WorldWideScience

Sample records for oligodeoxynucleotide induces mrna

  1. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type IIβ regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Cho-Chung, Y.S.

    1990-01-01

    The type II β regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII β ) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but direct proof of this function has been lacking. To address this tissue, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were exposed to RII β antisense synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, and the effects on cAMP-induced growth regulation were examined. Exposure of these cells to RII β antisense oligodeoxynucleotide resulted in a decrease in cAMP analog-induced growth inhibition and differentiation without apparent effect on differentiation induced by phorbol esters. This loss in cAMP growth regulatory function correlated with a decrease in basal and induced levels of RII β protein. Exposure to RII β sense, RI α and RII α antisense, or irrelevant oligodeoxynucleotides had no such effect. These results show that the RII β regulatory subunit of protein kinase plays a critical role in the cAMP-induced growth regulation of HL-60 leukemia cells

  2. G3139, a Bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, induces clinical responses in VAD refractory myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; de Weerdt, O.; Veth, G.; Eurelings, M.; van Stralen, E.; Frankel, S. R.; Hagenbeek, A.; Bloem, A. C.; Lokhorst, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of Bcl-2 in multiple myeloma is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Conversely, suppression of Bcl-2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of myeloma cells in vitro. G3139 is an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the first six codons of the Bcl-2 mRNA open reading frame.

  3. Changes of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in P-glycoprotein expressing leukaemia cells treated in vivo with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to mdr1 mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, S.; Yokoyama, K; Fukuoka, M.; Michigishi, T.; Tonami, N.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shuke, N.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the feasibility of Tc-99m sestamibi to monitor changes of mRNA expression of MDRl/P-glycoprotein (Pgp) following antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) treatment in vivo. Three days after the intraperitoneal inoculation of murine leukaemia P388/R cells expressing MDR1/P-gp in CDFI mice, 15-mer phosphorothioate ASODN to the initiation codon of mouse mdr1 mRNA was administered intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg daily for 3 or 4 days. Cells collected from ascites were suspended in medium for Tc-99m sestamibi uptake studies. To know the duration of antisense effects, cells were harvested 2 days later after the 3-day treatment. AS-ODN treatment increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake. Effects of 3-day treatment and 4-day treatment were the same. Treatment effects were not detected when uptake was observed 2 days after 3-day treatment. Based on the results it was concluded that in vivo treatment with AS-ODN specific to the coding portion of mdr1 mRNA increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in leukaemia cells possessing MDR function. (author)

  4. Detection and quantitative analysis of actin mRNA by in situ hybridization with an oligodeoxynucleotide probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, K.; Singer, R.

    1987-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a useful method for localizing specific nucleic acid sequences intracellularly and for studying regulation of gene expression. Recently synthetic oligonucleotides have been successfully used as probes in this technique. Since they can be made easily to specific nucleic acid regions, they may be the best approach for analysis of a gene family of highly conserved sequences. They have analyzed these probes for the development of an in situ hybridization method. Oligonucleotides were made to different regions of chick beta-actin mRNA and used for detection of these sequences in a culture of chicken fibroblasts and myoblasts. They found that synthetic DNAs have different efficiencies of hybridization, indicating that not all target sequences are equivalent. They have investigated in detail a particular probe to the actin mRNA coding region and have optimized hybridization parameters. When hybridization was quantitated it was found that an oligonucleotide end labelled with 35 S or 32 P was capable of detecting several thousand messages per cell with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1. In situ hybridization confirmed the specificity of the hybridization as well as the background level. Increase in the number of oligonucleotides used should increase the signal-to-noise ratio-proportionately. Under particular circumstances the specificity of oligonucleotides make them an important reagent for in situ hybridization

  5. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A20 lymphoma cells via TLR9-mediated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xu-Feng; Zheng, Li; Kim, Cheol-Su; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Cai, Dong-Qing; Qin, Jun-Wen; Yu, Yan-Hong; Wu, Zheng; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the anti-cancer activity of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) is owing to their immunomodulatory effects in tumor-bearing host. The purpose of this study is to investigate the directly cytotoxic activity of KSK-CpG, a novel CpG-ODN with an alternative CpG motif, against A20 and EL4 lymphoma cells in comparison with previously used murine CpG motif (1826-CpG). To evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of KSK-CpG on lymphoma cells, cell viability assay, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis were used. We found that KSK-CpG induced direct cytotoxicity in A20 lymphoma cells, but not in EL4 lymphoma cells, at least in part via TLR9-mediated pathways. Apoptotic cell death was demonstrated to play an important role in CpG-ODNs-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, both mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and G1-phase arrest were involved in KSK-CpG-induced apoptosis in A20 cells. The activities of apoptotic molecules such as caspase-3, PARP, and Bax were increased, but the activation of p27 Kip1 and ERK were decreased in KSK-CpG-treated A20 cells. Furthermore, autocrine IFN-γ partially contributed to apoptotic cell death in KSK-CpG-treated A20 cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that KSK-CpG induces apoptotic cell death in A20 lymphoma cells at least in part by inducing G1-phase arrest and autocrine IFN-γ via increasing TLR9 expression, without the need for immune system of tumor-bearing host. This new understanding supports the development of TLR9-targeted therapy with CpG-ODN as a direct therapeutic agent for treating B lymphoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Single Strand Oligodeoxynucleotides and CRISPR/Cas9 to Correct Gene Mutations in β-Thalassemia-induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaohua; He, Wenyin; Song, Bing; Ou, Zhanhui; Fan, Di; Chen, Yuchang; Fan, Yong; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-05

    β-Thalassemia (β-Thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. The generation of patient-specific β-Thal-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), correction of the disease-causing mutations in those cells, and then differentiation into hematopoietic stem cells offers a new therapeutic strategy for this disease. Here, we designed a CRISPR/Cas9 to specifically target the Homo sapiens hemoglobin β (HBB) gene CD41/42(-CTTT) mutation. We demonstrated that the combination of single strand oligodeoxynucleotides with CRISPR/Cas9 was capable of correcting the HBB gene CD41/42 mutation in β-Thal iPSCs. After applying a correction-specific PCR assay to purify the corrected clones followed by sequencing to confirm mutation correction, we verified that the purified clones retained full pluripotency and exhibited normal karyotyping. Additionally, whole-exome sequencing showed that the mutation load to the exomes was minimal after CRISPR/Cas9 targeting. Furthermore, the corrected iPSCs were selected for erythroblast differentiation and restored the expression of HBB protein compared with the parental iPSCs. This method provides an efficient and safe strategy to correct the HBB gene mutation in β-Thal iPSCs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Antibody classes & subclasses induced by mucosal immunization of mice with Streptococcus pyogenes M6 protein & oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teloni, R; von Hunolstein, C; Mariotti, S; Donati, S; Orefici, G; Nisini, R

    2004-05-01

    Type-specific antibodies against M protein are critical for human protection as they enhance phagocytosis and are protective. An ideal vaccine for the protection against Streptococcus pyogenes would warrant mucosal immunity, but mucosally administered M-protein has been shown to be poorly immunogenic in animals. We used a recombinant M type 6 protein to immunize mice in the presence of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (immunostimulatory sequences: ISS) or cholera toxin (CT) to explore its possible usage in a mucosal vaccine. Mice were immunized by intranasal (in) or intradermal (id) administration with four doses at weekly intervals of M6-protein (10 microg/mouse) with or without adjuvant (ISS, 10 microg/mouse or CT, 0,5 microg/mouse). M6 specific antibodies were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using class and subclass specific monoclonal antibodies. The use of ISS induced an impressive anti M-protein serum IgG response but when id administered was not detectable in the absence of adjuvant. When used in, M-protein in the presence of both ISS and CT induced anti M-protein IgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage, as well as specific IgG in the serum. IgG were able to react with serotype M6 strains of S. pyogenes. The level of antibodies obtained by immunizing mice in with M-protein and CT was higher in comparison to M-protein and ISS. The analysis of anti-M protein specific IgG subclasses showed high levels of IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b, and low levels of IgG3 when ISS were used as adjuvant. Thus, in the presence of ISS, the ratio IgG2a/IgG1 and (IgG2a+IgG3)/IgG1 >1 indicated a type 1-like response obtained both in mucosally or systemically vaccinated mice. Our study offers a reproducible model of anti-M protein vaccination that could be applied to test new antigenic formulations to induce an anti-group A Streptococcus (GAS) vaccination suitable for protection against the different diseases caused by this bacterium.

  8. Seamless Genetic Conversion of SMN2 to SMN1 via CRISPR/Cpf1 and Single-Stranded Oligodeoxynucleotides in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaojin; Hu, Zhiqing; Qiu, Liyan; Zhou, Tao; Feng, Mai; Hu, Qian; Zeng, Baitao; Li, Zhuo; Sun, Qianru; Wu, Yong; Liu, Xionghao; Wu, Lingqian; Liang, Desheng

    2018-05-09

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a kind of neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss in the spinal cord. It is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN1 has a paralogous gene, survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2), in humans that is present in almost all SMA patients. The generation and genetic correction of SMA patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a viable, autologous therapeutic strategy for the disease. Here, c-Myc-free and non-integrating iPSCs were generated from the urine cells of an SMA patient using an episomal iPSC reprogramming vector, and a unique crRNA was designed that does not have similar sequences (≤3 mismatches) anywhere in the human reference genome. In situ gene conversion of the SMN2 gene to an SMN1-like gene in SMA-iPSCs was achieved using CRISPR/Cpf1 and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide with a high efficiency of 4/36. Seamlessly gene-converted iPSC lines contained no exogenous sequences and retained a normal karyotype. Significantly, the SMN expression and gems localization were rescued in the gene-converted iPSCs and their derived motor neurons. This is the first report of an efficient gene conversion mediated by Cpf1 homology-directed repair in human cells and may provide a universal gene therapeutic approach for most SMA patients.

  9. Radiation-induced alternative transcripts as detected in total and polysome-bound mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Amy; Ryan, Michael C; Shankavaram, Uma T; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2018-01-02

    Alternative splicing is a critical event in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. To investigate whether this process influences radiation-induced gene expression we defined the effects of ionizing radiation on the generation of alternative transcripts in total cellular mRNA (the transcriptome) and polysome-bound mRNA (the translatome) of the human glioblastoma stem-like cell line NSC11. For these studies, RNA-Seq profiles from control and irradiated cells were compared using the program SpliceSeq to identify transcripts and splice variations induced by radiation. As compared to the transcriptome (total RNA) of untreated cells, the radiation-induced transcriptome contained 92 splice events suggesting that radiation induced alternative splicing. As compared to the translatome (polysome-bound RNA) of untreated cells, the radiation-induced translatome contained 280 splice events of which only 24 were overlapping with the radiation-induced transcriptome. These results suggest that radiation not only modifies alternative splicing of precursor mRNA, but also results in the selective association of existing mRNA isoforms with polysomes. Comparison of radiation-induced alternative transcripts to radiation-induced gene expression in total RNA revealed little overlap (about 3%). In contrast, in the radiation-induced translatome, about 38% of the induced alternative transcripts corresponded to genes whose expression level was affected in the translatome. This study suggests that whereas radiation induces alternate splicing, the alternative transcripts present at the time of irradiation may play a role in the radiation-induced translational control of gene expression and thus cellular radioresponse.

