie. Una di queste, Bransatoglirinae, è nuova. La

  2. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion (Otaria flavescens) skin biopsies from two South-western Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimènez, B; Gonzàlez, M J; Hernández, L M; Eljarrat, E; Rivera, J; Fossi, M C

    1999-02-01

    Congener specific 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs were determined in skin biopsies taken from sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living in two areas of the South-western Atlantic on the coast of Argentina (Mar del Plata and Punta Bermeja). This is the first report on PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion skin biopsies from the southern hemisphere. Differences were found in the congener pattern according to the sampling area. Animals living in the polluted area (Mar del Plata harbour) had detectable levels of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. Sea lions living in a control environment (Punta Bermeja, Patagonia) only exhibited 5 detectable congeners out of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. However, total levels were low in both colonies studied. These data are consistent with previous work which has indicated that dioxins occur at relatively low levels in marine mammals, possibly due to rapid catabolism or elimination.

  3. Enhancement of l-lactic acid production via synergism in open co-fermentation of Sophora flavescens residues and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Gao, Ming; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiaohong; Chang, Qiang; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Sophora flavescens residues (SFR) were used for l-lactic acid production and were mixed with food waste (FW) to assess the effects of different compositions of SFR and FW. Positive synergistic effects of mixed substrates were achieved with co-fermentation. Co-fermentation increased the proportion of l-lactic acid by decreasing the co-products of ethanol and other organic acids. A maximum l-lactic acid concentration of 48.4g/L and l-lactic acid conversion rate of 0.904g/g total sugar were obtained through co-fermentation of SFR and FW at the optimal ratio of 1:1.5. These results were approximately 6-fold those obtained during mono-fermentation of SFR. Co-fermentation of SFR and FW provides a suitable C/N ratio and pH for effective open fermentative production of l-lactic acid.

  4. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut De Biologie Intégrative Et Des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  5. A comparative assessment of the adrenotoxic effects of cadmium in two teleost species, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, Alexandra; Hontela, Alice

    2004-03-30

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) have a different sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) in vivo (troutLC50/EC50{sub P.flavescens}=37.7). Adrenocortical cells of trout were more sensitive than those of perch and Cd had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential and specificity in trout than in perch. However, in both species, Cd had the same effect on ACTH, dbcAMP and pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion, with pregnenolone maintaining cortisol secretion until cell viability was impaired. These results confirm that for both species, Cd interferes in the signalling pathway of cortisol synthesis in a step prior to the pregnenolone formation. Data provided by the present study revealed important differences in vulnerability of adrenal steroidogenesis between rainbow trout and yellow perch.

  6. Advance in the research of cardiovascular pharmacology of Sophora flavescens%苦参心血管药理作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董珉翔; 白音夫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the chemical composition and pharmacology of Sophora flavescens. And to provide a foundation for the applicaton in the protection of cardiovascular pharmacology. Method The chemical compositions of Sophora favescens. Were summerized by reviewing literatures. Result It is found that matrine and oxymatrine have a lot of cardiovascular functions. They also show the effects of strengthening the heart function, resisting arrhythmia,and dropping the blood pressure. Conclusion By discussing the chemical composition and pharmacology,the mechanism of the cardiovascular pharmacology was revcallcd, which is advatageous to the further research of Sophora flavescens.%目的 对苦参的化学成分和药理作用进行综述,为进一步研究苦参的心血管作用奠定基础.方法 对相关文献进行归纳总结,并对其化学成分的药理作用分类综述.结果 苦参碱和氧化苦参碱有广泛的心血管药理作用,诸如抗心律失常、抗心肌细胞纤维化、对心肌损伤和心肌梗死的保护和降压等作用.结论 通过对苦参的化学成分和药理作用的讨论,揭示了苦参心血管作用的机制,有利于进一步研究.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF THREE SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS, ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA, AND OTARIA FLAVESCENS) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Kristy; Marigo, Juliana; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Tseng, Florina

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve understanding of parasitism in South American pinnipeds, respiratory and gastrointestinal samples were collected from 12 Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal), one Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal), and one Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion). Ova and larvae were microscopically identified from fecal samples and respiratory secretions collected from live A. australis undergoing rehabilitation at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil during June-July 2012. Adult parasites were collected from the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of animals that died while undergoing treatment or were found dead along the southern Brazil coast. Parasites were identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, microscopic examination, comparison with keys, and histologic examination of tissues. Lung parasites of the Parafilaroides genus (Metastrongyloidea, Filaroididae) were identified at necropsy in both A. australis and A. gazella and gastrointestinal parasites were found in all three species of pinniped studied. Gastrointestinal parasites identified in A. australis included the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova cattani, the cestodes Adenocephalus pacificus (previously Diphyllobothrium pacificum), one from the Tetrabothridae family and one undetermined, and the acanthocephalans Corynosoma sp. and Bolbosoma sp.; from A. gazella the nematode Contracaecum sp. and the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp.; and from O. flavescens the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp. Ova from fecal samples from A. australis represent ascarid nematodes, Parafilaroides sp., Adenocephalus pacificus, acanthocephalans, and an egg determined either to be a trematode or pseuophyllidean cestode. With limited information surrounding parasitism, these findings are an important contribution to knowledge of the health of Southern Hemisphere pinnipeds.

  8. Estudo experimental de Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia-cricetidae com cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi Studies on the experimental infection of Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia-Cricetidae with three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monamaris M. Borges

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados em relação a infecção expertmental de Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia-Cricetidae com duas cepas de T. cruzi isoladas de casos humanos, Y e Berenice, e uma isolada de um triatomíneo silvestre, chamada costalimai. Foram realizados estudos em relação a evolução da parasitemia, duração da patência e prepatência da infecção. Com o objetivo de verificar a agressividade e tropismo tissular das cepas de T. cruzi nesta espécie de roedor, foram também realizados estudos histopatológicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os níveis de parasitemias foram baixos para as três cepas estudadas. A patência da infecção variou de 14 a 16 dias nos animais inoculados com a cepa Y, 26 a 29 dias com a Berenice e 9 a 13 dias com a costalimai. O período prepatente variou de 3 a 5 dias nos animais inoculados com a cepa Y, de 2 a 6 dias com a cepa Berenice e de 6 a 8 dias com a costalimai. As três cepas apresentaram em Z. lasiurus, comprometimento nitidamente muscular, provocando reações leves, moderadas e intensas.Studies on the experimental infection of Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia-Cricetidae are presented in the current paper. Three strains of T. cruzi were used in the experiments: two, Y and Berenice, were originated from human infection, while the third one was obtained from natural infection in a wild bug Triatoma costalimai. The evolution of the parasitemia was studied and the prepatent and patent periods determined. The tissular tropism and aggressiveness of the strains of T. cruzi were verified through histopathological studies. Results have shown that the parasitemia was always kept at low levels for all the strains. The prepatent period in the infected rodents varied from: 3 to 6 days in the Y strain; 2 to 6 days in the Berenice strain; 6 to 8 in the costalimai strain. The patent period showed the following duration patterns: 14 to 16 days in the Y strain; 26 to 29 in the Berenice strain and 6 to 8

  9. Actividad ovárica del tepezcuintle Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae en cautiverio

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    Rubén C Montes Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la actividad ovárica de A. paca por medio de perfiles hormonales y estructuras ováricas. Se muestrearon ocho hembras (siete adultas y una juvenil en el criadero de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia en el estado de Yucatán, México, durante aproximadamente dos meses. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas cada 3 y 6 días en animales anestesiados. Se estimaron los niveles de progesterona (P4 y 17 β estradiol (E2 sanguνneos por radioinmunoanαlisis. Las estructuras ováricas de animales muertos durante el periodo de muestreo fueron analizadas macro y microscópicamente. El ciclo ovárico duró 29±8.4 días, con niveles de 1.61±0.65 ng/ml para P4 y de 39±24 pg/ml para E2 durante la fase folicular, y de 6.18±3.70 ng/ml y 29±16 pg/ml para P4 y E2 respectivamente, en la fase luteal. Hubo diferencias (pOvarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae under captivity. The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatán, México. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4 and 17 β estradiol (E2 were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29±8.4 days, levels of 1.61±0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39±24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18±3.70 ng/ml and 29±16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9±0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22±17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress

  10. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der α-Amylase-Aktivität durch Pflanzenextrakte und polyphenolische Reinstoffe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl. und seiner Inhaltsstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Ines

    2010-01-01

    The creation of a microplate-reader-based kinetic assay led to a rapid screening of plant extracts and pure compounds. Plant extracts were found to be able to inhibit the α-amylase activity. Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., Melissa officinalis L., Pyrus communis L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Malus domestica Borkh., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Tamarindus indica L. were found to be active in the used in vitro test model. A performed bioguided extraction showed that the active...

  11. Description of a new species of Heligmosomoides (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae parasitic in Microtus limnophilus (Rodentia: Cricetidae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China

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    Massoni J.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heligmosomoides craigi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea is described from Microtus limnophilus Büchner, 1889 (Rodentia: Cricetidae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. It is related to H. protobullosus Asakawa, 1987 and H. longispiculum Tokobaev & Erkulov, 1966 both parasites of Microtus spp. from Japan and USSR, respectively by the following features: a ratio of spicule length/body length of more than 45% and rays 9 shorter than rays 10. The new species is differentiated by rays 8 being closed to rays 6 and 19-22 cuticular ridges versus 14 in H. protobullosus (synlophe not described in H. longispiculum. H. longicirratus (Schulz, 1954 also a parasite of Microtus sp. from the USSR is the most closely related species based on the number of cuticular ridges (20 and the ratio of spicule length/body length (48% versus 50%. There are no illustrations of this species and the female has not been described; for that reason, it is not possible to compare it accurately with our specimens.

  12. A phylogeographic study of the endemic rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of Northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Eric; Raheriarisena, Martin; Goodman, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a mitochondrial phylogeographic study of the endemic dry forest rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar (Loky-Manambato) and 2 surrounding regions (Ankarana and Analamerana). The main goal was to assess the evolutionary consequences on this taxon of the complex landscape features and Quaternary ecological vicissitudes. Three haplogroups were identified from the 215 specimens obtained from 15 populations. High levels of genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation among populations were observed. The different geographical subdivisions of the study area by regions, by river catchment zones, and the physical distance between populations are not correlated with genetic patterns. In contrast, population structure is mostly explained by the geographic distribution of the samples among existing forest blocks. E. carletoni experienced a genetic bottleneck between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which correlates with periods when moister climates existed on the island. Overall, our data suggest that the complex genetic patterns of E. carletoni can be explained by Quaternary climatic vicissitudes that resulted in habitat fluctuations between dry and humid forests, as well as subsequent human-induced fragmentation of forest habitat.

  13. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3-8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice.

  14. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil

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    H. G. Bergallo

    Full Text Available The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC. Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  15. How does exposure to nickel and cadmium affect the transcriptome of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) – Results from a 1000 candidate-gene microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: Berenice.Bougas@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Normandeau, Eric [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Couture, Patrice [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The transcriptional responses of Perca flavescens to both metal and non metal stressors were measured with a 1000 candidate-gene microarray. •475, 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed depending on temperature, Ni and Cd concentrations, respectively. •Genes involved in iron metabolism, transcriptional and translational processes, vitamin metabolism, blood coagulation, and calcium transport were impacted by metals. •The developed microarray contributes to a better characterization of the impact of different stressors on the transcriptome. -- Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their specific effects on fish are poorly understood. Documenting gene transcription profiles offers a powerful approach toward identifying the molecular mechanisms affected by these metals and to discover biomarkers of their toxicity. However, confounding environmental factors can complicate the interpretation of the results and the detection of biomarkers for fish captured in their natural environment. In the present study, a 1000 candidate-gene microarray, developed from a previous RNA-seq study on a subset of individual fish from contrasting level of metal contamination, was used to investigate the transcriptional response to metal (Ni and Cd) and non metal (temperature, oxygen, and diet) stressors in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Specifically, we aimed at (1) identifying transcriptional signatures specific to Ni and Cd exposure, (2) investigating the mechanisms of their toxicity, and (3) developing a predictive tool to identify the sublethal effects of Ni and Cd contaminants in fish sampled from natural environments. A total of 475 genes displayed significantly different transcription levels when temperature varied while 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed at different concentrations of Ni and Cd, respectively. These metals were found to mainly affect the transcription level of genes

  16. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  17. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y

  18. Benefits of Turbid River Plume Habitat for Lake Erie Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Recruitment Determined by Juvenile to Larval Genotype Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon-Martinez, Lucia B.; Walter, Ryan P.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Heath, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient-rich, turbid river plumes that are common to large lakes and coastal marine ecosystems have been hypothesized to benefit survival of fish during early life stages by increasing food availability and (or) reducing vulnerability to visual predators. However, evidence that river plumes truly benefit the recruitment process remains meager for both freshwater and marine fishes. Here, we use genotype assignment between juvenile and larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from western Lake Erie to estimate and compare recruitment to the age-0 juvenile stage for larvae residing inside the highly turbid, south-shore Maumee River plume versus those occupying the less turbid, more northerly Detroit River plume. Bayesian genotype assignment of a mixed assemblage of juvenile (age-0) yellow perch to putative larval source populations established that recruitment of larvae was higher from the turbid Maumee River plume than for the less turbid Detroit River plume during 2006 and 2007, but not in 2008. Our findings add to the growing evidence that turbid river plumes can indeed enhance survival of fish larvae to recruited life stages, and also demonstrate how novel population genetic analyses of early life stages can contribute to determining critical early life stage processes in the fish recruitment process. PMID:25954968

  19. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (pHistological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations.

  20. Wax-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system of sophora flavescens Aiton: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Caihong; Cheng, Gang; Ren, Jungang; Wu, Gaolei

    2009-02-01

    A wax-matrix time-dependent colon-specific tablet (WM-TDCS) was studied. Wax-matrix tablet core consisting of semi-synthetic glycerides, as a wax polymeric expanding agent, carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), and NaCl was prepared, and Sophora flavescens Aiton (ASF, extracts of traditional Chinese medicine) was used as model drug. The wax-matrix ASF tablets core was coated with Eudragit NE 30 D as the inner coating materials and with Opadry OY-P-7171 as the outer coating materials. The in vitro release behaviors of the coated tablets were examined and then in vivo absorption kinetics of the coated tablets in dogs was further investigated. The volume of the tablet core was markedly increased at 37 degrees C because of the expand effect of polymer semi-synthetic glycerides and CMS-Na. The drug release from WM-TDCS was more stable than TDCS in vitro and in vivo. The lag time of ASF release was also controlled by the thickness of the inner coating layer. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release. ASF wax-matrix tablets coated with Eudragit NE 30 D and Opadry OY-P-7171 using the regular coating technique could be designed to achieve a lag time of 3 h in the small intestinal tract.

  1. Benefits of Turbid River Plume Habitat for Lake Erie Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Recruitment Determined by Juvenile to Larval Genotype Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon-Martinez, Lucia B; Walter, Ryan P; Johnson, Timothy B; Ludsin, Stuart A; Heath, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient-rich, turbid river plumes that are common to large lakes and coastal marine ecosystems have been hypothesized to benefit survival of fish during early life stages by increasing food availability and (or) reducing vulnerability to visual predators. However, evidence that river plumes truly benefit the recruitment process remains meager for both freshwater and marine fishes. Here, we use genotype assignment between juvenile and larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from western Lake Erie to estimate and compare recruitment to the age-0 juvenile stage for larvae residing inside the highly turbid, south-shore Maumee River plume versus those occupying the less turbid, more northerly Detroit River plume. Bayesian genotype assignment of a mixed assemblage of juvenile (age-0) yellow perch to putative larval source populations established that recruitment of larvae was higher from the turbid Maumee River plume than for the less turbid Detroit River plume during 2006 and 2007, but not in 2008. Our findings add to the growing evidence that turbid river plumes can indeed enhance survival of fish larvae to recruited life stages, and also demonstrate how novel population genetic analyses of early life stages can contribute to determining critical early life stage processes in the fish recruitment process.

  2. Benefits of Turbid River Plume Habitat for Lake Erie Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens Recruitment Determined by Juvenile to Larval Genotype Assignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia B Carreon-Martinez

    Full Text Available Nutrient-rich, turbid river plumes that are common to large lakes and coastal marine ecosystems have been hypothesized to benefit survival of fish during early life stages by increasing food availability and (or reducing vulnerability to visual predators. However, evidence that river plumes truly benefit the recruitment process remains meager for both freshwater and marine fishes. Here, we use genotype assignment between juvenile and larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens from western Lake Erie to estimate and compare recruitment to the age-0 juvenile stage for larvae residing inside the highly turbid, south-shore Maumee River plume versus those occupying the less turbid, more northerly Detroit River plume. Bayesian genotype assignment of a mixed assemblage of juvenile (age-0 yellow perch to putative larval source populations established that recruitment of larvae was higher from the turbid Maumee River plume than for the less turbid Detroit River plume during 2006 and 2007, but not in 2008. Our findings add to the growing evidence that turbid river plumes can indeed enhance survival of fish larvae to recruited life stages, and also demonstrate how novel population genetic analyses of early life stages can contribute to determining critical early life stage processes in the fish recruitment process.

  3. Expression and immunohistochemical detection of leptin-like peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Finizia; Gatta, Claudia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Giurisato, Maristella; Lucini, Carla; Varricchio, Ettore

    2012-09-01

    This study provides an immunohistochemical approach to the expression of leptin in the gastrointestinal tract of the monogastric South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), and the poligastric bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The specific organization of the gastrointestinal tract is examined in relation to the neuroendocrine regulation of the gut exerted by leptin. In the South American sea lion some leptin-like-immunoreactive (ir) cells, and endocrine type cells, were found in the pit of gastric mucosal folds and in the epithelium of duodenum as well as numerous neurons were detected in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the stomach. In the bottlenose dolphin, many leptin-like-ir cells, and exocrine type cells, were identified in the mucosal layer of the main stomach as well as several neurons and nervous fibers were detected in nervous plexuses of main stomach, pyloric stomach, proximal, and middle intestine. Our data suggest that the distribution of leptin-like peptides is similar in the two species, notwithstanding the different anatomical organization of the gastrointestinal apparatus of South American sea lion and bottlenose dolphin. These findings "suggest" the presence of a basal plan in the regulation of food intake, body weight, energy balance and of the gastrointestinal functions in general also in marine mammals with different and specific feeding habits.

  4. Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Wendy; Emmenegger, Eveline; Glenn, Jolene; Simchick, Crystal; Winton, Jim; Goetz, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV-IVb, represents an example of the introduction of an extremely pathogenic rhabdovirus capable of infecting a wide variety of new fish species in a new host-environment. The goal of the present study was to delineate the expression kinetics of key genes in the innate immune response relative to the very early stages of VHSV-IVb infection using the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) as a model. Administration of VHSV-IVb by IP-injection into juvenile yellow perch resulted in 84% cumulative mortality, indicating their high susceptibility to this disease. In fish sampled in the very early stages of infection, a significant up-regulation of Mx gene expression in the liver, as well as IL-1β and SAA activation in the head kidney, spleen, and liver was directly correlated to viral load. The potential down-regulation of Mx in the hematopoietic tissues, head kidney and spleen, may represent a strategy utilized by the virus to increase replication.

  5. Dos nuevas especies de Stilestrongylus (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae parásitos de peromyscus (Rodentia: Cricetidae de México

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    Jorge Falcón Ordaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos especies nuevas del género Stilestrongylus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937, parásitas de Peromyscus spp. (Rodentia: Cricetidae provenientes del Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico. Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. infecta a Peromyscus difficilis y se caracteriza por la presencia de 30 espínas en el synlophe para ambos sexos, así como por el nacimiento simétrico de los rayos 8 a partir de la raíz del rayo nueve. S. hidalguensis n. sp. parásita a Peromyscus sp., diferenciándose del resto de las especies congenéricas porque el macho presenta 24 espinas en el synlophe a nivel de la parte media del cuerpo y porque el arreglo de los rayos bursales es diferente en ambos lóbulos (2-2-1 derecho y 2-3 izquierdo. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de 18 de las 19 especies del género.Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. collected from Peromyscus difficilis (Hidalgo state, México, differs from other species in the genus in number of the spines (30 in the synlophe (both sexes and because the eigth ray arises from the root of the ninth ray; S. hidalguensis n. sp. parasited Peromyscus sp. and differs from all other congeneric species in the presence of 24 spines in the male synlophe and in the arrangement of the bursal rays (2-2-1 in the right lobe and 2-3 in the left lobe. A key to the species of Stilestrongylus is provided.

  6. Genética poblacional de cobayas de Colombia, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae con marcadores moleculares RAPD

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    Héctor Aníbal Campos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, mostramos los primeros resultados moleculares de formas colombianas de Cavia. Claramente, la población silvestre de C. anolaimae fue genéticamente diferenciada de la forma doméstica, C. porcellus, tal como ha sido demostrado por otros autores utilizando resultados morfométricos, osteológicos y cariotípicos. Ambas especies mostraron un considerable nivel de diversidad genética, aunque el segundo taxon mostró niveles mayores de esta diversidad. Los niveles de heterogeneidad genética también fueron mayores entre las poblaciones de C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 que entre las poblaciones de C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. Esos niveles significativos de heterogeneidad genética, y los consiguientes bajos niveles de flujo génico, fueron discutidos comparativamente con los resultados por otros autores analizando otros marcadores moleculares (citocromo-b mitocondrial. Los resultados aquí mostrados son coherentes con un complejo proceso de domesticación en Cavia porcellus.Population genetics of Colombian Guinea Pigs, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae with RAPD molecular markers. The genus Cavia occurs in South America, mainly in grasslands.. We collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with RAPD molecular markers. One wild type (C. anolaimae was differentiated from the domestic form (C. porcellus, in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. Genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in C. porcellus. The levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 than among the populations of C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. These significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for Cavia porcellus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1481-1501. Epub 2008 September 30.

  7. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 843 specimens bearing names of 820 species group taxa of Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) as of July 2011. This catalog presents a list of these holdings, which comprise 798 holotypes, 14 lectotypes, seven syntypes (30 specimens), and one neotype. In addition, we include three holotypes and 10 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found and three syntypes that were originally in this collection but are now known to be in other collections. One specimen that no longer has name-bearing status is included for the record. Forty-one of the names are new since the last type catalog. One new lectotype is designated. Suborders and families are listed as in Wilson and Reeder. Within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically. Within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, type locality, date of collection and name of collector, collector’s original number, and comments or additional information as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen serve as a condition report and will be linked to each electronic specimen record.

  8. Ancient female philopatry, asymmetric male gene flow, and synchronous population expansion support the influence of climatic oscillations on the evolution of South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehara, Marcelo C. M.; Fraga, Lúcia D.; Lopes, Fernando; Túnez, Juan Ignacio; Cassini, Marcelo H.; Majluf, Patricia; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Pavés, Héctor J.; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Nestor; Loizaga de Castro, Rocío; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Sepúlveda, Maritza; Olavarría, Carlos; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Quiñones, Renato; Pérez-Alvarez, Maria Jose; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is widely distributed along the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America with a history of significant commercial exploitation. We aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure and the evolutionary history of South American sea lion along its distribution by analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellites loci. We analyzed 147 sequences of mtDNA control region and genotyped 111 individuals of South American sea lion for 10 microsatellite loci, representing six populations (Peru, Northern Chile, Southern Chile, Uruguay (Brazil), Argentina and Falkland (Malvinas) Islands) and covering the entire distribution of the species. The mtDNA phylogeny shows that haplotypes from the two oceans comprise two very divergent clades as observed in previous studies, suggesting a long period (>1 million years) of low inter-oceanic female gene flow. Bayesian analysis of bi-parental genetic diversity supports significant (but less pronounced than mitochondrial) genetic structure between Pacific and Atlantic populations, although also suggested some inter-oceanic gene flow mediated by males. Higher male migration rates were found in the intra-oceanic population comparisons, supporting very high female philopatry in the species. Demographic analyses showed that populations from both oceans went through a large population expansion ~10,000 years ago, suggesting a very similar influence of historical environmental factors, such as the last glacial cycle, on both regions. Our results support the proposition that the Pacific and Atlantic populations of the South American sea lion should be considered distinct evolutionarily significant units, with at least two managements units in each ocean. PMID:28654647

  9. The micromammals (Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) from the Middle Pleistocene site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain): Systematic study and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sese, C.; Soto, E.; Santonja, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.

    2016-07-01

    The micromammal association established in this work is the following: Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; Eulipotyphla: Crocidura cf. russula, cf. Sorex sp., Neomys sp., Soricidae indet. and Talpa sp.; and Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus cf. sylvaticus, Cricetulus (Allocricetus) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus (Iberomys) brecciensis and Microtus (Terricola duodecimcostatus. This association is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene. The morphological state of Cricetulus (A.) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus (I.) brecciensis allows to place it in the advanced, but not final, Middle Pleistocene, which agrees with the numerical data of the site (243–337 ka) that places it in the MIS 8 or 9. The micromammals indicate the predominance of the open spaces with abundant vegetation mainly of herbaceous and bushes but also with some areas with trees. The climate would be of Mediterranean type, similar to the actual or perhaps a little milder and more humid. (Author)

  10. The chromosome complement of Acomys spp. (Rodentia, Muridae) from Oursi, Burkina Faso--the ancestral karyotype of the cahirinus-dimidiatus group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobouev, V; Gautun, J C; Sicard, B; Tranier, M

    1996-11-01

    We present here data on chromosome banding analysis (R- and C-bands) of Acomys sp. (Rodentia, Muridae) from Oursi, Burkina Faso, characterized by 2n = FN = 68 and comparison of its banding patterns with those of Acomys dimidiatus from Saudi Arabia (2n = 38, FN = 70), studied previously. The study revealed complete homology between acrocentric chromosomes of Acomys sp. and chromosome arms of 16 pairs of metacentric and two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes of A. dimidiatus. In addition to monobrachial homology, one tandem translocation accompanied by a centromeric shift was identified in the karyotype of the latter species. The data obtained show that karyotypes of all the species of the Acomys cahirinus-dimidiatus group studied previously may be derived from that of Acomys sp. from Oursl by means of numerous non-homologous Rb translocations and 1-2 tandem transiocations, and thus its karyotype may be considered as ancestral for the cahirinus-dimidiatus group.

  11. The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

    2004-06-10

    This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given.

  12. Third lineage of rodent eimerians: morphology, phylogeny and re-description of Eimeria myoxi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia: Gliridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvičerová, Jana; Mikeš, Václav; Hypša, Václav

    2011-09-01

    Coccidian oocysts from feces of 46 individuals of the garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia: Gliridae), were morphologically and molecularly characterized. Both morphological and sequence data (18S rDNA and ORF 470) showed low variability, indicating that all samples represent a single species. By comparison with published morphological descriptions of coccidia from glirid rodents, we determined that the samples represent Eimeria myoxi. Molecular data suggest that this species does not fall within the 2 known rodent-specific groups but branches as a third independent lineage. However, its exact position in respect to other eimerian clusters could not be established due to the lack of phylogenetic information at this taxonomic level for the 18S rRNA and ORF 470 genes. Based on these results, we provide a re-description of Eimeria myoxi, which contains morphological and molecular characteristics sufficient for its further unequivocal identification.

  13. Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Romero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals

  14. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rodentia Cricetidae com Trypanosoma cruzi Results of the experimental infection of Calomys callosus (Rodentia with human strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Monamaris M. Borges

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados sobre a infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rodentia e duas cepas (Y e Berenice de Trypanosoma cruzi, isoladas de casos humanos. O estudo da evolução foi feito comparado com Mus musculus albino cepa "Swiss", quanto a prepatência, parasitemia, patência e letalidade. Análise histopatológica foi também conduzida em C. callosus, com o objetivo de verificar o tropismo tissular e agressividade das cepas neste roedor. Os experimentos mostraram que a evolução da infecção em C. Callosus foi diferente para as duas cepas de T. cruzi. A cepa Y apresentou maior parasitemia do que a cepa Berenice. O período prepatente variou com as doses utilizadas tendo sido mais curto nos animais inoculados com a cepa Y (2, 2-5, 2 dias do que naquelas com a cepa Berenice (3, 2-7 dias. Embora as duas cepas inoculadas nos C. callosus tenham-se mostrado miotrópicas, as alterações tissulares foram mais acentuadas com a Y. Os resultados obtidos abrem perspectivas quanto à possibilidade do uso de C. callosus como animal experimental para T. cruzi.An albino "swiss" strain of Mus musculus was used for comparison purposes with regard to the following parameters: parasitemia, prepatent period, patency of the infection and lethality. Histopathological studies were carried out with the aim of observing the tissue tropism and aggressiveness of T. cruzi against C. callosus. The experiments showed that the evolution of the infection in C. callosus was different according to the two T. cruzi strains utilized. They strain produced higher parasitemia than the Berenice strain. The prepatent period varied as a result of the inocula being shorter in the animals inoculated with the strain Y (2, 2-3, 2 days than in those infected with the Berenice strain (3, 2-7, 0 days. Although both strains were shown to be myotropic, the tissue alterations were more pronounced in the animals inoculated with the Y strain. Results indicated the possibility

  15. Description of Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae), a parasite of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae), and a first record of L. esslingeri Bain, Petit & Berteaux, 1989 in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Juliana; de la Sancha, Noé Ulises

    2015-06-01

    Paraguay is a small landlocked country whose mammalian fauna is among the least studied in South America, as well as their parasites. As a result of a study of the effects of habitat fragmentation on small mammal biodiversity in eastern Paraguay, we have collected some parasites of cricetid rodents. Herein, we describe a new species of Litomosoides Chandler, 1931 parasitising the body cavity of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) and Litomosoides esslingeri Bain, Petit & Diagne, 1989 parasitising Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers), thus expanding its geographical distribution into Paraguay. Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. is characterised by the large size of the females (92.2-117.6 mm long) and by having buccal capsule with an anterior widening with rounded edges on the chitinous segment and a rounded widening at the base; male tail with a single pair of adcloacal papillae, three to five pairs of asymmetrical postcloacal papillae, and one or two unpaired papillae in the median ventral line; spicules corresponding to the "sigmodontis" species group; and microfilaria with a sheath stuck to the body and visible in the anterior extremity. We also describe a fourth-stage female larva. Oligoryzomys nigripes is a new host record of L. esslingeri; this enlarges the host record to eight species highlighting the low specificity of this species.

  16. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

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    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.Genetic structure of a group of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae in the Colombian Eastern Llanos. The capybaras are the biggest rodents in the world but, however, there are not extensive population genetics studies on them. In the current work, we studied the genetic structure of a troop of 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris sampled in Hato Corozal, Casanare Department at the Colombian Eastern Llanos, by means of five microsatellite markers. The gene diversity was 0.61 and the average allele number was 5.2, which is a medium-low level for

  17. Suprafamilial relationships among Rodentia and the phylogenetic effect of removing fast-evolving nucleotides in mitochondrial, exon and intron fragments

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    Arnal Véronique

    2008-11-01

    Castorimorpha (Castoridae + Geomyoidea. The second suprafamilial clustering identified a novel association between the Sciuromorpha (Gliridae + (Sciuridae + Aplodontidae and the Hystricomorpha (Ctenodactylidae + Hystricognathi which together represents the earliest dichotomy among Rodentia. Molecular time estimates using a relaxed Bayesian molecular clock dates the appearance of the five suborders nearly contemporaniously at the KT boundary and this is congruent with suggestions of an early explosion of rodent diversity. Based on these newly proposed phylogenetic relationships, the evolution of the zygomasseteric pattern that has been used for a long time in rodent systematics is evaluated.

  18. Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

    2012-08-01

    The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5).

  19. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Magali, E-mail: magali.houde@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Giraudo, Maeva, E-mail: maeva.giraudo@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Douville, Mélanie, E-mail: melanie.douville@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: berenice.bougas.1@ulaval.ca [Institut de biologie intégrative et des systèmes, Université Laval, 1030, avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); De Silva, Amila O., E-mail: amila.desilva@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Spencer, Christine, E-mail: christine.spencer@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Lair, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.lair@umontreal.ca [Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6 (Canada); and others

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p < 0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found

  20. Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae en la costa de Chile central

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    MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375 were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites. After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375 en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas. Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la

  1. 复方苦参注射液辅助化疗治疗肺癌的系统评价%Systematic Review on Compound Sophora flavescens Injection Adjuvant Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玲; 杨翰; 滕智远

    2011-01-01

    目的:系统评价复方苦参注射液辅助化疗治疗肺癌的有效性.方法:计算机检索中国学术期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊数据库、万方数据资源系统和中国生物医学文献数据库(CBMdisc).按纳入与排除标准选择文献,对纳入研究的方法学质量进行评价,提取资料后采用RevMan 4.2软件对数据进行Meta分析.结果:共纳入23篇文献,1 750例患者.Meta分析结果显示,复方苦参注射液辅助化疗治疗肺癌的近期疗效优于单纯化疗[OR=1.68,95%CI(1.38,2.04),P<0.000 1];对患者起到一定的疼痛缓解作用[OR=2.26,95%CI(1.61,4.27),P<0.000 1];能明显提高患者的生存质量[OR=2.69,95%CI(1.97,3.68),P<0.000 01]以及患者对化疗毒副反应的耐受性.结论:复方苦参注射液辅助化疗治疗肺癌能显著提高近期疗效,缓解患者疼痛,提高患者的生存质量以及患者对化疗毒副反应的耐受性.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy of compound Sophora flavescens injection in the treatment of lung cancer. METHODS: Relevant literatures were retrieved from CNKI, SWIC, Wanfang database and CBMdisc. Literatures were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological qualities of included studies were evaluated and Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 4.2 software. RESULTS: 23 literatures were included, involving 1 750 patients. Results of Meta-analysis showed that the short-term curative effect of compound S. flavescens injection adjuvant chemotherapy was better than chemotherapy alone in the treatment of lung cancer [OR=1.68, 95% CI(1.38, 2.04), P<0.000 1]. Compound S. flavescens injection adjuvant chemotherapy relieved pain to certain extent [OR= 2.26, 95 % CI (1.61,4.27), P< 0.000 1] and improved the life quality of patients [OR = 2.69, 95 % CI ( 1.97, 3.68), P< 0.000 01 ] and the tolerability of patients to the toxicity of chemotherapy significantly. CONCLUSION: Compound S

  2. Antimicrobial Action of an Endophytic Fungus from Sophora flavescens and Structure Identification of Its Active Constituents%一株苦参内生真菌的抑菌特性及活性成分的结构鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何璐; 纪明山; 王勇; 徐洪波; 齐补坤

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分离药用植物苦参内生真菌,明确其抑菌特性,确定内生真菌BS001发酵产生抗菌物质的种类及结构.[方法]采用常规的组织分离法对内生真菌进行分离,平板菌块法测定抑菌特性,捷克八层析试验确定其极性,柱层析及冷冻干燥的方法对其分离纯化,并利用TLC生物自显影进行跟踪,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定其纯度,1H-NMR、13C-NMR以及液相色谱-质谱(LC-MS)等方法对其进行结构鉴定.[结果]从苦参种子中分离出1株内生真菌菌株,编号为BS001.该菌株对辣椒疫霉病菌、番茄炭疽病菌、油菜菌核病菌、苹果斑点落叶病菌等病原菌具有抑制效果,其中对番茄炭疽病菌的抑菌直径达2.7 34 cm.其发酵液经进一步分离纯化后,用波谱学技术对其抑菌活性成分进行鉴定,结果表明其结构为6,7-(2'E)dibutenyl-5,8-dihydroxy-(Z)-cyclooct-2-ene-1,4-dione,[结论]苦参中存在1株对多种病原菌具有抑制作用的内生真菌,经鉴定为土曲霉(Aspergillus terreu).在该菌株发酵液中得到一种新抗菌活性物质,可用于生物药物及生物农药的开发.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to isolate the endophytic fungi from Sophora flavescens and define its antimicrobial action. Also the identification of the category and structure of the active substance fermented from Sophora flavescens was conducted. [Method] Tissue isolation and selective culture medium method was used to isolate the endophytic fungi. Plate method was applied to measure the antimicrobial characters. Eight kinds of solvent system was used to define its polar. Column chromatography and freeze drying, TLC biological autoradiography and HPLC were employed to isolate and purify, trace, and measure the purity, respectively. The structure was analyzed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS. [Result] An endophytic fungus strain was isolated from Sophora flavescens seed, numbered BS001. It inhibited the growth of

  3. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Peter G.C. [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: peter_campbell@ete.inrs.ca; Giguere, Anik [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada); Unite mixte de recherche INRA-DGER-1233, ' Mycotoxines et Toxicologie comparees des xenobiotiques' , 1 av Bourgelat, BP 83, 69290 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Hare, Landis [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2005-03-25

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from <0.3 to 6.7 nM in the eight lakes from which yellow perch were sampled. Bioaccumulated Cd also varied from lake to lake, more so for the bivalve than for the yellow perch; the [Cd]{sub max}/[Cd]{sub min} ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein

  4. Una nueva especie del género Hoplopleura Enderlein, 1904 (Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae parásita de Andinomys edax (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    González, A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors described a new species Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. based on specimens collected on Andinomys edax Thomas, l902, from Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy province, Argentina. Descriptions involve the holotype female; three nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs and sites of oviposition, providing differences with its close relative Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, l916 and Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, l921. Comments on distribution of these species on their hosts are presented and they are included in the “erratica” group.Describimos en esta contribución a Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n., a partir de la hembra, sus tres estadios ninfales y las características coriónicas externas del huevo de la referida especie parásita de Andinomys edax Thomas, 1902 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, capturado en Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy, Argentina. Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. es afín a Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, 1916 y de Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, 1921, integrando junto a estas especies el grupo “erratica”.