  10. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (P... and untrained, respectively. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression was increased (Pelevated (3.1+/-0.7 mM) and PGC-1alpha mRNA content was less (P

  11. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells using non-synthetic mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, L; Fabian, C; Holland, H; Naaldijk, Y; Dressel, R; Löffler-Wirth, H; Binder, H; Arnold, A; Stolzing, A

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe some of the crucial steps to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using mRNA transfection. Our approach uses a V. virus-derived capping enzyme instead of a cap-analog, ensuring 100% proper cap orientation for in vitro transcribed mRNA. V. virus' 2'-O-Methyltransferase enzyme creates a cap1 structure found in higher eukaryotes and has higher translation efficiency compared to other methods. Use of the polymeric transfection reagent polyethylenimine proved superior to other transfection methods. The mRNA created via this method did not trigger an intracellular immune response via human IFN-gamma (hIFN-γ) or alpha (hIFN-α) release, thus circumventing the use of suppressors. Resulting mRNA and protein were expressed at high levels for over 48h, thus obviating daily transfections. Using this method, we demonstrated swift activation of pluripotency associated genes in human fibroblasts. Low oxygen conditions further facilitated colony formation. Differentiation into different germ layers was confirmed via teratoma assay. Reprogramming with non-synthetic mRNA holds great promise for safe generation of iPSCs of human origin. Using the protocols described herein we hope to make this method more accessible to other groups as a fast, inexpensive, and non-viral reprogramming approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short hairpin-loop-structured oligodeoxynucleotides reduce HSV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Jochen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Herpes simplex virus (HSV is known as an infectious agent and widespread in the human population. The symptoms of HSV infections can range from mild to life threatening, especially in immune-compromised individuals. HSV infections are commonly treated with the guanosine analogue Aciclovir, but reports of resistance are increasing. Efforts are made to establish single-stranded antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (as and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs for antiviral treatment. Recently, another class of short interfering nucleic acids, partially double-stranded hairpin loop-structured 54 mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, was shown to allow hydrolysis of HIV RNA by binding to the viral RNA. This leads to a substrate for the viral RNase H. To assess the potential of such ODNs for inhibition of HSV-1 replication, five partially double-stranded ODNs were designed based on the sequences of known siRNAs against HSV-1 with antiviral activity. Three of them are directed against early and two against leaky late genes. Primary human lung fibroblasts, MRC-5, and African green monkey kidney cells, Vero, were transfected with ODNs and subsequently infected. The effect on HSV-1 replication was determined by analyzing the virus titer in cell culture supernatants by quantitative PCR and plaque assays. An inhibitory effect was observed with all five selected ODNs, with two cases showing statistical significance in both cell types. The observed effect was sequence-specific and dose dependent. In one case the ODN was more efficient than a previously described siRNA directed against the same target site in the mRNA of UL5, a component of the helicase/primase complex. HSV-1 virions and ODNs can be applied simultaneously without transfection reagent, but at a 50-fold higher concentration to Vero cells with similar efficiencies. The results underline the potential of partially double-stranded hairpin loop-structured ODNs as antiviral agents.

  13. Tumor vaccine composed of C-class CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and irradiated tumor cells induces long-term antitumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkovnik Petra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ideal tumor vaccine should activate both effector and memory immune response against tumor-specific antigens. Beside the CD8+ T cells that play a central role in the generation of a protective immune response and of long-term memory, dendritic cells (DCs are important for the induction, coordination and regulation of the adaptive immune response. The DCs can conduct all of the elements of the immune orchestra and are therefore a fundamental target and tool for vaccination. The present study was aimed at assessing the ability of tumor vaccine composed of C-class CpG ODNs and irradiated melanoma tumor cells B16F1 followed by two additional injections of CpG ODNs to induce the generation of a functional long-term memory response in experimental tumor model in mice (i.p. B16F1. Results It has been shown that the functional memory response in vaccinated mice persists for at least 60 days after the last vaccination. Repeated vaccination also improves the survival of experimental animals compared to single vaccination, whereas the proportion of animals totally protected from the development of aggressive i.p. B16F1 tumors after vaccination repeated three times varies between 88.9%-100.0%. Additionally, the long-term immune memory and tumor protection is maintained over a prolonged period of time of at least 8 months. Finally, it has been demonstrated that following the vaccination the tumor-specific memory cells predominantly reside in bone marrow and peritoneal tissue and are in a more active state than their splenic counterparts. Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that tumor vaccine composed of C-class CpG ODNs and irradiated tumor cells followed by two additional injections of CpG ODNs induces a long-term immunity against aggressive B16F1 tumors.

  14. Tentative mapping of transcription-induced interchromosomal interaction using chimeric EST and mRNA data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Unneberg

    Full Text Available Recent studies on chromosome conformation show that chromosomes colocalize in the nucleus, bringing together active genes in transcription factories. This spatial proximity of actively transcribing genes could provide a means for RNA interaction at the transcript level. We have screened public databases for chimeric EST and mRNA sequences with the intent of mapping transcription-induced interchromosomal interactions. We suggest that chimeric transcripts may be the result of close encounters of active genes, either as functional products or "noise" in the transcription process, and that they could be used as probes for chromosome interactions. We have found a total of 5,614 chimeric ESTs and 587 chimeric mRNAs that meet our selection criteria. Due to their higher quality, the mRNA findings are of particular interest and we hope that they may serve as food for thought for specialists in diverse areas of molecular biology.

  15. Identifying airway sensitizers: cytokine mRNA profiles induced by various anhydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plitnick, L.M.; Loveless, S.E.; Ladics, G.S.; Holsapple, M.P.; Smialowicz, R.J.; Woolhiser, M.R.; Anderson, P.K.; Smith, C.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals in the workplace has been linked to a variety of respiratory effects. Within the LMW chemicals, one of the major classes involved in these effects are the acid anhydrides. The immunological basis of respiratory hypersensitivity involves CD4+ cells. By virtue of their induction of cytokines typical of CD4+ T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells--interleukin (IL)-4, 10, and 13--respiratory sensitizers may be identified and differentiated from contact sensitizers which induce Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ). Our previous work suggested that the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) was useful in identifying the respiratory sensitizer, trimellitic anhydride (TMA), based on quantitative differences in Th2 cytokine mRNA as compared to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Therefore, the purpose of the studies described in this report was to expand the chemicals tested in the RPA. To this end, four acid anhydrides with known respiratory sensitization potential, TMA, maleic anhydride (MA), phthalic anhydride (PA) and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA), were tested. Although previously determined to induce immunologically equivalent responses in a local lymph node assay (LLNA), the initial dose chosen (2.5%) failed to induce Th2 cytokine mRNA expression. To determine if the lack of cytokine expression was related to dose, LLNAs were conducted at higher doses for each of the anhydrides. The highest doses evaluated (four- to six-fold higher than those used in the initial RPA) gave equivalent proliferative responses for the various anhydrides and were used for subsequent RPA testing. At these higher doses, significant increases in Th2 versus Th1 cytokine mRNA were observed for all anhydrides tested. These results suggest that the RPA has the potential to serve as a screen for the detection of LMW airway sensitizing chemicals. However, the basis for selecting immunologically equivalent doses may require some modification

  16. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  17. Clofibrate-induced increases in peroxisomal proteins: effect on synthesis, degradation, and mRNA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate on the polypeptide composition of peroxisomes was determined. A simple method was developed for the isolation of peroxisomes with a purity of 90-95% using sedimentation in a metrizamide gradient. The specific activities of HD did not change with clofibrate treatment so that the increases in enzyme activities are solely due to increases in protein amounts. The hepatic concentration of HD increased 63 times. The HD synthesis rate, as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine, increased 74 times, so that the increase in the synthesis was sufficient to account for the increase in protein. Clofibrate caused no discernible change in the degradation rate of HD labeled with [ 14 C]bicarbonate. The half-life of HD was approximately 2 days. The translatable mRBA coding for HD increased 55 times. This value is not significantly different from the increase in HD protein or in HD synthesis. This observation was also true for several other peroxisomal proteins. Therefore, clofibrate causes an increase in the mRNA activity, which increases the synthesis of HD leading to an accumulation of protein and enzyme activity. The kinetics of the clofibrate-induced changes in HD synthesis rate, protein level, and enzymatic activity was analyzed using a simple model which included the half-lives of the drug, mRNA, and protein. The best fit of the model to the data gave an mRNA half-life of 10 hours and a protein half-life of 1.8 days, with no significant change by clofibrate

  18. Introduction of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells induces cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejeskär, Katarina; Krona, Cecilia; Carén, Helena; Zaibak, Faten; Li, Lingli; Martinsson, Tommy; Ioannou, Panayiotis A

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumour of childhood often with an unfavourable outcome. One common genetic feature in aggressive tumours is 1p-deletion. The α-enolase (ENO1) gene is located in chromosome region 1p36.2, within the common region of deletion in neuroblastoma. One alternative translated product of the ENO1 gene, known as MBP-1, acts as a negative regulator of the c-myc oncogene, making the ENO1 gene a candidate as a tumour suppressor gene. Methods used in this study are transfection of cDNA-vectors and in vitro transcribed mRNA, cell growth assay, TUNEL-assay, real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) for expression studies, genomic sequencing and DHPLC for mutation detection. Here we demonstrate that transfection of ENO1 cDNA into 1p-deleted neuroblastoma cell lines causes' reduced number of viable cells over time compared to a negative control and that it induces apoptosis. Interestingly, a similar but much stronger dose-dependent reduction of cell growth was observed by transfection of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells. These effects could also be shown in non-neuroblastoma cells (293-cells), indicating ENO1 to have general tumour suppressor activity. Expression of ENO1 is detectable in primary neuroblastomas of all different stages and no difference in the level of expression can be detected between 1p-deleted and 1p-intact tumour samples. Although small numbers (11 primary neuroblastomas), there is some evidence that Stage 4 tumours has a lower level of ENO1-mRNA than Stage 2 tumours (p = 0.01). However, mutation screening of 44 primary neuroblastomas of all different stages, failed to detect any mutations. Our studies indicate that ENO1 has tumour suppressor activity and that high level of ENO1 expression has growth inhibitory effects

  19. Maternal separation induces hippocampal changes in cadherin-1 (CDH-1) mRNA and recognition memory impairment in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Lucas Araújo; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Centeno-Silva, Anderson; Orso, Rodrigo; Schröder, Nadja; Bredy, Timothy William; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-05-01