  5. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  6. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 945 specimens bearing names of 931 species-group taxa of Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) as of August 2013. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 905 holotypes, 16 lectotypes, 8 syntypes (48 specimens), and 2 neotypes. In addition, we include 44 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and ten of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these suborders A lectotype for Mus peruvianus Peale, 1848, is newly designated herein. Nine specimens previously reported were subsequently sent to the vertebrate paleontology collection and are not included here. Suborders and families are ordered as in Carleton and Musser; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  7. Study on Mechanism of Sophora flavescens against hepatitis B virus%苦参抗乙肝病毒的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 索智敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究苦参抗乙型肝炎病毒( HBV)的作用及其作用机理。方法体外培养HepG22.2.15细胞,分别用阴性对照组不加药物干预,阳性对照组(5-Fu组)给予浓度0.77 mmol/L的5-Fu干预,苦参素组予以0.77 mmol/L的苦参素进行干预。以HBSAg、HBeAg抑制率及细胞存活率、凋亡率、细胞周期监测为观察指标,综合评价苦参体外抗2.2.15细胞HBV效果。结果 HBsAg和HBeAg的抑制率,3组相比,差异均有统计学( P均<0.05),HBsAg和HBeAg的抑制率,阳性对照组与苦参素组相比,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);阳性对照组与阴性对照组相比,细胞存活率差异无统计学意义,苦参素组与阴性对照组相比,细胞存活率有统计学差异( t=4.25,P<0.05);阴性对照组与阳性对照组相比,细胞凋亡率差异无统计学意义,苦参素组细胞凋亡率高于阴性对照组与阳性对照组( P<0.05);G0/G1期细胞,各组分布无统计学差异, G2/M期细胞,阳性对照组与苦参组均低于阴性对照组( P<0.05),苦参组低于阳性对照组(P<0.05)。 S期细胞阳性对照组与苦参组均高于阴性对照组(P<0.05),苦参组高于阳性对照组(P<0.05)。结论苦参有明显抗HBV作用,能诱导细胞凋亡,将细胞增殖阻滞于S期。%Objective To study on Sophora flavescens against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its mechanism.Methods HepG2.2.15 cells were cultured in vitro, respectively with the negative control group without drug intervention, positive control group (5-Fu group) which was given 0.77 mmol/L 5-Fu, Matrine group treated with 0.77 mmol/L Matrine intervention.HBSAg, HBeAg inhibition rate and cell survival rate, apoptosis rate, cell cycle as observation indexes, comprehensive evaluation of matrine effect on anti 2.2.15 cell HBV in vitro.Results The positive control group, matrine group compared with the negative

  8. Rodentia and lagomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, S.R.; Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive review examines the extensive literature on wild rodents and lagomorphs as biomonitors of environmental contamination. This chapter covers studies dealing with exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on rodent and lagomorph species, including pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, herbicides, plant growth regulators, fungicides, and rodenticides), other organic chemicals, metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous contaminants. Many research needs become evident when reviewing ecotoxicological data for rodents and lagomorphs, the most striking being the paucity of information on rodent families other than Muridae (mice and rats). While our ability to qualitatively extrapolate effects observed in laboratory studies to field situations is good for a variety of contaminants, quantitative predictions of dose-response relationships are poor because inter-specific variation and differences in exposure patterns between laboratory and wild species to toxicants are for the most part unknown. More sophisticated comparative toxicity studies need to be undertaken that build on previous work in order to develop a database of information, to account for and model differences in exposure pathways, to document interactions among multiple stressors, to generate data establishing thresholds, critical concentrations, and diagnostic guidelines, and even to develop physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. Such efforts may enhance our ability to predict effects on wild populations, including threatened and endangered species.

  9. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Várias estações de piscicultura que trabalham com a produção de alevinos ou peixes ornamentais têm apresentado problemas relacionados à predação de larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos por ninfas de insetos da Ordem Odonata. Dessa forma, objetivou-se fazer um levantamento de espécies de odonatos presentes em tanques de criação de peixes em dois municípios da região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, assim como avaliar o efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 (Odonata: Libellulidae. Durante um período de três meses, foram realizadas coletas quinzenais, sendo os insetos adultos capturados com o auxílio de redes entomológicas e as ninfas, através de peneiras de malha fina, acopladas a cabos de madeira. As ninfas capturadas foram levadas para o laboratório onde foram individualizadas em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 2L, vedadas em sua extremidade superior com filó. Logo após a emergência dos adultos, esses foram mortos, acondicionados em envelopes e enviados para serem identificados. Os experimentos laboratoriais foram conduzidos em sala climatizada à 25 ± 2°C, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. flavescens foram individualmente acondicionadas em caixas de isopor contendo cada uma 500mL de água livre de cloro e, estando essas no terceiro, quinto e sétimo ínstares, foram tratadas com B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, através do produto microbiano Vectobac®, em formulação granulada. O produto foi aplicado diretamente na água do recipiente de criação, em concentração indicada para o controle de larvas de culicídeos, duas concentrações superiores e duas inferiores a essa, além da testemunha, na qual não se aplicou o produto. As avaliações foram realizadas a 24, 48 e 72 horas após a aplicação do produto, registrando-se o número de insetos mortos em cada tratamento. Em ambos os experimentos, as ninfas

  10. Mites (Acari: Laelapidae associated with sigmodontinae rodents in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

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    Abba Agustín M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The richness, diversity, abundance and prevalence of mite species associated with sigmodontine rodents of different species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina are studied. Five of the six species of mites were reported for the first time in the study area. The richness and diversity of mites was higher on Oligoryzomys flavescens and O. delticola than on Akodon azarae. Androlaelaps rotundus was dominant and exhibited higher values of mean abundance and prevalence on A. azarae, Mysolaelaps microspinosus on O. flavescens and Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis on O. delticola.

  11. 苦参毛状根的诱导培养及氧化苦参碱含量的测定%Induction of Hairy Roots and Determination of Oxymatrine in Sophora flavescens Ait.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春秋; 赵雪

    2014-01-01

    本文主要利用三种发根农杆菌 A4、15834、R1601诱导苦参产生毛状根,初步为建立苦参的毛状根培养体系提供参考。本实验采用共培养法,考察了不同外植体、菌种、培养时间对苦参毛状根诱导率的影响,并对苦参毛状根中氧化苦参碱进行初步的含量测定。研究结果表明,苦参毛状根的最佳诱导条件是以生长1周的苦参幼芽为外植体,R1601为菌株,添加100μmol/l 的乙酰丁香酮,侵染20 min,(25±1)℃暗处诱导,最终测定诱导率最高为27.6%,存活率为45.8%,而苦参毛状根中氧化苦参碱的富集量为1.68mg/g(苦参毛状根干重),未检测到苦参碱。%n this paper,hairy root of Sophora flavescens Ait.were induced by the infection of third Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834,R1601,A4 and an in vitro culture system of the hairy roots was newly established.Hairy roots were induced by co -culture.Effects of explants, Agrobacterium rhizogenes,culture time on growth of hairy root were studied and Determination of Oxymatrine in Sophora flavescens Ait.The research shows that the highest induction frequency was obtained from young shoot with one week which were induced by R1601 for 10mins ,and increase of 100 μmol /L acetosyringone. The transformation frequency was 27.6%,annual survival rate was 45.8%. Hairy roots of Oxymatrine enrichment amount 1.68mg/g ,Total matrine content was not determined.

  12. Functional differentiation of trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch in the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch the ground during terrestrial locomotion, the influence of a horizontal branch on limb function has never been explored. To determine the functional differences between trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch, X-ray motion analysis and force measurements were carried out in two European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). The differences observed between trailing and leading forelimbs were minimal during terrestrial locomotion, where both limbs fulfill two functions and go through a shock-absorbing phase followed by a generating phase. During locomotion on a horizontal branch, European red squirrels reduce speed and all substrate reaction forces transmitted may be due to the reduction of vertical oscillation of the center of mass. Further adjustments during locomotion on a horizontal branch differ significantly between trailing and leading forelimbs and include limb flexion, lead intervals, limb protraction and vertical displacement of the scapular pivot. Consequently, trailing and leading forelimbs perform different functions. Trailing forelimbs function primarily as shock-absorbing elements, whereas leading forelimbs are characterized by a high level of stiffness. This functional differentiation indicates that European red squirrels 'test' the substrate for stability with the trailing forelimb, while the leading forelimb responds to or counteracts swinging or snapping branches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Predation of Dragonfly, Pantala flavescens Fabricius, on the Alates of the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren%蜻蜓捕食婚飞红火蚁的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑基焕; 张润杰

    2007-01-01

    报道了黄蜻(Pantala flavescens Fabricius)对婚飞红火蚁的捕食作用.蜻蜓聚集在婚飞红火蚁的蚁巢上方捕食婚飞红火蚁,平均17只∕巢.次,最多40只蜻蜓同时出现于一个婚飞的蚁巢上方.距离地面5 m以下,蜻蜓对婚飞红火蚁的捕食率平均为85.66%,捕食行为主要发生在距离地面3 m以下.捕到婚飞蚁后,蜻蜓立即取食其腹部,丢弃其余部分.蜻蜓这种捕食行为与红火蚁的婚飞同时出现在降雨天气之后的1~2 d内.

  14. 探针药物法评价苦参对大鼠细胞色素P450 2E1代谢活性的影响%Evaluation on effect of Sophora flavescens roots on metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 in rats by probe drug method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦建杰; 李芹; 刘洁; 汪云; 李家男; 惠洋洋; 娄建石

    2012-01-01

    目的 以氯唑沙宗作为探针药物,研究苦参对大鼠细胞色素P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1)体内代谢活性的影响.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、苦参组、苯巴比妥阳性对照组.苦参组大鼠ig给予苦参颗粒(100 mg/kg)溶液,对照组ig给予等体积的生理盐水,阳性对照组ip苯巴比妥注射液50 mg/kg,各组均每日给药1次,连续5d.第6天各组大鼠尾iv氯唑沙宗(5 mg/kg)溶液,于给药前及给药后不同时间点眼内眦静脉取血0.8 mL,HPLC法测定氯唑沙宗血药浓度.结果 与对照组相比,苦参组给予苦参5d后,氯唑沙宗的AUC和Cmax明显降低(P<0.05、0.01),CL明显升高(P<0.05);而苦参组的主要药动学参数与苯巴比妥组比较无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 苦参可明显诱导大鼠CYP 2E1的体内代谢活性,其作用强度与苯巴比妥相当.%To study the effect of Sophora flavescens roots on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) in rats with chlorzoxazone as probe drug. Methods The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, S.flavescens roots group, and phenobarbital group. S. flavescens roots granule and normal saline were ig administrated with a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 5 d to rats in S. flavescens roots and control groups, respectively. Sodium phenobarbital injection (50 mg/kg) was ip administered once daily for 5 d. On the day 6, the tails of all the rats in each group were iv injected with chlorzoxazone (5 mg/kg), then venous blood samples from rat's eye canthus were collected at a set of time-points before and after the administration. The plasma concentration of chlorzoxazone was determined by HPLC. Results In S. flavescens roots group, AUC and Cmax of chlorzoxazone were significantly lower (P 0.05). Conclusion S. flavescens roots could significantly induce the metabolic activity of CYP 2E1 in rats in vivo and the strength of the induction corresponds to that of phenobarbital.

  15. Hábitos alimenticios de la ardilla Sciurus variegatoides (Rodentia: Sciuridae en la Península de Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los componentes de la dieta de la ardilla Sciurus variegatoides atrirufus en un área agrícola de la Península de Nicoya, Costa Rica (9º47’ N, 84º56’ W, correspondiente a las zonas de vida Bosque Húmedo Premontano Transición a Basal y Bosque Seco Tropical. Al analizar el contenido estomacal de 120 ardillas, entre febrero de 1987 y enero de 1988, se determinó que los alimentos más importantes fueron el coco (Cocos nucifera, el almendro (Terminalia catappa y el malinche (Delonix regia. Hubo diferencias en el tipo de alimento según la edad. Los adultos consumieron más el coco y los jóvenes el almendro, lo cual se explica por las características del fruto, así como por la arquitectura y acceso al árbol; el almendro aporta mejores condiciones de protección y un recurso alimenticio más accesible, por lo que fue mejor aprovechado por los individuos jóvenes.Feeding habits of the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides (Rodentia: Sciuridae in the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Food items consumed by the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides atrirufus were determined in an agricultural setting in the Nicoya Península (9º47’ N, 84º56’ W, Costa Rica, where two life zones (Premontane Moist Forest Basal Belt Transition, and Tropical Dry Forest predominate. By analyzing the gut contents of 120 squirrels, from February 1987 through January 1988, it was determined that coconut (Cocos nucifera, indian almond (Terminalia catappa and flamboyant (Delonix regia were the most common dietary items. There were differences in food consumption according to age: adults preferred coconut, whereas young individuals preferred almond. This finding can be explained in terms of fruit characteristics, as well as tree architecture and accessibility for squirrels; almendro trees provide higher protection and a more accessible food resource, so that it was better used by young individuals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 681-686. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  16. Identification of three Iranian species of the genus Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae using a PCR-RFLP technique on mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    safieh Akbary rad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three species of the genus Rattus Fisher, 1803 have been reported from Iran: the brown rat (R. norvegicus, the black rat (R. rattus and the Himalayan rat (R. pyctoris. The first two were introduced, whilst R. pyctoris is native and lives in mountainous regions from Pakistan to north-eastern Iran. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA from twenty six rats were analysed using a PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism method to investigate inter-specific variation. Part of the 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes were amplified and digested with three restriction enzymes: AluI, MboI and HinfI. Restriction fragments resulted in four different haplotypes and allowed to distinguish the three Rattus species. Our results suggest that the Himalayan rats are more closely related to R. rattus than to R. norvegicus and provide the basics for further phylogenetic studies. Riassunto Identificazione di tre specie iraniane del genere Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae tramite PCR-RFLP su DNA mitocondriale. Tre specie del genere Rattus risultano diffuse in Iran: il surmolotto (R. norvegicus, il ratto nero (R. rattus e il ratto himalayano (R. pyctoris. Le prime due specie sono state introdotte, mentre R. pyctoris è presente nelle aree montane che si sviluppano dal Pakistan all’Iran nordorientale. In questo studio, il DNA mitocondriale di 26 individui è stato analizzato tramite PCR-RFLP per evidenziare variazioni inter-specifiche. Parte dei geni del rRNA 16S e del citocromo b è stata amplificata e quindi sottoposta a digestione tramite tre diversi enzimi: AluI, MboI e HinfI. I frammenti di restrizione hanno permesso di individuare quattro aplotipi mitocondriali e di distinguere le tre specie. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono che il ratto

  17. MAMÍFEROS PEQUEÑOS EN LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA TYTO ALBA (STRIGIFORMES: TYTONIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DEL OCCIDENTE DE ECUADOR, CON AMPLIACIÓN DISTRIBUCIONAL DE ICHTHYOMYS HYDROBATES (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE BRITO M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio a partir de 107 egagrópilas de la lechuza, determinamos el consumo de 300 presas agrupadas en 21 especies, las egagrópilas fueron colectadas en dos localidades de diferente ambiente Los Santiagos y La Ciénaga, en las provincias de Chimborazo y Manabí, al occidente de Ecuador. Nuestros análisis revelaron una dieta compuesta mayoritariamente de mamíferos pequeños, sobre todo roedores, quienes constituyeron el 80%. Entre las presas más abundantes se encontró a Oligoryzomys sp. que representó el 38.7% de la dieta en las muestras de Los Santiagos y Sigmodon peruanus 33.6% en La Ciénaga, siendo el 22,5% y 41% respectivamente de la biomasa total consumida para cada sitio. La rata cangrejera Ichthyomys hydrobates es reportada por primera vez en la dieta de la lechuza y también en la localidad de Los Santiagos, ampliando el rango distribucional de este roedor para el centro-sur al occidente de Ecuador en aproximadamente 200 km.

  18. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  19. Separation and Determination of Two Alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens by Electrostacking - Sweeping - MEKC%电堆积在线扫集胶束电动色谱法测定苦参中的生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 胡大春; 高文燕; 李彦青; 孔红星

    2011-01-01

    A new method of electrostacking - sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of two alkaloids, matrine and sophoridine, in sophora flavescens. The determination conditions including pH value, concentration of NaHl2PO4 and CTAB,injection time and voltage were optimized. A best separation of two alkaloids was obtained on an uncoated fused silica capillary column(60 cm x 50 μm, effective length 47 cm) by using a buffer of 20 mmol/L NaH2PO4 -0. 8 mmol/L CTAB -100 mmol/L Tris (containing 10% isopropanol) at pH 8. 9 and a constant temperature of 25 C. The UV detection wavelength was set at 211 nm. The applied voltage, separation voltage and injection time were -10 kV, -20 kV and 480 s, respectively.Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 46 - 736 μg/L for matrine and 50 - 792 μg/L for sophoridine with their detection limits( S/N = 3 ) of 2. 41 g/L and 1.11 μg/L, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the ranges of 93% - 109% and 89% 103% , respectively, with RSDs less than 5%. Compared with the sweeping - MEKC method, the electrostacking - sweeping - MEKC method raised the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. The method showed high separation efficiency and good sensitivity, and was applied in the simultaneous separation and determination of two alkaloids in sophora flavescens with satisfactory results.%建立了电堆积在线扫集胶束电动色谱法测定苦参碱和槐定碱的新方法.考察了pH值、磷酸二氢钠浓度、CTAB浓度、电压、有机溶剂和进样时间对分离效果的影响.采用未涂层熔融石英毛细管,以20mmol/L磷酸二氢钠-0.8 mmol/L CTAB-100mmol/L Tris(含10%异丙醇,pH 8.9)为缓冲液,在进样电压-10 kV,分离电压-20kV,检测波长211nm,环境温度25℃的条件下,样品达到最佳的分离效果.苦参碱和槐定碱的线性范围分别为46~736、50~792μg/L,检出限(S/N=3)分别为2.41

  20. Variaciones nucleotídicas de dos grupos de tepezcuintles, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, en cautiverio provenientes de dos localidades de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén C Montes-Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos las variaciones nucleotídicas entre dos grupos de tepezcuintles (Agouti paca provenientes de los estados de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México y, dentro de cada grupo. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas de once A. paca mantenidos en cautiverio. El ADN de leucocitos se utilizó para efectuar la amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de ADN (RAPD. Se seleccionaron los iniciadores número tres 5’ -d(GTAGACCCGT-3’ y seis 5’ -d(CCCGTCAGCA-3’ del estuche (Ready.To.Go. RAPD Analysis Beads, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, porque produjeron un adecuado número de bandas. Los patrones electroforéticos de bandas fueron procesados con el software para análisis filogenético basado en el método de UPGMA para estimar la variación nucleotídica. El árbol filogenético obtenido con el iniciador tres reveló una agrupación dicotómica entre los animales de ambos estados de la Península de Yucatán, con un valor de divergencia de 1.983 nucleótidos de cada cien. Los animales de Quintana Roo mostraron un agrupamiento con el iniciador seis y, otro grupo más con animales procedentes de Campeche. La variación nucleotídica entre estos dos grupos fue de 2.118 nucleótidos por cada cien. Las variaciones nucleotídicas dentro de los grupos procedentes de ambos estados, para los dos iniciadores, mostraron valores que fluctuaron entre 0.46 y 1.68 nucleótidos de cada cien, lo cual indica que la variación nucleotídica entre los dos grupos de animales es alrededor de dos nucleótidos por cada cien y, dentro de grupos es menor a 1.7 nucleótidos por cada cien.Nucleotidic variations of two captive groups of tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, from two sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The objective of this work was to estimate the nucleotidic variation between two groups of tepezcuintles (Agouti paca from the states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico and within members of each group. Blood samples were collected from eleven A. paca kept in

  1. Ecología poblacional del ratón Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae en el Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licidia Rojas Rojas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el tamaño poblacional, la proporción de sexos, el peso y el número de adultos e inmaduros de Peromyscus mexicanus en tres sitios, durante 14 meses, en el Parque Nacional volcán Poás, Costa Rica. Se colocaron 30 trampas Sherman en cada sitio, para un estudio de captura-recaptura durante seis días consecutivos de cada mes, desde marzo de 2002 hasta abril de 2003. Se hicieron 2 393 capturas, hallándose en Tierra Fría, además de P. mexicanus, Reithrodontomys creper, R. rodriguezi, Scotinomys teguina y Oryzomys devius (Muridae. En Potrero Grande se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. sumichrasti, S. teguina y O. devius. En Canto de las Aves se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. rodriguezi y O. devius. El 34.77 % del total de ratones capturados fueron P. mexicanus. Se capturaron en promedio 34 individuos por mes por hectárea en Tierra Fría y 11 en Potrero Grande; en Canto de las Aves sólo se capturaron 4 individuos en todo el muestreo. El tamaño estimado de la población de P. mexicanus no varió mensualmente en Tierra Fría, pero si en Potrero Grande. No se observó variación en la proporción de sexos en ninguno de los dos sitios. El valor promedio de peso en Tierra Fría fue de 43.83+1.93 g machos 39.29+2.07 g hembras. En Potrero Grande fue 43.54+3.42 g machos y 42.08+3.45 g hembras. En ninguno de los dos sitios se encontraron diferencias en la cantidad de individuos inmaduros a través del tiempo.Population ecology of the mouse Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae in Poas Volcano National Park, Costa Rica. The Mexican Deer Mouse has been reported as an abundant wild mouse in Costa Rica; nevertheless, it has not been studied as well as other Peromyscus species. Thirty Sherman traps were placed on three habitats during six consecutive days of each month, from March 2002 through April 2003 in three sites of Poás volcano National Park, Costa Rica. A total of 2 393 mice were captured. Other species such as

  2. 苦参内生真菌的分离鉴定及抑菌活性的初步研究%Isolation and identification of an entophytic fungus from Sophora flavescens and its microbiostatic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何璐; 纪明山; 刘娜; 徐洪波; 齐补坤

    2011-01-01

    An entophytic fungus was separated from the fresh seed of Sophora flavescens by using tissue isolation and then identified in terms of morphology and 16S rDNA molecular biology to confirm the strain name. Also its effects on common agricultural pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined. The results showed that the colony of the entophytic fungus separated and purified from the fresh seed is light yellow and has a short-fluff form and a few of radial grooves .its vegetative mycelia are tree-root-shaped,the conidiophore is relatively long with short-rod-like apex,and the conidium is oval.The fungus was identified as Aspergillus terreu. Microbiostatic tests indicated that the strain has a significant inhibiting effect on several agricultural pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and especially on Enterobacter aerogenes and Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Cucumerinum.%采用组织分离法从新鲜苦参种子中分离纯化内生真菌,对分离到的内生真菌进行形态学和16S rDNA分子生物学鉴定,以确定菌株名称;并通过测定该菌株对常见植物致病菌的作用,确定其抑菌特性.结果表明:1株内生真菌从新鲜苦参种子中分离纯化出来,其菌落呈浅黄色,短绒毛状,有少量放射状沟纹;营养菌丝为树根状,有隔,分生孢子梗较长;分生孢子梗顶端短棒状,孢子椭圆;1 6S rDNA分子鉴定后,确认其为土曲霉(Aspergillus terreu Thom),命名该菌株为BS001.抑菌试验结果表明:该菌株对多种植物致病真菌和细菌有显著的抑制作用,其中对产气肠细菌和黄瓜枯萎病菌抑制效果最佳.

  3. Avaliação da eficácia dos tratamentos com a associação de Sulfadiazina, Pirimetamina e Ácido folínico (SPAF), Azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua L. e Espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Idessania Nazareth da

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficácia dos tratamentos com sulfadiazina, pirimetamina e ácido folínico (SPAF) associados, azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua e espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Fêmeas de C. callosus foram oralmente infectadas com 20 cistos de Toxoplasma gondii (cepa ME-49) no dia de detecção da rolha vaginal (primeiro dia de gestação). O tratamento com azitromicina, inf...

  4. Seasonal effects on the hematology and blood plasma proteins of two species of mice Mus musculus domesticus and M. spretus (Rodentia: Muridae from Portugal

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    António Mira

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were taken from Mus musculus domesticus (Rutty, 1772 and M. spretus (Lataste, 1883, live-trapped at one month intervals, from September 88 to July 89, in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The seasonal hematological variations in the commensal species, M. musculus domesticus, were characterized by an increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values in winter which reverse during summer. On the contrary, in M. spretus hematocrit values slightly change throughout the year. In both species the albumin/globulin ratio was low in spring and high in autumn. These results were analysed and discussed taking into account environmental factors and physiological conditions of mice. Riassunto Effetti stagionali sull'ematologia e le proteine del plasma di Mus musculus domesticus e M. spretus (Rodentia: Muridae in Portogallo - I campioni di sangue provengono da individui di Mus musculus domesticus (Rutty, 1772 e M. spretus (Lataste, 1883. Gli animali sono stati catturati vivi ogni mese, da settembre 88 a luglio 89, nel distretto di Lisbona, in Portogallo. Le variazioni stagionali ematologiche nella specie commensale, M. m. domesticus, sono caratterizzate da un incremento di cellule rosse del sangue, di emoglobina e dei valori di ematocrito in inverno che assumono un andamento opposto in estate. Al contrario, in M. spretus i valori di ematocrito non cambiano sensibilmente durante tutto l'anno. In entrambe le specie il rapporto albumina/globulina risulta basso in primavera e alto in autunno. Questi risultati sono stati analizzati e discussi tenendo conto dei fattori ambientali e le condizioni fisiologiche dei topi.

  5. Evidence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents captured in a rural area of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Evidência de infecção por hantavírus em roedores silvestres capturados em uma área rural do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Elba Regina S. de Lemos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the etiological agents of the Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome, a serious rodent-borne disease in Brazil. In order to investigate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents, a survey was conducted in three different suburban areas of the municipality of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 145 wild animals captured belonging to 12 different species identified by morphology and karyological analysis, 107 were rodents of the following species: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Myocastor coypus. Blood samples from these rodents were assayed for the presence of antibodies against hantavirus by IgG ELISA using Andes recombinant nucleocapsid antigen. Antibody reactive to Andes virus was found in two different species, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. These results indicate a potential risk for hantavirus transmission to humans in this area, where reservoir rodents are present in peridomestic settings.Hantavírus é o agente etiológico da síndrome cardio-pulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH, uma importante doença transmitida por roedores no Brasil. Com o objetivo de se conhecer a ocorrência de infecção por hantavírus em pequenos roedores silvestres, uma análise sorológica foi conduzida em três diferentes áreas do subúrbio da cidade de Pedreira, São Paulo. Dos 145 animais silvestres capturados, pertecentes a 12 diferentes espécies identificadas por morfologia e por análise cariológica, 107 eram roedores das seguintes espécies: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, e Myocastor coypus. Amostras de sangue desses roedores foram testadas para a presença de anticorpos IgG contra o antígeno do nucleocapsídeo do vírus Andes através do teste ELISA. Reatividade sorológica ao vírus Andes foi observada em duas espécies diferentes, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. Estes resultados

  6. 十二烷基苯磺酸钠-异辛烷-正辛醇反胶束萃取苦参生物碱的研究%Extraction of Alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait by Reverse Micelle of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate/Isooctane/n-Octanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小琴; 范华均; 佘旭辉; 张来凤; 王李平

    2012-01-01

    利用阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)与溶剂异辛烷和助溶剂正辛醇形成反胶束体系,用于苦参生物碱的萃取分离.研究了pH值、表面活性剂浓度、增溶水量W0、盐种类及浓度等因素对萃取的影响.结果表明:SDBS-异辛烷-正辛醇反胶束体系对苦参生物碱具有良好的选择性和较高萃取率,在pH 5.0,增溶水量W0 25,0.05 mol/L SDBS,0.05 mol/L KCl,室温,萃取时间5 min,反萃取时间20 min的最佳萃取条件下,氧化苦参碱、氧化槐果碱、槐定碱、苦参碱、槐果碱5种生物碱及总生物碱的萃取率和RSD分别在74.1%~87.2%和0.63%~3.0%之间.本方法选择性高,操作简便.%A method of reverse micelle extraction of alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait has been developed using the reverse micelle system of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS)/isooctane/ n-octanol. The experimental conditions such as pH, water content Wo, extraction time and temperature, the concentration of surfactant and salts were optimized. With the help of high performance liquid chromatography, the results showed that the reverse micelle formed by SDBS, isooctane and n-octanol can more effectively extract alkaloids than others. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5. 0, 25 of water content Wo, 0. 05 mol/L of SDBS concentration, 0. 05 mol/L of KC1 concentration, 5 min of forward-extraction time and 20 min of backward-extraction time at room temperature. The method has been applied to separate and purify alkaloids from the extract by water with pressurized microwave-assisted extraction. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yields of oxymatrine, n-oxysophocarpine, sophoridine, matrine, sophocarpine and total alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait were between 74. 1% and 87. 2%, RSDs of their reproducibility were from 0. 6% to 3. 0%. The method is higher selectivity, and easy to operate.

  7. 电堆集-场放大进样非水毛细管电泳法测定苦参中的三种生物碱%Determination of Three Alkaloids in Sophora flavescens by Nonaqueous Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrostacking-Field-Amplified Sample Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 孙科; 吴美艳; 罗应; 胡大春; 邓春燕; 李彦青

    2013-01-01

    建立了电堆集-场放大进样非水毛细管电泳法分离测定苦参中的槐定碱、苦参碱和氧化苦参碱.采用未涂层熔融石英毛细管(50 cm×50 μm i.d.,有效柱长36 cm),紫外检测波长为209 nm,运行缓冲溶液为50 mmol/L乙酸铵-20%乙腈-0.75%乙酸-55%甲醇,分离电压20 kV,电动进样20 kV、15s,重力进水柱时间20 s时达到最佳的分离效果.在优化条件下,上述三种生物碱均在15 min内出峰,峰面积的相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%.检出限分别达到2.02 μg/L、1.32 μg/L和1.01 μg/L.%An electrostacking-field-amplified sample injection ( FASI ) method was used for the simultaneous separation and determination of sophoridine, matrine and oxymatrine in Sophora flavescens. The result indicated that a best separation of the three alkaloids was obtained on a uncoated fused silica capillary column (50 cm × 50 μm i. d., effective length 36 cm) by using the background electrolyte containing 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate, 20% acetonitrile( by volume), 0. 75% acetic acid (by volume) and 55% methanoKby volume). The detection wavelength was set at 209 nm, separation voltage was 20 kV,sample injection voltage was 20 kV and injection time was 15 s,and injection time of water was 20 s. Under the optimum conditions,the three alkaloids were separated within 15 minutes with the relative standard deviations of peak areas less than 5%. The detection limits (S/N =3) of sophoridine,matrine and oxymatrine were 2. 02 μg/L,l. 32 μg/L and 1. 01 μg/L, respectively.

  8. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina

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    Olga V Suárez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests

  9. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  10. A new karyotype of Calomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    Lima J. Fernando de S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 is widely distributed within South America, being found in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Specimens of Calomys were collected in Formoso do Araguaia, Tocantins, Brazil. For chromosome characterization standard staining techniques and as G-banding and nucleolar organizer region were used. The karyotype was 2n=46 and AN=66. The X chromosome is a medium metacentric and the Y chromosome a small acrocentric chromosome. Chromosome homologies with other species were observed. Probably, karyotype differences were basically due to Robertsonian rearrangements.

  11. Karyotype composition of some rodents and marsupials from Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brasil

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    LG. Pereira

    Full Text Available The Chapada Diamantina (CD is located in Bahia State, between 11-14° S and 41-43° W, being part of the Serra do Espinhaço. The occurrence of different habitats and transition areas permits an interesting mammal fauna composition, with species from different biomes living in sympatry. Species of Didelphimorphia and Rodentia are important members of mammal communities in almost all different habitats, and morphological and cytogenetic characters are important for a correct identification of most of these species. In this work 258 specimens of small mammals from the orders Didelphimorphia (six genera and six species and Rodentia (two families, five Sigmodontinae tribes, nine genera and 11 species were collected during the whole field work (44 nights with traps. Chromosome preparations were obtained from 145 specimens from the species: Marmosops incanus, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis domestica, Akodon aff. cursor, Necromys lasiurus, Cerradomys sp., Oligoryzomys fornesi, O. nigripes, O. rupestris, Calomys expulsus, Rhipidomys macrurus, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinus and Thrichomys inermis. Didelphis albiventris, Micoureus demerarae, Thylamys karymii and Nectomys sp. were identified by morphological characters. Most analyzed specimens do not show karyotype variation. However, numerical chromosomic variation was found in two individuals of Akodon aff. cursor (2n = 15 and in one individual of Cerradomys sp. (2n = 51. Structural variation in karyotype was observed in seven individuals of Cerradomys sp., showing one additional pair of metacentric chromosomes.