    In rodents, disruption of mother-infant attachment induced by maternal separation (MS) is associated with recognition memory impairment and long-term neurobiological consequences. Particularly stress-induced modifications have been associated to disruption of cadherin (CDH) adhesion function, which plays an important role in remodeling of neuronal connection and synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the sex-dependent effect of MS on recognition memory and mRNA levels of classical type I and type II CDH and the related β -catenin (β -Cat) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of late adolescent mice. We provided evidence that the BALB/c mice exposed to MS present deficit in recognition memory, especially females. Postnatal MS induced higher hippocampal CDH-2 and CDH-8 mRNA levels, as well as an upregulation of CDH-1 in the prefrontal cortex in both males and females. MS-reared female mice presented lower CDH-1 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. In addition, hippocampal CDH-1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with recognition memory performance in females. MS-reared male mice exhibited higher β -Cat mRNA levels in the hippocampus. Considering sex-specific effects on CDH mRNA levels, it has been demonstrated mRNA changes in CDH-1, β -Cat, and CDH-6 in the hippocampus, as well as CDH-1, CDH-8 and CDH-11 in the prefrontal cortex. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay among MS, CDH mRNA expression, and sex differences in the PFC and hippocampus of adolescent mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  1. The silence of MUC2 mRNA induced by promoter hypermethylation associated with HBV in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the promoter methylation status of MUC2 gene and mRNA expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods We analyzed MUC2 methylation by MSP, and MUC2 mRNA by real-time PCR in 74 HCC. Results MUC2 mRNA were lower in HCC tissues (Mean -ΔCt = −4.70 than that in Non-HCC tissues (Mean -ΔCt = −2.98. Expression of MUC2 was elevated in only 23 (31.08% of the 74 HCC patients. MUC2 promoter was hypermethylated in 62.2% (46/74 of HCCs, and in only 18.9% (14/74 of non-tumor samples. MUC2 mRNA were lower in HCC patients with hypermethylation (Mean -ΔΔCt = −2.25 than those with demethylation (Mean -ΔΔCt = −0.22, and there is a decreased tendency for MUC2 mRNA in HCC patients with promoter hypermethylation (p = 0.011. There was a significantly correlation found between MUC2 mRNA and HBV and AFP in HCC. The loss of MUC2 mRNA and hypermethylation could be poor prognostic factors. After treated by 5-Aza-CdR and TSA, we found that MUC2 mRNA induced significantly in 7721, Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Conclusion The results suggested that MUC2 mRNA silenced by promoter hypermethylation is associated with high levels HBV in HCC.

  2. Nonparametric testing for DNA copy number induced differential mRNA gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; van de Wiel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology relates DNA with mRNA. Array CGH measures DNA copy number and gene expression microarrays measure the amount of mRNA. Methods that integrate data from these two platforms may uncover meaningful biological relationships that further our understanding of cancer.

  3. A systemic evaluation of cardiac differentiation from mRNA reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mehta

    Full Text Available Genetically unmodified cardiomyocytes mandated for cardiac regenerative therapy is conceivable by "foot-print free" reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. In this study, we report generation of foot-print free hiPSC through messenger RNA (mRNA based reprograming. Subsequently, we characterize cardiomyocytes derived from these hiPSC using molecular and electrophysiological methods to characterize their applicability for regenerative medicine. Our results demonstrate that mRNA-iPSCs differentiate ontogenetically into cardiomyocytes with increased expression of early commitment markers of mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, followed by cardiac specific transcriptional and sarcomeric structural and ion channel genes. Furthermore, these cardiomyocytes stained positively for sarcomeric and ion channel proteins. Based on multi-electrode array (MEA recordings, these mRNA-hiPSC derived cardiomyocytes responded predictably to various pharmacologically active drugs that target adrenergic, sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The cardiomyocytes responded chronotropically to isoproterenol in a dose dependent manner, inotropic activity of nifidipine decreased spontaneous contractions. Moreover, Sotalol and E-4031 prolonged QT intervals, while TTX reduced sodium influx. Our results for the first time show a systemic evaluation based on molecular, structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes differentiated from mRNA-iPSC. These results, coupled with feasibility of generating patient-specific iPSCs hold great promise for the development of large-scale generation of clinical grade cardiomyocytes for cardiac regenerative medicine.

  4. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in response to radiation-induced injury in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ling; Zhou, Jundong; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Qing; Lai, Rensheng; Ding, Weiqun; Song, ChuanJun; Meng, XingJun; Wu, Jinchang

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation provokes cellular responses, which are likely regulated by gene expression networks. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting protein translation. The expression patterns of both mRNA and miRNA during the radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remain less characterized and the role of miRNAs in the regulation of this process has not been studied. The present study sought to evaluate miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat lung after irradiation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to single dose irradiation with 20 Gy using 6 MV x-rays to the right lung. (A dose rate of 5 Gy/min was applied). Rats were sacrificed at 3, 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation, and morphological changes in the lung were examined by haematoxylin and eosin. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarrays and followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A cDNA microarray analysis found 2183 transcripts being up-regulated and 2917 transcripts down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05, ≥2.0 fold change) in the lung tissues after irradiation. Likewise, a miRNAs microarray analysis indicated 15 miRNA species being up-regulated and 8 down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05). Subsequent bioinformatics anal -yses of the differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs revealed that alterations in mRNA expression following irradiation were negatively correlated with miRNAs expression. Our results provide evidence indicating that irradiation induces alterations of mRNA and miRNA expression in rat lung and that there is a negative correlation of mRNA and miRNA expression levels after irradiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of radiation-induced lung injury. In summary, RILI does not develop gradually in a linear process. In fact, different cell types interact via cytokines in a very complex network. Furthermore, this study suggests that

  5. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery....... The mRNA expression of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase (CPT)I, CD36, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), cytochrome (Cyt)c, aminolevulinate-delta-synthase (ALAS)1 and GLUT4 was 100-200% higher at 10-24 h of recovery from exercise than in a control trial. Exercise induced a 100-300% increase...... in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1alpha, citrate synthase (CS), CPTI, CD36, HAD and ALAS1 mRNA contents at 10-24 h of recovery relative to before exercise. No protein changes were detected in Cytc, ALAS1 or GLUT4. This shows that mRNA expression of several training...

  7. Electrochemical responses of thiolated oligodeoxynucleotides in cobalt-containing solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatná, Veronika; Jelen, František; Hianik, Tibor; Paleček, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2005), s. 1413-1420 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : thiolated oligodeoxynucleotides * differential pulse voltammetry * mercury and solid amalgam electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.189, year: 2005

  8. Dengue-1 envelope protein domain III along with PELC and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically enhances immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are their low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Adjuvants can help to overcome some of these inherent defects with subunit vaccines. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed water-in-oil-in-water multiphase emulsion system, termed PELC, in potentiating the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III. Unlike aluminum phosphate, dengue-1 envelope protein domain III formulated with PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induced neutralizing antibodies against dengue-1 virus and increased the splenocyte secretion of IFN-γ after in vitro re-stimulation. The induced antibodies contained both the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. A rapid anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against a live dengue virus challenge was elicited at week 26 after the first immunization. These results demonstrate that PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides broaden the dengue-1 envelope protein domain III-specific immune responses. PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is a promising adjuvant for recombinant protein based vaccination against dengue virus.

  9. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells using non-synthetic mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rohani

    2016-05-01

    Reprogramming with non-synthetic mRNA holds great promise for safe generation of iPSCs of human origin. Using the protocols described herein we hope to make this method more accessible to other groups as a fast, inexpensive, and non-viral reprogramming approach.

  10. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  11. Overexpression of Nitrate Reductase in Tobacco Delays Drought-Induced Decreases in Nitrate Reductase Activity and mRNA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Valadier, Marie-Hélène; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Transformed (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter [35S]) tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L.) plants constitutively expressing nitrate reductase (NR) and untransformed controls were subjected to drought for 5 d. Drought-induced changes in biomass accumulation and photosynthesis were comparable in both lines of plants. After 4 d of water deprivation, a large increase in the ratio of shoot dry weight to fresh weight was observed, together with a decrease in the rate of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Foliar sucrose increased in both lines during water stress, but hexoses increased only in leaves from untransformed controls. Foliar NO3− decreased rapidly in both lines and was halved within 2 d of the onset of water deprivation. Total foliar amino acids decreased in leaves of both lines following water deprivation. After 4 d of water deprivation no NR activity could be detected in leaves of untransformed plants, whereas about 50% of the original activity remained in the leaves of the 35S-NR transformants. NR mRNA was much more stable than NR activity. NR mRNA abundance increased in the leaves of the 35S-NR plants and remained constant in controls for the first 3 d of drought. On the 4th d, however, NR mRNA suddenly decreased in both lines. Rehydration at d 3 caused rapid recovery (within 24 h) of 35S-NR transcripts, but no recovery was observed in the controls. The phosphorylation state of the protein was unchanged by long-term drought. There was a strong correlation between maximal extractable NR activity and ambient photosynthesis in both lines. We conclude that drought first causes increased NR protein turnover and then accelerates NR mRNA turnover. Constitutive NR expression temporarily delayed drought-induced losses in NR activity. 35S-NR expression may therefore allow more rapid recovery of N assimilation following short-term water deficit. PMID:9576799

  12. Differences in correlation of mRNA gene expression in mice sensitive and resistant to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.J.; Piedboeuf, B.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix protein and transforming growth factor β mRNA expression are altered late in the course of pulmonary fibrosis after irradiation, and then to determine if these changes differ between two strains of mice which vary in their sensitivity to radiation. Radiation-sensitive (C57BL/6) and radiation-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5 or 12.5 Gy to the thorax. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probes for collagens I, III and IV, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor β 1 and β 3 . Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to a control probe encoding for glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Alterations in mRNA abundance were observed in the sensitive mice at all times, while levels in the resistant mice were unaffected until 26 weeks after irradiation. The relationship between extracellular matrix protein per se and increased mRNA abundance suggests that late matrix protein accumulation may be a function of gene expression. Differences in levels of transforming growth factor βmRNA may lead to strain-dependent variation in fibrotic response and may also contribute to the radiation-induced component of pulmonary fibrosis. 32 refs., 5 figs

  13. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex triggers RNAi-induced mRNA degradation by association with target mRNA in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Ying; Vallandingham, Jim; Li, Hua; Li, Hau; Florens, Laurence; Mak, Ho Yi

    2012-04-15

    The molecular mechanisms for target mRNA degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans undergoing RNAi are not fully understood. Using a combination of genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches, we report a divergent RDE-10/RDE-11 complex that is required for RNAi in C. elegans. Genetic analysis indicates that the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex acts in parallel to nuclear RNAi. Association of the complex with target mRNA is dependent on RDE-1 but not RRF-1, suggesting that target mRNA recognition depends on primary but not secondary siRNA. Furthermore, RDE-11 is required for mRNA degradation subsequent to target engagement. Deep sequencing reveals a fivefold decrease in secondary siRNA abundance in rde-10 and rde-11 mutant animals, while primary siRNA and microRNA biogenesis is normal. Therefore, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex is critical for amplifying the exogenous RNAi response. Our work uncovers an essential output of the RNAi pathway in C. elegans.