  12. Absorption characteristic of total alkaloids from Sophora flavescens and their monomers in Caco-2 cell model%苦参总生物碱及其单体在Caco-2细胞模型的吸收特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 冯志强; 陈孝健; 谢智勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定Caco-2细胞模型中苦参碱、氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱的HPLC方法,探讨苦参总生物碱在Caco-2细胞模型的吸收机制.方法 利用人源结肠腺癌细胞系Caco-2细胞单层模型,研究苦参碱、氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱由细胞绒毛膜面供给侧(AP)→基底外侧(BL)和BL→AP侧两个方向的转运过程;HPLC-UV法测定上述3个生物碱的量;计算转运参数和表观渗透系数(Papp).结果 苦参总碱给药后,苦参碱、氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱由AP→BL侧的Papp分别为(1.098±0.092)×10-5、(1.434±0.098)×10-5、(3.87±0.64)×10-6cm/s,由BL→AP侧的Papp分别为(1.104±0.098)×10-5、(1.034±0.079)×10-5、(2.75±0.33)×10-6 cm/s,与文献报道的单体化合物给药相比,氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱双向转运的Papp明显增大.苦参碱、氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱的表观渗透率值分别为1.01、0.72、0.71.结论 苦参总生物碱中苦参碱、氧化槐果碱和氧化苦参碱仍主要以被动吸收方式进入体内,但比各单体给药吸收更好.%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of matrine (M), oxysophocarpine (OSP), and oxymatrine (OM), and to investigate the absorption mechanism of the total alkaloids from Sophora flavescens (TASF) in Caco-2 cell model. Methods By using Caco-2 cell monolayer model as an intestinal epithelial cell model, the transport processes of M, OSP, and OM from the apical (AP) side to the basolateral (BL) side or from BL side to AP side were studied. The contents of the three alkaloids were measured by HPLC-UV method. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were then calculated. Results After TASF treatment, the Rvalues of M, OSP, and OM were (1.098 ±0.092) * 10-5, (1.434 ±0.098) x 10-5, and (3.87 ± 0.64) x 10-6cm/sfrom APside to BL side, and (1.104 ± 0.098) x 10~5, (1.034 ± 0. 079) x l(T5, and (2.75 ± 0.33) x 10~6cm/sfrom BLside to AP

  13. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  14. Spatial patterns in Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verheyen, Walter; Verhagen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    in periods without reproduction, indicated a high degree of dispersal. Resident animals had a limited home range with most movements within 30 m of the burrow; however, excursions and movements over large distances were observed. Animals living on the border of maize fields and fallow land are active in both...

  15. First report of partial albinism in genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae

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    Antonio Carlos da S.A. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports about albinism in rodents are common. In the family Echimyidae, however, albinism is very rare. This is the second case of coat color variation reported within Echimyidae and the first for the genus Thrichomys. The pelages of Thrichomys pachyurus individuals with normal and variant coat color were observed under a fluorescent artificial light and were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. The descriptions of pelage color were based on the book "Color Standards and Color Nomenclature". The predominantly white pattern of coat color in individuals of T. pachyurus suggests a partial albinism caused by delay in migration time of melanoblasts from neural crest to epidermis. The habitat of T. pachyurus has a heavy vegetative cover, which offers natural protection against predators and high-quality nutrition.

  16. Chromosomal evolution in small mammals (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia

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    Jan Zima

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extensive descriptive, comparative, and experimental research on the chromosomes of natural populations of small mammals has been conducted in the last 50 years. These studies have revealed a surprisingly large amount of karyotypic variation within and between individuals, populations, species, and higher taxa. In the Palaearctic region, the karyotypes of 80 to 90% of the species of insectivores, bats and rodents have already been described, and almost all European species belonging to these orders have been examined. More than 40 cryptic species of small mammals with a unique karyotype have been described in the Palaearctic region, including 24 species in Europe. A polymorphic or polytypic karyotype was found in 118 Palaearctic and 42 European species. This high degree of intraspecific karyotypic variation has resulted in problems in the naming of various chromosomal races, since the subspecies is clearly not the appropriate category for this purpose. The driving forces of karyotypic evolution may be found either in selection or drift acting at the organismal level, or in the internal processes occurring within the cell. The forces acting at the organismal level are based on either negative heterosis of chromosomal rearrangements or on the altered pattern of gene expression resulting from karyotypic repatterning. Little evidence for the direct adaptive nature of chromosomal alterations has been presented up to now and the significance of this factor remains unclear. Chromosomal change is, however, obviously correlated with speciation and divergent evolution, even if karyotypic alterations in certain lineages need not be directly related to the formation of a reproductive barrier. Chromosomal studies are still an important tool to record and describe biological diversity, and often represent a simple and indispensable method for identification of various taxa.

  17. RAPD analysis of Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae populations

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    Almeida Francisca C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to assess genetic distance and the genetic structure of populations of Nectomys squamipes, a semiaquatic rodent species distributed along watercourses. DNA samples of five populations were analyzed using three primers, producing 45 scorable bands, 31 of which were polymorphic. There was a significant differentiation among populations [F ST = 0.17; phiST = 0.14 (P < 0.004] but gene flow (Nm = 1.25 was sufficient to overcome genetic drift effects. No fixed specific markers were found for any population. The Mantel's test and UPGMA cluster analysis showed a lack of relationship between genetic and geographic distances. The apparent homogeneity indicated by RAPD markers coincided with morphometric data, despite the wide geographic range of N. squamipes. Alternative hypotheses for explaining our results include recurrent processes of local extinction and recolonization or a recent and sudden increase in the geographic distribution of this species.

  18. Pericentric satellite DNA and molecular phylogeny in Acomys (Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, B; Traut, W; Garagna, S; Weichenhan, D; Redi, C A; Winking, H

    1999-01-01

    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) of four Acomys species (spiny-mice), A. cahirinus, A. cineraceus, A. dimidiatus and A. russatus, belong to closely related sequence families. Monomer sizes range from 338 to 364 bp. Between-species sequence identity was from 81.0% to 97.2%. The molecular phylogeny of the sequences helps to clarify the taxonomy of this 'difficult' group. The A. dimidiatus genome contains about 60000 repeats. According to the restriction patterns, repeats are arranged in tandem. The stDNA maps to the centromeric heterochromatin of most autosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric, but appears to be absent in the centromeric region of Y chromosomes. A well-conserved centromere protein B (CENP-B) box is present in the stDNA of A. russatus while it is degenerated in the other species.

  19. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  20. Children's Attitudes towards Animals: Evidence from the RODENTIA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Franco, Nuno H.; Brosseron, Francis; Tavares, Fernando; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Borlido-Santos, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The instructional use of animals is a popular strategy to engage students with science, enhance their motivation, and promote values such as respect, tolerance, and empathy for all living beings. Although these beneficial outcomes are widely acknowledged, research has not provided reliable indicators of their efficiency. Therefore, it is essential…

  1. Mesoamerican tree squirrels evolution (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Federico; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    The tribe Sciurini comprehends the genera Sciurus, Syntheosiurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus and Rheinthrosciurus. The phylogenetic relationships within Sciurus have been only partially done, and the relationship between Mesoamerican species remains unsolved. The phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican tree squirrels were examined using molecular data. Sequence data publicly available (12S, 16S, CYTB mitochondrial genes and IRBP nuclear gene) and cytochrome B gene sequences of four previously not sampled Mesoamerican Sciurus species were analyzed under a Bayesian multispecies coalescence model. Phylogenetic analysis of the multilocus data set showed the neotropical tree squirrels as a monophyletic clade. The genus Sciurus was paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Microsciurus species (M. alfari and M. flaviventer). The South American species S. aestuans and S. stramineus showed a sister taxa relationship. Single locus analysis based on the most compact and complete data set (i.e. CYTB gene sequences), supported the monophyly of the South American species and recovered a Mesoamerican clade including S. aureogaster, S. granatensis and S. variegatoides. These results corroborated previous findings based on cladistic analysis of cranial and post-cranial characters. Our data support a close relationship between Mesoamerican Sciurus species and a sister relationship with South American species, and corroborates previous findings in relation to the polyphyly of Microsciurus and Syntheosciurus paraphyly.

  2. Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): a geometric morphometric approach.

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    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Alvarez-Sierra, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera.

  3. Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia: a geometric morphometric approach.

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    Ana Rosa Gómez Cano

    Full Text Available Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera.

  4. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

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    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  5. Late Pleistocene echimyid rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from northern Brazil.

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    Ferreira, Thais M F; Olivares, Adriana Itati; Kerber, Leonardo; Dutra, Rodrigo P; Avilla, Leonardo S

    2016-06-07

    Echimyidae (spiny rats, tree rats and the coypu) is the most diverse family of extant South American hystricognath rodents (caviomorphs). Today, they live in tropical forests (Amazonian, coastal and Andean forests), occasionally in more open xeric habitats in the Cerrado and Caatinga of northern South America, and open areas across the southern portion of the continent (Myocastor). The Quaternary fossil record of this family remains poorly studied. Here, we describe the fossil echimyids found in karst deposits from southern Tocantins, northern Brazil. The analyzed specimens are assigned to Thrichomys sp., Makalata cf. didelphoides and Proechimys sp. This is the first time that a fossil of Makalata is reported. The Pleistocene record of echimyids from this area is represented by fragmentary remains, which hinders their determination at specific levels. The data reported here contributes to the understanding of the ancient diversity of rodents of this region, evidenced until now in other groups, such as the artiodactyls, cingulates, carnivores, marsupials, and squamate reptiles.

  6. Late Pleistocene echimyid rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi from northern Brazil

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    THAIS M.F. FERREIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Echimyidae (spiny rats, tree rats and the coypu is the most diverse family of extant South American hystricognath rodents (caviomorphs. Today, they live in tropical forests (Amazonian, coastal and Andean forests, occasionally in more open xeric habitats in the Cerrado and Caatinga of northern South America, and open areas across the southern portion of the continent (Myocastor. The Quaternary fossil record of this family remains poorly studied. Here, we describe the fossil echimyids found in karst deposits from southern Tocantins, northern Brazil. The analyzed specimens are assigned to Thrichomys sp., Makalata cf. didelphoides and Proechimys sp. This is the first time that a fossil of Makalata is reported. The Pleistocene record of echimyids from this area is represented by fragmentary remains, which hinders their determination at specific levels. The data reported here contributes to the understanding of the ancient diversity of rodents of this region, evidenced until now in other groups, such as the artiodactyls, cingulates, carnivores, marsupials, and squamate reptiles.

  7. Micromammals (Insectivora; Rodentia of "Valle dell'Inferno" (Rome / Micromammiferi (Insectivora; Rodentia della Valle dell'Inferno (Roma

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    Roberto Federici

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A research on micromammals in the area of "Valle dell'Inferno" (in the north-west of Rome was carried out. The study was based on a previous phytosociological survey which describes a Quercus suber population in the valley (a once larger residua1 of a roman cork-tree wood which is now included in the town. Specimens from Rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Pitymys savii and Insectivores (Crocidura suaveolens, Erinaceus europaeus were captured by live traps. Most of Insectivores specimens are represented by C. suaveolens. Generally C. suaveolens lives in sympatry with C. leucodon but no specimens of the latter were found in this area. Three different kinds of landscape are present in the "Inferno" valley, namely, the wood, the meadow, and the bottom valley (with high anthropic impact; we have compared these three landscapes with biotic indexes (index of faunistic affinity, index of biocoenotic affinity and index of environmental evaluation. We have also compared through the same indexes, the micromammal fauna of the "Inferno" valley with six other differently polluted localities in Latium, where animals were captured with the same live traps. This area retains its natura1 environment in despite of the high anthropic impact. Riassunto È stato effettuato uno studio sulla micromammalofauna terrestre della Valle dell'Inferno situata a nord-ovest di Roma. Lo studio è basato su una precedente indagine fitosociologica effettuata per la caratterizzazione vegetazionale di una sughereta un tempo molto estesa ed ora racchiusa nell'abitato cittadino. È stato pertanto possibile tracciare, tramite gli indici biotici, una correlazione tra microteriocenosi ed effetti dell'impatto antropico.

  8. Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Ninhos do esquilo brasileiro Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Cibele A. Alvarenga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. In this study, a survey was made of the distribution of S. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the Serra do Caraça Reserve, in state of Minas Gerais, where there is a high concentration of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. The nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.Não existe na literatura a descrição de ninhos de Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901. Neste estudo, foi examinada a distribuição espacial de ninhos desta espécie, localizados em área de vegetação de crescimento secundário, próxima a área construída da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, onde há grande concentração da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman, entre outras espécies exóticas de árvores. O comportamento de construção e as características dos ninhos, tais como, altura em relação ao solo, circunferência total, diâmetro da entrada e a posição dos ninhos na árvore foram descritos.

  9. The influence of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria Forest ecotones, southern Brazil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34, Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872, Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814 and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829 - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847 and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818 -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.

  10. Rodent diversity and habitat use in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina Diversidad y uso del hábitat por roedores en un área protegida de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Isabel E. Gómez-Villafañe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use of rodents is associated to environmental variables, species requirements and biological interactions. The aim of this study was to analyse the macro and microhabitat use and spatial variation in the abundance of small wild rodents that inhabit Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina. We studied the rodent communities in 6 habitats: riparian forest, Celtis tala forest, lowland grassland, salt marsh and 2 highland grasslands. We captured a total of 153 individual of Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae, Oxymycterus rufus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Deltamys kempi and O. nigripes, with a trapping effort of 3636 trap-nights. The species richness is maintained by the presence of different habitats that satisfy specific requirements from specialist and generalist species, using differentially the reserve and forming communities of different specific composition in each habitat. A differential macrohabitat use was observed by all species, and a certain level of selectivity at microhabitat scale was observed in individuals of 2 species. This study shows that the diversity of environments in the Otamendi Natural Reserve, which allows the maintenance of many wild species of small rodents; confirming the high ecological and conservational value of the reserves inside an urban region.El uso del habitat de los roedores está asociado a variables ambientales, requerimientos específicos e interacciones biológicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el uso del macro y microhábitat y la variación espacial en la abundancia de pequeños roedores que habitan la Reserva Natural Otamendi, Argentina. Estudiamos la comunidad de roedores en 6 ambientes: bosque ribereño, talares, pastizales bajos, pastizal salino y 2 pastizales altos. Capturamos 153 individuos de Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae, Oxymycterus rufus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Deltamys kempi y O. nigripes, con un esfuerzo de 3 636 trampas-noche. La riqueza de especies se mantiene

  11. Fluctuations in the population of yellow perch, Perca flavescens(Mitchill), in Saginaw Bay Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarka, Salah El-Din

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY: The value of a line of traps as a measure of relative abundance of small mammals was studied by field trials on Peromyscus leucopus populations. Comparisons were made between the numbers of mice captured by a line of live traps and the numbers captured in intensive live trapping of a larger area surrounding the line. Trials were made in bottomland woods where mice were numerous and in upland woods where mice were less common. It was found that wood mice living in upland woods had significantly larger cruising ranges than those living in bottomland woods. Consequently, a line of traps in the bottomlands captured mice from a smaller surrounding territory than in the uplands. Therefore, comparisons of relative size of the mouse population in these two areas on the basis of line-trapping showed an erroneously large number for the upland woods. As a result of these trials and the studies of other workers, it is concluded that lines of traps are not fully reliable means of measuring relative abundance of small mammals.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES INVOLVED WITH GROWTH AND IMMUNITY IN THE YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most vertebrates, growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth, metabolism and immunity. In yellow perch, GH does not appear to stimulate growth which suggests a condition of GH insensitivity. Furthermore, females grow faster and larger than males and estrogen preferentially stimulates this growth. T...

  13. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) mercury unaffected by wildland fires in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte E. Riggs; Randall K. Kolka; Edward A. Nater; Emma L. Witt; Trent R. Wickman; Laurel G. Woodruff; Jason T. Butcher

    2017-01-01

    Wildland fire can alter mercury (Hg) cycling on land and in adjacent aquatic environments. In addition to enhancing local atmospheric Hg redeposition, fire can influence terrestrial movement of Hg and other elements into lakes via runoff from burned upland soil. However, the impact of fire on water quality and the accumulation of Hg in fish remain equivocal. We...

  14. Residue depletion of albendazole and its metabolites in aquacultured yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Evans, E R; Hasbrouck, N; Reimschuessel, R; Shaikh, B

    2012-12-01

    Metabolism and residue depletion studies are conducted to determine the marker residue (MR) of a drug in a target tissue of food animals. The MR is used to monitor potential unauthorized use of drugs. The current work is a continuation of our efforts to study metabolism and depletion profiles of albendazole in multiple finfish species to determine a common MR. The results of this study suggest that albendazole sulfone metabolite could potentially serve as MR for albendazole in yellow perch muscle, similar to channel catfish and hybrid striped bass as reported previously by us.

  15. Reproductive health of yellow perch Perca flavescens in selected tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer, Vicki S., E-mail: Vblazer@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkeny@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Jenkins, Jill A., E-mail: jenkinsj@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R., E-mail: Liwanowicz@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Minkkinen, Steven, E-mail: steve_minkkinen@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O., E-mail: daler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 (United States); Uphoff, James H., E-mail: juphoff@dnr.state.md.us [Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Service, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, 904 South Morris Street, Oxford, MD 21654 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has been noted for a number of years in certain urbanized watersheds (South and Severn Rivers) of the Chesapeake Bay. Other rapidly developing watersheds such as Mattawoman Creek are more recently showing evidence of reduced recruitment of anadromous fishes. In this study, we used a battery of biomarkers to better document the reproductive health of adult yellow perch collected during spring spawning in 2007–2009. Perch were collected in the South and Severn Rivers, Mattawoman Creek and the less developed Choptank and Allen's Fresh watersheds for comparison. Gonadosomatic indices, plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, plasma vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were evaluated in mature perch of both sexes. In addition, sperm quantity (cell counts) and quality (total and progressive motility, spermatogenic stage and DNA integrity), were measured in male perch. Many of these biomarkers varied annually and spatially, with some interesting statistical results and trends. Male perch from the Choptank and Allen's Fresh had generally higher sperm counts. In 2008 counts were significantly lower in the perch from the Severn when compared to other sites. The major microscopic gonadal abnormality in males was the proliferation of putative Leydig cells, observed in testes from Severn and less commonly, Mattawoman Creek perch. Observations that could significantly impact egg viability were an apparent lack of final maturation, abnormal yolk and thin, irregular zona pellucida. These were observed primarily in ovaries from Severn, South and less commonly Mattawoman Creek perch. The potential association of these observations with urbanization, impervious surface and chemical contaminants is discussed. - Highlights: ► Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has occurred in urban tributaries of Chesapeake Bay. ► We compared reproductive health biomarkers in perch from two urban, one developing, two less developed watersheds. ► Lack of final maturation, abnormal yolk and zona pellucida were noted in females. ► Leydig cell proliferation was noted in males.

  16. Reproductive health of yellow perch Perca flavescens in selected tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Minkkinen, Steven; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Uphoff, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has been noted for a number of years in certain urbanized watersheds (South and Severn Rivers) of the Chesapeake Bay. Other rapidly developing watersheds such as Mattawoman Creek are more recently showing evidence of reduced recruitment of anadromous fishes. In this study, we used a battery of biomarkers to better document the reproductive health of adult yellow perch collected during spring spawning in 2007–2009. Perch were collected in the South and Severn Rivers, Mattawoman Creek and the less developed Choptank and Allen's Fresh watersheds for comparison. Gonadosomatic indices, plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, plasma vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were evaluated in mature perch of both sexes. In addition, sperm quantity (cell counts) and quality (total and progressive motility, spermatogenic stage and DNA integrity), were measured in male perch. Many of these biomarkers varied annually and spatially, with some interesting statistical results and trends. Male perch from the Choptank and Allen's Fresh had generally higher sperm counts. In 2008 counts were significantly lower in the perch from the Severn when compared to other sites. The major microscopic gonadal abnormality in males was the proliferation of putative Leydig cells, observed in testes from Severn and less commonly, Mattawoman Creek perch. Observations that could significantly impact egg viability were an apparent lack of final maturation, abnormal yolk and thin, irregular zona pellucida. These were observed primarily in ovaries from Severn, South and less commonly Mattawoman Creek perch. The potential association of these observations with urbanization, impervious surface and chemical contaminants is discussed.

  17. Environmental Variables Associated with Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Small Rodent Species in Two National Parks in the Paraná Delta, Argentina: Implications for Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, María Victoria; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by hantaviruses hosted in various rodents species. In Argentina, its transmission to humans has been associated to exposure during activities such as farming, recreation, and tourism which are carried out in wild and rural areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the macro- and micro-habitat use and spatio-temporal variation of small sylvan rodents in Pre Delta and Islas de Santa Fe national parks, located in an HPS-endemic area of Argentina. Rodent communities were studied at six sites: two islands, a riparian forest, an inland forest, a marsh, and the margins of a pond. A total of 453 individuals of five species were captured with a trapping effort of 9471 trap-nights. Maximum species richness was found at the marsh and the pond margin sites. Abundance of rodents was influenced by flooding events. Two hantavirus reservoirs, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Akodon azarae, were identified in the area. O. flavescens was captured in every habitat, but it was dominant in Islas de Santa Fe National Park where its abundance was strongly influenced by flooding. A. azarae was captured in every habitat except on the islands. A. azarae behaved as a generalist species at a micro-habitat scale in every habitat of Pre Delta National Park except for the marsh where it selected patches with low vegetation height. Based on these results, several disease prevention measures, including the use of rodent-proof containers for food, and keeping the grass short in the camp site, are proposed in order to reduce the risk to visitors and residents of contracting HPS.

  18. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  19. Interrelationship between ectoparasites and wild rodents from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Lareschi, Marcela; Voglino, Damián

    2003-01-01

    Infestation parameters and indices of mites, ticks and fleas associated with wild rodents from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, were studied. Host species similarity was also analyzed in relation to their ectoparasites. Fifty-five rodents were captured from January 2000 to March 2001. In total, 1,022 ectoparasites were collected and three ectoparasite-host associations were new records. However, this is the first study on Craneopsylla minerva wolffhuegeli infesting parameters. Ectoparasite total mean abundance and total prevalence were higher in Holochilus brasiliensis (MA = 47.7; P = 100%) and Scapteromys aquaticus (MA = 25.4; P = 95.4%), meanwhile specific richness and diversity were higher in Oligoryzomys flavescens (S = 6; H = 1.3) and Akodon azarae (S = 4; H = 1.0). On the other hand, the only individual of Calomys laucha was not parasited. S. aquaticus-H. brasiliensis, which preferred similar microhabitats, shared the same ectoparasite species (Css = 100). Whereas, A. azarae, which was mostly associated with grassland, showed the highest difference with the other hosts (Css < 0.4). Considering every ectoparasite species, H. brasiliensis showed the highest mean abundance, prevalence and preference. The results suggest that the particular characteristics of this rodent would give it better possibilities not only of being infested by ectoparasites, but also of transmitting them to its progeny.

  20. Interrelationship between ectoparasites and wild rodents from northeastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

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    Santiago Nava

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestation parameters and indices of mites, ticks and fleas associated with wild rodents from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, were studied. Host species similarity was also analyzed in relation to their ectoparasites. Fifty-five rodents were captured from January 2000 to March 2001. In total, 1,022 ectoparasites were collected and three ectoparasite-host associations were new records. However, this is the first study on Craneopsylla minerva wolffhuegeli infesting parameters. Ectoparasite total mean abundance and total prevalence were higher in Holochilus brasiliensis (MA = 47.7; P = 100% and Scapteromys aquaticus (MA = 25.4; P = 95.4%, meanwhile specific richness and diversity were higher in Oligoryzomys flavescens (S = 6; H = 1.3 and Akodon azarae (S = 4; H = 1.0. On the other hand, the only individual of Calomys laucha was not parasited. S. aquaticus-H. brasiliensis, which preferred similar microhabitats, shared the same ectoparasite species (Css = 100. Whereas, A. azarae, which was mostly associated with grassland, showed the highest difference with the other hosts (Css < 0.4. Considering every ectoparasite species, H. brasiliensis showed the highest mean abundance, prevalence and preference. The results suggest that the particular characteristics of this rodent would give it better possibilities not only of being infested by ectoparasites, but also of transmitting them to its progeny.

  1. Comportamentos e atividade diária de Sciurus ingrami (Thomas em cativeiro (Rodentia, Sciuridae Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcelo Bordignon

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during winter and spring. However, more time was spent feeding during autum and summer and was reduced the displacement in autum. Two types of breeding behaviour were identified: sexual trailing and mating chase of females by males. However copulatori behaviour was not recorded during the studied period. We also verified that S. ingrami presents thermorregulation behaviour during winter, remaining resting in the nest to conserve energy in heath maintenance. During the hottest seasons, the squirrels remain resting out of the nest, placed on the branchs to decrease their body heat to normal temperature, The behaviours observed in this study were similar to those described in the literature, as well as the mating behaviour, which was very similar to S. carolinensis.

  2. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an association with the XY bivalent. In 70 % of spermatocytes studied, the XY bivalent showed complete pairing between X and Y, with SC formation along the whole length of the Y chromosome. The remaining 30 % showed partial pairing, with an SC length which varied from the common end. Based on these findings and those of previous studies, we discuss: 1.- that the obliged configuration of the trivalent, with SC formation between the short arms of 1a and 1b, helps to assure a quasi normal segregation between 1, 1a and 1b in anaphase I of Ht meiosis; and 2.- that co-existence in trivalents of chromosomes 1, 1a and 1b in Ht individuals, breaks down the structural and functional integrity of the short arms of 1a and 1b, producing an accumulative damage which would also explain the decreased viability of individuals bearing these chromosomesAkodon molinae con 2n = 42-43-44 y FN = 44 presenta un notable polimorfismo en el cromosoma 1 en poblaciones naturales y de laboratorio, los individuos 2n = 42 tienen un par 1 formado por dos cromosomas metacéntricos grandes y son denominados homocigotos simples (SH; los individuos 2n = 43, heterocigotos (Ht, presentan un cromosoma 1 y dos cromosomas subtelocéntricos de tamaño medio 1a and 1b, que son homólogos con los brazos largo y corto del 1, respectivamente; y los individuos 2n = 44 que son los doble homocigotos (DH y presentan dos pares de cromosomas subtelocéntricos 1a y 1b. Análisis de la metafases I y II meióticas han demostrado que se producen segregaciones anómalas con una alta frecuencia en los espermatocitos portadores de los cromosomas 1a and 1b. Ello alteraría a otros procesos, como la gametogénesis, la reproducción y el desarrollo, disminuyendo la viabilidad individual y poblacional de los DH. No ha habido una explicación satisfactoria para estos fenómenos. Para investigar elementos estructurales que pudiesen explicar tales alteraciones segregacionales, se estudió la sinapsis de bivalentes y trivalentes en espermatocitos en paquiteno de ejemplares SH, Ht y DH. De un total de 80 microesparcidos de núcleos de espermatocitos: en 16 núcleos de ejemplares SH se observaron 20 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY; en 48 núcleos de Ht se observaron 19 bivalentes autosómicos, 1 trivalente y un bivalente XY; y en 16 núcleos de DH se observaron 21 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY. Los trivalentes analizados mostraron apareamiento completo entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b conformándose un complejo sinaptonémico (CS aparentemente normal con una longitud entre 1 µm y 2,8 µm. El CS de los trivalentes presentó tres extremos teloméricos correspondientes a los brazos: q1 y q1a, p1 y q1b y p1a y p1b, con placas de inserción a la envoltura nuclear de organización normal. En ninguno de los trivalentes se observó asinapsis o desinapsis entre p1a y p1b, ni asociaciones con el bivalente XY. En el 70 % de los espermatocitos estudiados el bivalente XY mostró apareamiento completo entre X e Y, con formación de CS en toda la longitud del cromosoma Y. El 30 % restante presentó apareamiento parcial con un CS de longitud variable a partir del extremo común. Sobre la base de los resultados de este trabajo y los antecedentes existentes, se discute: 1.- que la configuración obligada del trivalente con formación de CS entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, contribuye a asegurar la segregación cuasi normal entre 1, 1a y 1b en la I anafase de la meiosis de los Ht; y 2.- que la coexistencia en los trivalentes de los cromosomas 1, 1a y 1b en los Ht, erosiona la integridad estructural y funcional de los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, daño que sería acumulativo y que explicaría la viabilidad disminuída de los individuos portadores de estos cromosomas

  3. VARIACIÓN CARIOLÓGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    CAROLINA ARANGO

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels’ fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  4. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Chacón Marcos Nicolás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels' fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  5. Registro nuevo de Neotoma mexicana vulcani (Rodentia: Muridae para México A new record of Neotoma mexicana vulcani (Rodentia: Muridae in Mexico

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    Roberto Vidal-López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la presencia de Neotoma mexicana vulcani en México, subespecie antes considerada como endémica del volcán Tajomulco, Departamento de San Marcos, Guatemala. La identificación se llevó a cabo con base en la revisión de las medidas morfométricas y patrones de coloración de ejemplares recientemente recolectados y registros de bases de datos. Con estos resultados, el área de distribución de la subespecie se amplía hacia México en la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, aproximadamente a 50 km al norte de la localidad anteriormente conocida.We report the presence of Neotoma mexicana vulcani in Mexico; this subspecies has been considered endemic to the Tajomulco volcano, in the Departamento of San Marcos, Guatemala. We identified our specimens using measurements, color patterns of recently colleted specimens, and data base records. Based on our results, the distribution range of this subspecies extends to Mexico, in the Sierra Madre of Chiapas, approximately 50 km north of the previously known locality.

  6. Obsessed with grasses?: The case of mara Dolichotis patagonum(Caviidae: Rodentia ¿Obsesionada con gramíneas?: El caso de mara Dolichotis patagonum (Caviidae: Rodentia

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    MOIRA S. SOMBRA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of mara (Dolichotis patagonum, Zimmeraman 1780 within the limits of Sierra de las Quijadas National Park (San Luis, Argentina is described. Other studies regarding mara’s diet showed that mara, feeds on different species of grasses and shrubs. However, there is controversy regarding the proportions of these items in the diet or whether this proportion varies seasonally. Considering mara’s body size, anatomical features and physiology, we suggest that mara feeds on grasses in a greater proportion than shrubs and forbs. Moreover, giving that in this region precipitation varies considerably between seasons; it is also expected to find a correlation between the diet of mara and seasons. Fecal pellets of mara were collected during four periods including two dry, and two wet seasons. Relative frequency of each item in scats was determined by microhistological analysis. Results support the hypothesis that mara shows preference for grasses, despite they are less available than shrubs and forbs and that this preference remains constant through seasons regardless of the precipitation regime. The characteristics of mara’s diet and the ecological implications of these findings are discussedEn este trabajo se describe la dieta de mara (Dolichotis patagonum Zimmeraman 1780 en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas (San Luis, Argentina. Los estudios realizados sobre su dieta indican que se alimenta de varias especies de gramíneas y arbustos. Sin embargo, existe cierta controversia acerca de la proporción en que se presentan estos ítemes, y si las mismas varían estacionalmente. En base al tamaño corporal de mara, y a sus características anatómicas y fisiológicas se propone que, mara consume una mayor proporción de gramíneas que de otras hierbas no graminiformes y dicotiledóneas en general. Además esperamos una variación estacional de la dieta, correlacionada a una posible variación estacional en los recursos alimentarios asociada a las precipitaciones. Se colectaron muestras de heces correspondientes a cuatro estaciones en el parque, dos estaciones secas y dos lluviosas. Mediante análisis microhistológico se determinó la proporción de cada ítem medido como frecuencia de aparición en las heces. Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de un consumo preferencial de gramíneas por parte de mara. Las gramíneas aparecen en mayor proporción en la dieta a pesar de estar en menor disponibilidad en el hábitat y sin que el régimen de precipitación tenga algún efecto Se discuten las características de la dieta de mara y las implicancias ecológicas relacionadas con esta especie

  7. Evolución de los filotinos (Rodentia, Muridae en los Andes del Sur Evolution of phyllotines (Rodentia, Muridae in the southern Andes

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    ANGEL E SPOTORNO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La tribu Phyllotini es un grupo avanzado de 46 especies endémicas entre los Muridae de América del Sur que, estando adaptado a sus ambientes xéricos, parece haber tenido el Altiplano Sur como área de diferenciación original (Reig 1986. Esta hipótesis es puesta a prueba examinando la distribución geográfica y los datos citogenéticos de 35 especies, incluyendo la descripción de bandas G de Andinomys edax y Euneomys chinchilloides y su comparación con Phyllotis, bandas AgNOR y FISH para ADNr en siete especies, así como datos de electroforesis de proteínas (118 electroalelos en 12 especies y de secuencias del gen para citocromo b en el ADNmt (407 pb en 14 especies. Todos los cariotipos resultaron cromosómicamente distintos, excepto dos en los que no se contó con bandas G. Se encontró una asociación general entre distribución altiplánica de las especies con estados de caracteres ancestrales (cromosomas telocéntricos, 2n altos, posiciones basales en las filogenias basadas en proteínas y secuencias de citocromo b, así como entre distribución no altiplánica y estados derivados. Se documentan aquí distintas combinaciones de brazos cromosómicos tipo Andinomys que se fusionarían para formar cromosomas metacéntricos en Euneomys y Phyllotis, y también una disminución del número de NORes estructurales en Auliscomys respecto de Loxodontomys, rasgos derivados que demuestran una diversificación hacia el sur y otra hacia el norte respectivamente, desde un centro en el Altiplano SurThe tribe Phyllotini is an advanced group of 46 endemic species among the Muridae of South America, that being adapted to its xeric environments, seems to have the Southern Altiplano as its original differentiation area (Reig 1986. This hypothesis is tested by examining the geographic distributions and cytogenetic data from 35 species, including the Andinomys edax and Euneomys chichilloides G band descriptions, its comparison with Phyllotis, AgNOR bands and rDNA FISH in seven species, as well as protein electrophoresis data (118 electro-alleles in 12 species and cytochrome b gen sequences in the mtDNA (407 bp in 14 species. All karyotypes were chromosomically different, except in two cases with unknown G bands. A general association between altiplanic distribution of species with ancestral character states (telocentric chromosomes, high 2n, basal positions in phylogenies based on protein and cytochrome b gene sequences was found, as well as between non-altiplanic distribution with derived states. Different combinations of Andinomys-like chromosomal arms that would have suffered centric fusions to form the metacentric chromosomes of Euneomys and Phyllotis, respectively, are documented here, and also a reduction of the number of structural NOR in Auliscomys compared to Loxodontomys, all derived features showing a diversification to the south and another to the north respectively, from a center in the southern Altiplano

  8. Metabolic rates and thermoregulatory characteristics of Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae Tasas metabólicas y características termorregulatorias de Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    C. DANIEL ANTINUCHI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the energetic status, activity daily metabolic rate, thermoregulatory capacity and the existence of torpor in Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was similar to the expected value from Kleiber´s, and also according to the BMR of phylogenetically related species. No statistical difference in BMR between sexes was detected. For both males and females, activity daily metabolic rate was 235 % of BMR. Body temperature was not statistically different, neither at different ambient temperatures nor between sexes. In the thermoneutral zone, body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.5 °C. Thermal conductance was lower than the expected for mammals whereas thermoregulatory capacity was 136 % of the expected. Akodon azarae did not show evidence of torporEn este trabajo fueron evaluadas, para Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829, la tasa metabólica basal (BMR y de actividad diaria así como la capacidad termorregulatoria y la posible existencia de torpor. La BMR no presentó diferencias estadísticas con la esperada por la ecuación de Kleiber así como con la esperada para especies filogenéticamente relacionadas. Tampoco fueron detectadas diferencias significativas en la BMR entre sexos. La tasa metabólica de actividad diaria para ambos sexos fue el 235 % de la BMR. La temperatura corporal no presentó variaciones entre individuos mantenidos a diferentes temperaturas ambiente ni tampoco entre sexos y en termoneutralidad fue de 36,1 ± 1,5 °C. Por otra parte, la conductancia térmica fue menor a la esperada mientras que la capacidad termorregulatoria fue el 136% de la esperada. Akodon azarae no presenta sopor

  9. Molecular phylogenies, chromosomes and dispersion in Brazilian akodontines (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae Filogenia molecular, cromossomos e dispersão em akodontinos do Brasil (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    Maria Claudene Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new molecular phylogeny for akodontine rodents from Brazil was proposed. The phylogenetic tree was enriched with the area of occurrence and with information on the karyotype of the samples. Based on this enriched tree, and with a described methodology, hypotheses were proposed on the karyotype and area of occurrence of the ancestors of each Clade. Thus it was possible to discuss hypotheses on chromosome evolution of the group, and on dispersion events from the "area of original differentiation" of akodontines in the Andes. Chromosome evolution started with high diploid numbers (2n=52 and showed a tendency to reduction (until 2n=14 in more recent clades. Independent side-branches of the tree showed 2n reduction and in one case the 2n increased. At least four dispersion events from the Andes down to South-eastern Brazil were proposed. The results should suggest the direction of new studies on comparative karyology.Uma nova filogenia molecular para roedores akodontinos do Brasil é proposta. A árvore filogenética foi enriquecida com a área de ocorrência e com informações sobre o cariótipo das amostras. Baseado nisto, e com a metodologia descrita, foram propostas hipóteses sobre as características do cariótipo e sobre a área de ocorrência dos ancestrais de cada clado. Assim, foi possível discutir hipóteses sobre evolução cromossômica do grupo, e sobre eventos de dispersão a partir da área de diferenciação original dos akodontinos nos Andes. A evolução cromossômica começou com números diplóides altos (2n=52 e mostrou uma tendência a redução (até 2n=14 em clados mais recentes. Ramos independentes da árvore mostraram redução do 2n e num caso aumentou o numero diplóide. Foram propostos pelo menos quatro eventos de dispersão dos Andes até o Brasil Sul-Oriental. Os resultados indicam a direção de novos estudos em cariologia comparada.

  10. Effects of Nest Spacing on Nest Occupation, Mating Success and Mating Behaviour in the Two-spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    I investigated hoe different spacing of breeding sited affects different aspects of mating behaviour in the two-spotted goby. I found that clumped nest spacing affects nest occupations and reproductive success negatively. Clumped nest spacing incresed male agonistic behaviour and led to a higher variance in reproductive success.

  11. Liver pathology of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), infected with larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, B C; Dick, T A

    1984-10-01

    Larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus were found free or encapsulated in the liver of yellow perch. Blood vessels were distorted or destroyed during larval migrations and larvae were eventually encapsulated in a thick-walled whitish nodule. Successful walling-off of the parasite resulted in the formation of a collagenous nodule and a complete loss of the worm. No mortality of perch was associated with larval R. acus but the introduction of susceptible fishes into a lake harboring this parasite may be important in some stocking programs.

  12. Twin screw extrusion processing of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Pe...

  13. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  14. Development of the central nervous system in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae

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    Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study describes the development of the central nervous system in guinea pigs from 12th day post conception (dpc until birth. Totally, 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed macroscopically and by means of light and electron microscopy. The neural tube closure was observed at day 14 and the development of the spinal cord and differentiation of the primitive central nervous system vesicles was on 20th dpc. Histologically, undifferentiated brain tissue was observed as a mass of mesenchymal tissue between 18th and 20th dpc, and at 25th dpc the tissue within the medullary canal had higher density. On day 30 the brain tissue was differentiated on day 30 and the spinal cord filling throughout the spinal canal, period from which it was possible to observe cerebral and cerebellar stratums. At day 45 intumescences were visualized and cerebral hemispheres were divided, with a clear division between white and gray matter in brain and cerebellum. Median sulcus of the dorsal spinal cord and the cauda equina were only evident on day 50. There were no significant structural differences in fetuses of 50 and 60 dpc, and animals at term were all lissencephalic. In conclusion, morphological studies of the nervous system in guinea pig can provide important information for clinical studies in humans, due to its high degree of neurological maturity in relation to its short gestation period, what can provide a good tool for neurological studies.

  15. Age Variations in Microtus guentheri Danford and Alston, 1880 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SÖZEN, Mustafa; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; Nuri YİĞİT

    1999-01-01

    The skull, teeth, phallus and bacula of Microtus guentheri specimens raised in the laboratory were investigated at different stages of postnatal development. The most of the cranial measurements attained those of adults on day 60. There were determined to be some morphological differences between the skulls of young and adult voles. The incisors and the molars began to erupt at 3 and 6 days, respectively. It was shown that there was no difference in respect to the phallic and bacular morpholo...

  16. New Pedetidae (Rodentia: Mammalia from the Mio-Pliocene of Africa

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    Pickford, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedetidae, or springhares, are represented by a single extant genus (Pedetes and five extinct ones (Parapedetes, Megapedetes, Propedetes, Rusingapedetes and Oldrichpedetes of which the latter two are new. The fossil record of pedetids tends to be scanty, but remains have been found in Southern Africa, East Africa, the Maghreb, the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey and Greece. Most of the localities have yielded only a few isolated teeth. We here describe some of the abundant fossil material from Namibia and Kenya, which throws a great deal of light onthe family.

    Los Pedetidae o liebres saltadoras están representados por un solo género actual (Pedetes y 5 extintos (Parapedetes, Megapedetes, Propedetes, Rusigapedetes y Oldrichpedetes, estos dos últimos son nuevos. El registro fósil de los pedétidos es escaso, pero restos fósiles han sido encontrados en Sudáfrica, África del Este, Magreb, Península Arábiga, Turquía y Grecia. La mayoría de las localidades sólo han suministrado unos pocos dientes aislados. En el presente trabajo describimos parte del abundante material fósil procedente de Namibia y Kenia, que arroja nueva luz al conocimiento de la familia.

  17. Karyotypic analysis in species of the genus Dasyprocta (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae found in Brazilian Amazon

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    ROSEMAR S. L. RAMOS

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 animals of the genus Dasyprocta were cytogenetically studied. They belong to the following species: D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 and Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Hystricognathi. Cell suspensions were obtained by peripheral blood culture, besides bone marrow and spleen cells, from D. prymnolopha and D. leporina. The diploid number was 64/65 for all samples. The karyotypes showed similarity, and chromosomal polymorphism was not detected by Giemsa conventional staining and G banding. The constitutive heterochromatin distribution at the pericentromeric region of all the chromosomes was similar in all species. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina and Dasyprocta sp. presented variation in the heterochromatical block size at one of the homologues of the A18 pair. D. fuliginosa presented the heterochromatin uniformly distributed in all chromosomes. There was not variation in the NORs pattern in the species studied.Foram estudados citogeneticamente um total de 30 animais das espécies D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 e Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Histricognathi. As preparações cromossômicas foram obtidas do cultivo de sangue periférico, além de medula óssea e baço em D. prymnolopha e D. leporina. O número diplóide foi de 64/65 em todos os exemplares. O cariótipo mostrou similaridade, não sendo detectado, através de coloração convencional de giemsa e de banda G, polimorfismo cromossômico em qualquer uma das espécies estudadas. A distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva na região pericentromérica de todos os cromossomos foi similar nas quatro espécies. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina e Dasyprocta sp. apresentaram variação no tamanho do bloco heterocromático em um dos homólogos do par A18. D. fuliginosa apresentou a heterocromatina uniformemente distribuída em todos os cromossomos. Não houve variação no padrão das RONs entre as esp��cies estudadas.

  18. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae, southern Brazil

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    André Luis Regolin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females, representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae. In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts.

  19. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F.; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis. PMID:22481879

  20. The role of seed mass on the caching decision by agoutis, Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Agoutidae

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    Mauro Galetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the local extinction of large-bodied frugivores may cause cascading consequences for plant recruitment and overall plant diversity. However, to what extent the resilient mammals can compensate the role of seed dispersal in defaunated sites is poorly understood. Caviomorph rodents, especially Dasyprocta spp., are usually resilient frugivores in hunted forests and their seed caching behavior may be important for many plant species which lack primary dispersers. We compared the effect of the variation in seed mass of six vertebrate-dispersed plant species on the caching decision by the red-rumped agoutis Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 in a land-bridge island of the Atlantic forest, Brazil. We found a strong positive effect of seed mass on seed fate and dispersal distance, but there was a great variation between species. Agoutis never cached seeds smaller than 0.9 g and larger seeds were dispersed for longer distances. Therefore, agoutis can be important seed dispersers of large-seeded species in defaunated forests.

  1. Reproduction, development and growth of Akodon lindberghi (Hershkovitz, 1990 (Rodentia, Muridae, Sigmodontinae raised in captivity

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    V De Conto

    Full Text Available The reproduction, development and growth of Akodon lindberghi were studied in captivity. The colony was derived from animals captured in Simão Pereira, Minas Gerais state, which represents a new area of geographical distribution known for this species. Twelve males and twelve females were crossed, producing 144 young in 53 litters. Post-partum oestrus was observed and gestation length was estimated in 23 days. Litter size ranged from 1 to 4 with a mean of 2.72 (SD = 0.97, n = 53 and modal size of 3. Sexual dimorphism was neither present in body mass at birth nor at weaning. There was a significant negative correlation between litter size and mass at birth or weaning. Permanent emergence of adult external appearance occurred at 15 days. Puberty for males and females was 43 and 42 days, respectively, and the first fecundation event for two females was recorded at 47 and 54 days of age. The weight growth was described by fitting a Gompertz model. No significant difference was found in any parameter of growth curves for males and females. Measurements (head-body, tail, hind foot and internal and external ear lengths obtained for adult individuals also did not reveal the presence of sexual dimorphism.

  2. [Morphological variability of Microtus oeconomus pallas (Rodentia, Rrvicolidae) from Baikal region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, A A; Litvinov, Iu N; Demidovich, P A

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of morphological variability of the ten samples of Microtus oeconomus from islands of Baikal and adjacent regions gas shown, that island samples differ from continental ones by complex of parameters, defining proportions of a skuul, mainly, proportions of an auditory region. Island samples also differ higher indexes of complexity and asymmetry of morphotypes of the third upper molar. An environment of the Baikal islands differ absence of the damp habitats preferred Microtus oeconomus, and also colder microclimate that has caused forming original morphological character of island micropopulations.

  3. Esqueletogênese em punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus- Rodentia, Echimyidae

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    Phelipe O. Favaron

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento do esqueleto do punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 embriões e 12 fetos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, sendo divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o período gestacional. As amostras foram obtidas no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró-RN, Brasil. Após fixados em formol (10% ou glutaraldeído (2,5%, foi realizada a analise morfológica com auxílio de lupa, sendo as características macroscópicas fotodocumentadas. Análises de raios-x e coloração por alizarina red foram realizadas para melhor compreensão do desenvolvimento ósseo. Nas análises de raio-x os embriões não apresentaram nenhuma radiopacidade, ao contrário dos fetos que apresentavam radiopacidade gradual ao longo dos grupos. No grupo II houve aumento de radiopacidade na região da coluna vertebral e das regiões mandibular e maxilar. No grupo III a radiopacidade estava aumentada nos membros pélvicos, nas costelas e na região frontal e no grupo IV nos membros torácicos e nas regiões occipital, temporal e frontal do crânio. Tais características foram confirmadas pelas analises histológicas e pela técnica de Alizarina Red. Com isso podemos concluir que o conhecimento acerca da embriologia do sistema ósseo normal é fundamental para o entendimento dos efeitos adversos causados pela nutrição e uso de drogas durante o desenvolvimento.

  4. Spatial use of rodents (Rodentia: Mammalia host body surface by ectoparasites

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    E. B. BITTENCOURT

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasite and the Amblyopinini beetle fauna associated with four small mammal species of the Atlantic Rainforest of Ilha Grande, an island located off the southern Rio de Janeiro State Coast, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing to what extent the parasites were specific to each region of the host body. During the study, a total of 90 individual rodents were captured: 61 Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911 (Echymyidae, 22 Sciurus aestuans (Thomas, 1901 (Sciuridae, 4 Oxymycterus sp. (Waterhouse, 1837, and 2 Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 (Sigmodontinae. The data showed that the ectoparasites and Amblyopinini on some rodent hosts in Ilha Grande tend to prefer particular host body sites, and that some ectoparasite species sites may overlap owing to their inaccessibility to the host.

  5. Host evolution in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae): An integrative approach using geometric morphometrics and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalis, Aude; Evin, Allowen; Janier, Marc; Koivogui, Lamine; Denys, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The commensal rodent Mastomys natalensis is the natural reservoir of Lassa arenavirus (LASV), which causes hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. To study a possible effect of the virus on phenotypic and genotypic variation of its persistently infected host, we compared LASV-positive and non-infected wild-caught M. natalensis. The LASV effects on the phenotypic variation were explored using standard external morphometric measurements, geometric morphometric analyses of the cranial size and shape, and brain case volume. The genetic variability of M. natalensis specimens was assessed using 9 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Independent of sex and age, LASV-infected animals had smaller external body measurements, reproductive organs, skull size and brain case volume. Cranial shape differences between the 2 groups are represented by a lateral constriction of the entire skull. The genetic variability revealed consanguinity only among the LASV-positive rodents. We hypothesize that growth impairment may result in a selective disadvantage for LASV-infected M. natalensis, leading to a preferably commensal lifestyle in areas where the LAVS is endemic and, thereby, increasing the risk of LASV transmission to humans. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

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    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  7. Re-evaluation of Sinocastor (Rodentia: Castoridae with implications on the origin of modern beavers.

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    Natalia Rybczynski

    Full Text Available The extant beaver, Castor, has played an important role shaping landscapes and ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, yet the origins and early evolution of this lineage remain poorly understood. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach to help re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of a fossil skull from the Late Miocene of China. This specimen was originally considered Sinocastor, and later transferred to Castor. The aim of this study was to determine whether this form is an early member of Castor, or if it represents a lineage outside of Castor. The specimen was compared to 38 specimens of modern Castor (both C. canadensis and C. fiber as well as fossil specimens of C. fiber (Pleistocene, C. californicus (Pliocene and the early castorids Steneofiber eseri (early Miocene. The results show that the specimen falls outside the Castor morphospace and that compared to Castor, Sinocastor possesses a: 1 narrower post-orbital constriction, 2 anteroposteriorly shortened basioccipital depression, 3 shortened incisive foramen, 4 more posteriorly located palatine foramen, 5 longer rostrum, and 6 longer braincase. Also the specimen shows a much shallower basiocciptal depression than what is seen in living Castor, as well as prominently rooted molars. We conclude that Sinocastor is a valid genus. Given the prevalence of apparently primitive traits, Sinocastor might be a near relative of the lineage that gave rise to Castor, implying a possible Asiatic origin for Castor.

  8. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

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    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time.

  9. Accelerated molecular evolution in Microtus (Rodentia) as assessed via complete mitochondrial genome sequences.

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    Triant, Deborah A; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Microtus is one of the most taxonomically diverse mammalian genera, including over 60 extant species. These rodents have evolved rapidly, as the genus originated less than 2 million years ago. If these numbers are taken at face value, then an average of 30 microtine speciation events have occurred every million years. One explanation for the rapid rate of cladogenesis in Microtus could be the karyotypic differentiation exhibited across the genus: diploid numbers range from 17 to 64. Despite the striking chromosomal variability within Microtus, phenotypic variation is unremarkable. To determine whether nucleotide substitution rates are also elevated in voles, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome of the Eurasian sibling vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis). We compared this genome to another previously sequenced vole mtDNA genome (Microtus kikuchii) and performed pairwise sequence comparisons with the mtDNA genomes of ten additional mammalian genera. We found that microtine mtDNA genomes are evolving more rapidly than any other mammalian lineage we sampled, as gauged by the rate of nucleotide substitution across the entire mtDNA genome as well as at each individual protein-coding gene. Additionally, we compared substitution rates within the cytochrome b gene to seven other rodent genera and found that Microtus mtDNA is evolving fastest. The root cause of accelerated evolution in Microtus remains uncertain, but merits further investigation.

  10. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

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    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  11. Isozyme and allozyme markers distinguishing two morphologically similar, medically important Mastomys species (Rodentia: Muridae

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    Van der Bank Herman FH

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two common southern African mice species, Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis, are widely distributed throughout the subregion and overlap in many areas. They also share a high degree of morphological similarity, making them impossible to distinguish in the field at present. These multimammate mice are documented carriers of serious disease vectors causing Lassa fever, plague and encephalomyocarditis, which coupled to their cohabitation with humans in many areas, could pose a significant health risk. A preliminary study reported the presence of isozyme markers at three loci (GPI-2, PT-2, -3 in one population each of M. coucha and M. natalensis. Two additional populations (from the Vaal Dam and Richards Bay were sampled to determine the reliability of these markers, and to seek additional genetic markers. Results Fifteen proteins or enzymes provided interpretable results at a total of 39 loci. Additional fixed allele differences between the species were detected at AAT-1, ADH, EST-1, PGD-1, Hb-1 and -2. Average heterozygosities for M. coucha and M. natalensis were calculated as 0.018 and 0.032 respectively, with a mean genetic distance between the species of 0.26. Conclusions The confirmation of the isozyme and the detection of the additional allozyme markers are important contributions to the identification of these two medical and agricultural pest species.

  12. Karyotypic and molecular polymorphisms in Ctenomys torquatus (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae): taxonomic considerations.

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    Fernandes, Fabiano A; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Ximenes, Simone S F; de Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-07-01

    The rodent genus Ctenomys (tuco-tucos) comprises more than 60 described species, and shows extraordinary inter- and intraspecific karyotypic variation. The most widely distributed species of Ctenomys in Brazil is C. torquatus. Although several cytogenetic studies have been done, the karyotypic variability of this species is still poorly known. In this paper we report two new diploid numbers for C. torquatus: 2n = 40 and 2n = 42, both showing AN = 72. The new distribution limits of C. torquatus here reported include localities in the southern, central and western parts of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State in southern Brazil. The phylogenetic relationship between C. torquatus from Alegrete, RS, and Ctenomys sp. from Corrientes, Argentina, is described by means of mtDNA cytochrome b analysis. Although both entities share similar karyotypes and sperm morphology, these two species are not phylogenetically close.

  13. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

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    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  14. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Bueno Angulo Marta Lucía

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la poca información ecológica, taxonómica o genética sobre las ardillas colombianas, existen problemas
    sistemáticos aun no resueltos (Emmons LH, 1990, lo cual dificulta la reubicación y/o liberación de ejemplares sin procedencia, provenientes del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre. Estudios cariológicos sirven para detectar variaciones intra e interespecíficas por lo que en este trabajo se busco detectar diferencias cariotípicas entre varios fenotipos Sciurus granatensis. La diferenciación genética en conservación, puede ser una herramienta
    útil en la toma de decisiones en los procesos de liberación de ejemplares capturados, dado que la introducción
    de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales, procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping®. Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42, con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81, por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro de uno de los ejemplares. El cromosoma X es submetacéntrico mediano. El cromosoma Y es acrocéntrico, coincidente con lo descrito para Sciurus. No se registró una relación cariotipo-fenotipo. Por lo tanto se puede sugerir que Sciurus granatensis, es un complejo de especies con diferencias cariológicas y morfológicas que no ha sido estudiado a profundidad teniendo en cuenta su amplia distribución geográfica.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of extant zokors (Myospalacinae) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junhu; Ji, Weihong; Wang, Jing; Gleeson, Dianne M; Zhou, Janwei; Hua, Limin; Wei, Yanming

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we use three mitochondrial markers, cytochrome b gene (Cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and control region (D-loop) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of extant zokor species in Mysopalacinae. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on Cyt b strongly supports the monophyly genera Eospalax and Myospalax with E. fontanierii being the most ancient species in Eospalax. Further phylogenetic analyses of four species of Eospalax based on ND4 and D-loop sequences revealed two clades that correspond to two geographical distributions. The basal clade includes E. cansus which is mainly found on Loess Plateau (LP) and another clade including E. baileyi, E. smithii and E. rufescens that inhabits areas above 2000 m on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Qinling Mountains. Geographical events of QTP and LP may have played a major role in the diversification and evolution of Mysopalacinae.

  16. Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 (Nematoda: Heterakidae in Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae in Ica, Peru

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    Rufino Cabrera Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 is redescribed. It is a parasitic heterakid nematoda living in the caecum of murid rodent, Rattus norvegícus "gray rat" from district of Parcona, province of Ica, Peru.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, caviidae in Colombia

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    William Burgos-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  18. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.

  19. Comportamiento agresivo del macho del ratón de los volcanes Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Humberto; Luis, Juana; Agustín CARMONA; Espinosa, Guillermo; Arenas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió el comportamiento agresivo de los machos del ratón de los volcanes, Neotomodon alstoni, con 50 pares de ratones que fueron clasificados como posibles dominantes (O) y subordinados (S) a través del Método de Melzack- Thompson. La agresividad se registró en las combinaciones: O vs. O y S vs. S. Se formaron dos grupos: Grupo 1 con 12 pares de machos O y 13 S, y Grupo Il con JI O y 14 S. En el Grupo I el nivel de agresividad se cuantificó después de una semana de apareamiento y después...

  20. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  1. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  2. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  3. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae in Thailand

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    Chaisiri K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea, from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected. The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  4. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  5. A new form of rodent placentation in the relict species, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia Diatomyidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, A C; Jones, C J P

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Laotian rock rat is a relict species in a sister group relationship to hystricognath rodents (Hystricognathi). We asked whether there were similarities in placentation that might reflect this relationship or differences that might cast light on the evolution of Hystricognathi. M...

  6. Intrageneric phylogeny of Acomys (rodentia, muridae) using mitochondrial gene cytochrome b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barome, P O; Monnerot, M; Gautun, J C

    1998-06-01

    This paper investigates interspecies relationships within the genus Acomys (spiny mice) by analyzing entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1141 bp). This gene provides strong phylogenetic signal, as shown by high support of the topology obtained (bootstrap value and RNA support number). The phylogeny is congruent with inferences from allozymes for the species considered. Controversial taxonomy of Acomys cahirinus, dimidiatus, airensis, and ignitus is clarified, with their specific ranks confirmed on the basis of tree topology and nucleotide distances. Phylogenetic relationship between the undescribed species Acomys sp. from west Africa and A. airensis argue in favor of two distinct colonization events in this zone.

  7. Reproductive biology of Acomys cilicicus Spitzenberger, 1978 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KIVANÇ, Erkut; EYİSON, Hatice MUTLU; KIRALP, Seda; EKİM, Okan

    2014-01-01

    The genus Acomys is represented by 19 species in a vast area in the African and eastern Mediterranean regions. Acomys cilicicus, belonging to the genus Acomys, is an endemic species in Turkey. In this study, by evaluating the reproductive data in laboratory conditions and the natural habitat of A. cilicicus, the reproductive biology of the species was researched in detail for the first time. The data concerning the reproduction of 1404 samples, reproduced from 1 male and 2 females in the labo...

  8. The origin of an unusual sex chromosome constitution in Acomys sp. (Rodentia, Muridae) from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Makundi, Rhodes; Corti, Marco

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a case which presents an evident variation from the "standard" XX/XY sex chromosomal constitution in a rodent, Acomys sp. This species known to be found in three localities of East Africa has only recently been separated from A. spinosissimus, its closest relative. In our study, five specimens of Acomys sp. and eight specimens of A. spinosissimus were live-trapped in five localities. Comparisons between the two taxa assed by G-banding show a complete homology in the chromosomal shape and banding pattern for 29 pairs of chromosomes corresponding to the complete autosomal set of A. spinosissimus. However, while all the A. spinosissimus analysed have 2n = 60 and a XY-XX system, in Acomys sp. males and females constitute mosaics for sex chromosomes in the bone marrow cells. Females (2n = 59, 60) have an excess (97%) of aneuploid cells with one single giant X chromosome, and males (2n = 60, 61) show X0/XY cells occurring in somatic tissues and XY cells in the germinal lineage. In addition, an odd heterochromatic submetacentric chromosome was identified in all the cells examined in two males and a female of Acomys sp. Since this chromosome was not related to sex determination and it is not present in all the analysed specimens, it can be considered as a B chromosome. Finally, the in situ fluorescence hybridisation (FISH) with telomeric probes showed a very intense interstitial telomeric signal (ITS) at the medial part on the long heterochromatic arm of the X chromosome. This could be due to recent chromosomal rearrangement.

  9. Revision of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 (Mammalia, Rodentia distribution in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m. On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.

  10. Species composition and conservation of small mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Lagomorpha, Rodentia in Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDKO NEDYALKOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review on the composition of the small mammals in Vrachanska Planina Mts. was completed using published and author’s data. A total of 27 species occur within the territory. All of the species found are typical for the region. The species with the highest conservation status, the European ground squirrel Spermophilus citellus, disappeared from the region in the early 1950s. In the last years activities on its recovery were carried out. We analyze the threats for the small mammals and propose conservation activities to improve their conservation status.

  11. The comparative gastrointestinal morphology of Jaculus jaculus (Rodentia) and Paraechinus aethiopicus (Erinaceomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniella L; Walters, Jacklynn; Bennett, Nigel C; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Jaculus jaculus (Lesser Egyptian jerboa) and Paraechinus aethiopicus (Desert hedgehog) are small mammals which thrive in desert conditions and are found, among others, in the Arabian Peninsula. Jaculus jaculus is omnivorous while P. aethiopicus is described as being insectivorous. The study aims to describe the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) morphology of these animals which differ in diet and phylogeny. The GITs of J. jaculus (n = 8) and P. aethiopicus (n = 7) were weighed, photographed, and the length, basal surface areas, and luminal surface areas of each of the anatomically distinct gastrointestinal segments were determined. The internal aspects of each area were examined and photographed while representative histological sections of each area were processed to wax and stained using haematoxylin and eosin. Both species had a simple unilocular stomach which was confirmed as wholly glandular on histology sections. Paraechinus aethiopicus had a relatively simple GIT which lacked a caecum. The caecum of J. jaculus was elongated, terminating in a narrow cecal appendix which contained lymphoid tissue on histological examination. The internal aspect of the proximal colon of J. jaculus revealed distinct V-shaped folds. Stomach content analysis of J. jaculus revealed mostly plant and seed material and some insects, whereas P. aethiopicus samples showed plant material in addition to insects, indicating omnivorous feeding tendencies in areas where insects may be scarce.

  12. Records of Coendouichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Coendouichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendouichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension.

  13. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremaine Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights, including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record, discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension.

  14. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  15. VARIACIÓN CARIOLÓGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ARANGO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Nú- mero Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.

  16. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  17. The role of the water voles (Arvicola, Rodentia in the Quatemary

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    Ruiz Bustos, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Arvicolids are rodents which have molars with a morphology formed by a sequence of enamel folds similar to the curve y = sin f(x. The morphology of the crown of the first lower molar (mi of living species of Arvicola (large voles is identified with six criteria, irrespective of tooth size. When rootless arvicolid fossil communities are analysed, it can be seen that the mi morphology of Arvicola is present in those communities represented by specimens of small size at the beginning of the Quaternary. Before this data was known, the presence of Arvicola communities could only be detected in the second half of the Quaternary, when the specimens were comparable to the large size characterising living species. The existence of communities of small-sized Arvicola at the beginning of the Quaternary implies that the mi of Arvicola undergoes a continuous and accelerated growth throughout the entire Quatemary, which allows representatives the genus to be used as a chronological tool. These data mean that it is necessary to change the concept of the genus Allophaiomys and to formulate a new classification to reflect evolutionary relationships of quatemary arvicolids.Los arvicólidos son roedores que tienen la morfología de la corona de los dientes formada por una secuencia de pliegues de esmalte que se asemeja a la curva y=sen f(x. Las especies actuales del género Arvicola cumplen en la morfología del molar mI, seis criterios que son independientes de la talla. El examen de las poblaciones de arvicólidos sin raíz, procedentes del Pleistoceno inferior, indica la existencia de molares con una morfología idéntica a la de los ejemplares vivos de Arvicola, pero con menor talla. La existencia de esta identidad permite proponer la hipótesis de poblaciones primitivas del género Arvicola con pequeña talla durante el Pleistoceno Inferior. Estas han pasado desapercibidas entre las poblaciones de Allophaiomys. a causa de su identidad morfológica entre ambos. La hipótesis de la existencia de Arvicola en el Pleistoceno Inferior supone un profundo cambio en el concepto de Allophaiomys como género y convierte la talla de Arvicola, por su continuo crecimiento durante todo el Pleistoceno, en un útil instrumento cronológico.

  18. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  19. Fatal placental subinvolution in a captive capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Order Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, C; Martínez, L S; Garner, M M

    2005-07-01

    An adult, captive-born female capybara died of systemic thrombosis and hemoperitoneum associated with placental subinvolution. Grossly, the uterus was enlarged, segmentally thickened, and associated with a large blood clot in the abdominal cavity. There was hemometra and a large ovoid mass in each uterine horn weakly adhered to the endometrium, and the right uterine horn wall had a small perforation over the mass. The mesometrial veins were markedly dilated due to thrombosis and occasionally perforated. Histologically, the uterine masses consisted of partly necrotic placental and subplacental tissue. The uterine wall surrounding the masses had full-thickness coagulative necrosis of the myometrium and diffuse endometrial ulceration with abundant syncytiotrophoblast-like cells within capillaries. Vascular lesions in the uterus and mesometrium consisted of mural invasion by cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast-like cells, thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis, and/or heterophilic vasculitis. This is the first report of placental subinvolution in capybaras or any rodent species, to the authors' knowledge.

  20. Morphology of the tongue and characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

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    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the tongue, its extrinsic muscles, and the characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca. We used fifteen specimens from the Wild Animals Sector of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. In this species, the tongue is divided into three regions: root, body, and apex. The latter is delimited by the lingual frenum, which has the aspect of fibrous membrane. We also identified a median groove and a prominence on its dorsal surface. The extrinsic tongue muscles are the styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and milohyoid, the latter two are inserted into the hyoid apparatus. As for the presence of lingual papillae, we observed five papillae types in all specimens: filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate, and conic. The filiform papillae are distributed throughout the apex surface and tongue body. They are caudally inclined throughout the body, until they are modified in the root region and form the conic papillae. The fungiform papillae are distributed in a large amount on the lingual apex, between the filiform papillae. This papilla type has a mushroom-like shape. Only two vallate papillae are located in the caudal portion of the lingual root, and they have an oval shape and are surrounded by a deep groove. The foliate papillae are observed in parallel grooves or slots located in the lateral portion of the tongue, between the vallate papillae and half of the intermolar prominence. In the tongue root, body, and apex we observed keratinized squamous stratified epithelium lining both the lingual papillae and the surface between them.

  1. Morphologic characterization of Peromyscus schmidlyi (Rodentia: Cricetidae), an endemic of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celia López-González; Diego F. García-Mendoza; Miguel M. Correa-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    .... We compared and contrasted P. schmidlyi with P. boylii rowleyi and P. spicilegus, morphologically similar and partially sympatric species, and reevaluated the distribution of the 3 species in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of Mexico. P...

  2. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension. PMID:26175605

  3. Studies on Rift Valley fever in some African murids (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, R; Blackburn, N K; Efstratiou, S; Condy, J B

    1978-04-01

    Brains, spleens and livers of 2214 murids, 27 shrews and 7 dormice, trapped at 7 sites in Rhodesia, were tested in 277 pools for the presence of Rift Valley Fever virus. There were no isolations of Rift Valley Fever, but 69 isolations of an unidentified virus were obtained. Sixteen out of 867 sera had low-titre haemagglutination-inhibition activity against Rift Valley Fever antigen, but only one out of 1260 sera had neutralizing antibody. The evidence suggests that murids fail to encounter infection in nature and are unlikely to play a role in circulation and dissemination of Rift Valley Fever virus. Four out of seven widely distributed species of muried, Rhabdomys pumilio, Saccostomys campestris, Aethomys chrysophilus and Lemniscomys griselda, were shown to be capable of circulating amounts of virus likely to be infective for mosquitoes.

  4. Chromosomal and molecular characterization of Aethomys kaiseri from Zambia and Aethomys chrysophilus from Tanzania (Rodentia, Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco; Colangelo, Paolo; Annesi, Flavia; Capanna, Ernesto; Verheyen, Walter; Sichilima, Alfred Matafwali; Makundi, Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Aethomys is a common and widespread rodent genus in the African savannas and grasslands. However, its systematics and taxonomy are still unclear as no study has covered the entire range. In fact it might not be a monophyletic genus and perhaps should be split into two subgenera, Micaelamys and Aethomys. In this paper, we present findings based on the cytogenetics and the entire cytochrome b sequence of two species from Zambia (A. kaiseri) and Tanzania (A. chrysophilus), and we compare them with the sequences of a South African species (A. namaquensis) and other allied muroid genera. Comparison of the banded chromosomes revealed complete G-band homology between the autosomes of the two species. However, the X and Y chromosomes clearly differ in size and in C- and G-banding, being much larger in A. kaiseri. Comparison of the cytochrome b sequences places the separation between A. kaiseri and A. chrysophilus at 4.49 Mya, a period of intense speciation in other African muroids. The resulting phylogeny strongly supports the idea of a paraphyletic group, suggesting the need to elevate the previously described subgenera to the genus rank.

  5. Population dynamics of the rat Microryzomys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae in the Venezuelan Andes

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    Daniel R Cabello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of the small forest rice rat Microryzomys minutus, a murid rodent that occurs in the high altitudes of the northern and central Andes, was studied in disturbed and primary environments in a cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes (Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, 8º11’N, 71º49’W. We collected 121 animals (66♀♀ and 55♂♂ between 1995 and 1998, using pitfall traps with formalin. Adult males were heavier than adult females. Relative abundance was much greater in the disturbed environments (over 10 individuals in some periods than in the primary cloud forest: 4-8 individuals. In the disturbed environments, the rats were extremely abundant in the first sampling period, and less frequent afterwards. In the cropland, abundance showed some fluctuations during the study and displayed two small abundance peaks in March-June 1997 and 1998. In the mined area, the rats had irregular fluctuations until March-June 1997 and were not recorded in July-October 1997. The occurrence of this rat in both disturbed and natural habitats confirms the wide ecological tolerance of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 651-. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se analizó la dinámica poblacional de las pequeñas ratas silvestres del arroz Microryzomys minutus en ambientes alterados y primarios, en un bosque nublado de los Andes venezolanos. El estudio fue basado en 121 animales (66♀♀ y 55♂♂ recolectados entre 1995 y 1998, usando trampas que contenían formalina. Esta especie está presente en ambos hábitats lo que confirma su amplia tolerancia ecológica. La abundancia poblacional fue mayor en ambientes alterados que en los no alterados. M. minutus presenta dimorfismo sexual en el peso: los machos son más pesados que las hembras.