  14. Amitriptyline induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression through ERK-dependent modulation of multiple BDNF mRNA variants in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Kajitani, Naoto; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shigetou, Takahiro; Kasai, Miho; Matsumoto, Chie; Yokoe, Toshiki; Azuma, Honami; Takebayashi, Minoru; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A significant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been previously implicated in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. To ascertain the contribution of specific cell types in the brain that produce BDNF following antidepressant treatment, the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on rat primary neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cortical cultures were examined. Amitriptyline increased the expression of BDNF mRNA in astrocytic and microglial cultures but not neuronal cultures. Antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, such as clomipramine, duloxetine and fluvoxamine, also increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytic and microglial cultures. There are multiple BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IIA, IV and VI) expressed in astrocytes and microglia and the variant induced by antidepressants has yet to be elaborated. Treatment with antidepressants increased the expression of exon I, IV and VI in astrocyte and microglia. Clomipramine alone significantly upregulated expression of exon IIA. The amitriptyline-induced expression of both total and individual BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IV and VI) were blocked by MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating MEK/ERK signaling is required in the expression of BDNF. These findings indicate that non-neural cells are a significant target of antidepressants and further support the contention that glial production of BDNF is crucial role in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. The current data suggest that targeting of glial function could lead to the development of antidepressants with a truly novel mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of exogenous ATM gene on mRNA expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in AT cells induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Fangjun; Cao Jianping; Luo Jialin; Zhu Wei; Liu Fenju; Feng Shuang; Song Jianyuan; Li Chong

    2005-01-01

    The study is to observe effects of exogenous ATM gene on mRNA expression of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) in fibroblast cells (AT5BIVA cells) from skin of Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients and to study the regulation of ATM to hTERT. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA expression of hTERT in AT, PEBS7-AT, ATM + -AT and GM cells irradiated with 0 and 3 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays were examined respectively. The difference of the mRNA expression of hTERT among AT, PEBS7-AT, ATM + -AT and GM cells were analyzed. Difference of the mRNA expression of hTERT between 0 Gy and 3 Gy groups was analyzed, too. The results showed that the mRNA expression of hTERT in GM cells was negative, but positive mRNA expression of hTERT in AT cells. The mRNA expression of hTERT in ATM + -AT cells decreased significantly (p 60 Co γ-rays, the mRNA expression of hTERT in GM cells was positive, and that in AT, PEBS7-AT, ATM + -AT cells was increased (p + -AT cells was lower than that in AT and PEBS7-AT cells respectively (p<0.05). It is postulated that exogenous ATM is able to downregulate the mRNA expression of hTERT in AT cells, ionizing radiation can induce the mRNA expression of hTERT in cells and telomerase anticipates the repair of damaged DNA. (authors)

  16. Bed rest reduces metabolic protein content and abolishes exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus S; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to test the hypothesis that one week of bed rest will reduce mitochondrial number and expression and activity of oxidative proteins in human skeletal muscle, but that exercise-induced intracellular signaling as well as mRNA and microRNA (miR) responses are maintained after......-legged knee extensor exercise performed before and after bed rest. Results: Maximal oxygen uptake decreased 5% and exercise endurance decreased non-significantly 25% by bed rest. Bed rest reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA content 15%, hexokinase II and sirtuin 1 protein content ~45%, 3...... bed rest. Research Design and Methods: Twelve young, healthy, male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies taken before and after bed rest. In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained from 6 of the subjects prior to, immediately after and 3h after 45 min one...

  17. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hostrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs...... exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P adrenaline nor muscle metabolic stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB...

  18. Phorbol esters induce interleukin 2 mRNA in sensitive but not in resistant EL4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.; Lynch, K.R.; Sando, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Phorbol ester (PE) sensitive EL4 cells are growth-inhibited and produce interleukin 2 (IL2) when treated with PE. Resistant EL4 cells lack both responses. To determine whether the defect in resistant cells occurs pre or post-transcriptionally, an assay for IL2 mRNA was developed using a synthetic oligonucleotide to mouse IL2 as a probe. Total RNA (15 μg) from cells +/- PE was electrophoresed, blotted onto a cationic nylon membrane, and probed with radiolabeled oligomer. This probe hybridized to a 1.1 kb band in RNA from PE-treated sensitive cells. This RNA was detectable within 3h of PE administration, was clearly visible by 6h, and peaked by 9 to 12h. No bands hybridizing with the IL2 probe were detected in RNA isolated from unstimulated cells or from resistant EL4 cells at any time following PE stimulation. Since levels of the protooncogene c-myc have been shown to decrease in a number of cell lines during differentiation and growth inhibition, total RNA from EL4 cells was probed with a nick-translated plasmid containing the protein coding region of the c-myc gene. In PE sensitive cells, levels of c-myc RNA are markedly reduced by 3h. In a pilot experiment with resistant cells, c-myc levels appeared to remain constant. These results demonstrate that PE induced IL2 mRNA in PE sensitive but not resistant EL4 cells. Sensitive and resistant EL4 cell lines provide a useful model for the investigation of the regulation of gene expression by PE

  19. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (PStAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient mRNA delivery with graphene oxide-polyethylenimine for generation of footprint-free human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Yeon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Oh, Jaesur; Won, Jihye; Han, Jihae; Jeong, Gun-Jae; Kim, Jongpil; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-08-10

    Clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) require development of technologies for the production of "footprint-free" (gene integration-free) iPSCs, which avoid the potential risk of insertional mutagenesis in humans. Previously, several studies have shown that mRNA transfer can generate "footprint-free" iPSCs, but these studies did not use a delivery vehicle and thus repetitive daily transfection was required because of mRNA degradation. Here, we report an mRNA delivery system employing graphene oxide (GO)-polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes for the efficient generation of "footprint-free" iPSCs. GO-PEI complexes were found to be very effective for loading mRNA of reprogramming transcription factors and protection from mRNA degradation by RNase. Dynamic suspension cultures of GO-PEI/RNA complexes-treated cells dramatically increased the reprogramming efficiency and successfully generated rat and human iPSCs from adult adipose tissue-derived fibroblasts without repetitive daily transfection. The iPSCs showed all the hallmarks of pluripotent stem cells including expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic reprogramming, and differentiation into the three germ layers. These results demonstrate that mRNA delivery using GO-PEI-RNA complexes can efficiently generate "footprint-free" iPSCs, which may advance the translation of iPSC technology into the clinical settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Expressions of interferon-inducible genes IFIT1 and IFIT4 mRNA in PBMCs of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyan; Chen Xingguo; Wang Zizheng

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the expression levels of interferon-inducible genes (IFIT1, IFIT4) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the relations between these genes expression levels and disease activity, the expression levels of IFIT1 and IFIT4 mRNA in the 95 patients with SLE and 48 normal controls were detected by Sybr green dye based real-time quantitative PCR method, and these genes expression levels were compared with anti-double strand DNA antibody. The associations between the expression levels of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA, anti-double strand DNA antibody and SLEDAI scores in patients with SLE were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA in the SLE patients were significantly higher than those of the normal controls (P<0.01). The expression levels of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA in the active SLE patients were higher than those of the inactive SLE patients (P<0.05). The real time expression levels of IFIT1 and IFIT4 mRNA showed positive correlations with each other (P<0.05) in patients with SLE. There was positively correlation between the expression levels of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA and the anti-double strand DNA antibody (P<0.05). The expression levels of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA in patients with SLE were significantly higher than those of the normal controls, and positively associated with SLEDAI scores, so they were helpful in evaluating SLE disease activity and severity. To inhibit the expressions of IFIT1, IFIT4 mRNA may provide a novel target for SLE treatment. (authors)

  2. Exercise induced regulation of muscular Na+,K+ pump, FXYD1, and NHE1 mRNA and protein expression: importance of training status, intensity, and muscle type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2011-01-01

    It is investigated if exercise induced mRNA changes cause similar protein expression changes of Na(+), K(+) pump isoforms (a1, a2, ß1, ß2), FXYD1 and NHE1 in rat skeletal muscle. Expression was evaluated (n=8 per group) in Soleus and EDL after 1 day, 3 days and 3 weeks (5 sessions per week...

  3. Effect of Chinese Herbs Bu-shen on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of Decidue in Bromocriptine-induced Hypoprolactin Rat Abortion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-ming LI; Sui-qi GUI; Li-hui JIANG; Li-min LU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Chinese herbs on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of decidue in Bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactin abortion rat model from gene transcription level, and observe the changes of blood PRL, P, E2.Methods RT-PCR method was taken to analyses the differences of PRLR, PR, ER mRNA in decidue between model group (A group) and model + herbs group (A + H group); RIA was taken to measure the serum levels of PRL, P, E2.Results PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue of Group A was significantly lower than the A+H group (P0.05); the abortion rate of Group A was 67%, Group A+H was 17%, the difference was significant; as for the PRL and P level of day 7~10, the A group was significantly lower than the A+H group (P<0.05).Conclusion Bromocriptine could induce abortion by declining the blood PRL, P level and downregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue. Chinese herbs might maintain pregnancy by promoting PRL, P secretion and upregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue.

  4. Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lauren E; Christensen, Jenny; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Morton, Sarah J; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues. Untimely stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion may compromise extra-SCN molecular clock function. We examined whether acute restraint stress during the rat's inactive phase can rapidly (within 30 min) alter clock gene (Per1, Per2, Bmal1) and cFos mRNA (in situ hybridization) in the SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male and female rats (6 rats per treatment group). Restraint stress increased Per1 and cFos mRNA in the PVN and PFC of both sexes. Stress also increased cFos mRNA in the SCN of male rats, but not when subsequently tested during their active phase. We also examined in male rats whether endogenous glucocorticoids are necessary for stress-induced Per1 mRNA (6-7 rats per treatment group). Adrenalectomy attenuated stress-induced Per1 mRNA in the PVN and ventral orbital cortex, but not in the medial PFC. These data indicate that increased Per1 mRNA may be a means by which extra-SCN molecular clocks adapt to environmental stimuli (e.g. stress), and in the PFC this effect is largely independent of glucocorticoids.