  6. A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909 (Rodentia, Echimyidae from Central Brazil

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    Alexandra M. R. Bezerra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, C. laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of C. laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12 and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15 with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus.

  7. Homomorphic sex chromosomes and the intriguing Y chromosome of Ctenomys rodent species (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Foresti, Fausto; Gallardo, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the X chromosome, the mammalian Y chromosome undergoes evolutionary decay resulting in small size. This sex chromosomal heteromorphism, observed in most species of the fossorial rodent Ctenomys, contrasts with the medium-sized, homomorphic acrocentric sex chromosomes of closely related C. maulinus and C. sp. To characterize the sequence composition of these chromosomes, fluorescent banding, self-genomic in situ hybridization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an X painting probe were performed on mitotic and meiotic plates. High molecular homology between the sex chromosomes was detected on mitotic material as well as on meiotic plates immunodetected with anti-SYCP3 and anti-γH2AX. The Y chromosome is euchromatic, poor in repetitive sequences and differs from the X by the loss of a block of pericentromeric chromatin. Inferred from the G-banding pattern, an inversion and the concomitant prevention of recombination in a large asynaptic region seems to be crucial for meiotic X chromosome inactivation. These peculiar findings together with the homomorphism of Ctenomys sex chromosomes are discussed in the light of the regular purge that counteracts Muller's ratchet and the probable mechanisms accounting for their origin and molecular homology.

  8. Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from Spalacidae and Muridae (Rodentia) from eastern Palearctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-03-01

    Previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens from spalacid and murid (Murinae) rodents. Hymenolepis rymzhanovi sp. nov. from the Siberian zokor, Myospalax myospalax (Laxmann), from East Kazakhstan, and H. apodemi sp. nov. from Eurasian field mice, Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas), A. uralensis (Pallas) and A. agrarius (Pallas), from the south of Russian Far East, western Siberia and south-eastern Kazakhstan are characterized. The new species differ from other species of the genus by the morphology of the scolex, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the relative position and arrangement of the testes. Differential criteria of species of Hymenolepis (sensu stricto) are also discussed.

  9. Cryptic speciation and chromosomal repatterning in the South African climbing mice Dendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emanuela; Taylor, Peter J; Rautenbach, Anita; Ropiquet, Anne; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the intra- and interspecific diversity in the four South African rodent species of the genus Dendromus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis on twenty-three individuals have been conducted on a combined dataset of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Moreover, the extent and processes underlying chromosomal variation, have been investigated on three species by mean of G-, C-bands, NORs and Zoo-FISH analysis. The molecular analysis shows the presence of six monophyletic lineages corresponding to D. mesomelas, D. mystacalis and four lineages within D. cfr. melanotis with high divergence values (ranges: 10.6% - 18.3%) that raises the question of the possible presence of cryptic species. The first description of the karyotype for D. mesomelas and D. mystacalis and C- and G- banding for one lineage of D. cfr. melanotis are reported highlighting an extended karyotype reorganization in the genus. Furthermore, the G-banding and Zoo-FISH evidenced an autosome-sex chromosome translocation characterizing all the species and our timing estimates this mutation date back 7.4 mya (Late Miocene). Finally, the molecular clock suggests that cladogenesis took place since the end of Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene, probably due to ecological factors, isolation in refugia followed by differential adaptation to the mesic or dry habitat.

  10. Karyotypic variation in the Andean rodent Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Novillo, Agustina; Ojeda, Agustina; Rodriguez, Daniela; Cuello, Pablo; Ojeda, Ricardo; Dardo Martí; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) is an Andean rodent endemic to South America. Despite its wide geographical distribution in Argentina, few individuals have been studied on the cytogenetic level and only through conventional staining. In this work, chromosome characterization of Argentine samples of this species was performed using solid staining, C-banding and base-specific fluorochromes. Twenty two specimens were analyzed, collected in the provinces of Jujuy, Catamarca, and the north and south of Mendoza. All studied specimens showed 2n=38, having mostly the bi-armed autosomes, metacentric or submetacentric. Fundamental Number varied between 70 and 72. These changes were due to the presence of chromosome heteromorphisms in individuals from southern Mendoza and Jujuy. C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in most chromosomes. Acrocentric chromosomes involved in heteromorphisms showed high variation in the amount of heterochromatin within and among populations. Additionally, banding with fluorochromes (DAPI and chromomycin A3) revealed homologous localization of AT and GC rich regions among chromosomes of the different populations analyzed. Comparisons among heteromorphic pairs suggested, however, that the variation might be the result of complex chromosome rearrangements, involving possibly amplifications and/or deletions of heterochromatic segments. These results are in accordance with molecular studies that indicate genetic variability within and among the populations of this taxon.

  11. Seasonal changes in body composition of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae): an herbivore subterranean rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Juana C; López Mañanes, Alejandra A; Busch, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent whose burrow systems exhibit particular characteristics, distinct from other subterranean environments. We studied seasonal variation in body composition of C. talarum in relation to energetic requirements. Body lipid content seasonally changed in C. talarum, related to reproductive cycle and thermorregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in protein body content was found only in spring. Ash content of females was lowest when most of them are in post partum estro. Observed variations in water body content could be associated with plant water content and/or metabolic regulation. Our results show the occurrence of seasonal variations in body composition in C. talarum, which could be related to the high cost of reproduction and the subterranean life style of this species.

  12. First Miocene rodent from Lebanon provides the 'missing link' between Asian and African gundis (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Maksoud, Sibelle; Azar, Dany

    2015-08-07

    Ctenodactylinae (gundis) is a clade of rodents that experienced, in Miocene time, their greatest diversification and widest distribution. They expanded from the Far East, their area of origin, to Africa, which they entered from what would become the Arabian Peninsula. Questions concerning the origin of African Ctenodactylinae persist essentially because of a poor fossil record from the Miocene of Afro-Arabia. However, recent excavations in the Late Miocene of Lebanon have yielded a key taxon for our understanding of these issues. Proafricanomys libanensis nov. gen. nov. sp. shares a variety of dental characters with both the most primitive and derived members of the subfamily. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that this species is the sister taxon to a clade encompassing all but one of the African ctenodactylines, plus a southern European species of obvious African extraction. As such, Proafricanomys provides the 'missing link' between the Asian and African gundis.

  13. Chromosomal variation in Argentine populations of Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; García, Gabriela Verónica; Ferro, Juan Martín; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes. A total of 31 specimens from five localities of Misiones Province, in Argentina, were analyzed. The 2n=24 chromosomes was the most frequently observed karyotype. However, five individuals presented 25 chromosomes due to a supernumerary B-chromosome; and one individual had 2n=26 due to one B plus a trisomy for chromosome 11. Additionally, two XY females and two variants of the X chromosomes were found. C-positive centromeric bands occurred in all chromosomes; additional C-bands were observed in some autosomes, the X, Y and B chromosomes. Ag-NORs were observed in five autosomes, and the B chromosome was frequently marked. Fluorochrome banding was similar among karyotypes of the analyzed populations. Comparisons of cytogenetic data among populations of Argentina and Brazil showed the presence of high intraspecific variability in Akodon montensis and some differences among regions.

  14. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Pablo; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Lanzone, Cecilia; Malleret, Matias Maximiliano; O’Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24) and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52) both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54) of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19) provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups. PMID:26642204

  15. Chromosomal and C-heterochromatin Characterization of Arvicanthis niloticus (Rodentia: Murinae in Egypt

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    Mahmoud I. Shoulkamy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and C-banding pattern of the unstriped grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus from four localities in Egypt are presented. All individuals karyotyped, as a rule, have the same diploid number of 2n = 62 and autosomal Fundamental Number of aFN = 62. In addition, all chromosomes have a large centromeric block of fairly uniform size. However, an additional interstitial or telomeric small C-band is scored in some chromosomes. Nevertheless, frequent heteromorphism in the morphology and heterochromatin content of both the homologous chromosomes of the pair No. 1 and the X chromosome are scored in some individuals from the four localities and led to an aFN = 63. Accordingly, four forms or cytotypes, namely ANI-1a, ANI-1b, ANI-1c and ANI-1d, are recognized based on this variation, which is mostly attributed either to addition or deletion of a heterochromatic segment as a result of pericentric inversions. Of these four forms, the ANI-1a is considered ancestral for A. niloticus in Egypt and is closely similar to that of the Ethiopian A. dembeensis, regardless the contradiction concerned with nomenclature of the X chromosome, while the karyotypes of the other forms are synapomorphy of the form ANI-1a and showed as well a relative resemblance to those of the Ethiopian A. abyssinicus and A. blicki. Therefore, it is concluded that the genus Arvicanthis would be represented by an Egyptian-Ethiopian radiation (A. niloticus, A. dembeensis, A. abyssinicus and A. blicki and by a Central-Western African one, including the karyotypes described as A. centralis and A. solatus. Moreover, A. niloticus should be regarded no longer as a single species but as a cluster of several proper species.

  16. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Suárez

    Full Text Available Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24 and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52 both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54 of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19 provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups.

  17. Effects of classical music as part of environmental enrichment in captive Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the cues it offers the animals housed within. In a bid to remedy this, and promote better welfare, mice (Mus musculus were exposed to two conditions: no auditory stimulation, and stimulation with classical music. In all experiments, a battery of behavior tests was used. The results demonstrated significantly decreased immobility in the forced swim, increased enclosed arm entries in the plus-maze, and decreased immobility in the open-field, in animals that had been pre-exposed to music 24h earlier, suggesting that changes in mouse motor activity were caused by classical music. This study led to the conclusion that environmental enrichment may have profound effects on the behavior of mice in behavioral tests, and that classical music can be a relatively simple method of contributing to the well-being of captive mice, but it can affect the results of experiments such as forced swimming.

  18. A new karyotype of Wiedomys pyrrhorhinus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae from Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil

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    Ana L. G Souza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new karyotype of Wiedomys pyrrhorhinus (Wied, 1821 is described, including G- and C-banding and Ag-NOR sites from specimens collected in the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, situated in the northern region of the Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia. Karyological studies of W. pyrrhorhinus have shown a constant diploid number (2n of 62 with two different numbers of autosomal arms (FNa: 86 and 90, respectively. The new karyotype revealed 2n = 62 and FNa = 104, being the higher autosomal number found so far for this genus. The X chromosome is a large acrocentric and the Y chromosome is a small acrocentric. The analysis of the karyotype morphology suggests that this new karyotype is more closely related to the previous karyotype with 2n = 62 and FNa = 90, described from Caetité, Bahia State. Further studies, comparing different populations of W. pyrrhorhinus, including molecular approaches, may help to better understand the geographical limits of each population and their phylogenetic relationships in the Caatinga biome

  19. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  20. Nest-box occupation by the dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius L. (Rodentia, Myoxidae

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    Alberto Sorace

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The following paper contains data on nest-box occupation by the dormouse in four habitats of the Presidential estate of Castelporziano. Dormouse has been observed inside the nest-boxes in all months of the year and active animals have been repeatedly observed during the winter. These results concord with suggestions that in the Mediterranean area the species occupies nest-boxes also in winter and that it has different yearly rhythms of activity than in northern areas. Except in pine woods, the dormouse was found in nest-boxes of all study habitats. Some results seem to show that competition with hole-nesting passerines heavily affects spring occupation by the dormouse. In spring the Dormouse prefers 'old' nest-boxes, 'new' nest-boxes (i.e. at the first year of placement in a habitat or in a new area are occupied at higher extent from the autumn onwards. Yearly variation in occupation percentages of nest-boxes by the dormouse were also observed.

  1. First Miocene rodent from Lebanon provides the 'missing link' between Asian and African gundis (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Maksoud, Sibelle; Azar, Dany

    2015-01-01

    Ctenodactylinae (gundis) is a clade of rodents that experienced, in Miocene time, their greatest diversification and widest distribution. They expanded from the Far East, their area of origin, to Africa, which they entered from what would become the Arabian Peninsula. Questions concerning the origin of African Ctenodactylinae persist essentially because of a poor fossil record from the Miocene of Afro-Arabia. However, recent excavations in the Late Miocene of Lebanon have yielded a key taxon for our understanding of these issues. Proafricanomys libanensis nov. gen. nov. sp. shares a variety of dental characters with both the most primitive and derived members of the subfamily. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that this species is the sister taxon to a clade encompassing all but one of the African ctenodactylines, plus a southern European species of obvious African extraction. As such, Proafricanomys provides the 'missing link' between the Asian and African gundis. PMID:26250050

  2. New record on Pigmy Field Mouse (muridae, rodentia from northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Darvish

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract
    In this study the field mice of eastern Elborz in Golestan province were examined using molecular, morphologic and morphometric characters. RFLP analysis indicates the presence of three different haplotypes called as A, B and C. Taxonomic determination of the specimens of the haplotyes shows that haplotypes A, B and C represents three different species, A. cf. uralensis, A. cf. hyrcanicus and A. witherbeyi, respectively. Two latter species were previously reported from the studied area. However, the discovery of A. cf. uralensis in this region extends the eastern border of the distribution of this species up to eastern Elbruz and confirms the sympatric occurrence of A. uralensis and A. hyrcanicus in the Golestan province. 

  3. Modulation of parasitemia and antibody responce to Trypanosoma cruzy by cyclophosphamide in Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Calomys callosus a wild rodent, previously described as harboring Trypanosoma cruzi, has a low susceptibility to infection by this protozoan. Experiments were designed to evaluate the contribution of the immune response to the resistance to T. cruzi infection exhibited by C. calossus. Animals were submitted to injections of high (200 mg/kg body weight) and low (20 mg/kg body weight) doses of cyclophosphamide on days -1 or -1 and +5, and inoculated with 4 x 10³ T. cruzi on day O. Parasitemia, ...

  4. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae) Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn. Le. chagasi) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Lopes, Maria Olímpia Garcia; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was also captured at high proportion (12.8%). Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  5. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al. (1

  6. A new species of Sciurodendrium (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) in Sciurus aureogaster (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Lamothe-Argumedo, Marcos Rafael

    2006-06-01

    Sciurodendrium bravohollisae n. sp. (Heligmonellidae) is described as an intestinal parasite of 2 squirrels, Sciurus aureogaster Cuvier, 1829, collected from Los Robles, Municipio de Tlalnepantla, Morelos State, Mexico. The new species differs from all other congeners in possessing a very well-developed and sacciform genital cone. This is the seventh species described for the genus and the first one recorded in Mexico.

  7. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean specie...

  8. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion.

  9. The conservation status of the tuco-tucos, genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae, in southern Brazil

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    FA. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The goal of conservation biology should be related to the preservation of species and also to the evolutionary and ecological processes that were responsible to form them and that are still acting. We review the conservation status of the species of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys torquatus, C. lami, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni from southern Brazil, and relate these data to the geological history of a particular area in that region, the Coastal Plain of the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The implications of the data on these species from the Southeastern Brazil are also discussed in relation to the evolution and risk of extinction of these subterranean rodents.

  10. Flexibility in the social behavior of captive female capybaras (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Lopes, Pauliene C; Ferreira, Djalma N; Nogueira, Selene S C

    2017-09-01

    Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4500m(2). In addition, we evaluated the effects of group size and space allowance on two complementary properties of social structure: linearity and steepness. Captive female capybaras exhibit a linear social dominance hierarchy. There was also more predictability in the dominance success- hierarchical steepness - in the dominance hierarchy with a decrease in the space per individual. This variability in response to changing circumstances shows flexibility in capybara's social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

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    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos menores de selvas y estar más aisladas. Para conocer el aprovechamiento que se le da al tepezcuintle se realizaron 176 encuestas a campesinos o pobladores del PEST mayores de 18 años. El 100% de las personas encuestadas dijo conocer al tepezcuintle y haberlo consumido. La sequía fue la época en que significativamente se le observó más en la selva. Las formas de obtención del tepezcuintle que prevalecen son la cacería y el trampeo en contraste con la donación y la compra. Por otro lado, también utilizan armas de fuego y perros para su cacería. Consecuentemente, se estimó que las personas entrevistadas cazaron un total de 488 tepezcuintles en el año.

  12. Entwicklungsstufen der miozänen Cricetodontinae (Mammalia, Rodentia) Mittelspaniens und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1963-01-01

    During the summer holidays of 1960 to 1963 a great many localities of Miocene and Pliocene mammals were discovered in the Southern part of Zaragoza province (Spain). Remains of both large and small mammals were found, the latter by sieving clays and marls. This small fauna consists mainly of Criceto

  13. On the systematic position of the Western Hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens Nehring (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1959-01-01

    The systematic position of the western hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens, has been a subject of discussion and criticism ever since NEHRING (1899, pp. 1—2) described the hamster occurring in Belgium west of the Meuse as a separate variety. The present paper is a new effort to throw more light on

  14. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

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    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  15. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

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    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  16. The cuticular profile of the aristiform hair as a characteristic feature of Abrawayaomys (Rodentia: Cricetidae

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    Tarcísio de Souza Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cuticle is the outermost of the three cellular layers of the mammalian hair. It comprises numerous keratinized scales, whose morphology, combined with other microscopic characteristics of the hair, confers characteristic signature traits to various different species. This study aimed to analyze whether the cuticular patterns of the aristiform hair had any signature implications for the two species of the genus Abrawayaomys Cunha & Cruz, 1979. We identified the cuticular profiles of A. ruschi and A. chebezi. Both species have similar hair pattern. The base of the hair shows "irregular waved" scales with smooth and continuous edges, and the apex showed "transversal waved" small-sized scales with continuous and ornamented edges. The middle portion of the hair exhibits different cuticular patterns on different sides of a single hair follicle: "transversal waved" on the dorsal side and "narrow losangled" on the ventral side. This distribution pattern of the cuticular scales is an unprecedented record for any mammal, and it is an important generic feature that allows the identification of single samples, such as those found in predators' gastrointestinal contents. The species in question are considered rare due to the restricted number of specimens deposited in scientific collections. Our findings may contribute to expanding the species' geographic range by making it possible to identify it in various situations. These results highlight the relevance of studies pertaining the identification of the micromorphology of the aristiform hair, which can be used as a tool to accurately identify rodents.

  17. Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-04-01

    Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.

  18. Early evolutionary differentiation of morphological variation in the mandible of South American caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Caviomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A; Perez, S I; Verzi, D H

    2011-12-01

    Caviomorphs are a clade of South American rodents recorded at least since the early Oligocene (> 31.5 Ma) that exhibit ample eco-morphological variation. It has been proposed that phylogenetic structure is more important than ecological factors for understanding mandibular shape variation in this clade. This was interpreted as a result of the long-standing evolutionary history of caviomorphs and the early divergence of major lineages. In this work, we test this hypothesis through the analysis of morphological variation in the mandible of living and extinct species and compare this information with that obtained through comparative phylogenetic analyses. Our results support the hypothesis of early origin of mandibular variation; moreover, they suggest the conservation of early differentiated morphologies, which could indicate the existence of constrained evolutionary diversification.

  19. Scaling and adaptations of incisors and cheek teeth in caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo I; Echeverría, Alejandra I; Casinos, Adrià

    2012-10-01

    The South American hystricognath rodents are one of the most diverse mammalian clades considering their occupied habitats, locomotor modes and body sizes. This might have been partly evolved by diversification of their masticatory apparatus' structure and its ecological commitment, for example, chisel-tooth digging. In this phylogeny-based comparative study, we test the relationship between ecological behavior and mechanical features of their incisors and molariforms. In 33 species of nine families of caviomorph rodents, we analyze incisor attributes related to structural stress resistance and molar features related with grinding capacity, for example, second moment of inertia and enamel index (EI) (enamel band length/occlusal surface area), respectively. Most of these variables scaled isometrically to body mass, with a strong phylogenetic effect. A principal component analysis discrimination on the EI clustered the species according to their geographic distribution. We presume that selective pressures in Andean-Patagonian regions, on particular feeding habits and chisel-tooth digging behaviors, have modeled the morphological characteristics of the teeth. Subterranean/burrower ctenomyids, coruros, and plains viscachas showed the highest bending/torsion strength and anchorage values for incisors; a simplified enamel pattern in molariforms would be associated with a better grinding of the more abrasive vegetation present in more open and drier biomes.

  20. Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-10-01

    Two previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens obtained from murid rodent species Bullimus luzonicus , Apomys microdon , and Rattus everetti collected on Luzon Island, Philippines. Hymenolepis bicauda n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis spp. in relative position of the poral dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals, gravid uterus occupying less than half the length of proglottid, relatively few eggs, and the highly characteristic longitudinal split of proglottids at the end of the gravid strobila. Hymenolepis haukisalmii n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis spp. in the relative position of both poral and aporal dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals and uterus lacking dorsal and ventral diverticula. The shift in the relative position of the dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals was not known in Hymenolepis from rodents in other regions of the world and is reminiscent of the situation observed in Hymenolepis erinacei, parasitic in hedgehogs, and members of the genus Talpolepis, parasitic in moles. The cosmopolitan species Hymenolepis diminuta was the only member of the genus previously reported from the Philippines.

  1. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored.

  2. Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae

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    Douzery Emmanuel JP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres. In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. However, the elevated rate of rDNA change observed in the chromosomally invariant clade indicates that the presence of these sequences is insufficient to lead to genome instability. In agreement with recent studies, these results suggest that additional factors such as modifications of the epigenetic state of DNA may be required to trigger evolutionary plasticity.

  3. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

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    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys

  4. Concentration serum cortisol data from experimental studies of Yellow Tang fish (Zebrasoma flavescens) from 2011-07-10 to 2011-11-10 (NODC Accession 0125562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains laboratory experiment data that were collected to examine the effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma...

  5. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9°C and 28°C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4μg/L and 600μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9°C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28°C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is responsible for the thermal acclimation of phospholipid fatty acid profiles. However, this response was altered under Ni and Cd exposure: PUFA decreased (specifically n-6 PUFA) while the proportion of saturated fatty acids increased at 9°C, whereas at 28°C, PUFA increased to proportions exceeding those observed at 9°C. Lipid peroxidation could be observed under all experimental conditions. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems acted cooperatively to cope with oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation, which was not affected by temperature acclimation as indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, in spite of a higher polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish which would be predicted to increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. However, in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, in which the highest proportion of PUFA was observed, lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms in these fish which could represent a substantial metabolic cost and explain their lower condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H; Maki, Ryan P; Knights, Brent C; Gray, Brian R

    2014-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake's watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy-Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  7. A Kinetic Study of Accumulation and Elimination of Microcystin-LR in Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Tissue and Implications for Human Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Donna R. Kashian; Peter Landrum; Duane Gossiaux; Julianne Dyble; Steven Pothoven

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is a potential route of human exposure to the hepatotoxic microcystins, especially in lakes and reservoirs that routinely experience significant toxic Microcystis blooms. Understanding the rates of uptake and elimination for microcystins as well as the transfer efficiency into tissues of consumers are important for determining the potential for microcystins to be transferred up the food web and for predicting potential human health impacts. The main objective of this work was...

  8. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate.

  9. 苦参中黄酮类物质的提取及抗氧化研究%Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavoniods from Sophora flavescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万忠民; 沈玲玲

    2009-01-01

    采用乙醇加热回流法提取苦参中黄酮类物质,用正交法确定了最佳提取工艺,即在乙醇体积分数80%、料液比1:40(m/V)、提取时间6h、提取温度95℃条件下提取量最大.将提取物加入猪油及菜籽油中,放入恒温箱在60℃条件下保存,通过定时测定猪油和菜籽油酸价及过氧化值的变化情况,研究苦参提取物的抗氧化活性,并与添加茶多酚的试样和空白试样进行比较.结果表明,添加了苫参提取液的试样的过氰化值和酸价均明显低于窄白试样和添加茶多酚的试样,说明苫参中黄酮类物质可有效延缓油脂脂质过氧化反应,且其抗氧化性明显优于茶多酚.

  10. Expression of Hsp70, Igf1, and Three Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Response to Handling and Salt Treatment at Different Water Temperatures in Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Nour; Wang, Han-Ping; Yao, Hong; Shen, Zhi-Gang; Shaheen, Adel A; Abou-ElGheit, Elsayed N

    2017-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that causes diseases and mortality in the aquaculture industry. The goal was to analyze the expression of stress-related biomarkers in response to different stressors in yellow perch, which is an important aquaculture candidate in North America and highly sensitive to handling in captivity. Three fish groups were established, each having four replicates, and subjected to water temperatures of 14, 20, and 26°C and acute handling stress was performed followed by a salt treatment for 144h at a salinity of 5 ppt. Serum and hepatic mRNA levels of heat shock protein (hsp70), insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1), and glutathione reductase (Gsr) were quantified at seven times interval over 144 h using ELISA and RT-qPCR. Handling stress caused a significant down-regulation in Hsp70, Gpx, Sod1, and Gsr at a water temperature of 20°C compared to 14 and 26°C. Igf1 was significantly upregulated at 20°C and down-regulated at 14 and 26°C. Salt treatment had a transient reverse effect on the targeted biomarkers in all groups at 72 h, then caused an upregulation after 144 h, compared to the control groups. The data showed a negative strong regulatory linear relationship between igf1 with hsp70 and anti-oxidative gene expressions. These findings could provide valuable new insights into the stress responses that affect fish health and could be used to monitor the stress.

  11. Skin biopsy as a nondestructive tool for the toxicological assessment of endangered populations of pinnipeds: preliminary results on mixed function oxidase in Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M C; Savelli, C; Marsili, L; Casini, S; Jimenez, B; Junin, M; Castello, H; Lorenzani, J A

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for assessing the toxicological risk of endangered populations of pinnipeds based on a nondestructive biological tool, the skin biopsy specimen. Skin biopsies can be obtained from pinnipeds by anaesthetising the animals and taking a small amount of skin in the anterior flipper area, or by shooting a biopsy dart with a crossbow. Skin biopsy material is suitable for a wide range of chemical and biomarker analysis. Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be analysed in subcutaneous fat and MFO activity (BPMO), Cyt.P450 isoforms, and DNA damage can be detected in epidermis.

  12. MYOCASTOR COYPUS (“COIPO”, RODENTIA, MAMMALIA COMO RECURSO EN LOS HUMEDALES DE LA PAMPA BOANERENSE: PATRONES DE EXPLOTACIÓN/Myocastor coypus (“coipo”, Rodentia, Mammalia as an archaeological resource in the wetlands of Buenos Aires Pampas: exploitation

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    Paula Escosteguy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Myocastor coypus es una de las especies más abundantes en los humedales de la región pampeana, particularmente en las cuencas de los ríos Salado y Paraná. Distintas líneas de evidencia permiten sostener que fue un recurso ampliamente aprovechado siendo central en las estrategias económicas de los cazadores-recolectores-pescadores durante el Holoceno tardío. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de restos arqueofaunísticos de esta presa mediano-pequeña, a partir de: análisis cuantitativos, estimación de clases de edad, análisis de huellas, termoalteraciones y fracturas. El objetivo es analizar los patrones de explotación del coipo utilizando información proveniente de los sitios de la localidad La Guillerma (LG1, LG4 y LG5 y San Ramón 7 (SR7 ubicados en el curso inferior del río Salado y del sitio Río Luján (RL y la localidad Cañada Honda (CH localizados en el NE bonaerense. Los resultados permiten sostener que la presión de captura se dio sobre presas adultas, que ingresaron completas a los sitios. Las huellas evidencian la ejecución de una serie de acciones para su aprovechamiento (cuereo, desarticulación y descarne. Abstract Myocastor coypus is one of the most abundant species found in archaeological sites in the Pampean Region wetlands, especially in the Salado and Paraná river basins. On the basis of different lines of evidence, it may be suggested that this animal was an extensively exploited resource, proving to be central in the strategies of hunter-gatherer-fishers that inhabited these regions during the Late Holocene. In this study, data obtained from archaeofaunal analysis are described: quantitative, age-class and butchering evidence analysis (cut marks, burning features and fracture patterns. We aim at analyzing the exploitation patterns of coypu using data found in La Guillerma (LG1, LG4 and LG5 and San Ramón 7 (SR7, pertaining to the lower Río Salado basin, and in Río Luján (RL and Cañada Honda (CH situated in the northeastern province of Buenos Aires. Results show that adult prey capture was practised, where the entire animal bodies had been introduced in the sites. Cut marks also evidence a series of tasks associated to exploitation (skinning, disarticulation and defleshing.

  13. Temporal dynamics of milk composition of the precocial caviomorph Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae) Dinámica temporal de la composición de la leche del caviomorfo precocial Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodentidae)

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIO VELOSO; G.J. KENAGY

    2005-01-01

    During lactation, both the nutritional and energetic requirements of suckling change gradually. These changes normally are accompanied by modifications in chemical composition of the milk. We investigated the temporal course of milk composition during lactation in a precocial caviomorph rodent, the "degu" (Octodon degus) under laboratory condition. Female degus were kept in laboratory during gestation and lactation and fed with commercial food pellets. Milk was collected at three stages of la...

  14. Formas de abertura dos frutos de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso glassman efetuadas por Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Opening forms of palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman made by Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcelo Bordignon

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was identifyed the diferents opening forms of the palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana by brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami in four diferents points of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Was caracterized tive basic forms of opening, in acording with the number of incisions and opening aspects. The form with lower number of incisions (two was also the greather frequently in the four points sampled (66,25%; N = 5194 well as registred the lower opening time (7,2 ± 1,7 min in relationship with other forms (9,2 ± 2,3 min. To explicate the diferences in the frequences of forms discovered, is proposed "apprenticeship's hypothesis" which the young squirrels of the population, along the opening nuts apprenticeship, to passing of the forms with larger number of incisions to forms with lower number of incisions, ending in the form of more frequence, which is maintained by adult squirrels.

  15. Parâmetros hematológicos do roedor fossorial Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Hematological parameters of fossorial rodent Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gisele G. Stein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O perfil hematológico sanguíneo foi determinado em três populações de Ctenomys lami, em áreas denominadas A e B, impactadas pela bovinocultura, e C, sem impacto antrópico, ambas no sul do Brasil. Sessenta e dois animais foram coletados ao total. Os valores de hematócrito (Ht, hemoglobina (Hb e eritrócitos apresentaram diferenças significativas entre machos e fêmeas. Os valores médios de Ht e a Hb encontrados na espécie foram mais baixos em comparação com os de outras espécies de roedores subterrâneos, podendo estes valores estarem relacionados ao habitat de forrageio ou às características do solo. Também foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas médias de hemoglobina, CHCM e linfócitos em animais das áreas A e B em relação à área C. O valor da média dos hematócritos dos animais entre as áreas foi mais elevado nas áreas A e B, porém significativamente diferentes entre A e C. Algumas dessas alterações sugerem a relação dos valores encontrados com o estresse dos animais em relação a áreas impactadas. Variações significativas no VCM foram encontradas entre os animais das áreas A e C, e também nas plaquetas destes entre as áreas A e B. Não foram observados Corpúsculo de Kurloff no sangue dos animais analisados. Os valores hematológicos encontrados nesses espécimes de Ctenomys lami fornecem informações importantes sobre a espécie e podem ser úteis em outras pesquisas.The hematological profile was determined in three populations of Ctenomys lami that inhabits three different areas nominated as A and B, affected by cattle production, and C, without human impact, all of them in southern Brazil, under the same geologic formation. Sixty two individuals were collected. The packed cell volume (PCV values, hemoglobin (Hb and red blood cell (RBC count presents statistic significant differences between males and females. PCV and Hb values were lower in comparison with other subterranean rodents, which could be related to the food searching behavior or soil characteristic of the species. Significant statistic differences were found to for Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and lymphocytes between animals belonging to A and C areas. The PCV values were higher for animals from areas A and B, with significance only between A and C. Some of these alterations may suggest a modification on stress levels of the animals inhabiting areas A and B with anthropic alterations, or maybe just an inherited characteristic. Significant statistic differences were found either in mean corpuscular volume (MCV between A and C areas, and platelets between A and B areas. No Kurloff cells were observed in the blood smear from analyzed individuals. The hematological values founded for Ctenomys lami are an important information for this species, which can be used for future research and management.

  16. PATRONES DE REPLICACIÓN Y BANDEO NO DIFERENCIAL EN ARDILLAS COLOMBIANAS DEL GÉNERO Sciurus (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE Replication Patterns and no Differential Banding in Colombian Squirrels, Sciurus (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    CAROLINA ARANGO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las ardillas colombianas muestran una gran variabilidad citogenética lo que ha despertado el interés en ahondar aspectos evolutivos en el grupo. Para esto, varias herramientas de bandeo cromosómico convencional como bandas diferenciales Q y R y bandas no diferenciales C y NOR fueron analizadas permitiendo, por primera vez en las ardillas colombianas, detectar señales de cromosómicas inusuales de replicación e inactivación de heterocromatina y cromosomas marcadores específicos. Se explica la utilidad de cada uno de estos complementos en el análisis citogenético de especies y las observaciones para los citotipos de las ardillas colombianas.Colombian Squirrels cytogenetics showed a great variability which has renewed the interest in evolutionary aspects within the group. Many chromosome banding tools must be analyzed carefully in addition to the classical G-banding G technique. These techniques include other differential bands like Q and R banding and nondifferential banding (C and NOR. In this article the use of each of these supplements in the cytogenetic analysis of species and cytotypes observations for the Colombian squirrels is explained.

  17. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

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    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  18. Aprovechamiento de Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Caviomorpha en sitios del Chaco Húmedo argentino durante el Holoceno tardío Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Caviomorpha procurement at sites in the argentinean Chaco Humedo during the late Holecene

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    Mariano Santini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available De los mamíferos presentes en los sitios arqueológicos del Chaco Húmedo durante el Holoceno tardío, Myocastor coypus constituyó un recurso importante en la subsistencia de los grupos humanos que habitaron la zona de esteros, cañadas y selvas de ribera. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los materiales arqueofaunísticos correspondientes a M. coypus provenientes de los sitios El Cachapé Potrero V y Sotelo 1 (departamento Primero de Mayo, provincia del Chaco. Cronológicamente, estos sitios se sitúan entre los 1200 y 1690 años AP. Los materiales analizados ascienden a un NISP de 7868 y 4412 y un MNI de 251 y 259, para Potrero V y Sotelo 1, respectivamente, y representan el 84% y 77,1% del total de especímenes recuperados. Además del análisis cuantitativo se determinaron los perfiles etarios y se analizaron las modificaciones óseas, antrópicas y naturales, que permitieron identificar los agentes tafonómicos que intervinieron en la formación de los conjuntos muestreados. Los estudios mostraron que se realizó un aprovechamiento integral del coypo -al cual se lo utilizó tanto como fuente de alimento como de materia prima para la confección de instrumentos óseos-; y que, probablemente, también se haya aprovechado su cuero.Of the mammals from archaeological sites in Chaco Province, Myocastor coypus constituted an important subsistence resource for the human groups that inhabited the area of Esteros, Cañadas and Selvas de Ribera in the Late Holocene. The aim of this paper is to present the results of materials studies relating to M. coypus from the archaeological sites of El Cachapé Potrero 5 and Sotelo 1 (Primero de Mayo Department, Chaco Province. Chronologically, these sites are located between 1200 and 1690 years BP. The NISP was 7,868 and 4,412 and the MNI 251 and 259 for Potrero V and Sotelo I, respectively, accounting for 84% and 77.1% of all specimens recovered from the two archaeological sites. In addition to quantitative analysis, age profiles and osseous, anthropogenic, and natural modifications were analyzed, identifying the various taphonomic agents that influenced the formation of the samples. M. coypus was of great importance to the subsistence of human groups that inhabited the region. Such groups took full advantage of the rodent, using them not only as a food resource but also as a raw material for the manufacture of bone tools and probably also for their hides.

  19. Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae por Litomosoides carinii Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae by Litomosoides carinii

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    J. C. Holanda

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii.It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii.

  20. Ritmos de actividad locomotora y uso de las cuevas en condiciones seminaturales en Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia, Octodontidae Rhythms of locomotor activity and burrow use under seminatural conditions in Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia, Octodontidae

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    FACUNDO LUNA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Ctenomys es un género de roedores subterráneos que vive en sistemas de galerías cerrados a la superficie del suelo y por lo tanto lleva a cabo la mayoría de sus actividades en ausencia de luz. Sin embargo a diferencia de otros roedores subterráneos sus salidas a la superficie son frecuentes. En este trabajo fueron evaluadas, en Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 la existencia y las características de los ritmos locomotores de actividad para distintas condiciones experimentales. Además, fueron analizadas la permanencia y preferencia por distintos sectores del sistema de galerías. El 25 % de los individuos de C. talarum analizados, para las distintas condiciones de fotoperiodo y temperatura ambiente evaluadas, mostraron actividad rítmica. Por otra parte, los individuos no presentaron un patrón generalizado de permanencia y preferencia por sectores definidos en el sistema de galeríasCtenomys are subterranean rodents that perform most of their daily activities in dark, thermally stable burrow systems. In this paper the dependence of Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 activity rhythms on either photoperiod and ambient temperature was analyzed, as well as permanency and preference for different sectors of a burrow system. 25 % of the individuals showed rhythmicity in their activities. Thus, luminous stimuli and ambient temperature did not affect activity pattern in this species. Furthermore, individuals of C. talarum did not show any generalized pattern of preference and permanency on defined sectors of the artificial burrow system

  1. Dustbathing and intra-sexual communication of social degus, Octodon degus (Rodentia:Octodontidae) Baños de tierra y comunicación intra-sexual en el degu social, Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Ebensperger

    2000-01-01

    I observed the behavior of captive male and female Octodon degus to assess if dustbathing behavior plays a role in social communication among unfamiliar, same-sex conspecifics. Degus of a first group (control responders) were individually exposed during 10-min tests to an arena containing loose, clean soil. I compared the latency to first dustbathing as well as the overall frequency of dustbathing events recorded to control responders with the corresponding figures recorded to a second group ...

  2. Dieta de Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, Paraná, Brasil Diet of Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae on a Araucauria Pine Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, localizado no Distrito do Bugre, Município de Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo foi conhecer as espécies utilizadas na alimentação por Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 no decorrer de um ano. Foram registradas dez (N = 10 espécies na dieta dos serelepes, pertencentes a sete famílias botânicas. Os serelepes predaram sementes de três espécies e se alimentaram de três espécies exóticas, mostrando adaptabilidade a ambientes alterados.This study was conducted between February, 2002 and January, 2003 in a remnant of Araucaria Pine Forest located in the District of Bugre, Municipality of Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brazil. The goal of this study was to survey the species used as food items by Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 throughout a year. Ten (N = 10 species were recorded in the diet of these squirrels, belonging to seven plant families. Squirrels preyed on seeds of three plant species and fed on three exotic species, indicating good adaptability to disturbed habitats.

  3. Comportamiento social y reproductivo del roedor subterráneo solitario Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae en condiciones de semicautiverio Social and reproductive behavior of the subterranean solitary rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae in a seminatural enclosure

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    ROXANA R. ZENUTO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento social y reproductivo en grupos de individuos del roedor subterráneo Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 en condiciones seminaturales, que reflejaron la complejidad de las cuevas de la especie así como también la relación de sexos típica de poblaciones naturales. Los datos sugieren que las interacciones entre los individuos son mucho más variadas y complejas que lo esperado para una especie solitaria y territorial. Diferentes canales de comunicación _auditivo, táctil y olfativo- fueron importantes para el establecimiento y mantenimiento de territorios y durante el cortejo y la cópula. Se observaron diferencias en el comportamiento social entre individuos de poblaciones naturales con diferentes características ecológicas. Individuos pertenecientes a la población de Mar de Cobo, que presenta una alta densidad y una proporción de sexos desviada a favor de las hembras, establecieron jerarquías de dominancia entre los machos, lo que determinó el acceso preferencial por parte del macho dominante a varias hembras. La observación de daño físico (heridas fue común entre machos de la población de Mar de Cobo. En contraste, la agresión entre machos de la población de Necochea, que presenta una baja densidad y una proporción de sexos balanceada, usualmente no resultó en daño físico y no se detectó una jerarquía de dominancia; los machos cortejaron a las hembras aún en presencia de otros machosThe social and reproductive behavior of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 was studied in a seminatural enclosure resembling both the complexity of the natural burrow system and the sex ratio observed in wild populations. Contrary to expectations based on their solitariness and their rather simple social system, the interactions among individuals of this species were diverse and complex. Auditory, tactile and chemical communication were of importance during territory guarding, courtship and copulatory behavior. Individuals from different populations differing in ecological attributes behaved in substantially different ways. Males from Mar de Cobo, a population characterized by a high density and a skewed sex ratio favouring females, behaved aggressively, which resulted in frequent wounding. Males from Mar de Cobo established a dominance hierarchy among them, which preceded courtship and, eventually, resulted in the dominant male monopolizing mating activity. On the contrary, males from Necochea, a population showing low density and an even sex ratio, behaved less aggressively; dominance relationships were absent, and males performed courtship behaviors in the presence of other males

  4. Área de actividad y movimientos de Liomys irroratus (Rodentia: Heteromyidae en una selva mediana de Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, México Activity area and movements of Liomys irroratus (Rodentia: Heteromyidae in semideciduos tropical forest of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Antonio Santos-Moreno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron los movimientos y el área de actividad del ratón Liomys irroratus en una selva mediana del sureste del estado de Oaxaca, México. Los machos presentaron áreas de actividad más grandes que las hembras (126 m² vs. 21.1; asimismo, en la temporada seca las áreas fueron mayores que en la de lluvias, pero en este caso las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas. El tamaño promedio anual de área de actividad para todos los individuos de la población se estimó en 87.48 m². Los machos no presentaron superposición de sus áreas de actividad con otros machos, y fue baja tanto entre hembras como entre individuos de sexos diferentes. Los machos tendieron a recorrer distancias promedio más grandes que las hembras (69.31 m vs. 33. En la temporada de lluvias los individuos se movieron significativamente más que en la seca (58.12 m vs. 44.19. El tamaño de las áreas de actividad de las hembras mostró una correlación estadísticamente significativa e inversa con el número de árboles y el de arbustos, y en estas áreas el número de oquedades y las pendientes son mayores que en las de los machos. Los resultados permiten suponer que la especie tiene un sistema de apareamiento de poligamia, manteniendo su territorio hasta que inicia la temporada reproductiva.We estimated the movements and activity area of the spiny pocket-mice Liomys irroratus in a semideciduos tropical forest at the southeastern of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Males have larger activity areas than females (126 m² vs. 21.1, also, in the rainy season these were higher than in the dry season, but in this case the differences were not statistically significant. The annual average size of the activity area for all individuals in the population was of 87.48 m². Males showed no overlap in their activity areas with other males, while between females and between members of different sexes this was low. Males showed average travel distances larger than females (69.31 m vs. 33. In the rainy season individuals moved significantly more than in the dry season (58.12 m vs. 44.19. The size of activity areas of the females showed a significant and inverse correlation with the number of trees and shrubs, and these areas had higher number of cavities and greater slope that those occupied by males. The results suggest that the species has a polygamous breeding system, where the territory is held until the beginning of the breeding season.

  5. Dustbathing and intra-sexual communication of social degus, Octodon degus (Rodentia:Octodontidae Baños de tierra y comunicación intra-sexual en el degu social, Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae

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    LUIS A. EBENSPERGER

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available I observed the behavior of captive male and female Octodon degus to assess if dustbathing behavior plays a role in social communication among unfamiliar, same-sex conspecifics. Degus of a first group (control responders were individually exposed during 10-min tests to an arena containing loose, clean soil. I compared the latency to first dustbathing as well as the overall frequency of dustbathing events recorded to control responders with the corresponding figures recorded to a second group of degus (experimental responders after they were individually introduced into the same arena but with soil previously used for dustbathing by a same-sex conspecific (depositor. I also compared the location of dustbathing events by experimental responders with that of depositor individuals. Although male degus tended to exhibit shorter latencies to first dustbathing event when in clean soil, this variable was not significantly influenced by sex of responders or the type of soil (clean or used. In contrast, a significant interaction between both factors revealed that males dustbathe at a higher rate than females when on clean soil, but similarly so when in a substratum previously dustbathed by a same-sex conspecific. The place chosen by both male and female responders to conduct their dustbathing behavior was unrelated to the presence of previous marks left by a depositor degu. I conclude that dustbathing is involved in communication during male-male, but not during female-female, interactions in the degu. I suggest that such male-male interactions represent competition for matesObservé el comportamiento de machos y hembras en cautiverio del roedor social Octodon degus para evaluar si la conducta de bañarse en tierra es parte de un mecanismo de comunicación social entre conespecíficos del mismo sexo, desconocidos entre sí. Un primer grupo de degus (respondientes controles fueron introducidos individualmente durante ensayos de 10 min a un terrario con tierra suelta y limpia (no usada previamente por otros degus. Comparé el tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio de cada experimento hasta la observación del primer baño de tierra (latencia así como el número total de baños de tierra realizados por cada respondiente control, con los valores equivalentes obtenidos de un segundo grupo de degus (respondientes experimentales, observados en la misma arena pero con tierra usada previamente por un conespecífico del mismo sexo (depositante. También comparé la ubicación espacial de los baños de tierra efectuados por respondientes experimentales con la posición de los baños de tierra realizados previamente por degus depositantes. Aunque los respondientes macho tendieron a mostrar una latencia más corta, esta variable no fue afectada significativamente ni por el sexo de los respondientes ni por el tipo de sustrato (limpio o usado. En cambio, una interacción significativa entre ambos factores mostró que los respondientes macho efectuaron un mayor número de baños de tierra que las hembras cuando ambos fueron expuestos a un sustrato limpio, pero que tales diferencias desaparecen cuando los individuos son expuestos a un sustrato usado previamente por otro individuo del mismo sexo. Los sitios de la arena seleccionados por respondientes macho y hembra para efectuar sus baños de tierra no estuvieron relacionados con la presencia de marcas dejadas por degus depositantes. Concluyo que los baños de tierra son usados por el degu como un mecanismo de comunicación olfativa durante interacciones entre machos, pero no entre hembras. Sugiero que tales interacciones entre machos representan competencia por apareamientos

  6. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rodentia-Cricetidae) com Leishmania donovani chagasi (Laison, 1982) Experimental infection of Calomys callosus (Rodentia-Cricetidae) with Leishmania donovani

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    Mello,Dalva A.; Maria Lucia Teixeira

    1984-01-01

    Foi descrita a infecção experimental em Calomys callosus com uma cepa de Leishmania donovani chagasi de caso humano. Um grupo de 22 roedores foi inoculado por via intraperitoneal com 0,1 ml de um macerado de baço em salina, rico em amastigotas. Esses animais foram sacrificados três meses após as inoculações, tendo sido realizado: cultura "in vitro" em meio acelular (LIT e NNN) e esfregaços, corados pelo Giemsa, de fígado, baço, medula óssea e sangue; cortes histológicos corados com hematoxili...

  7. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rodentia-Cricetidae com Leishmania donovani chagasi (Laison, 1982 Experimental infection of Calomys callosus (Rodentia-Cricetidae with Leishmania donovani

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a infecção experimental em Calomys callosus com uma cepa de Leishmania donovani chagasi de caso humano. Um grupo de 22 roedores foi inoculado por via intraperitoneal com 0,1 ml de um macerado de baço em salina, rico em amastigotas. Esses animais foram sacrificados três meses após as inoculações, tendo sido realizado: cultura "in vitro" em meio acelular (LIT e NNN e esfregaços, corados pelo Giemsa, de fígado, baço, medula óssea e sangue; cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina-eosina de fígado e baço. Os resultados para fígado e baço foram: 67% de positividade nas culturas "in vitro"; esfregaços ricos em amastigotas intra e extra celular (inclui medula óssea; reações teciduais traduzidas por hepatomegalia com proliferação das células de Kupffer; reação granulomatosa das áreas portais, esplenomegalia com reações granulomatosas, abundância de formas amastigotas. Os resultados para o sangue foram negativos em todas as investigações.In the current paper experimental infection of Calomys callosus with Leishmania donovani is reported for the first time. A group of 22 C. callosus aged 20 months and weighing 25 g were inoculated with 0.1 of a homogeneous saline preparation of infected spleens of homologous animals. The L. donovani strain used in the experiments was isolated from a case of human visceral leishmaniasis from the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The animals infected were weighed and killed 3 months after the experimental infection. Spleens and livers were also weighed and pieces from them were fixed in 10% formaline and stained with hematoxilin-eosin for histological studies. Impression smears stained with Giemsa were made and cultivation "in vitro" (NNN and LIT was done, with material from blood, spleen, liver and bone marrow. At the end of the experiments the animals showed low of body weight. Splenomegaly was observed in all the inoculated animals. The "in vitro" cultures were positive from liver and spleen in 67% of the animals. Many extracellular and intracellular amastigote forms were seen in the smears of spleen, liver and bone marrow. Blood showed negative results. Histological studies of the liver showed proliferation of Kupffer cells and granulomatous reaction in the portal areas with multinucleated cells and amastigote forms of the parasites. Loss of folicular pattern with parasitism in great numbers of cells around which there were granulomatous reactions were observed in the spleen.

  8. Modulation of parasitemia and antibody responce to Trypanosoma cruzy by cyclophosphamide in Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae Modulação da parasitemia e da resposta de anticorpos ao Trypanosoma cruzi pela ciclofosfamida em Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Monamaris Marques Borges

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Calomys callosus a wild rodent, previously described as harboring Trypanosoma cruzi, has a low susceptibility to infection by this protozoan. Experiments were designed to evaluate the contribution of the immune response to the resistance to T. cruzi infection exhibited by C. calossus. Animals were submitted to injections of high (200 mg/kg body weight and low (20 mg/kg body weight doses of cyclophosphamide on days -1 or -1 and +5, and inoculated with 4 x 10³ T. cruzi on day O. Parasitemia, mortality and antibody response as measured by direct agglutination of trypomastigotes were observed. Two hundred mg doses of cyclophosphamide resulted in higher parasitemia and mortality as well as in suppression of the antibody response. A single dose of 20 mg enhanced antibody levels on the 20th day after infection, while an additional dose did not further increase antibody production. Parasitemia levels were not depressed, but rather increased in both these groups as compared to untreated controls. Passive transfer of hyperimmune C. callosus anti-T. cruzi serum to cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed animals resulted in lower parasitemia and mortality rates. These results indicate that the immune response plays an important role in the resistance of C. callossus to T. cruzi.Calomys-callosus, roedor silvestre, que já foi encontrado naturalmente infectado pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, tem baixa suscetibilidade à infecção experimental por este protozoário. Foram feitos experimentos para avaliar a contribuição da resposta imune a essa baixa suscetibilidade. Animais foram submetidos a injeção de doses altas (200 mg/kg peso corporal ou doses baixas (20 mg/kg peso corporal de ciclofosfamida nos dias -1 ou -1 e +5, e inoculados com 4 x 10³ T. cruzi no dia O. Observou-se a curva de parasitemia, mortalidade e resposta de anticorpos medida por aglutinação direta de tripomastigotas. Doses de 200 mg resultaram em parasitemia e mortalidade mais elevada e supressão da resposta de anticorpos. Uma dose de 20 mg aumentou os níveis de anticorpos no 20º dia após a infecção, enquanto a administração de uma segunda dose não alterou significativamente a produção de anticorpos. Os níveis de parasitemia não diminuíram, mas pelo contrário, elevaram-se em relação aos animais testemunhos, em ambos os grupos. A transferência passiva de soro anti-T. cruzi de C. callosus resultou em parasitemia e mortalidade mais baixa nos animais imunossuprimidos. Estes resultados indicam que a resposta imune é um importante fator na resistência de C. callosus à infecção por T. cruzi.

  9. Estudio sistemático y bioestratigráfico de los Eomyidae (Rodentia) del Oligoceno superior y Mioceno inferior español = Taxonomy and biostratigraphy of Eomyidae (Rodentia) from the upper Oligocene and lower Miocene of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Sierra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is the first fundamental study on Spanish Eomyidae. The flourishing time of this family in Europe was the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene. Four genera are recognized in this time span: Rhodanomys Depéret & Douxami, 1902, Ritteneria Stehlin & Schaub, 1951, Pseudotheridomys Schlosser, 1926

  10. Las especies del género Gyropus Nitzsch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parásitas de Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia The species of the genus Gyropus Nitzch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parasitic on the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia

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    DOLORES DEL CARMEN CASTRO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por finalidad otorgar status específico pleno a la subespecie Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, describir la nueva especie Gyropus distinctus a partir de materiales recolectados sobre Octodon degus (Molina, 1782 y Octodon lunatus Osgood, 1943 procedentes del centro de Chile y, finalmente, ofrecer un análisis de las posibles razones de la distribución geográfica y del rango de hospedadores conocidos para estas tres especiesThe purpose of this paper is to give full specific status to the subspecies Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, to describe the new species Gyropus distinctus collected in Octodon degus and O. lunatus from central Chile, along with an analysis of the possible causes than could explain their geographic and host range distributions known to date for these three species

  11. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

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    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  12. New data on occurrence of Demodex flagellurus (Acari, Demodecidae) - rarely recorded parasite from the house mouse Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Demodex flagellurus Bukva, 1985 is one of two known demodecid mites of the house mouse Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758, in which it is observed in genital area. Skin fragments of 30 house mice from various regions of Poland (residential buildings in Gdynia and Gdańsk, rural region in Wielkopolska-Kujawska Lowland) were examined. The mites were noted in 25.0% of the mice, with mean intensity of 48.0 and intensity range of 2-103. D. flagellurus demonstrated the differentiated occurrence in host populations.

  13. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  14. Molerats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia in South African National Parks: notes on the Taxonomic "isolation" and Hystricomorph Affinities of the family

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    G de Graaff

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of classification ofAfrotropical molerats is reviewed and an assessment is made of the supposed taxonomic "isolation" of the molerats (bathyergids by considering morphological features in the skull, post-cranial skeleton, reproductive organs and myology which collectively point to hystricomorph affinities in contrast to a myomorph relationship which is often postulated.

  15. The colonic groove or furrow: a comparative morphological study of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, S H; van der Merwe, E L; Ndou, R; O'Riain, M J; Bennett, N C

    2009-08-01

    Herbivorous mammals such as nutrias, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and mole-rats have a longitudinal mucosal colonic groove (furrow) in their ascending colon, which is thought to play a role in the colonic separation mechanism (CSM). It is not known whether this groove is structurally modified to adapt to this function in mole-rat species. The morphology of this groove was studied in 32 mol-rats, four species, one of which consisted of three subspecies, endemic to southern Africa and two species found in eastern Africa. The macroscopic morphology of the groove was documented, and samples for histological examination were taken. The groove was wide at its origin at the cecocolic junction and was lined on either side by a row of papillae with the opposing papillae slightly offset in arrangement. The papillated groove gradually decreased in size toward the distal part of the ascending colon where it disappeared. This pattern was similar in all species except in Heterocephalus glaber, where the papillae were absent and the groove was lined by two longitudinal ridges. A histological examination of cross sections revealed that the mucosa covering the inner and outer walls of the groove was rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells. The walls of the groove contained smooth muscle extending from the inner circular smooth muscle layer at the base to the tips of the papillae in all species examined as well as arteries, lymphatic vessels, and prominent sinusoid-like veins. The groove could be demonstrated both macroscopically and histologically in three Bathyergus suillus fetuses of varying sizes. The sinusoid-like veins present in all grooves, regardless of macroscopic shape, suggest that they have a role in the functioning of the groove. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Histopathology associated with angiostrongylosis in Akodon species (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María del Rosario; Perfumo, Carlos; Kinsella, John M; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Angiostrongylus is a metastrongylid nematode genus that includes species found in carnivores, rodents, and occasionally primates (including humans). About 100 species of wild sigmodontine rodents occur in Argentina, 16 of which are species of Akodon. The lungs of Akodon azarae and Akodon dolores from Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires, Argentina, were examined, and 2 of 10 A. dolores specimens were positive for angiostrongylosis, showing macroscopic lesions of verminous pneumonia. Adults found were identified as Angiostrongylus morerai. Histopathology of the lungs revealed multiple nodules in the interstitium, alveoli, and vessels, resulting in interstitial fibrosis and the destruction of small capillaries and arterioles. Since extensive pathology in the lung was noted here from only 2 adults, it is probable that heavier infections may cause mortality in their hosts. This is the first record of this nematode species from A. dolores , expanding its geographic distribution to the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, and the first description of the histopathology of larval angiostrongylosis in a wild rodent from South America.

  17. Descripción del postcráneo de Rhipidomys austrinus y Graomys griseoflavus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae

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    Luz V. Carrizo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el esqueleto postcraneal de dos especies de roedores sigmodontinos Rhipidomys austrinus Thomas, 1921 y Graomys griseoflavus (Waterhouse, 1837. Se detalla cada estructura del esqueleto postcraneal sobre la base de la forma, tamaño, superficie y orientación de cada elemento esqueletal. La anatomía postcraneal de estas dos especies muestra caracteres asociados a patrones morfológicos diferentes, vinculados a su modo de locomoción. Es así que R. austrinus exhibe características en varios elementos del postcráneo consistente con una locomoción arborícola, mientras G. griseoflavus muestra atributos en su esqueleto relacionados a una locomoción de tipo terrestre.

  18. On cognitive ecology and the environmental factors that promote Alzheimer disease: lessons from Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniela S; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-02-20

    Cognitive ecologist posits that the more efficiently an animal uses information from the biotic and abiotic environment, the more adaptive are its cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, this approach does not test for natural neurodegenerative processes under field or experimental conditions, which may recover animals information processing and decision making and may explain, mechanistically, maladaptive behaviors. Here, we call for integrative approaches to explain the relationship between ultimate and proximate mechanisms behind social behavior. We highlight the importance of using the endemic caviomorph rodent Octodon degus as a valuable natural model for mechanistic studies of social behavior and to explain how physical environments can shape social experiences that might influence impaired cognitive abilities and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. We consequently suggest neuroecological approaches to examine how key elements of the environment may affect neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, memory processes and brain structures involved in social behavior. We propose the following three core objectives of a program comprising interdisciplinary research in O. degus, namely: (1) to determine whether diet types provided after weaning can lead to cognitive impairment associated with spatial memory, learning and predisposing to develop Alzheimer disease in younger ages; (2) to examine if early life social experience has long term effects on behavior and cognitive responses and risk for development Alzheimer disease in later life and (3) To determine if an increase of social interactions in adult degu reared in different degree of social stressful conditions alter their behavior and cognitive responses.

  19. Leishmania mexicana in Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen (Rodentia, Echimyidae in a region endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Air C. Barretto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of Leishmania were recovered from five of 27 specimens of the rodent Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen captured near Três Braços in the Atlantic Forest region of Bahia, Brazil. Two of these isolates were recovered from hamsters inoculated with a pooled triturate of liver, spleen and skin tissue from apparently healthy P. i. denigratus. The third isolate was recovered from a triturate of only skin tissue from another. Metastasis was observed in the inoculated hamsters, the parasites grew abundantly in artificial media and a typical suprapylarial pattern of infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis was produced indicating that the parasites belong to the Leishmania mexicana complex. All isolates reacted with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis monoclonal antibodies. The isoenzyme analysis differentiated these isolates from standard isolates of L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. m. aristedesi, L. m. pifanoi, L. m. garnhami and L. m. ssp.(Goiás-W. Barbosa. These isolates seem to be a subspecies of L. mexicana very closely related to L. m. amazonensis from which they differ by decreased electrophoretic mobility of GPI, PEP and ALAT. This is the first record of the isolation of a parasite of thegenus Leishmania in a rodent captured in the State of Bahia.

  20. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

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    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  1. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the later the lineage became extinct in southwestern Tibet.

  2. A new species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Robles, María Del Rosario

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico, four species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 have been recorded in wild rodents belonging to the family Heteromyidae. In the present paper, we describe a new species based on specimens collected from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Heteromyidae: Heteromyinae) in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Trichuris silviae n. sp. can be differentiated from the congeners described in North and South American rodents by morphological and morphometric features, such as the possession of a wide spicular tube, a thicker proximal cloacal tube, a shorter distal cloacal tube and a cylindrical spicular sheath. This is the first description of a Trichuris spp. from heteromyid rodents in Mexico and the fourth in North America. Despite the broad distribution of Heteromys spp., few cases of Trichuris infection have been reported. Further studies are necessary to verify if the new species is present in other heteromyid rodents in order to increase our knowledge about its geographical and host distribution.

  3. Glirinae (Gliridae, Rodentia) from the type area of the Aragonian and adjacent areas (provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper, the first in a series of monographs on the mammal faunas from the type area of the Aragonian and adjacent areas in the provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, deals with the description and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Glirinae (Gliridae: dormice).

  4. PATRONES DE REPLICACIÓN Y BANDEO NO DIFERENCIAL EN ARDILLAS COLOMBIANAS DEL GÉNERO SCIURUS (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE

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    Bueno Marta Lucia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Las ardillas colombianas muestran una gran variabilidad citogenética lo que ha despertado el interés en ahondar aspectos evolutivos en el grupo. Para esto varias herramientas de bandeo cromosómico deben ser analizadas con detenimiento en complemento con la técnica clásica de bandeo G. Estas técnicas incluyen otras bandas diferenciales como la banda Q y R y bandas no diferenciales tipo banda C y NOR. Se explica la utilidad de cada uno de estos complementos en el análisis citogenético de especies y las observaciones para los citotipos de las ardillas colombianas.

  5. Leishmania mexicana in Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen (Rodentia, Echimyidae in a region endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Air C. Barretto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of Leishmania were recovered from five of 27 specimens of the rodent Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen captured near Três Braços in the Atlantic Forest region of Bahia, Brazil. Two of these isolates were recovered from hamsters inoculated with a pooled triturate of liver, spleen and skin tissue from apparently healthy P. i. denigratus. The third isolate was recovered from a triturate of only skin tissue from another. Metastasis was observed in the inoculated hamsters, the parasites grew abundantly in artificial media and a typical suprapylarial pattern of infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis was produced indicating that the parasites belong to the Leishmania mexicana complex. All isolates reacted with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis monoclonal antibodies. The isoenzyme analysis differentiated these isolates from standard isolates of L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. m. aristedesi, L. m. pifanoi, L. m. garnhami and L. m. ssp.(Goiás-W. Barbosa. These isolates seem to be a subspecies of L. mexicana very closely related to L. m. amazonensis from which they differ by decreased electrophoretic mobility of GPI, PEP and ALAT. This is the first record of the isolation of a parasite of thegenus Leishmania in a rodent captured in the State of Bahia.Três isolados de Leishmania foram obtidos de cinco entre 27 exemplares do roedor Proechimys iheringi denigratus, capturados na região de Três Braços, na mata atlântica do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O isolamento desse parasito foi feito através de inoculação de triturado de pele, baço e fígado em patas de hamsters. Em pelo menos um dos casos, (MTB-574, o parasito foi isolado da pele. Metas- tase foi observada nos hamsters inoculados, os parasitos cresceram abundantemente em meios artificiais de cultura e um padrão suprapapilario típico foi obtido em Lutzomyia longipalpis, indicando que o parasito pertence ao complexo L. mexicana. Todos os isolados reagiram positivamente com anticorpos monoclonais de L. m. mexicana e L. m. amazonensis. A análise isoenzimática diferenciou o parasito de isolados padrões de L. m. mexicana. L. m. amazonensis. L. m. aristedesi. L. m. pifanoi. L. m. garnhami e L. m. ssp(Goiás-W. Barbosa. O parasito parece ser uma subespécie de L. mexicana muito próxima à L. m. amazonensis, da qual difere pela menor mobilidade eletroforêtica de GPI, PEP e ALAT. Este e o primeiro registro do isolamento de um parasito do gênero Leishmania em um roedor capturado no Estado da Bahia.

  6. A taxonomic revision of the Pleistocene Hystrix (Hystricidae, Rodentia) from Eurasia with notes on the evolution of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, van D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of many hundreds of the high-crowned cheek teeth of Hystrix specimens from the Euro-Asiatic Pleistocene in the collections of European and Asiatic institutions have been compared with extant species for a revision of the genus. A review is given about the extant genera and species of th

  7. Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

  8. Evolutionary and biological implications of dental mesial drift in rodents: the case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia.

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    Helder Gomes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view.

  9. Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae as a putative reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.

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    André Luiz Rodrigues Roque

    Full Text Available The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n = 24 born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi. T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild. Therefore the tissular parasitism of the skin, infectiveness to the vector, and amplification of the transmission cycle of both Leishmania species could be expected.

  10. Aepyosciurinae -- a new subfamily of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from basal loess deposits at the northeastern border of Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aepyosciurinae, a new subfamily of Sciuridae, were found at the base of the early Pleistocene loess deposits in Dongxiang County, Gansu Province. Its unilaterally hypsodont and lophodont cheek teeth are unique among the sciurids so far known all over the world. Certain degree of similarity can be observed between the cheek teeth of the new subfamily and the Anomalurinae living in tropical and subtropical forests in central and western Africa. Aepyosciuris orientalis gen. et sp. nov. might have lived in montaneous woodland or grassland and lived on harder leaves, barks, or even grass. This tends to show that the northeastern border area of the Tibetan Plateau had been lifted considerably high in early Pleistocene (ca. 2 Ma), with drier climate, becoming a suitable habitat for Aepyosciurus orientalis.

  11. Potential distribution and new records of Trinomys species (Rodentia: Echimyidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro

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    Nina Attias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The spiny rats of the genus Trinomys Thomas, 1921 have a broad distribution in the Atlantic Forests of southeastern Brazil. However, some species are known only from their type locality and adjacent areas. In our study, nine areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro were surveyed and three species of the genus were captured - Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877, T. setosus (Desmarest, 1817 and T. gratiosus bonafidei (MOOJEN, 1948. We extended the distribution of T. gratiosus bonafidei in 100 km, in a straight line to the northwest, and into an area of Semidecidual Seasonal Forest. We captured T. setosus, which had not been previously recorded in the state, in the municipality of Cambuci, extending its distribution 150 km, in a straight line to the east of its closest record, in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. The state of Rio de Janeiro has now six recognized species of Trinomys, however none of them were collected above 1300 m of altitude. We used occurrence points provided by our inventories data and from the literature to model the potential distribution of Trinomys species. We used climatic, topographic and phytogeographic variables to prepare the potential distribution maps. The algorithm used for modeling was provided by the software Maxent, version 3.2.1. Although species boundaries within Trinomys in Rio de Janeiro State are not yet clear, their distributions seem to be parapatric, except for T. iheringi and T. dimidiatus.

  12. Changes on Schistosoma mansoni (Digenea: Schistosomatidae worm load in Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae concurrently infected with Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae

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    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The water rat, Nectomys squamipes, closely involved in schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil, has been found naturally infected simultaneously by Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify parasitic interaction in concurrent infection. It was replicated four times with a total of 42 water rats and essayed two times with 90 mice pre-infected with E. paraensei. Rodents were divided into three groups in each replication. A wild strain recently isolated from Sumidouro, RJ, and a laboratory strain of S. mansoni from Belo Horizonte (BH was used. Rats infected with E. paraensei were challenged 4 weeks later with S. mansoni and mice 2 or 6 weeks after the infection with S. mansoni. Necropsy took place 8 weeks following S. mansoni infection. The N. squamipes treatment groups challenged with S. mansoni RJ strain showed a significant decrease (80 and 65% in the S. mansoni parasite load when compared with their respective control groups. There was a significant change or no change in the hosts challenged with the BH strain. The persistence time of E. paraensei within host was extended in relation to control groups, with a consequent enhancement of the number of recovered worm. An E. paraensei strain-specific influence on S. mansoni parasitism is reported. This paper presents some experimental data about this interaction in N. squamipes and Mus musculus.

  13. Napoleon Bonaparte and the fate of an Amazonian rat: new data on the taxonomy of Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Cuisin, Jacques; Patton, James L; Hänni, Catherine; Catzeflis, François

    2003-04-01

    The spiny rat Mesomys hispidus is one of many South American rodents that lack adequate taxonomic definition. The few sampled populations of this broadly distributed trans-Amazonian arboreal rat have come from widely separated regions and are typically highly divergent. The holotype was described in 1817 by A.-G. Desmarest, after Napoleon's army brought it to Paris following the plunder of Lisbon in 1808; however, the locality of origin has remained unknown. Here we examine the taxonomic status of this species by direct comparison of 50 extant individuals with the holotype at the morphometric and genetic levels, the latter based on 331 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene retrieved from a small skin fragment of the holotype with ancient DNA technology. Extensive sequence divergence is present among samples of M. hispidus collected from throughout its range, from French Guiana across Amazonia to Bolivia and Peru, with at least seven mitochondrial clades recognized (average divergence of 7.7% Kimura 2-parameter distance). Sequence from the holotype is, however, only weakly divergent from those of recent samples from French Guiana. Moreover, the holotype clusters with greater that 99% posterior probability with samples from this part of Amazonia in a discriminant analysis based on 22 cranial and dental measurements. Thus, we suggest that the holotype was originally obtained in eastern Amazonia north of the Amazon River, most likely in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Despite the high level of sequence diversity and marked morphological differences in size across the range of M. hispidus, we continue to regard this assemblage as a single species until additional samples and analyses suggest otherwise.

  14. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

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    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.