  5. Identification of Toyocamycin, an agent cytotoxic for multiple myeloma cells, as a potent inhibitor of ER stress-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, M; Tashiro, E; Oikawa, D; Shinjo, S; Tokuda, M; Yokouchi, Y; Narita, T; Masaki, A; Ito, A; Ding, J; Kusumoto, S; Ishida, T; Komatsu, H; Shiotsu, Y; Ueda, R; Iwawaki, T; Imoto, M; Iida, S

    2012-01-01

    The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is considered to be a critical regulator for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Therefore, the availability of small-molecule inhibitors targeting this pathway would offer a new chemotherapeutic strategy for MM. Here, we screened small-molecule inhibitors of ER stress-induced XBP1 activation, and identified toyocamycin from a culture broth of an Actinomycete strain. Toyocamycin was shown to suppress thapsigargin-, tunicamycin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in HeLa cells without affecting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) activation. Furthermore, although toyocamycin was unable to inhibit IRE1α phosphorylation, it prevented IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage in vitro. Thus, toyocamycin is an inhibitor of IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage. Toyocamycin inhibited not only ER stress-induced but also constitutive activation of XBP1 expression in MM lines as well as primary samples from patients. It showed synergistic effects with bortezomib, and induced apoptosis of MM cells including bortezomib-resistant cells at nanomolar levels in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited growth of xenografts in an in vivo model of human MM. Taken together, our results suggest toyocamycin as a lead compound for developing anti-MM therapy and XBP1 as an appropriate molecular target for anti-MM therapy

  6. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-01-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 μM) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 μM veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 μM dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 μM) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated

  7. Sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is related to inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression in mouse activated T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Patricia; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV, Seccion Toxicologia, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C. [Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Medicina, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    A proposed mechanism for the As-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. However, the effects of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression or on the ERK pathway in activated-T cells have not yet been described. We examined the effect of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression, cell activation and proliferation in PHA-stimulated murine lymphocytes. Arsenite (1 and 10 {mu}M) decreased IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation. Arsenite (10 {mu}M) strongly inhibited ERK-phosphorylation. However, the partial inhibition (50%) of IL-2 mRNA produced by 1 {mu}M, consistent with the effects on IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation, could not be explained by the inhibition of ERK-phosphorylation, which was not affected at this concentration. The inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression caused by 1 {mu}M could be associated to effects on pathways located downstream or parallel to ERK. Arsenite also decreased early activation (surface CD69{sup +} expression) in both CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +}, and decreased total CD8{sup +} count without significantly affecting CD4{sup +}, supporting that the cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells is an arsenic target. Thus, our results suggest that arsenite decreases IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell activation and proliferation. However, further studies on the effects of arsenite on IL-2 gene transcription and IL-2 mRNA stability are needed. (orig.)

  8. Structure of the gene encoding VGF, a nervous system-specific mRNA that is rapidly and selectively induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, S R; Fischberg, D J; Dong, K W

    1991-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the development and survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Following treatment with NGF but not epidermal growth factor, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells undergo neural differentiation. We have cloned a nervous system-specific mRNA, NGF33.1, that is rapidly and relatively selectively induced by treatment of PC12 cells with NGF and basic fibroblast growth factor in comparison with epidermal growth factor. Analysis of the nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences of the NGF33.1 cDNA clone suggested that this clone corresponded to the NGF-inducible mRNA called VGF (A. Levi, J. D. Eldridge, and B. M. Paterson, Science 229:393-395, 1985; R. Possenti, J. D. Eldridge, B. M. Paterson, A. Grasso, and A. Levi, EMBO J. 8:2217-2223, 1989). We have used the NGF33.1 cDNA clone to isolate and characterize the VGF gene, and in this paper we report the complete sequence of the VGF gene, including 853 bases of 5' flank revealed TATAA and CCAAT elements, several GC boxes, and a consensus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein binding site. The VGF promoter contains sequences homologous to other NGF-inducible, neuronal promoters. We further show that VGF mRNA is induced in PC12 cells to a greater extent by depolarization and by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment than by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP treatment. By Northern (RNA) and RNase protection analysis, VGF mRNA is detectable in embryonic and postnatal central and peripheral nervous tissues but not in a number of nonneural tissues. In the cascade of events which ultimately leads to the neural differentiation of NGF-treated PC12 cells, the VGF gene encodes the most rapidly and selectively regulated, nervous-system specific mRNA yet identified.

  9. High Intensity High Volume Interval Training Improves Endurance Performance and Induces a Nearly Complete Slow-to-Fast Fiber Transformation on the mRNA Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Eigendorf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax/24 s on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT. The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M. vastus lateralis biopsies by quantitative real-time PCR. In incremental tests peak power (Ppeak was increased, whereas V˙O2peak was unaltered. Prolonged time-to-exhaustion was found in endurance tests with 65 and 80% Pmax at INT and END. No changes in blood levels of lipid metabolites were detected. Training-induced decreases of hematocrit indicate hypervolemia. A shift from slow MHCI/β to fast MHCIIa mRNA expression occurred after the first and second training set. The mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of oxidative energy metabolism, decreased after the second training set. In agreement, a significant decrease was also found for citrate synthase mRNA after the second training set, indicating reduced oxidative capacity. However, mRNA expression levels of glycolytic marker enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not change after the first and second training set. HIHVT induced a nearly complete slow-to-fast fiber type transformation on the mRNA level, which, however, cannot account for the improvements of performance parameters. The latter might be explained by the well-known effects of hypervolemia on exercise performance.

  10. microRNA and mRNA profiles in ventral tegmental area relevant to stress-induced depression and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Song, Zhenhua; Si, Yawei; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2018-06-01

    Chronic stress with lack of reward presumably may impair brain reward circuit, leading to major depressive disorder (MDD). Most individuals experiencing chronic stress do not suffer from MDD, i.e., resilience, implying the presence of endogenous anti-depression in the brain. Molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression versus resilience were investigated. Mice were treated by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for four weeks. Their mood state was assessed by behavioral tasks, such as sucrose preference, Y-maze and forced swimming testes. To reveal comprehensive molecular profiles of major depression versus resilience, mRNA and microRNA profiles were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) harvested from control, CUMS-susceptible and CUMS-resilience mice. In data analyses of control versus CUMS-susceptible mice as well as control versus CUMS-resilience mice, 1.5 fold ratio in reads per kilo-base per million reads was set as the threshold to judge the involvement of mRNAs and microRNAs in the CUMS, depression or resilience. The downregulation of synaptic vesicle cycle, neurotrophin, GABAergic synapse and morphine addiction as well as the upregulation of transmitter release, calcium signal and cAMP-dependent response element binding are associated to CUMS-susceptibility. The downregulation of tyrosine metabolism and protein process in endoplasmic reticulum as well as the upregulation of amino acid biosynthesis, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and dopaminergic synapse are associated to CUMS-resilience. Therefore, the impairment of neurons and GABA/dopaminergic synapses in the VTA is associated with major depression. The upregulation of these entities is associated with resilience. Consistent results obtained from analyzing mRNAs and microRNAs as well as using different approaches strengthen our finding and conclusion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Expression of Flk-1 and Cyclin D2 mRNA in the Myocardium of Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy and after Treatment with Betulonic Acid Amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzhelskaya, M M; Klinnikova, M G; Koldysheva, E V; Lushnikova, E L

    2017-10-01

    The expression of VEGFR2 (Flk-1, according to immunohistochemistry) and of cyclin D2 mRNA (according to real-time PCR) in the myocardium of rats is studied in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and in response to betulonic acid amide. Doxorubicin alone and in combination with betulonic acid amide causes after 3 days a manifest reduction of cyclin D2 mRNA expression (by 38 and 63%, respectively), while injection of betulonic acid amide alone causes a 23-fold increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression. An increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression has been detected in all experimental groups after 14 days of experiment, the most pronounced in response to betulonic acid amide (63 times). The expression of Flk-1 in cardiomyocytes increases significantly in response to both chemical agents starting from day 3 of experiment. These results indicate that doxorubicin and betulonic acid amide induce cytoprotective reactions in the myocardium, first at the intracellular, then at the cellular levels.

  12. Early-life stress induces persistent alterationsin 5-HT1Areceptor and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the adultrat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Bravo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life experience plays a major role in the stress response throughout life. Neonatal maternal separation (MS is an animal model of depression with an altered serotonergic response. We hypothesize that this alteration may be caused by differences in 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter (SERT mRNA expression in brain areas involved in the control of emotions, memory and fear as well as in regions controlling the central serotonergic tone.To test this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MS for 3h daily during post-natal days 2-12. As control, age matched rats were not separated (NS from their dams. When animals reached adulthood (11-13 weeks brain was extracted and mRNA expression of 5-HT1A receptor in amygdala, hippocampus and dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN and SERT in the DRN was analyzed through in-situ hybridisation.Densitometric analysis revealed that MS increased 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala, and reduced its expression in the DRN, but no changes were observed in the hippocampus in comparison to NS controls. Also, MS reduced SERT mRNA expression in the DRN when compared to NS rats.These results suggest that early-life stress induces persistent changes in 5-HT1A receptor and SERT mRNA expression in key brain regions involved in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. The reduction in SERT mRNA indicates an alteration that is in line with clinical findings such as polymorphic variants in individuals with higher risk of depression. These data may help to understand how early-life stress contributes to the development of mood disorders in adulthood.

  13. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides as a Future Vaccine for Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Sano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An astounding feature of the DNA sequences termed CpG motifs is the induction of immune and inflammatory responses in a senseless manner. CpG motifs exist abundantly in microbes and evoke innate immunity that constitutes the first line of defense against microbial infections in vertebrates. CpG motifs that essentially work in an antigen-nonspecific fashion, however, turn into novel immunomodulators that can manipulate acquired immunity in an antigen-specific manner if oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs are directly conjugated to the antigen. CpG ODNs with potent polyclonal Th1-inducing ability show promise for application in immunotherapy whereby neutralization of dominant allergy-prone Th2 cells is achieved by inducing allergen-specific Th1 cells. The underlying mechanisms include an unexpected enhancement of dendritic cell function as a linker between innate and acquired immunity. In the foreseeable future the mainstream therapeutic role of corticosteroids in anti-inflammatory therapy for allergic diseases could possibly be replaced by immunotherapy using CpG ODN-conjugated antigens.