  15. Three new karyotypes extend a Robertsonian fan in Ethiopian spiny mice of the genus Acomys I. Geoffroy, 1838 (Mammalia, Rodentia

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    Leonid Lavrenchenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new karyotypes (2n=40, 44, 52 are described revealing what are probably new cryptic species of Ethiopian spiny mice. Two other diploid numbers have already been reported for the country (2n=36 and 68 and, overall, the five known karyotypic forms constitute a common lineage differentiated by a Robertsonian process. Such arrays of karyotypic forms are known as a ‘Robertsonian fan’. This view of the situation in Ethiopian Acomys I. Geoffroy, 1838 is based on standard chromosomal morphology that reveals a constant FN (68 and needs further investigation of chromosome homology by differential staining and/or molecular cytogenetic techniques as well as further molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  16. Three new karyotypes extend a Robertsonian fan in Ethiopian spiny mice of the genus Acomys I. Geoffroy, 1838 (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenchenko, L A; Nadjafova, R S; Bulatova, N Sh

    2011-01-01

    Three new karyotypes (2n=40, 44, 52) are described revealing what are probably new cryptic species of Ethiopian spiny mice. Two other diploid numbers have already been reported for the country (2n=36 and 68) and, overall, the five known karyotypic forms constitute a common lineage differentiated by a Robertsonian process. Such arrays of karyotypic forms are known as a 'Robertsonian fan'. This view of the situation in Ethiopian Acomys I. Geoffroy, 1838 is based on standard chromosomal morphology that reveals a constant FN (68) and needs further investigation of chromosome homology by differential staining and/or molecular cytogenetic techniques as well as further molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  17. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of three small mammalian insectivores: Acomys spinosissimus (Rodentia), Crocidura cyanea (Eulipotyphla), and Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonzaier, Julia; Van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2013-06-01

    The gastrointestinal morphology was investigated in three mammalian insectivorous species, namely Acomys spinosissimus, Crocidura cyanea, and Amblysomus hottentotus. The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive morphological comparison between the different species and to explore whether anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations are associated with the insectivorous diet of these species. The shape, proportional length, and proportional surface areas of the different gastrointestinal regions were recorded and compared in the three insectivores. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) were used for morphological assessment. In all three species, the stomach was simple and uncompartmentalized. The internal aspect of the stomach in A. spinosissimus was hemi-glandular, containing stratified squamous epithelium in the fundus, with glandular epithelium in the body and pyloric region. However, C. cyanea and A. hottentotus had wholly glandular stomachs. Paneth cells were not observed in the intestinal tracts of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus. Acomys spinosissimus was the only species studied that had a cecum. The proximal colonic region of A. spinosissimus had V-shaped mucosal folds. Histologically, C. cyanea had villi throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas for A. hottentotus villi were not present in the most distal gastrointestinal regions. In both C. cyanea and A. hottentotus, longitudinal mucosal folds were present in the distal part of the colon. The GITs of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus showed little morphological differentiation namely, a simple, glandular stomach and the lack of a cecum.

  18. Cytochrome b sequences reveal Acomys minous (Rodentia, Muridae) paraphyly and answer the question about the ancestral karyotype of Acomys dimidiatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barome, P O; Lymberakis, P; Monnerot, M; Gautun, J C

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial gene show that the spiny mouse Acomys from Crete, known as the endemic species A. minous, is composed of two distinct maternal lineages ("A" and "B"). Group "A" sequences cluster with A. nesiotes (Cyprus) and group "B" sequences cluster with A. cilicicus (Turkey), which is evidence of paraphyly of A. minous in regard to these two species. From cyt b sequences, the three taxa are very closely related to A. cahirinus (Egypt): the maximum divergence found among these sequences is 1.6%, which is equivalent to the intraspecific diversity observed in other Acomys species. Paleozoology evidenced that man unintentionally introduced Acomys into Crete and Cyprus during antiquity. The divergence time between Acomys cyt b sequences found in Crete was estimated at 0.4 Myr, which means that the diversity observed did not appear after the introduction but reflects a much more ancient polymorphism. Cytochrome b phylogeny and cytogenetic data together comprise evidence that, within the species A. dimidiatus (Saudi Arabia, Israel, Egypt), it is the karyotypic form with 36 chromosomes that derives from the form with 38 chromosomes, due to a single acrocentric fusion.

  19. Penial morphology in three species of Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Barbosa, O; Bernardo, J S L; Loguercio, M F C; Freitas, T R O; Santos-Mallet, J R; Bidau, C J

    2013-02-01

    The present study analyses the glans penis and baculum morphology of three Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830, Ctenomys minutus Nehring, 1887 and Ctenomys flamarioni Travi, 1981, in order to identify possible variations and understand some more about this taxonomically complex group. We used fixed penis from 15 previously listed adult specimens. For a more detailed baculum analysis, the penis underwent dissection and diaphanisation, whereas to analyse the glans penis surface we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed striking differences in baculum morphology among the three species. While C. minutus have a particular V-shaped proximal baculum tip, C. flamarioni baculum is thin throughout the shaft with rounded proximal and distal tips. Ctenomys torquatus have a shorter and larger baculum, similar to what has previously been described for the species. Glans penis surface microstructure analyses also revealed inter-specific differences, with penial spines varying in shape, size and, especially density. Although C. torquatus has a relatively small penis, it has the largest penial spine density, which suggests a more complex penial ornamentation in this species.

  20. The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Mammalia: Rodentia, found at the archaeological site SC PRV 02, Santa Catarina Island, Brasil

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    Paulo César Simões-Lopes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina Island possesses dozens of archeological sites where the skeletal remains of a great array of animals can be found. The goal of this study was to quantify the skeletal remains of capybaras found at the archeological site SC PRV 02 (1067 to 1735 BP, located in the northern part of the island, along the shores of Lagoa da Conceição, a saltwater lagoon. Thirty-seven skeletal fragments of at least 12 different individuals were identified. The anatomic regions of the capybaras most sought-after by pre-colonial inhabitants were the anterior and posterior limbs. About 40% of the skeletal fragments did not show any epiphyseal fusion with the shaft. Approximately 48% of the fragments found presented evidence of human activity. Our analyses suggest that capybaras played an important role in the diet of these inhabitants and that they were also used for the confection of different functional goods. We diagnosed the manipulation techniques used to obtain these goods, such as percussion and transversal section. The evidence of carbonization and superficial incisions indicates dismembering, preparation, and consumption of capybaras for feeding. Similar techniques were found at other archeological sites of the same age, suggesting that even though pre-colonial inhabitants of the island were considered to be fishermen, capybaras represented a well-appreciated resource.

  1. [Diet of the capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocharidae) in Caño Limón, Arauca, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Betancur, Julio; Cavelier, Jaime

    2003-06-01

    We studied the composition and seasonal variation of the diet of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in the flooded savannas of Caño Limón, Colombia. This was achieved by direct observation of the consumption patterns of these animals. The capybaras only consumed plants, and their diet included 89 species of 22 families. Sixty three percent of these plant species had not been reported before. The most commonly consumed plants (94% of the diet), belonged to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Leguminosae and Pontederiaceae. Only seven species represented 60% of the total diet: the grasses Hymenachne amplexicaulis (16.9%), Digitaria bicornis (4.5%) and Panicum maximum (4.4%) and the Cyperaceae Rynchospora corymbosa (4.4%). There was seasonal variation in the diet composition of capybaras.

  2. Redescription of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri (Travassos, 1916) (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María del Rosario; Eberhardt, María Ayelen Teresita; Bain, Odile; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-08-01

    Twenty-eight Capillariinae species have been recorded in rodents; 1 of these species was reported from a caviomorph rodent, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (capybara), and placed in the genus Echinocoleus by Moravec (1982). However, both original description and subsequent contributions of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri are poor and incomplete. In this paper, this species is redescribed, and a new geographical distribution is reported. The redescription is based on morphologic and morphometrical features; intestine ends in a cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, caudal bursa composed of 2 large ventrolateral lobes with a fleshy internal part and a membranous external part (they are not united dorsally with a membrane), 1 pair of caudal papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines (and particular pattern distribution), sclerotized spicule in male, and vulvar appendage in female, and 3 bacillary bands (1 ventral and 2 lateral). Generic and specific analyses were performed to establish new standards for future studies on the systematic position of Capillariinae species. This study presents new morphological information and a new record of a capillariid species from Argentina.

  3. Biometric features of the capybara´s body and small intestine Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Hydrochaeridae

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    Tarcízio Antônio Rego de Paula

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric aspects of the body were analyzed, as well as some aspects of the small intestine of the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris wild species, particularly those that have been provoking economic interest in meat and leather production. Data such as age, corporal weight and length and thoracic perimeter and height were analyzed. Significant correlations were found between the age and the crown-rump (CR and snout-rump (SR corporal lengths, and between the corporal weight and the parameters of corporal length, thoracic perimeter and height, so that the age and the corporal weight could be obtained starting from more accessible biometric parameters, relative to corporal measurement. Most of the correlations were more significant in the male animals, especially the correlations between the corporal weight and the parameters CR length, thoracic perimeter and height, as well as the correlation among CR length and thoracic height and perimeter, suggesting the existence of possible sexual dimorphism. In relation to the small intestine, estimates were made of the length and volumetric capacity totals as well as those of its individual segments. The capybara possesses a small intestine that is relatively long, about five times longer than the corporal length, and with a volumetric capacity that is relatively high, representing 6.7% of the corporal weight.

  4. Convergent evolution of aquatic foraging in a new genus and species (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2014-06-17

    The island of Sulawesi, in Indonesia, lies at the crossroads of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and has remained isolated from the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves for at least the last 10 million years. Of the 50 native species of rodents on Sulawesi, all are endemic and represent the evolution of a variety of ecological and morphological forms within the Muridae and Sciuridae. Carnivorous rodents have evolved, perhaps independently, in Muridae from the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul, but semi-aquatic murids are only known from Sahul. Here we describe a new genus and species of insectivorous water rat from Sulawesi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that it is related to the shrew rats of Sulawesi and represents an origin of aquatic carnivory that is independent from the evolution of water rats on Sahul. Many areas of Sulawesi have not been surveyed systematically and current lists of mammal species are likely to dramatically underestimate actual diversity.

  5. Caracterização morfológica dos dentes de mocó Kerodon rupestris: Mammalia: Rodentia

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    Juliana Montovani Thomaz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O Kerodon rupestris, também conhecido como mocó, é um roedor herbívoro encontrado no Brasil. A dentição dos mamíferos apresenta-se variável de acordo com as espécies embora seja formada pelos mesmos componentes: esmalte, dentina, cemento e polpa. Neste estudo foram utilizadas sete cabeças de Kerodon rupestris, adultos, de ambos os sexos. Na cavidade oral do Kerodon rupestris, devido ao tamanho relativamente grande dos incisivos, estes se destacaram dos demais e foram encontrados um par em cada mandíbula. Dois pares de pré-molares e três pares de molares foram encontrados, sendo representados na fórmula 2x (I 1/1, C 0/0, P 1/1, M 3/3. Os molares apresentaram duas cúspides, conformação que conferia a estes dentes um aspecto serrilhado. Microscopicamente os dentes incisivos, pré-molares e molares foram classificados como hipsodontes, ou seja, dentes em constante erupção.

  6. Karyotypes of Akodon orophilus Osgood 1913 and Thomasomys sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae from Huánuco, Peru

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    Víctor Pacheco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional chromosomal preparations were made of three native mice from Huánuco, Peru: a male and a female of Thomasomys sp., and a male of Akodon orophilus. Thomasomys sp. had a karyotype of 2n = 42, XY (n = 21, meanwhile A. orophilus presented 2n = 22, XY (n = 11. Comparisons between chromosomal pairs from the existent literature indicate that both are new karyotypes. Thomasomys sp. has a distinct sexual Y chromosome, the only metacentric (m reported for the genus. The chromosomes X and Y of A. orophilus are acrocentrics (a; and the length of chromosome Y (2/3 of the length of X distinguishes A. orophilus from other congeneric. Because the structural differences between the sexual chromosomes usually generates mechanism of reproductive isolation at intraspecific level and are bigger still in interspecific crosses, we concluded that the karyotypes reported here support the validity of the species A. orophilus and suggest that Thomasomys sp. represents a new species to science.

  7. Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality

    OpenAIRE

    Matějů, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to “Rensch’s rule”, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in t...

  8. Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějů, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-14

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to "Rensch's rule", which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in the structural body size of ground squirrels, an otherwise ecologically relatively homogenous group of terrestrial rodents. We found the general trend of male-biased SSD in ground squirrels, however, male size increases nearly perfectly isometrically with female size among species and sociality does not explain departures from this relationship. Species with different sociality grades significantly differ in body size, with the most social species tending to be the largest. We suggest that lack of conformity with Rensch´s rule in ground squirrels may be attributed to their low variation in SSD, and briefly discuss three potential causes of small magnitude of SSD in the structural size in rodents: low selection on SSD in structural dimensions, ontogenetic and genetic constraints and the existence of ecological/selection factors preventing the evolution of extensive SSD.

  9. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  10. A new host of Trypanosoma cruzi from Jujuy, Argentina: octodontomys gliroides (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844 (Rodentia, Octodontidae

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    Nicolas J. Schweigmann

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify wild hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, surveys were conducted in the subandean valleys of Jujuy Province, Argentina, between June 1986 and March 1987. Seventy two mammals from 13 different species were examined by xenodiagnosis. Fifty two of them were mostly roedents trapped at the localities of Maimará, León and Tilcara, and the remainder had been kept in captivity at the Estación Biológica Experimental, in Jujuy. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected only in 2 Octodontomys gliroides (2 pos./8 exam. 25% from all 72 examined mammals. Isolates were called Octodontomys Argentina 1 and 2 (OA1 and OA2. Both infected animals were caught at the archaelogical ruin of Pucará, at Tilcara. Repeated searches for triatomines in the ruin itself and in neighbour houses rendered negative results. Groups of mice inoculated with either OA1 or OA2 isolates became infected between 7 (OA1 to 12 days (OA2 postinoculation PI. Parasitemia peaks were observed between day 12th - 14th PI. Scarce amastigote nests were found in myocardium and skeletal muscle. Mortality was observed only for mice inoculated with OA1. Isoenzyme patterns of OA1 and OA2 were identical to one found in dogs and slightly different from that of human parasites in Argentina. Bones from Octodontomys sp., were recently found in a cave, dated 10200-8600 BC, in Pumamarca, near Tilcara, Jujuy. There are evidences that O. gliroides cohabited with man in ancient times and was associated to the domestic cycle of T. cruzi transmission, playing a role like that of domestic cavies. in Bolivia.

  11. Dietary selection in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the maize agro-ecosystems of central and southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richard O; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    We studied the feeding habits of Mastomys natalensis by analysing a total of 2934 stomachs from individuals snap trapped from maize fields and the surrounding fallow land of central and southwestern Tanzania between February 2001 and October 2002. Mastomys natalensis had a wide range of food item...

  12. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in measurements. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of the present parasite and other species of Oxyuridae places it as a putative sister taxon to other S. obvelata.

  13. Descriptive morphometry and stereology of the tubular compartment in the wild rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves; de Sousa, Tatiane Pires; Costa, Kyvia Lugate C; da Matta, Sérgio Luis P; de Melo, Fabiano Rodrigues; Santa-Rita, Ricardo de Mattos

    2013-04-01

    Information on reproductive characteristics of wild rodents is scarce in the literature. This study aimed to assess the testis morphometry and stereology of Hylaeamys megacephalus. We used five animals in the study, captured in forest fragments in southwestern Goias State, between April and August 2009. The testes were fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate. Two-micrometer-thick sections from each sample were stained with toluidine blue/sodium borate 1%. Images of the testicular parenchyma were obtained from photomicroscope and morphometric and stereological analyses were carried out using the Image Pro-Plus software. The average body weight observed in the specimens of H. megacephalus in the study was 47.84 g, of which, 0.40% is allocated to the gonads (GSI) and 0.36% to the seminiferous tubules (TSI). These parameters suggest promiscuous reproductive behavior, of the polyandrous type, favoring males with higher sperm production and consequently, larger testes. The volume density of the seminiferous tubules was 94.46%, which represented a volume of 0.18 mL. The volume density and volume of the interstitium were 5.54% and 0.011 mL, respectively. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 206.5 μm and the height of seminiferous epithelium was 71.27 μm. H. megacephalus presents 5.06 m of seminiferous tubules and an average of 27.96 m of seminiferous tubules per gram of testis. The mitotic and meiotic indexes showed losses of 85 and 42%, respectively and an overall loss of 90% over the full spermatogenic process. The number of Sertoli cells per testis and per gram of testis was 7.8×10(6) and 95.28×10(6), respectively. Most of the morphometric parameters evaluated in H. megacephalus in this study are within the range of values described for most mammals.

  14. A new genus of aplodontid rodent (Mammalia, Rodentia) from the late Oligocene of northern Junggar Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shundong; Meng, Jin; McLean, Sarah; Wu, Wenyu; Ni, Xijun; Ye, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of aplodontid rodent, Proansomys dureensis, from the late Oligocene of the northern Junggar Basin of China is described. The new genus is referred to as Ansomyinae because the ectoloph on the upper cheek teeth, although not fully crested, has attained the same characteristic bucket-handle-shaped configuration as other members of the subfamily. It represents the earliest record of the subfamily yet discovered in Asia and is more plesiomorphic than species of the genus Ansomys in having a partly crested ectoloph, a lower degree of lophodonty, and less complex tooth basins (lacking accessory lophules). Proansomys has transitional features between Prosciurus and Ansomys, suggesting that the Ansomyinae derived from a group of aplodontids related to Prosciurus, as did other advanced aplodontid rodents. This provides new light on the paleobiogeography of the Ansomyinae.

  15. Establishment of Orientia tsutsugamushi Lc-1 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) infection in ICR outbred mice (Rodentia: Muridae) by needle challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Chan, Teik-Chye; Richards, Allen L; McCardle, Wesley; Schuster, Anthony L

    2014-05-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is a pathogen transmitted by Leptotrombidium that causes scrub typhus. To develop an infection mouse model, a mite-derived isolate of O. tsutsugamushi was established from a laboratory-maintained colony of Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1). This Lc-1 isolate was initially presented to ICR (CD-1) mice by feeding an infected Lc chigger on the ear of a mouse. Once the Lc-1 was adapted to the ICR mice, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate O. tsutsugamushi genomic equivalent copies in tissues and sera. Furthermore, times to onset of the signs of infection are reported in this study. This study provides information useful for future research on this host-pathogen interaction and the associated vaccine efficacy trials.

  16. Karyotype reorganisation in the subtilis group of birch mice (Rodentia, Dipodidae, Sicista): unexpected taxonomic diversity within a limited distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskaya, Y M; Aniskin, V M; Bogomolov, P L; Surov, A V; Tikhonov, I A; Tikhonova, G N; Robinson, T J; Volobouev, V T

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cytogenetic studies of Sicista subtilis and S. severtzovi (Dipodidae, Sicistinae), both attributable to the subtilis group of birch mice, revealed extensive karyotype diversity with 2n = 16-26 and NFa values of 26-46 indicating the overwhelming non-Robertsonian nature of chromosomal reorganization in these species. The numerical and structural chromosome variability was principally found in specimens located within a confined region of the East European (Russian) Plain. The approximately 135,000-km(2) area occurs in the vicinity of the Don River bend between 49°13'N/43°46'E and 51°32'N/36°16'E. The detection of cytotypes sharing similar 2n and NF values, but having morphologically distinct chromosomes, suggests that these may result from polymorphisms present both within recognized species and in cryptic taxa not hitherto described. We conducted a comprehensive, comparative chromosome banding analysis of 52 birch mice (21 localities) referable to the subtilis group and report the presence of 5 distinct karyotypes, each characterized by a combination of stable, variable, and partly overlapping 2n/NFa values. These karyotypes differed from each other by 10-29 structural chromosomal rearrangements (18.1 ± 6.3) that comprised Rb fusions/fissions (42.2%), pericentric inversions (31.1%), and tandem translocations (22.2%). The composition, and the high numbers of these chromosomal changes, is likely to provide an effective means of post-mating isolation, suggesting that taxonomic diversity within the subtilis group is larger than currently accepted. Additionally, we report the frequent fixation of tandem translocations in sample populations, one of which was found in a polymorphic state representing, as far as we are aware, the first case of an in statu nascendi tandem fusion in wild populations. Moreover, our data revealed that bi-armed chromosomes were involved in fusions detected in some of the subtilis taxa. In each instance, however, fusions were preceded by pericentric inversions that transform one or both bi-armed chromosomes into acrocentrics resulting in either centromere-telomere or Robertsonian translocations. Finally, a phylogenetic scenario inferred from a cladistic analysis of the chromosomal data suggests that the extensive karyotypic diversification within the subtilis group in the south-east region of the Russian Plain most likely results from fragmentation of a continuously distributed, ancestral population. It is thought that this occurred at the last glacial maximum (18,000-14,000 years B.P.), and that the process of isolation has been exacerbated by increasing human activity in the region in modern times.

  17. Karyotype diversity suggests that Laonastes aenigmamus (Laotian rock rat) (Rodentia, Diatomyidae) is a multi-specific genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Florence; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Keovichit, Kham; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Laonastes aenigmamus (Khanyou) is a recently described rodent species living in geographically separated limestone formations of the Khammuan Province in Lao PDR. Chromosomes of 21 specimens of L. aenigmamus were studied using chromosome banding as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques using human painting, telomere repeats, and 28S rDNA probes. Four different karyotypes were established. Study with human chromosome paints and FISH revealed that four large chromosomes were formed by multiple common tandem fusions, with persistence of some interstitial telomeres. The rearrangements separating the different karyotypes (I to IV) were also reconstructed. Various combinations of Robertsonian translocations or tandem fusions involving the same chromosomes differentiate these karyotypes. These rearrangements create a strong gametic barrier, which isolates specimens with karyotype II from the others. C-banding and FISH with telomere repeats also exhibit large and systematized differences between karyotype II and others. These data indicate an ancient reproductive separation and suggest that Laonastes is not a mono-specific genus.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: distinct patterns of infection in the sibling caviomorph rodent species Thrichomys apereoides laurentius and Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia, Echimyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2005-09-01

    Thrichomys apereoides, a caviomorph rodent species common in a highly endemic area for Chagas disease in Brazil, may act as reservoir of the parasite. However, no information is available concerning its sibling species Thrichomys pachyurus, found in the Pantanal region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is found only in the enzootic cycle. We followed up the cross infection of these cryptic species with two isolates derived from naturally infected T. pachyurus and Thrichomys apereoides laurentius. No regional co-adaptation between Thrichomys species and the regional isolates were noticed. However, significant differences in the outcome of the infection were observed. T. a. laurentius was more resistant than T. pachyurus, as expressed by lower parasitemia and less histopathological damage. The routine biochemical markers used for laboratory rodents were unsuitable for follow up of infection in Thrichomys spp, since they did not correlate with the histopathological findings or allowed the kinetic follow-up of tissue colonization by the parasite.

  19. Genetic and morphological variability in South American rodent Oecomys (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): evidence for a complex of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C C; Flores, T; Pieczarka, J C; Rossi, R V; Sampaio, M I C; Rissino, J D; Amaral, P J S; Nagamachi, C Y

    2012-01-01

    The rodent genus Oecomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises ~16 species that inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Central America and South America. In this study specimens of Oecomys paricola Thomas, 1904 from Belém and Marajó island, northern Brazil, were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular and morphological analyses. Three karyotypes were found, two from Belém (2n = 68, fundamental number (FN) = 72 and 2n = 70, FN = 76) and a third from Marajó island (2n = 70, FN = 72). No molecular or morphological differences were found between the individuals with differing cytotypes from Belém, but differences were evident between the individuals from Belém and Marajó island. Specimens from Belém city region may represent two cryptic species because two different karyotypes are present in the absence of significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics. The Marajó island and Belém populations may represent distinct species that have been separated for some time, and are in the process of morphological and molecular differentiation as a consequence of reproductive isolation at the geographic and chromosomal levels. Thus, the results suggest that O. paricola may be a complex of species.

  20. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  1. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  2. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oxymycterus misionalis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rain forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Juliana; Bain, Odile; Navone, Graciela

    2002-06-01

    A new species of Litomosoides is described from sigmodontine murids occurring in the rain forests of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp., a parasite of the abdominal cavity of Oxymycterus misionalis, belongs to the sigmodontis group and is closely related to L. legerae and L. oxymycteri. The new species is differentiated by the salient amphids, an asymmetrical annular thickening of the buccal capsule, by the arrangement of the head and tail papillae, and the shape and size of the microfilaria.

  3. Corrections in the taxonomic position in the helminth-fauna of Apodemus spp. (Rodentia in the Czech Republic

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    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1955 as yet in the territory of the Czech Republic in 4 species of the genus Apodemus (namely A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. microps and A. agrarius, 49 species of parasitic worms were registered in total. At their revision, comparing with the modern literature from the last five decades, the author has approached to several corrections. Subjects are, first of all, several opinions on the species from the genera Plagiorchis, Echinostoma, Aprostatandrya, Catenotaenia, Hymenolepis, Syphacia, Heligmosomum, Heligmosomoides, Ganguleterakis and Aonchotheca. Of highly characteristic helminths parasitizing Apodemus spp. in Czech Republic, they are from the class Trematoda: Brachylaemus recurvus; from the class Cestoda: Paranoplocephala omphalodes, Skrjabinotaenia lobata, Catenotaenia sp., Hymenolepis straminea; from the class Nematoda: Syphacia stroma, S. frederici, S. agraria, Heligmosomum pseudocostellatum, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Calodium hepaticum, Trichocephalus muris; from the class Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis. A number of species has to be verified, in a future, by methods of molecular biology.

  4. Karyotypic analyses and morphological comments on the endemic and endangered Brazilian painted tree rat Callistomys pictus (Rodentia, Echimyidae

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    Karen Ventura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callistomys belongs to the rodent family Echimyidae, subfamily Echimyinae, and its only living representative is Callistomys pictus, a rare and vulnerable endemic species of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Callistomys has been previously classified as Nelomys, Loncheres, Isothrix and Echimys. In this paper we present the karyotype of Callistomys pictus, including CBG and GTG-banding patterns and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. Comments on Callistomys pictus morphological traits and a compilation of Echimyinae chromosomal data are also included. Our analyses revealed that Callistomys can be recognized both by its distintinctive morphology and by its karyotype.

  5. Teasing apart socially-induced infertility in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C

    2011-12-01

    The Damaraland mole-rat is a subterranean mammal exhibiting extreme reproductive skew with a single reproductive female in each colony responsible for procreation. Non-reproductive female colony members are physiologically suppressed while in the colony, exhibiting reduced concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and a decreased response of the pituitary, as measured by the release of bioactive LH, to an exogenous dose of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Removal of the reproductive female from the colony results in an elevation of LH and an enhanced response of the pituitary to a GnRH challenge in non-reproductive females comparable to reproductive females, implying control of reproduction in these individuals by the reproductive female. The Damaraland mole-rat is an ideal model for investigating the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, we know less about the control of reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemistry of the GnRH system of both reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats has revealed no significant differences with respect to morphology, distribution or numbers of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya. We examined whether the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin was responsible for the inhibition of the release of the GnRH from the neurons indirectly by measuring LH concentrations in these non-reproductive females following single, hourly and 8 hourly injections of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The results imply that the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, is not responsible for the inhibition of GnRH release from the perikarya in non-reproductive females. Preliminary data examining the circulating levels of cortisol also do not support a role for circulating glucocorticoids. The possible role of kisspeptin is discussed.

  6. Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A

    2011-05-24

    The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (Φ(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations.

  7. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  8. In the wake of invasion: tracing the historical biogeography of the South American cricetid radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae.

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    Rafael N Leite

    Full Text Available The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma. Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.

  9. In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Rafael N; Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis; Francisca C Almeida; Werneck, Fernanda P.; Duke S Rogers; Marcelo Weksler

    2014-01-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early e...

  10. In the wake of invasion: tracing the historical biogeography of the South American cricetid radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafael N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Almeida, Francisca C; Werneck, Fernanda P; Rogers, Duke S; Weksler, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma). Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.

  11. Characterisation of the vascular pathology in Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae following experimental infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae

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    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection. OBJECTIVE To describe the histopathology of vascular lesions in S. hispidus following infection with A. costaricensis. METHODS Twenty-one S. hispidus were euthanised at 30, 50, 90 and 114 days post-infection (dpi, and guts and mesentery (including the cecal artery were collected. Tissues were fixed in Carson’s Millonig formalin, histologically processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned with a rotary microtome, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, resorcin-fuchsin, Perls, Sirius Red (pH = 10.2, Congo Red, and Azan trichrome for brightfield microscopy analysis. FINDINGS At 30 and 50 dpi, live eggs and larvae were present inside the vasa vasorum of the cecal artery, leading to eosinophil infiltrates throughout the vessel adventitia and promoting centripetal vasculitis with disruption of the elastic layers. Disease severity increased at 90 and 114 dpi, when many worms had died and the intensity of the vascular lesions was greatest, with intimal alterations, thrombus formation, iron accumulation, and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION In addition to abdominal angiostrongyliasis, our data suggest that this model could be very useful for autoimune vasculitis and atherosclerosis studies.

  12. Reproductive biology of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rice fields of southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.THITIPRAMOTE; J.SUWANJARAT; W.G.BREED

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated some aspects of the reproductive biology of male and female greater bandicoot rats,Bandicota indica,in southern Thailand from September 2004 to September 2006. In females,body,uterine and preputial gland weights,occurrences of pregnancies and placental scars,and in males,testicalar weights and histology,and sizes of accessory sex glands,were recorded. Pregnancies occurred predominantly,but not exclusively,in the wet season,with a higher incidence pregnancies in the second,than in the first,dry season. Uterine and preputial gland weights tended to be lower in the first,but not the second dry season,with placental scars occurring at all times of year. Males tended to have heavier testes in the wet season but some seminiferous tubules contained sperm even in the dry season. Seminal vesicles,but not prostates and preputial glands,tended to be heavier in animals in the wet season. We conclude that the greater bandieoot rat in southern Thailand shows maximal reproductive activity in the wet season with some reproductive activity,albeit variable from year to year,occurring in the dry season depending upon environmental conditions. This study has also shown that females,as well as males,have large preputial glands,and that males invariably have small testes regardless of the time of year. These observations suggest a similar timing of reproduction,but a different breeding biology and perhaps social organisation,from that of the sympatric ricefield rat,Rattus argentiventer.

  13. Reproductive biology of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae in the rice fields of southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. THITIPRAMOTE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some aspects of the reproductive biology of male and female greater bandicoot rats Bandicota indica in southern Thailand from September 2004 to September 2006. In females, body, uterine and preputial gland weights, occurrences of pregnancies and placental scars, and in males, testicular weights and histology, and sizes of accessory sex glands, were recorded. Pregnancies occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the wet season, with a higher incidence pregnancies in the second, than in the first, dry season. Uterine and preputial gland weights tended to be lower in the first, but not the second dry season, with placental scars occurring at all times of year. Males tended to have heavier testes in the wet season but some seminiferous tubules contained sperm even in the dry season. Seminal vesicles, but not prostates and preputial glands, tended to be heavier in animals in the wet season. We conclude that the greater bandicoot rat in southern Thailand shows maximal reproductive activity in the wet season with some reproductive activity, albeit variable from year to year, occurring in the dry season depending upon environmental conditions. This study has also shown that females, as well as males, have large preputial glands, and that males invariably have small testes regardless of the time of year. These observations suggest a similar timing of reproduction, but a different breeding biology and perhaps social organisation, from that of the sympatric ricefield rat, Rattus argentiventer [Current Zoology 55(1: 48–55, 2009].

  14. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable" spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) with palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Adriana A; Lapenta, Marina J; Oliveira, Fátima; Motta-Junior, José C

    2004-12-01

    The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi, a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent, is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) physiognomies in São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C. bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii) and armadillo burrows. Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C. bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos. There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C. bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations). It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant. The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.

  15. Dieta del capibara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae en Caño Limón, Arauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Forero-Montaña

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la composición y variación estacional de la dieta del chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris en los esteros de Caño Limón, por medio de observaciones directas del consumo de las plantas. Los chigüiros se alimentaron exclusivamente de plantas y su dieta estuvo compuesta por 89 especies, pertenecientes a 22 familias. El 63 % de las especies son nuevos registros para la dieta del chigüiro. Las cuatro familias mas consumidas fueron Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Leguminosae y Pontederiaceae, las cuales representaron el 94% del total de la dieta. Solo siete especies representaron el 60% del total de la dieta, así: los pastos Hymenachne amplexicaulis (16.9%, Digitaria bicornis (10.9%, Paspalum fasciculatum (10.9%, Cynodon dactylon (6.8%, Urochloa arrecta (4.5% y Panicum maximum (4.4% y la ciperácea Rynchospora corymbosa (4.4%. Se presentó variación en la composición de la dieta de los chigüiros durante las épocas de muestreo.We studied the composition and seasonal variation of the diet of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in the flooded savannas of Caño Lim��n, Colombia. This was achieved by direct observation of the consumption patterns of these animals. The capybaras only consumed plants, and their diet included 89 species of 22 families. Sixty three percent of these plant species had not been reported before. The most commonly consumed plants (94% of the diet, belonged to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Leguminosae and Pontederiaceae. Only seven species represented 60% of the total diet: the grasses Hymenachne amplexicaulis (16.9%, Digitaria bicornis (4.5% and Panicum maximum (4.4% and the Cyperaceae Rynchospora corymbosa (4.4%. There was seasonal variation in the diet composition of capybaras.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Balakirev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI and nuclear (IRBP, GHR genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscus chiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscus chiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus, C. langbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer, and a new species, described in this paper under the name C. thomasi sp. n.

  17. Genetic and morphological variability in South American rodent Oecomys (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): evidence for a complex of species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Rosa; T. Flores; J. C. Pieczarka; R. V. Rossi; M. I. C. Sampaio; J. D. Rissino; P. J. S. Amaral; C. Y. Nagamachi

    2012-12-01

    The rodent genus Oecomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises ∼16 species that inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Central America and South America. In this study specimens of Oecomys paricola Thomas, 1904 from Belém and Marajó island, northern Brazil, were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular and morphological analyses. Three karyotypes were found, two from Belém ($2n = 68$, fundamental number (FN) = 72 and $2n = 70$, FN = 76) and a third from Marajó island ($2n = 70$, FN = 72). No molecular or morphological differences were found between the individuals with differing cytotypes from Belém, but differences were evident between the individuals from Belém and Marajó island. Specimens from Belém city region may represent two cryptic species because two different karyotypes are present in the absence of significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics. The Marajó island and Belém populations may represent distinct species that have been separated for some time, and are in the process of morphological and molecular differentiation as a consequence of reproductive isolation at the geographic and chromosomal levels. Thus, the results suggest that O. paricola may be a complex of species.

  18. Host cell/Orientia tsutsugamushi interactions: evolution and expression of syndecan-4 in Asian rodents (Rodentia, Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Daleen; Tatard, Caroline; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Robinson, Terence J; Dobigny, Gauthier

    2012-07-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile zoonotic disease and worldwide more than a billion people may be at risk for infection. Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Rodents are reported to be the primary reservoir hosts of the disease and according to the most recent surveys, all species within the Rattus sensu lato complex of the tribe Rattini are carriers of scrub typhus. There is no evidence that any of mouse (Mus) species serves as the primary reservoir of the bacterium even when occurring in sympatry with wild infected rats. This contrast in the host/syndecan-4 interactions between Rattini and Asian Murini may be due to intrinsic (i.e., genetic) differences. Herein we compare the sequence and expression levels of syndecan-4 (the putative cell receptor of O. tsutsugamushi) between Rattini species that are known to be natural reservoirs for the typhus agents, and Murini species that are not. Although it was not possible to conclusively link the structural variations detected in syndecan-4 with carrier status in either Rattini and Murini, our findings indicate the absence of a strong Orientia-mediated selective regime acting on gene structure. In contrast, variable spleen-specific syndecan-4 expression levels show a strong correlation between under-expression of syndecan-4 in Murini and seropositive Rattini, compared to seronegative Rattini rodents. We postulate that two divergent responses may be at work in Murini and Rattini, both linked with differential expression of syndecan-4: (i) reduced syndecan-4 transcription in Murini decreases the likelihood that the host cells will become infected by the Orientia bacterium, while (ii) reduced syndecan-4 expression in seropositive Rattini limits the pathogenicity of Orientia and consequently improves the longevity of the rat hosts. These patterns may underpin the poor carrier status of wild mice on the one hand, and the effective role of wild rats as reservoir hosts on the other.