  14. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofkova, Andrea; Haluzik, Martin; Zelezna, Blanka; Kiss, Alexander; Skurlova, Martina; Lacinova, Zdenka; Jurcovicova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Food intake is activated by hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is mainly under the dual control of leptin and ghrelin. Rat adjuvant arthritis (AA), similarly as human rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with cachexia caused by yet unknown mechanisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate NPY expression in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC) under the conditions of AA-induced changes in leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Since IL-1beta is involved in the central induction of anorexia, we studied its expression in the nARC as well. AA was induced to Lewis rats using complete Freund's adjuvant. On days 12, 15 and 18 after complete Freund's adjuvant injection, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and IL-1beta were determined by RIA or ELISA. The mRNA expressions for NPY, leptin receptor (OB-R), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) and IL-1beta were determined by TaqMan RT-PCR from isolated nARC. In AA rats, decreased appetite, body mass and epididymal fat stores positively correlated with reduced circulating and epididymal fat leptin and adiponectin. Ghrelin plasma levels were increased. In nARC, mRNA for OB-R, Ghsr and NPY were overexpressed in AA rats. AA rats showed overexpression of mRNA for IL-1beta in nARC while circulating, and spleen IL-1beta was unaltered. During AA, overexpression of orexigenic NPY mRNA in nARC along with enhanced plasma ghrelin and lowered leptin levels occur. Decreased food intake indicates a predominant effect of the anorexigenic pathway. Activated expression of IL-1beta in nARC suggests its role in keeping AA-induced anorexia in progress. The reduction in adiponectin may also contribute to AA-induced anorexia. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. DNA methylation regulates gabrb2 mRNA expression: developmental variations and disruptions in l-methionine-induced zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Jiang, W; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C

    2016-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor β 2 subunit gene (GABRB2) have been associated with schizophrenia and quantitatively correlated with mRNA expression in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. l-Methionine (MET) administration has been reported to cause a recrudescence of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and similar symptoms have been generated in MET-induced mice. In this study, a zebrafish animal model was used to evaluate the relationship between the gabrb2 mRNA expression and its promoter DNA methylation in developmental and MET-induced schizophrenia-like zebrafish. The results indicated developmental increases in global DNA methylation and decreases in gabrb2 promoter methylation in zebrafish. A significant increase in gabrb2 mRNA levels was observed after GABA was synthesized. Additionally, the MET-triggered schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult zebrafish, involving social withdrawal and cognitive dysfunction analyzed with social interaction and T-maze behavioral tests, were accompanied by significantly increased DNA methylation levels in the global genome and the gabrb2 promoter. Furthermore, the significant correlation between gabrb2 mRNA expression and gabrb2 promoter methylation observed in the developmental stages became non-significant in MET-triggered adult zebrafish. These findings demonstrate that gabrb2 mRNA expression is associated with DNA methylation varies by developmental stage and show that these epigenetic association mechanisms are disrupted in MET-triggered adult zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms. In conclusion, these results provide plausible epigenetic evidence of the GABA A receptor β 2 subunit involvement in the schizophrenia-like behaviors and demonstrate the potential use of zebrafish models in neuropsychiatric research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Physiologically-induced changes in proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels in the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, G J; Weterings, K A; van Zoest, I D; Jenks, B G

    1987-03-13

    In the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis the level of mRNA encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor protein for alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), is shown to be dependent on physiological parameters. POMC mRNA levels in the pars intermedia of black-background-adapted Xenopus are much higher than those of white-adapted animals. These physiological changes in POMC mRNA levels are tissue-specific because they were not found in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. Background transfer experiments revealed that modulation of POMC gene activity is much slower than changes in the secretion of alpha-MSH.

  17. Oxidative generation of guanine radicals by carbonate radicals and their reactions with nitrogen dioxide to form site specific 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesions in oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Avrum; Mock, Steven; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2003-08-01

    A simple photochemical approach is described for synthesizing site specific, stable 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NIm) adducts in single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides containing single and multiple guanine residues. The DNA sequences employed, 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC CG(3)C G(4)CC) and 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C), were a portion of exon 5 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the codons 157 (G(2)) and 158 (G(3)) mutation hot spots in the former sequence with four Gs and the codon 157 (G(2)) mutation hot spot in the latter sequence with two Gs. The nitration of oligodeoxynucleotides was initiated by the selective photodissociation of persulfate anions to sulfate radicals induced by UV laser pulses (308 nm). In aqueous solutions, of bicarbonate and nitrite anions, the sulfate radicals generate carbonate anion radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals by one electron oxidation of the respective anions. The guanine residue in the oligodeoxynucleotide is oxidized by the carbonate anion radical to form the neutral guanine radical. While the nitrogen dioxide radicals do not react with any of the intact DNA bases, they readily combine with the guanine radicals at either the C8 or the C5 positions. The C8 addition generates the well-known 8-nitroguanine (8-nitro-G) lesions, whereas the C5 attack produces unstable adducts, which rapidly decompose to NIm lesions. The maximum yields of the nitro products (NIm + 8-nitro-G) were typically in the range of 20-40%, depending on the number of guanine residues in the sequence. The ratio of the NIm to 8-nitro-G lesions gradually decreases from 3.4 in the model compound, 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylguanosine, to 2.1-2.6 in the single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and to 0.8-1.1 in the duplexes. The adduct of the 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C) oligodeoxynucleotide containing the NIm lesion in codon 157 (G(2)) was isolated in HPLC-pure form. The integrity of this adduct was established by a detailed analysis of exonuclease digestion

  18. Antagonism of immunostimulatory CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides by quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, D E; Manzel, L

    1998-02-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG (CpG-ODN) activate immune responses. We report that quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds completely inhibit the antiapoptotic effect of CpG-ODN on WEHI 231 murine B lymphoma cells and inhibit CpG-ODN-induced secretion of IL-6 by WEHI 231. They also inhibit IL-6 synthesis and thymidine uptake by human unfractionated PBMC induced by CpG-ODN. The compounds did not inhibit LPS-induced responses. Half-maximal inhibition required 10 nM quinacrine or 100 nM chloroquine. Inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to CpG-ODN. Quinine, quinidine, and primaquine were much less powerful. Quinacrine was effective even when added after the CpG-ODN. Near-toxic concentrations of ammonia plus bafilomycin A1 (used to inhibit vesicular acidification) did not reduce the efficacy of the quinacrine, but the effects of both quinacrine and chloroquine were enhanced by inhibition of the multidrug resistance efflux pump by verapamil. Agents that bind to DNA, including propidium iodide, Hoechst dye 33258, and coralyne chloride did not inhibit CpG-ODN effect, nor did 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Examination of the structure-activity relationship of seventy 4-aminoquinoline and 9-aminoacridine analogues reveals that increased activity was conferred by bulky hydrophobic substituents on positions 2 and 6 of the quinoline nucleus. No correlation was found between published antimalarial activity and ability to block CpG-ODN-induced effects. These results are discussed in the light of the ability of quinacrine and chloroquine to induce remission of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.

  19. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides containing TTAGGG motifs inhibit cGAS activation in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhagen, Folkert; Zillinger, Thomas; Peukert, Konrad; Fox, Mario; Thudium, Marcus; Barchet, Winfried; Putensen, Christian; Klinman, Dennis; Latz, Eicke; Bode, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is a critical mediator of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). The recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) induces the production of type I IFN in response to cytosolic DNA and is potentially linked to SLE and AGS. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs present in mammalian telomeres have proven useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including SLE. In this study, we demonstrate that the suppressive ODN A151 effectively inhibits activation of cGAS in response to cytosolic DNA, thereby inhibiting type I IFN production by human monocytes. In addition, A151 abrogated cGAS activation in response to endogenous accumulation of DNA using TREX1-deficient monocytes. We demonstrate that A151 prevents cGAS activation in a manner that is competitive with DNA. This suppressive activity of A151 was dependent on both telomeric sequence and phosphorothioate backbone. To our knowledge this report presents the first cGAS inhibitor capable of blocking self-DNA. Collectively, these findings might lead to the development of new therapeutics against IFN-driven pathologies due to cGAS activation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Precise gene modification mediated by TALEN and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    Full Text Available The development of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs facilitates in vitro studies of human disease mechanisms, speeds up the process of drug screening, and raises the feasibility of using cell replacement therapy in clinics. However, the study of genotype-phenotype relationships in ESCs or iPSCs is hampered by the low efficiency of site-specific gene editing. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs spurred interest due to the ease of assembly, high efficiency and faithful gene targeting. In this study, we optimized the TALEN design to maximize its genomic cutting efficiency. We showed that using optimized TALENs in conjunction with single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN allowed efficient gene editing in human cells. Gene mutations and gene deletions for up to 7.8 kb can be accomplished at high efficiencies. We established human tumor cell lines and H9 ESC lines with homozygous deletion of the microRNA-21 (miR-21 gene and miR-9-2 gene. These cell lines provide a robust platform to dissect the roles these genes play during cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. We also observed that the endogenous homologous chromosome can serve as a donor template for gene editing. Overall, our studies demonstrate the versatility of using ssODN and TALEN to establish genetically modified cells for research and therapeutic application.

  1. Estrogens and growth factors induce the mRNA of the 52K-pro-cathepsin-D secreted by breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavailles, V; Augereau, P; Garcia, M; Rochefort, H

    1988-03-25

    The estrogen-induced 52K protein secreted by human breast cancer cells is a lysosomal protease recently identified as a pro-cathepsin D by sequencing several cDNA clones isolated from MCF/sub 7/ cells. Using one of these clones, the authors detected, in MCF/sub 7/ cells a 2.2 kb mRNA whose level was rapidly increased 4- to 10-fold by estradiol, but not by other classes of steroids. Other mitogens, such as epidermal growth factor and insulin, also induced the 2.2 kb mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Induction with epidermal growth factor was as rapid but was 2- to 3-fold lower than with estradiol. Antiestrogens had no effect on the 52K-cathepsin-D mRNA in MCF/sub 7/ cells, but became estrogen agonists in two antiestrogen-resistant sublines R/sub 27/ and LY2. The use of transcription and translation inhibitors and nuclear run-on experiments indicate that estradiol enhances transcription of the 52K-cathepsin-D gene in MCF/sub 7/ cells.

  2. Contraction-induced increases in Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA levels in human skeletal muscle are not amplified by activation of additional muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Thomassen, Martin; Lundby, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise with a large compared with a small active muscle mass results in a higher contraction-induced increase in Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA expression due to greater hormonal responses. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Na+-K+-ATPase subunit a1, a2, a3, a......% of the a2 expression, and no reliable detection of a3 and a4 was possible. In conclusion, activation of additional muscle mass does not result in a higher exercise-induced increase in Na+-K+-ATPase subunit-specific mRNA.......4, ß1, ß2, and ß3 mRNA in human skeletal muscle was investigated. On two occasions, eight subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise (L) or combined one-legged knee extension and bilateral arm cranking (AL) for 5.00, 4.25, 3.50, 2.75, and 2.00 min separated by 3 min of rest. Leg exercise...

  3. Light and Fungal Elicitor Induce 3-Deoxy-d-arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase mRNA in Suspension Cultured Cells of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstrand, John M.; McCue, Kent F.; Brink, Kent; Handa, Avtar K.; Herrmann, Klaus M.; Conn, Eric E.

    1992-01-01

    Light and fungal elicitor induce mRNA encoding 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase in suspension cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.). The kinetics and dose response of mRNA accumulation were similar for DAHP synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Six micrograms of elicitor from Phytophthora megasperma f. glycinia gave a detectable induction within 1 hour. Induction of DAHP synthase and PAL mRNAs by light was transient, reaching maximal levels at 4 hours and returning to pretreatment levels after 24 hours. Our data suggest that either light or fungal elicitor transcriptionally activate DAHP synthase. A coordinate regulation for key enzymes in the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites is indicated. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668708

  4. Intratracheal synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide causes acute lung injury with systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial genome is characterized by frequent unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG motifs. Deleterious effects can occur when synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN with unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN are administered in a systemic fashion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of intratracheal CpG-ODN on lung inflammation and systemic inflammatory response. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal administration of CpG-ODN (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 μM or control ODN without CpG motif. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was obtained 3 or 6 h or 1, 2, 7, or 14 days after the instillation and subjected to a differential cell count and cytokine measurement. Lung permeability was evaluated as the BAL fluid-to-plasma ratio of the concentration of human serum albumin that was injected 1 h before euthanasia. Nuclear factor (NF-κB DNA binding activity was also evaluated in lung homogenates. Intratracheal administration of 10 μM or higher concentration of CpG-ODN induced significant inflammatory cell accumulation into the airspace. The peak accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred 1 and 2 days after the CpG-ODN administration, respectively. Lung permeability was increased 1 day after the 10 μM CpG-ODN challenge. CpG-ODN also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid and plasma. Histopathology of the lungs and liver revealed acute lung injury and liver damage with necrosis, respectively. Control ODN without CpG motif did not induce any inflammatory change. Since intratracheal CpG-ODN induced acute lung injury as well as systemic inflammatory response, therapeutic strategies to neutralize bacterial DNA that is released after administration of bactericidal agents should be considered.

  5. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  6. Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance downregulates pulmonary collagen mRNA gene and TGF-beta expression in experimental systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Edwin R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate collagen deposition, mRNA collagen synthesis and TGF-beta expression in the lung tissue in an experimental model of scleroderma after collagen V-induced nasal tolerance. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits (N = 12 were immunized with 1 mg/ml of collagen V in Freund's adjuvant (IM. After 150 days, six immunized animals were tolerated by nasal administration of collagen V (25 μg/day (IM-TOL daily for 60 days. The collagen content was determined by morphometry, and mRNA expressions of types I, III and V collagen were determined by Real-time PCR. The TGF-beta expression was evaluated by immunostaining and quantified by point counting methods. To statistic analysis ANOVA with Bonferroni test were employed for multiple comparison when appropriate and the level of significance was determined to be p Results IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed significant reduction in total collagen content around the vessels (0.371 ± 0.118 vs. 0.874 ± 0.282, p p p = 0.026. The lung tissue of IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed decreased immunostaining of types I, III and V collagen, reduced mRNA expression of types I (0.10 ± 0.07 vs. 1.0 ± 0.528, p = 0.002 and V (1.12 ± 0.42 vs. 4.74 ± 2.25, p = 0.009 collagen, in addition to decreased TGF-beta expression (p Conclusions Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance in the experimental model of SSc regulated the pulmonary remodeling process, inhibiting collagen deposition and collagen I and V mRNA synthesis. Additionally, it decreased TGF-beta expression, suggesting a promising therapeutic option for scleroderma treatment.

  7. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed similar to 7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after...... 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism......The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16...

  8. Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation: clinical findings and its effect on hepcidin mRNA expression in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoferremia observed during systemic inflammatory disorders is regulated by hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation is particularly important during acute inflammation, as it restricts the availability of iron, which is necessary for pathogenic microorganism growth before adaptive immunity occurs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in horses using a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA model of inflammation. The expression of hepcidin mRNA in the liver was determined in healthy horses following two intramuscular injections of FCA at 0 h and 12 h. Plasma iron and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at multiple time points between 0 h and 240 h post-FCA injection (PI. Hepcidin mRNA expression was determined by RT-qPCR using liver biopsy samples performed at 0 h (control, 6 h and 18 h PI. The mean plasma fibrinogen level was significantly different from the control values only between 120 and 216 h PI. The mean plasma iron level was significantly lower than the control between 16 and 72 h PI, reaching the lowest levels at 30 h PI (33 % of the initial value, and returned to the reference value from 96 h PI to the end of the experiment. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased at 6 h PI and remained high at 18 h PI. The iron plasma concentration was an earlier indicator of inflammatory processes in horses when compared with fibrinogen and might be useful for the early detection of inflammation in the horse. FCA administration caused the rapid onset of hypoferremia, and this effect was likely the result of up-regulated hepatic hepcidin gene expression. This study emphasizes the importance of hepcidin and iron metabolism during inflammation in horses.

  9. HOXB7 mRNA is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and its knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile, Thais; Bacchella, Telésforo; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Fortes, Maria Angela Henriques Zanella; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia Cardillo; Brentani, Helena Paula; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Puga, Renato David; Paula, Vanessa de Jesus R de; Kubrusly, Marcia Saldanha; Novak, Estela Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human homeobox genes encode nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors involved in the control of differentiation and proliferation. Currently, the role of these genes in development and tumor progression has been extensively studied. Recently, increased expression of HOXB7 homeobox gene (HOXB7) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) was shown to correlate with an invasive phenotype, lymph node metastasis and worse survival outcomes, but no influence on cell proliferation or viability was detected. In the present study, the effects arising from the knockdown of HOXB7 in PDAC cell lines was investigated. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) (Taqman) was employed to assess HOXB7 mRNA expression in 29 PDAC, 6 metastatic tissues, 24 peritumoral tissues and two PDAC cell lines. siRNA was used to knockdown HOXB7 mRNA in the cell lines and its consequences on apoptosis rate and cell proliferation were measured by flow cytometry and MTT assay respectively. Overexpression of HOXB7 mRNA was observed in the tumoral tissues and in the cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and Capan-1. HOXB7 knockdown elicited (1) an increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAD in both cell lines; (2) a decrease in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 and in cyclin D1 and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the MIA PaCa-2 cell line; (3) accumulation of cell in sub-G1 phase in both cell lines; (4) the modulation of several biological processes, especially in MIA PaCa-2, such as proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent catabolic process and cell cycle. The present study confirms the overexpression of HOXB7 mRNA expression in PDAC and demonstrates that decreasing its protein level by siRNA could significantly increase apoptosis and modulate several biological processes. HOXB7 might be a promising target for future therapies

  10. Methylmethane-sulphonate and X-ray-induced mutations in the Chinese hamster hprt gene: mRNA phenotyping using polymerase chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Fox, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Alterations in the hprt gene of Chinese hamster cells were determined in 71 spontaneous, methylmethane sulphonate (MMS)-and X-ray induced mutants, using the Southern blot hybridization technique. To investigate the possibility of small deletions, MMS-induced mutants were studied with proves derived from exons 3 and 9 but no evidence of specific deletion of these two exons was found. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to phenotype hprt transcripts in 48 MMS, X-ray and spontaneous Chinese hamster mutants by amplifying the coding region of their cDNA. Among 22 MMS-induced mutants the message was present in 16 instances. An analysis of 20 X-ray-induced mutants showed the presence of hprt mRNA in 11 of them with five having low levels of transcription. Among six spontaneous mutants, four were negative for mRNA on standard Northern blots and in one the message was only detected after PCR amplification. Direct DNA sequencing of 10 mutants revealed the presence of base substitutions in five of them while a 7 bp deletion was found in another. No mutations were found in another four mutants, suggesting the presence of mutation outside the coding region. (author)

  11. A retinoic acid-inducible mRNA from F9 teratocarcinoma cells encodes a novel protease inhibitor homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Y; Gudas, L J

    1990-09-15

    We have previously isolated several cDNA clones specific for mRNA species that increase in abundance during the retinoic acid-associated differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. One of these mRNAs, J6, encodes a approximately 40 kDa protein as assayed by hybrid selection and in vitro translation (Wang, S.-Y., LaRosa, G., and Gudas, L. J. (1985) Dev. Biol. 107, 75-86). The time course of J6 mRNA expression is similar to those of both laminin B1 and collagen IV (alpha 1) messages following retinoic acid addition. To address the functional role of this protein, we have isolated a full-length cDNA clone complementary to this approximately 40-kDa protein mRNA. Sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 406 amino acids (Mr 45,652). The carboxyl-terminal portion of this predicted protein contains a region that is homologous to the reactive sites found among members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) family. The predicted reactive site (P1-P1') of this J6 protein is Arg-Ser, which is the same as that of antithrombin III. Like ovalbumin and human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2), which are members of the serpin gene family, the J6 protein appears to have no typical amino-terminal signal sequence.

  12. Uncoupling of the hnRNP Npl3p from mRNAs during the stress-induced block in mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, H; Taura, T; Lee, M S; Silver, P A

    1999-08-01

    Npl3p, the major mRNA-binding protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. A single amino acid change in the carboxyl terminus of Npl3p (E409 --> K) renders the mutant protein largely cytoplasmic because of a delay in its import into the nucleus. This import defect can be reversed by increasing the intracellular concentration of Mtr10p, the nuclear import receptor for Npl3p. Conversely, using this mutant, we show that Npl3p and mRNA export out of the nucleus is significantly slowed in cells bearing mutations in XPO1/CRM1, which encodes the export receptor for NES-containing proteins and in RAT7, which encodes an essential nucleoporin. Interestingly, following induction of stress by heat shock, high salt, or ethanol, conditions under which most mRNA export is blocked, Npl3p is still exported from the nucleus. The stress-induced export of Npl3p is independent of both the activity of Xpo1p and the continued selective export of heat-shock mRNAs that occurs following stress. UV-cross-linking experiments show that Npl3p is bound to mRNA under normal conditions, but is no longer RNA associated in stressed cells. Taken together, we suggest that the uncoupling of Npl3p and possibly other mRNA-binding proteins from mRNAs in the nucleus provides a general switch that regulates mRNA export. By this model, under normal conditions Npl3p is a major component of an export-competent RNP complex. However, under conditions of stress, Npl3p no longer associates with the export complex, rendering it export incompetent and thus nuclear.

  13. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P stress also reduced (P stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance and reduces oxidative stress in heat-stressed black-boned chickens by increasing serum growth hormone concentrations and modulating the expression of heat shock genes in organs of the immune system.