  19. Evolutionary and biological implications of dental mesial drift in rodents: the case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view.

  20. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone.

  1. [Morphological diversity in the postnatal skull development in representatives of two families of rodents (Spalacidae, Castoridae, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzachenko, A Iu; Korablev, N P

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to describe the results of measurement of three information parameters of morphological diversity (entropy, the measure of organization, and the Kullback-Leibler divergence) in the course of postnatal development of the skull in the populations of two rodent species (greater mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus Guld.) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber (L.)). The terms "morphosystem" and "morphological space" and its structure are introduced. Within the framework of the developed approach, "morphological diversity" is considered as a variable associated with the morphological space structure. Testing the hypothesis of the dominance of self-organization processes and an increase in the organization of the morphological diversity of the skull in the course ofontogeny showed its inconsistency. The morphosystem of the skull of the studied species undergoes transitions between more organized and less organized states, periodically approaching and departing from the "steady state." Such dynamics characterizes the morphosystem of the skull as a dynamic and nonlinear system.

  2. El aparato masticador del género extinto Actenomys Burmeister, 1888 (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae: inferencias sobre su modo de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actenomys is registered from Plioceno sediments of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Anatomy of skull and dentition of the genus is described, giving special emphasis to the origin and insertion points of the masticatory musculature. Actenomys is compared with the extant fossorial rodent of the genus Ctenomys, and the development of the masticatory muscles and their degree of functionality are inferred. It is concluded that Actenomys presents a less robust skull, with a masticatory musculature in agreement and incisives with great procumbency. This evidence could explain a possible adaptation of Actenomys to dig using the incisives and an adaptation to live in habitats of higher humidity than the extant forms.Se describe la anatomía cráneo-dentaria del género Actenomys, registrado en sedimentos del Plioceno de la provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina, con especial énfasis los puntos de origen e inserción de la musculatura masticatoria; se lo compara con el roedor fosorial viviente del género Ctenomys, infiriéndose el desarrollo de los músculos masticatorios y su grado de funcionalidad. Se concluye que Actenomys presenta un cráneo menos robusto, con una musculatura masticatoria acorde e incisivos procumbentes, lo que podría explicar una posible adaptación para cavar con los mismos, y que estaría adaptado a vivir en ambientes con un porcentaje de humedad mayor que las formas actuales.

  3. A Study on the Feasibility of Creating a Web-Accessible Marine Mammal Sound Library Based upon the Collections at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    monoceros Mustelidae Neophoca Cinerea Neophocaena phocaenoides Odobenus rosmarus Ommatophoca rossi Orcinus Orca Otaria flavescens ...phocaenoides 5 Odobenus rosmarus 36 Ommatophoca rossi 15 Orcinus orca 101 Otaria flavescens 6 Peponocephala electra 4 Phoca fasciata 8 Phoca groenlandica

  4. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T) = KCTC 23907(T)), respectively.

  5. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  6. Demography, reproductive biology and diet of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Lake Rukwa valley, southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richgard O.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Leirs, Herwig;

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal abundance, reproductive biology and feeding ecology of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Peters, 1852) were investigated in small-scale maize field-fallow land mosaics in south-western Tanzania. The gerbils were collected over a 2-year period using Sherman live and Victor hold-fast...

  7. A new species of the genus Demodex Owen, 1843 (Acari: Demodecidae) from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2015-06-01

    A new species Demodex conicus n. sp. is described based on adult and juvenile stages from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. in Poland. The new species is most similar to D. auricularis Izdebska, Rolbiecki & Fryderyk, 2014 from the ear canals of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus (L.), but differs in the following features: the gnathosoma is triangular, the supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) are conical, the spines on the terminal segment of palp are four, the striation on opisthosoma is fine but dense, the vulva is located at a distance of c.17 µm from posterior level of legs IV, and the male genital opening is located at the level of legs I. The differences also relate to body size and proportions, female D. conicus n. sp. being, on average slightly larger, and male significantly larger than D. auricularis. Males of the new species also have longer and more massive opisthosoma than males of D. auricularis. Demodex conicus n. sp. was found in 17.5% of the mice studied from different locations in Poland.

  8. [Annual follow-up of the gastrointestinal parasitosis of the tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in captivity in the Mexican tropic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, O; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Montes-Pérez, R; Torres-Acosta, J F

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports showed that the tepezcuintle (Agouti paca) is commonly infested by gastrointestinal parasites (GIP), mainly Eucoccidiida and helminths. However, there is no available information on the frequency of those parasites and their faecal egg excretions at different moments during the year. These information would provide a valuable baseline for the establishment of control strategies against GIP in tepezcuintles under captivity. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of GIP orders and genera that infest tepezcuintles under captivity and, to describe the dynamics of faecal egg and oocyst excretion in a year. Ten tepezcuintles were sampled (faeces) twice every month for twelve months. The faecal samples were processed by the flotation and McMaster techniques. Two orders of parasites were determined: Strongylida and Eucoccidiida. Two genera of nematodes were also determined: Strongyloides and Trichuris. The prevalence of Strongylida eggs, Eucoccidiida oocysts and Trichuris sp. eggs reached 10-20% of animals in certain months. The most important genus was Strongyloides, found in 60 to 100% of the animals year round. The average excretion of eggs in the group was 45 to 372 eggs per gram. Tepezcuintles kept under captivity in Yucatan are parasited with Strongyloides sp throughout the year, but only occasionally had oocysts of Eucoccidiida and eggs of Strongylida and Trichuris sp.

  9. Respuesta de Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Muridae) a la inoculación experimental con el virus de la estomatitis vesicular serotipo New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Julia; Dolz, Gaby; Jimenez, Ana Eugenia; Herrero, Marco Vinicio; Salman, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Se han reportado anticuerpos contra el Virus de Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipo New Jersey (VEV-NJ), en Sigmodon hispidus (rata algodonera) libres en Costa Rica. Con el fin de evaluar su respuesta ante el virus y su potencial rol como reservorio, treinta ratas algodoneras adultas, criadas en laboratorio, fueron inoculadas experimentalmente con 107 TCID50/ml VEV-NJ de la siguiente manera: 10 vía subcutánea (grupo A), 10 por abrasión oral (grupo B) y 10 por vía intranasal (grupo C). Se incluyer...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and population structure of a forest-dependent rodent, Praomys taitae (Rodentia: Muridae) Heller 1911, in the fragmented forest patches of Taita Hills, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, S.; Tumusiime, C.; Oguge, N.;

    2008-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the forest-dependent rodent, Praomys taitae, sampled from nine indigenous forest fragments sampled from nine indigenous forest fragments distributed over three ranges of the Taita Hills in Kenya, was determined using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region...

  11. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Serrano, K.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Piaggio, A.J.; Neubaum, M.; Munclinger, P.; PArtl, A.; van Riper, Charles; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Estudio preliminar del esqueleto postcraneal del Muscardinus cyclopeus Agustí, Moyà-Solà & Pons-Moyà, 1982 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Myoxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Cardona, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the partial skeleton of the Pliocene Muscardinus cyclopeus is described from Punta Nati-3, located in the northwest of the municipality of Ciutadella de Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Based on bone parameters it is shown that the size of Muscardinus cyclopeus is on overage 69% higher than that of Muscardinus avellanarius. The main features that distinguish M. cyclopeus from M. avellanarius are, among others: the relatively wider diameter of the proximal epiphysis of the ulna; the relatively shorter olecranon; the less marked concavity in the fovea of the proximal epiphysis of the radius; the relatively shorter ilium; the more symmetrical epicondyles of the distal femoral epiphysis; the relatively higher lateral epicondyle dorsoventrally, with a very flat ventral surface; and the relatively narrower tibia transversely. As a species evolved in an insular context, it is still very difficult to discern which of these characters are primitive and which are derived.Se describe, por primera vez, parte del esqueleto del muscardino gigante del Plioceno de Menorca, procedente del yacimiento 3 de Punta Nati, situado al noroeste del término municipal de Ciutadella de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo occidental. A partir de los parámetros óseos se ha podido constatar que Muscardinus cyclopeus muestra, de media, un tamaño un 69% superior al de Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758. Entre las principales características óseas que diferencian M. cyclopeus de M. avellanarius cabe destacar, entre otras, el diámetro proporcionalmente más ancho de la epífisis proximal de la ulna, el olecranon proporcionalmente más corto, la fóvea de la epífisis proximal del radio con una concavidad menos marcada, el ilium proporcionalmente más corto, los epicóndilos de la epífisis distal del fémur más simétricos, el epicóndilo lateral proporcionalmente más alto en sentido dorso-ventral, con la superficie ventral muy aplanada y la tibia proporcionalmente más estrecha en sentido transversal. Al tratarse de una especie evolucionada en un contexto insular, resulta difícil dilucidar cuales son caracteres primitivos y caracteres derivados.

  13. The phylogenetic position of "Acomyinae" (Rodentia, Mammalia) as sister group of a Murinae plus Gerbillinae clade : Evidence from the nuclear ribonuclease gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, JYF; Catzeflis, FM; Beintema, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Acomys and Uranomys within Muridae were investigated using nuclear pancreatic ribonuclease A gene sequences. The various kinds of substitutions in the data matrix (15 taxa x 375 nucleotides) were examined for saturation, in order to apply a weighted parsimony

  14. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  15. Variation in the helminth community structure of Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in two sub-regions of the Brazilian Pantanal: the effects of land use and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R; Gentile, R; Rademaker, V; D'Andrea, P; Herrera, H; Freitas, T; Lanfredi, R; Maldonado, A

    2010-09-01

    The Pantanal is a large ecosystem located in South America. This preserved area is seasonally flooded due to abundant rainfall during the summer and the subsequent overflow of the Paraguai River. In this paper, we examine the helminth community structure in the wild rodent Thrichomys pachyurus during the wet and dry seasons in two locations of the preserved and cattle ranching areas in the Southern Pantanal. We identified 12 species of helminth, and, although we did not find any differences in species richness between locations within the Pantanal, we found that richness was higher during the wet season. Helminth species were largely aggregated in both farm locations and during seasons. The most common helminth species were more abundant during the dry season than during the wet season, which may have been due to the increased habitat availability and rodent population increase. The intensity of the infection also followed the same pattern for most helminths. The trichostrongylids (Heligmostrongylus crucifer, H. almeidai and Pudica cercomysi) were dominant at both farm locations. The land use of each area was not correlated with helminth diversity. However, species composition of the helminth community of T. pachyurus differed between locations and may be correlated with environmental differences between the habitats. The seasonality of the Pantanal was highly correlated with helminth parasitism in T. pachyurus.

  16. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.

  17. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the Te

  18. A influência do tempo de permanência em cativeiro sobre o comportamento: Um estudo de caso com Trinomys yonenagae (Rodentia: Echimyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ilai Moradillo Mello

    2013-01-01

    A utilização de animais silvestres em experimentos é freqüentemente precedida pela aclimatação ao cativeiro, de modo a permitir que eles se habituem às condições nas quais serão mantidas e nas quais serão realizados os experimentos. No entanto, nem sempre essa habituação pode ser benéfica no que diz respeito à qualidade dos dados coletados de modo que o comportamento, a fisiologia e o bem-estar dos animais podem ser fortemente afetados por essa aclimatação. Apesar de os roedores sere...

  19. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera) of bats (Order Chiroptera) and rodents (Order Rodentia) from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda López; Sánchez, R. Tatiana; Barquez, Ruben M.; Díaz, M. Monica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina. PMID:28769701

  20. Contribution to the systematics and zoogeography of the East-African Acomys spinosissimus Peters 1852 species complex and the description of two new species (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheyen, W.; Hulselmans, J.; Wendelen, W.

    2011-01-01

    We revised the taxonomic status of the putative Acomys spinosissimus complex based on the comparative study of specimen collections from Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, DR Congo and South Africa, by means of analysis of external morphology, craniometry, enzymes, mitochondrial DNA sequences....... transvaalensis) occurs further to the South (i.e. northern limit seemingly just north of the Limpopo River). The investigated populations north of the Zambezi River are morphologically and genetically distinct from A. spinosissimus and A. selousi. Based on this evidence, we described Acomys muzei sp. nov....... and Acomys ngurui sp. nov., each one occurring separately along one side of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Finally, we lacked sufficient information to describe a third new species from the area north of the Zambesi River...

  1. The phylogenetic position of "Acomyinae" (Rodentia, Mammalia) as sister group of a Murinae plus Gerbillinae clade : Evidence from the nuclear ribonuclease gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, JYF; Catzeflis, FM; Beintema, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Acomys and Uranomys within Muridae were investigated using nuclear pancreatic ribonuclease A gene sequences. The various kinds of substitutions in the data matrix (15 taxa x 375 nucleotides) were examined for saturation, in order to apply a weighted parsimony approa

  2. Stress-associated radiation effects in pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (Muridae, Rodentia) populations from the East-Urals Radioactive Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V

    2016-09-01

    This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day.

  3. Two New Species of Demodex (Acari: Demodecidae) with a Redescription of Demodex musculi and Data on Parasitism in Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2015-07-01

    This article describes two new skin mite species found on the house mouse Mus musculus L., 1758. Demodex marculus sp. nov. is a very small demodecid mite (adult stages, on average, 99 µm in length) found in mouse skin in the abdomen, back, limbs, and anal area. It is characterized by relatively large bossing hammer-shaped supracoxal spines, embedded in the trapezoidal gnathosoma. Demodex fusiformis sp. nov., in turn, is a little larger (adult stages on average 111 µm in length), with a small oval gnathosoma equipped with fine, knob-like supracoxal spines. It was found in the skin of abdomen, back, and limbs. Moreover, Demodex musculi (Oudemans, 1897) was redescribed, which is small demodecid mite (adult stages on average 142 µm in length) and characterized by relatively large morphological variation and considerable sexual dimorphism. The characteristic feature of this species is the strongly elongated and rectangular gnathosoma equipped with very large wedge-shaped supracoxal spines. D. musculi was found in the skin of various, haired regions of the mice body (head, neck, abdomen, back, limbs, genital-anal region, and tail). Moreover, one more demodecid mite was found in the skin of the examined mice, it was Demodex flagellurus Bukva, 1985, which was found only in the genital area. Overall infection of Mus musculus L. by all species of Demodex was with the prevalence of 100%, mean intensity of 24.0, and range of intensity of 1-109. Despite high infection levels, no symptoms of parasitosis were observed in the hosts.

  4. Demodectic mites of the brown rat Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) (Rodentia, Muridae) with a new finding of Demodex ratticola Bukva, 1995 (Acari, Demodecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Demodex ratticola was recorded in the brown rat Rattus norvegicus from northern Poland. It is a skin mite specific to this host, previously recorded only in the Czech Republic. D. ratticola was found at a prevalence 65.0% and mean intensity 12.7 in skin samples taken from the regions of lips, nose and chin. Furthermore, three other species from the family of Demodecidae were recorded, including Demodex nanus found in skin samples from different parts of the body and characterised by the highest parameters of infestation (100.0%, 25.2), D. ratti (50.0%, 3.3) found in the head skin and D. norvegicus (30.0%, 3.5) found in the genital and anal regions. The identified demodectic mites did not cause any pathological symptoms in rats.

  5. A new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodecidae) with data on topical specificity and topography of demodectic mites in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2013-11-01

    This article describes morphological characteristics and the occurrence of Demodex gracilentus sp. nov., which was found in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771) in the skin of vibrissae area. D. gracilentus occurred in 36.7% of the rodents examined. D. gracilentus is a relatively large representative of the genus (adult stages on average 292 microm in length), a slender, elongated body; characteristic feature of these mites are conical supracoxal spines on dorsal side of gnathosoma, palps with asymmetric, forked triple spines on palptarsus, and the presence of rhomboidal opisthosomal organ. So far, the occurrence of three specific representatives of the family Demodecidae has been demonstrated in A. agrarius: Demodex apodemi (Hirst, 1918) (= Demodex arvicolae apodemi Hirst, 1918), Demodex agrarii Bukva, 1994, and Demodex huttereri Mertens, Lukoschus et Nutting, 1983. The first one is related to common hair follicles, especially in the skin of the head, while the next one inhabits the external auditory meatus, and the last one occurs in the meibomian glands of the eyelids.

  6. Panic-like defensive behavior but not fear-induced antinociception is differently organized by dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Biagioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABA A antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL or saline (0.9% NaCl was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABA A receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABA A receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions.

  7. Panic-like defensive behavior but not fear-induced antinociception is differently organized by dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, A.F.; Silva, J.A.; Coimbra, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL) or saline (0.9% NaCl) was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABAA receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions. PMID:22437484

  8. Helmintos parásitos de la rata Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae de un hábitat estacional y otro perenne en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La fauna helmintológica de ejemplares de Sigmodon hispidus capturados en Costa Rica, varió de acuerdo a la región de procedencia. En las ratas provenientes de una zona extensa del Pacífico seco, (Guanacaste que ofrecía una dieta variada, se encontraron 6 especies de nemátodos y 2 especies de céstodos. En las provenientes de la Meseta Central, (Alajuela que disfrutaban de una dieta única y abundante, se aislaron solamente dos especies: una de ellas, Angiostrongylus costaricensis, de gran importancia en salud humana, estuvo presente en el 42% de las ratas de esa región.The helminthological fauna of the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus in a tropical environment varies according to habitat and feeding behavior. Six species of nematodes (Longistriata adunca, Trichostrongylus sigmodontis, Strongyloides sigmodontis, Litomosoides carinii, Monodontus sp. and Protospirura sp. and two species of cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta and Raillietina sp. were found in rats from extensive dry lands in Guanacaste where hot temperatures and heterogeneous diet are the rule. Only two species of nematodes (Longistriata adunca and Angiostrongylus costaricensis were found in rats collected in a humid pineapple plantation in the Central Plateau (Alajuela where mild temperatures predominate. A. costaricensis, a metastrongylid of medical importance, was found in 42% of them.

  9. Primer registro del ratón colombiano del bosque Chilomys instans (Cricetidae: Rodentia en Cajamarca: actualizando el listado de mamíferos del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El roedor Chilomys instans (Thomasomyini, Cricetidae es una especie común en la comunidad de mamíferos que habita los Andes del Norte en Sudamérica. Aquí presentamos el primer registro de la especie para el Perú, en base a la revisión morfológica de tres ejemplares colectados en el departamento de Cajamarca (Andes del Centro. Se presentan comentarios sobre la taxonomía de C. instans e información sobre su historia natural. La amplia distribución del género Chilomys en los Andes pone de manifiesto la necesidad de realizar la revisión taxonómica de éste género para esclarecer los límites de las especies que la conforman.

  10. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  11. Pulgas (Siphonaptera parásitas de roedores (Rodentia: Cricetidae de la provincia de Salta, Argentina: nuevos registros de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda LÓPEZ BERRIZBEITIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan nuevos registros de distribución geográfica y hospeda - toria para pulgas parásitas de roedores sigmodontinos de la provincia de Salta, Ar - gentina. Se reportan por primera vez en Salta las siguientes especies: Craneopsylla minerva minerva (Rothschild; Agastopsylla pearsoni Traub; y Neotyphloceras cras - sispina hemisus Jordan; así como los géneros Cleopsylla Rothschild y Plocopsylla Jordan . Agastopsylla pearsoni se cita por primera vez para la Argentina. También se aumenta el número de especies de parásitos conocidos para cinco especies de roedores y se registran ocho nuevas asociaciones parásito-hospedador.

  12. Evidence for eight tandem and five centric fusions in the evolution of the karyotype of Aethomys namaquensis A. Smith (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R J; Qumsiyeh, M B; Rautenbach, I L

    1988-06-30

    G- and C-banded chromosomes of Aethomys namaquensis (2n = 24), A. chrysophilus (2n = 44), and Praomys coucha (2n = 36) are compared and contrasted with published material on Australian Muridae and North American Sigmodontidae. Direction and types of chromosomal rearrangements are established using cladistic methodology. An acrocentric morphology for chromosomes 5, 14, 15 and 20 (numbering system from Peromyscus) are proposed as primitive for the common ancestor of the Muridae and Sigmodontidae rodent lineages. Reduced diploid number of Aethomys namaquensis is derived by eight tandem and five centric fusions since divergence from the common ancestor with A. chrysophilus. The two species of Aethomys share one derived metacentric chromosome that distinguishes them from Praomys. Praomys has unique chromosomes which can be derived from the proposed primitive condition by five centric fusions and five pericentric inversions. It is concluded that karyotypic orthoselection for tandem and centric fusions is best explained by cellular or biochemical mechanisms rather than variation in population characteristics.

  13. Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde yayılış gösteren Apodemus Kaup, 1829 (Mammalia: Rodentia) cinsinin morfolojik analizi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinden örneklenen  Apodemus cinsine ait 126 örneğin  kafatası ve postları değerlendirildi. Diş, kafası ve post örneklerinin yapılan morfolojik analizleri sonucunda bu cinse ait dört tür; Apodemus uralensis, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus iconicus ve Apodemus mystacinus  belirlendi. Bu türlerden A. flavicollis ve A. iconicus morfolojik açıdan büyük benzerlik gösterirken, A. uralensis’ inde bu iki türe olan yakınlığı yapılan m...

  14. Four new coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas (Rodentia: Myospalacinae), a subterranean rodent from Haibei area, Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Du, Shou-Yang; Duszynski, Donald W; Bian, Jiang-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Thirty-eight faecal samples from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Seventeen of 38 faecal samples (44.7%) were found to contain coccidian oöcysts representing four new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, and four of 17 (23.5%) infected zokors were concurrently infected with two or three of these eimerian species. The sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria myospalacensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 9.5-17.0 × 8.0-13.0 (mean 13.0 × 10.4) μm; a polar granule is present, oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.0 (mean 6.3 × 4.2) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria fani n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 12.5-16.0 × 8.0-11.0 (mean 14.6 × 9.9) μm; a polar granule is present, but micropyle and residuum are lacking; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.3 (mean 6.7 × 4.4) μm; a residuum and a Steida body are present. Oöcysts of Eimeria baileyii n. sp. are ellipsoidal, 15.0-23.0 × 12.0-18.0 (mean 18.2 × 13.7) μm; a polar granule is present but oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-11.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 9.5 × 5.9) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria menyuanensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 12.5-21.0 × 11.0-18.0 (mean 17.1 × 14.6) μm, with a distinct micropyle c.2.5 μm wide; a polar granule is present but a residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-12.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 10.2 × 6.4) μm, and have both a Stieda body and residuum.

  15. The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-01

    Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype-polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations.

  16. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  17. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

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    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades, and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources.

  18. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condições ditas semi-naturais. Os primeiros estudos, entretanto, de Antunes, Milward de Andrade, Katz & Coelho4,,em 1971 e de Antunes5, em 1971 foram feitos utilizando-se o Nectomys s. squamipes.Close to the Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil, there were collected (july/72 -November/73 28 specimens of Holochilus brasiliensis, 11 of them (39.3% eliminating S. mansoni viable eggs in their faeces. Miracidia from the strain above ("H" could infected Biomphalaria glabrata, the cercariae shed later being also able to infect albino mice, from whose faeces 35,3% of adult worms were recovered in the end of the experiment. S. mansoni cercariae from human strain ("LE" infected 7 H. brasiliensis laboratory specimens, and 30,5% of adult worms could be recovered in the end of 60 days. Anatomopathological studies of H. brasiliensis demonstrated generalized infection, granulomes being detected in the esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large, tiver, spleen, pancreas and abdominal lymphnodes. Fibrous thickenning of the portal vein intima, granulomes in portal spaces an incipient fibrosis of portal and interlobular spaces were the lesion triggered by the presence of S. mansoni eggs in the liver. In semi-natural surroundings (Fig. 1, the life cycle of S. mansoni could be completed, with no human interference, by using B. glabrata experimentally infected with trematodes from "LE" strain, laboratory-bred H. brasiliensis and B. glabrata specimens from hat seminatural surroundings. It was observed that both strains ("H" and "LE" displayed similar behaviour, no morphological differences having been detected between their eggs and adult worms. Field and laboratory studies demonstrated Holochilus brasiliensis to be a satisfactory intermediate host of S. mansoni. It is than possible that, under certains ecological conditions, the cricetids under study may eventually be integrated in the trematode natural cycle, independently from or parallely the presence of man. It must finally be pointed out that the present paper reports the second case of lifecycle completion under semi-natural conditions. The former studies4,5, however, were conducted on Nectomys s. squamipes.

  19. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae: comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Renan Gabriel Gomes Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939, O. bicolor (Tomes, 1860 and O. rutilus (Anthony, 1921. COI sequence analysis grouped O. auyantepui, O. bicolor and O. rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for O. auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while O. bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and O. rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in O. auyantepui. The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  20. Small mammals (Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia) from Jaíba, middle Rio São Francisco, northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira,Marcelo Rodrigues; Pol,André; Pessôa,Leila Maria; Oliveira,João Alves de; Peracchi,Adriano Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of small mammals inventories conducted in the region of Jaíba, northern Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from 1990 to 1995. This region is located in the southern limit of the Caatinga biome, and harbors a unique set of natural ecosystems and extensive agricultural areas. With a total effort of 2964 trap-nights and 44 net sessions, we captured 893 small mammals from 46 species, including four marsupials, 13 rodents, and 29 bats. We report on species that are...

  1. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron;

    1998-01-01

    was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-01-27

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml(-1), respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml(-1), respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg(-1) and 2,500 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse.

  3. A study on ecology, morphology and morphometry of Acomys dimidiatus Cretzschmar, 1826 (Rodentia: Muridae in Geno sanctuary and Minab County, Hormozgan Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two populations of Acomys dimidiatus from different locations of Hormozgan Province (Geno sanctuary and Minab County were compared according to their morphometric, morphological and ecological characteristics. Fifty eight specimens of adult A. dimidiatus were collected by live traps (Sherman traps, Havahart traps and locally made traps from these regions. We caught the rodents from the height ranging from 1500 meters. According to our field observations, the studied species was mostly nocturnal. At first, five external and fifteen cranial- dental characters were measured, then ratios of measured characters to head and body length were calculated. The normality of data was analyzed by Kolmogorov- Smironov test. Descriptive statistics were calculated for characters and ratios. The results showed that the average of 14 out of 20 characters in Minab specimens was greater than Geno specimens. Also, the average of all of the ratios (20 ratios in Minab specimens was greater than that of Geno region. Independent Sample T-Test was used to test the statistical significance between length and ratios. The results indicated that there were significance differences in five out of twenty characters and nine out of twenty ratios in two regions(P<0.05. In addition, MANOVA test revealed significant differences among the studied populations (P<0.05. Also, intraspecific variations were assessed with the principal components analysis (PCA. The first two principal components accounted for more than 60% of the total variance and the species were fairly well separated by them.

  4. Modulação da parasitemia e da resposta de anticorpos ao Trypanosoma cruzi pela ciclofosfamida em Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Calomys callosus a wild rodent, previously described as harboring Trypanosoma cruzi, has a low susceptibility to infection by this protozoan. Experiments were designed to evaluate the contribution of the immune response to the resistance to T. cruzi infection exhibited by C. calossus. Animals were submitted to injections of high (200 mg/kg body weight) and low (20 mg/kg body weight) doses of cyclophosphamide on days -1 or -1 and +5, and inoculated with 4 x 10³ T. cruzi on day O. Parasitemia, ...

  5. Systematics and evolution of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) during the Late Quaternary in northwestern Africa: Exploring the role of environmental and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Nicolas, Violaine; Cucchi, Thomas; Denys, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Rodents of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex have been attested to in North Africa since the Middle Pleistocene and are abundant in archaeological sites. Today, they are widely spread and represent a major pest to local human populations. This complex, therefore, represents an accurate model for investigating the roles of climate change and human impact in shaping Quaternary faunal diversity and distribution. Many gray areas still exist regarding the systematics, ecology and geographical distribution of this complex, for both present and past populations. The purpose of this study is to compare modern genotyped and fossil Meriones specimens in order to 1) clarify the current systematics and distribution of the Meriones populations of the shawii/grandis complex, 2) document the taxonomic diversity in fossil Meriones from northwestern Africa, and 3) track their phenotypic and biogeographic evolution through time. To answer these questions we used geometric morphometrics on skulls (landmarks) and first upper molars (landmarks and sliding landmarks). We evidenced the existence of two morpho-groups within the M. shawii/grandis complex, with a clear geographic pattern (M. grandis in Morocco vs. M. shawii in Algeria and Tunisia). Currently only one morpho-group, attributed to M. grandis, seems to exist in Morocco, with a small overlap with M. shawii in the most eastern part of the country. However, according to fossil data, M. shawii was also present in Atlantic Morocco during the Late Pleistocene. We have also highlighted the impact of Holocene climate change and habitat anthropization on this arid adapted group. During the Middle Holocene, a major climatic event (last interglacial optimum) seems to have induced a demographic collapse in Moroccan populations and the disappearance of the shawii clade from Morocco (except in the most eastern areas). Both species then re-expanded, benefitting from the increasing aridity and the new ecological niche driven by agriculture dispersal from the Neolithic onwards.

  6. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  7. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.Results of the experimental infections of the iaboratory bred rodent Calomys callosus are presented in th is paper. The following parasites were as infective agents: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni and Hymenolepsis nana. C. callosus was refractory to H. nana while it has shown to be susceptible to the other three parasites. The infection rates for each one this parasites was 80 per cent. C. callosus has been maintained under laboratory conditions for six generations showing excellent adaptation and easy handling. It is believed that this animal can be used as laboratory experimental model for certain parasitic diseases.

  8. UN ÍNDICE PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL HÁBITAT DE AGOUTI TACZANOWSK/1 (RODENTIA: AGOUTIDAE EN ÁREAS DE BOSQUE ANDINO NUBLADO

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    Jairo Pérez-Torres

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un índice que permitirá evaluar el hábitat de la "Lapa andiim" o "Tinajo" (Agouti taczanowskii en zonas de bosque andino nublado. El objetivo fundamental de este índice, es obtener elementos que sirvan para la toma de decisiones en cuanto al diseño de áreas de reserva y planes de manejo sobre esta especie. Este índice se basa en la aplicación de criterios tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, los cuales son tabulados y computados para sacar un valor de calidad de hábitat para cada uno de los ambientes bajo estudio. Los valores del índice de diferentes áreas pueden ser comparados para determinar de manera jerárquica cuál es más adecuado para realizar actividades particulares de manejo o conservación de esta especie en zonas de bosque andino. El índice se basa en doce variables: porcentaje de uso del área, abundancia del "Tinajo", explotación humana, grado de protección, riqueza en la dieta, cobertura foliar de las especies vegetales, accesibilidad a las especies vegetales que hacen parte de la dieta, heterogeneidad del hábitat, disponibilidad de agua, áreas potenciales de reproducción, presencia de predadores y factores antrópicos.

  9. Cranial phenotypic variation in Meriones crassus and M. libycus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae, and a morphological divergence in M. crassus from the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia (Western Zagros Mountains

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    Fatemeh Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jirds (genus Meriones are a diverse group of rodents, with a wide distribution range in Iran. Sundevall’s jird (Meriones crassus Sundevall, 1842 is one such species that shows a disjunct distribution, found on the Iranian Plateau and Western Zagros Mountains. Morphological differences observed between these two populations, however, lack quantitative support. Morphological differences between geographical populations of Meriones crassus were analysed and compared with those of the sympatric M. libycus. Similarities in the cranial morphology of these species were found, e.g. in a relatively large and inflated bulla. A two-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis was done on the skull of 275 M. crassus and 220 M. libycus from more than 70 different localities in their distribution range. Results confirm cranial differences between specimens of M. crassus from the Western Zagros and those from Africa and Arabia, mainly at the level of the relative size of the tympanic bulla, that were significantly correlated with the annual rainfall and elevation. Moreover, the study supports the hypothesis that the Western Zagros specimens are both a geographically and phenotypically distinct group compared to the other Iranian M. crassus specimens, suggesting that the former might be a distinct species.

  10. Chromosomal evolution of Arvicolinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia). I. The genome homology of tundra vole, field vole, mouse and golden hamster revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Natalia A; Romanenko, Svetlana A; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Perelman, Polina L; Fu, Beiyuan; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Serdukova, Natalya A; Golenishchev, Feodor N; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has become the mainstay of comparative cytogenetic and chromosome evolution studies. Here we have made a set of chromosomal painting probes for the field vole (Microtus agrestis) by DOP-PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes. Together with painting probes of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and mouse (Mus musculus), the field vole probes have been hybridized onto the metaphases of the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus). A comparative chromosome map between these two voles, golden hamster and mouse has been established based on the results of cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons. The sets of paints from the field vole, golden hamster and mouse identified a total of 27, 40 and 47 homologous autosomal regions, respectively, in the genome of tundra vole; 16, 41 and 51 fusion/fission rearrangements differentiate the karyotype of the tundra vole from the karyotypes of the field vole, golden hamster and mouse, respectively.

  11. First detection of Leishmania killicki (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in Ctenodactylus gundi (Rodentia, Ctenodactylidae), a possible reservoir of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Kaouther; Haouas, Najoua; Chaara, Dhekra; Gorcii, Mohamed; Chargui, Najla; Augot, Denis; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Ettlijani, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2011-08-11

    Leishmania killicki was originally described in 1980 in southeast Tunisia. It was also recently reported in Lybia and Algeria. Nevertheless, neither vector nor reservoirs of this parasite are known. The identification of the vector and the animal reservoir host of L. killicki is critical for the establishment of an efficient control strategy. blood, popliteal lymph node, spleen, bone marrow, liver and skin were collected from 50 rodents in 2009 in south western Tunisia. Samples were smeared onto glass slides, cultured on NNN medium and tested by polymerase chain reaction for Leishmania detection. Parasites were detected by PCR from 10 Psammomys obesus and from two Ctenodactylus gundi. Parasite identification was performed simultaneously by internal transcribed spacer 1 PCR-RFLP and by PCR sequencing. Both Leishmania major and Leishmania killicki were identified from infected Psammomys and Ctenodactylus gundi respectively. This is the first report of Leishmania killicki identified from Ctenodactylus gundi in Tunisia. This result supports the assumption that C. gundi is a potential reservoir for Leishmania killicki.

  12. First detection of Leishmania killicki (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae in Ctenodactylus gundi (Rodentia, Ctenodactylidae, a possible reservoir of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettlijani Selim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania killicki was originally described in 1980 in southeast Tunisia. It was also recently reported in Lybia and Algeria. Nevertheless, neither vector nor reservoirs of this parasite are known. The identification of the vector and the animal reservoir host of L. killicki is critical for the establishment of an efficient control strategy. Findings blood, popliteal lymph node, spleen, bone marrow, liver and skin were collected from 50 rodents in 2009 in south western Tunisia. Samples were smeared onto glass slides, cultured on NNN medium and tested by polymerase chain reaction for Leishmania detection. Parasites were detected by PCR from 10 Psammomys obesus and from two Ctenodactylus gundi. Parasite identification was performed simultaneously by internal transcribed spacer 1 PCR-RFLP and by PCR sequencing. Both Leishmania major and Leishmania killick