  14. Myc Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibits Growth and Modulates Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells as a Model of Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Behrooz; Ebrahimi-Rad, Mina; Maghsood, Faezeh; Lotfinia, Majid; Saltanatpouri, Zohreh; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Karimipoor, Morteza; Kadivar, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Myc (c-Myc) alone activates the embryonic stem cell-like transcriptional module in both normal and transformed cells. Its dysregulation might lead to increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) population in some tumor cells. In order to investigate the potential of Myc decoy oligodeoxynucleotides for differentiation therapy, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were used in this study as a model of CSCs. To our best of knowledge this is the first report outlining the application of Myc decoy in transcription factor decoy "TFD" strategy for inducing differentiation in mESCs. A 20-mer double-stranded Myc transcription factor decoy and scrambled oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were designed, analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) assay and transfected into the mESCs under 2 inhibitors (2i) condition. Further investigations were carried out using fluorescence and confocal microscopy, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis, alkaline phosphatase and embryoid body formation assay, real-time PCR and western blotting. EMSA data showed that Myc decoy ODNs bound specifically to c-Myc protein. They were found to be localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus of mESCs. Our results revealed the potential capability of Myc decoy ODNs to decrease cell viability by (16.1±2%), to increase the number of cells arrested in G0/G1 phases and apoptosis by (14.2±3.1%) and (12.1±3.2%), respectively regarding the controls. Myc decoy could also modulate differentiation in mESCs despite the presence of 2i/LIF in our medium the presence of 2i/LIF in our medium. The optimized Myc decoy ODNs approach might be considered as a promising alternative strategy for differentiation therapy investigations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karijolich, John; Zhao, Yang; Alla, Ravi; Glaunsinger, Britt

    2017-06-02

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Differential conserted activity induced regulation of Nogo receptors (1-3, LOTUS and Nogo mRNA in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias E Karlsson

    Full Text Available Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1 mRNA is downregulated in hippocampal and cortical regions by increased neuronal activity such as a kainic acid challenge or by exposing rats to running wheels. Plastic changes in cerebral cortex in response to loss of specific sensory inputs caused by spinal cord injury are also associated with downregulation of NgR1 mRNA. Here we investigate the possible regulation by neuronal activity of the homologous receptors NgR2 and NgR3 as well as the endogenous NgR1 antagonist LOTUS and the ligand Nogo. The investigated genes respond to kainic acid by gene-specific, concerted alterations of transcript levels, suggesting a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, Downregulation of NgR1, coupled to upregulation of the NgR1 antagonist LOTUS, paired with upregulation of NgR2 and 3 in the dentate gyrus suggest a temporary decrease of Nogo/OMgp sensitivity while CSPG and MAG sensitivity could remain. It is suggested that these activity-synchronized temporary alterations may serve to allow structural alterations at the level of local synaptic circuitry in gray matter, while maintaining white matter pathways and that subsequent upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR1 transcript levels signals the end of such a temporarily opened window of plasticity.

  17. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis of selected genes in patients with early-stage hypothyroidism induced by treatment with iodine-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Gao, Rui; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Weixiao; Yang, Yuxuan; Yang, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular markers indicative of early-stage hypothyroidism induced by treatment with iodine-131, in order to assist in further investigations of radio iodine‑induced hypothyroidism. A total of 59 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (male/female, 16/43; median age, 46.4 years) and 27 healthy subjects (male/female, 7/21; median age, 44.6 years) were included in the present study. All patients were treated with appropriate doses of iodine‑131 and, three months following treatment, the patients were subdivided into two groups: A group with early‑stage hypothyroidism symptoms, and a group with non‑early‑stage hypothyroidism, including euthyroid patients and patients remaining with hyperthyroidism. Tissue samples from the patients and healthy subjects were collected by fine needle biopsies, and the mRNA expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB, Ku70, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), early growth response 1 (Egr‑1), TP53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated were analyzed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction prior to iodine‑131 treatment. The association of the variation of target genes with susceptibility to early‑stage hypothyroidism was analyzed. Compared with normal subjects, the mRNA expression levels of Ku70 (0.768, vs. 3.304, respectively; Ptreatment with iodine‑131, 30 of the 59 (50.8%) patients with hyperthyroidism were diagnosed with early‑stage hypothyroidism, and in the early‑stage hypothyroidism group, the mRNA expression levels of Bcl‑2 were significantly decreased (Phypothyroidism group. The association between the changes in the expression levles of Bcl‑2 and Egr‑1 and susceptibility to early‑stage hypothyroidism was supported by multivariate regression analysis. No significant changes in the expression levels of the other target genes were detected. The opposing changes in the mRNA expression levels of Bcl‑2

  18. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) inhibited cell transformation by inducing G0/G1 phase arrest via increasing MKP-1 mRNA Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangxun; Chen, Liang; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Fang, Yong; Huang, Haishan; Chen, Xiequn; Huang, Chuanshu

    2014-05-15

    The cancer chemopreventive property of Chinese herb new isolate isorhapontigenin (ISO) and mechanisms underlying its activity have never been explored. Here we demonstrated that ISO treatment with various concentrations for 3 weeks could dramatically inhibit TPA/EGF-induced cell transformation of Cl41 cells in Soft Agar assay, whereas co-incubation of cells with ISO at the same concentrations could elicit G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest without redundant cytotoxic effects on non-transformed cells. Further studies showed that ISO treatment resulted in cyclin D1 downregulation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Our results indicated that ISO regulated cyclin D1 at transcription level via targeting JNK/C-Jun/AP-1 activation. Moreover, we found that ISO-inhibited JNK/C-Jun/AP-1 activation was mediated by both upregulation of MKP-1 expression through increasing its mRNA stability and deactivating MKK7. Most importantly, MKP-1 knockdown could attenuate ISO-mediated suppression of JNK/C-Jun activation and cyclin D1 expression, as well as G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell transformation inhibition, while ectopic expression of FLAG-cyclin D1 T286A mutant also reversed ISO-induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of cell transformation. Our results demonstrated that ISO is a promising chemopreventive agent via upregulating mkp-1 mRNA stability, which is distinct from its cancer therapeutic effect with downregulation of XIAP and cyclin D1 expression.

  19. Influence of clonidine and ketamine on m-RNA expression in a model of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Ohnesorge

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of morphine and ketamine or clonidine in mice on the expression of genes that may mediate pronociceptive opioid effects.C57BL/6 mice received morphine injections thrice daily using increasing doses (5-20 mg∙kg(-1 for 3 days (sub-acute, n=6 or 14 days (chronic, n=6 and additionally either s-ketamine (5 mg∙kg(-1, n=6 or clonidine (0.1 mg∙kg(-1, n=6. Tail flick test and the assessment of the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the hindpaw was performed during and 4 days after cessation of opioid treatment. Upon completion of the behavioural testing the mRNA-concentration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR1 and β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2 were measured by PCR.Chronic opioid treatment resulted in a delay of the tail flick latency with a rapid on- and offset. Simultaneously the mice developed a static mechanical hyperalgesia with a delayed onset that that outlasted the morphine treatment. Sub-acute morphine administration resulted in a decrease of NMDAR1 and Arrb2 whereas during longer opioid treatment the expression NMDAR1 and Arrb2 mRNA increased again to baseline values. Coadministration of s-ketamine or clonidine resulted in a reversal of the mechanical hyperalgesia and inhibited the normalization of NMDAR1 mRNA expression but had no effect on the expression of Arrb2 mRNA.In the model of chronic morphine therapy the antinociceptive effects of morphine are represented by the thermal analgesia while the proniceptive effects are represented by the mechanical hyperalgesia. The results indicate that the regulation of the expression of NMDAR1 and Arrb2 may be associated to the development of OIH in mice.The results indicate that co-administration of clonidine or ketamine may influence the underlying mechanisms of OIH.

  20. NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide mitigates wear particle-associated bone loss in the murine continuous infusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Pajarinen, Jukka; Sato, Taishi; Loi, Florence; Fan, Changchun; Córdova, Luis A; Nabeshima, Akira; Gibon, Emmanuel; Zhang, Ruth; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2016-09-01

    Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Wear particle-induced chronic inflammation is associated with the development of periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells could potentially mitigate this disease. In the current study, we examined the effects of local delivery of decoy NF-κB oligo-deoxynucleotide (ODN) on wear particle-induced bone loss in a murine continuous femoral particle infusion model. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were infused via osmotic pumps into hollow titanium rods placed in the distal femur of mice for 4weeks. Particle-induced bone loss was evaluated by μCT, and immunohistochemical analysis of sections from the femur. Particle infusion alone resulted in reduced bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume fraction in the distal femur. The decoy ODN reversed the particle-associated bone volume fraction loss around the implant, irrespective of the presence of LPS. Particle-infusion with LPS increased bone mineral density in the distal femur compared with particle-infusion alone. NF-κB decoy ODN reversed or further increased the bone mineral density in the femur (3-6mm from the distal end) exposed to particles alone or particles plus LPS. NF-κB decoy ODN also inhibited macrophage infiltration and osteoclast number, but had no significant effects on osteoblast numbers in femurs exposed to wear particles and LPS. Our study suggests that targeting NF-κB activity via local delivery of decoy ODN has great potential to mitigate wear particle-induced osteolysis. Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Chronic inflammation is crucial for the development of wear particle-associated bone loss. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages (pro-inflammatory cells), osteoclasts (bone

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by chimeric phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides applied in free solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Hansen, J E

    1998-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing a variable number of 3' and 5' terminal phosphorothioate linkages were applied in free solution to cells infected by HIV-1. ODNs of 28 nt length were applied at up to 5 microM concentration. The ODNs were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dose dependent...... by these modified chimers....

  2. Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) elevates mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) associated with reduced tumor growth of liver metastases compared to hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, Christoph; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Roggan, André; Schuppan, Detlef; Ajubi, Navid; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Hohenberger, Werner; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation and synthesis of hepatocellular tissue after tissue damage are promoted by specific growth factors such as hepatic tissue growth factor (HGF) and connective growth factor (CTGF). Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of liver metastases is deemed to be a parenchyma-saving procedure compared to hepatic resection. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of LITT and hepatic resection on intrahepatic residual tumor tissue and expression levels of mRNA HGF/CTGF within liver and tumor tissue. Two independent adenocarcinomas (CC531) were implanted into 75 WAG rats, one in the right (untreated tumor) and one in the left liver lobe (treated tumor). The left lobe tumor was treated either by LITT or partial hepatectomy. The control tumor was submitted to in-situ hybridization of HGF and CTGF 24-96 hours and 14 days after intervention. Volumes of the untreated tumors prior to intervention were 38+/-8 mm(3) in group I (laser), 39 +/- 7 mm(3) in group II (resection), and 42 +/- 12 mm(3) in group III (control) and did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Fourteen days after the intervention the mean tumor+/-SEM volume of untreated tumor in group I (laser) [223 +/- 36] was smaller than in group II (resection) [1233.28 +/- 181.52; P tumor growth in comparison to hepatic resection. Accelerated tumor growth after hepatic resection is associated with higher mRNA level of HGF and reduced tumor growth after LITT with higher mRNA level of CTGF. The increased CTGF-mediated regulation of ECM may cause reduced residual tumor growth after LITT. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  4. Amelioration of ultraviolet-B-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels for chloroplast proteins, by high irradiance, is mediated by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, S.A. H.; Butt, P.J.; Jordan, B.R.; Thomas, B.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reduces the sensitivity of RNA transcripts to UV-B radiation was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L.). mRNA transcript levels for rbc S, rbc L, cab and psb A were measured over an 8 d experimental period in pea, plants supplemented with UV-B radiation under a range of conditions. Under low light (150 mu-mol m -2 s -1 ), UV-B resulted in a significant decline in the levels of transcripts for all four genes which was prevented by increasing the background irradiance to 350 mu-mol m -2 s -1 (high light) with white light from fluorescent lamps. Increasing CO 2 levels to give photosynthesis rates equivalent to the high light treatment partially protected rbc S and cab transcripts and fully protected rbc L transcripts but did not prevent visible injury. Increasing light with low pressure sodium lamps, which increase photosynthesis but are not effective for activation of the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase, gave results which were not significantly different from white fluorescent high light treatments. Protection by high light was lost in the presence of the photosynthesis inhibitors CCCP and DCMU. The UV-B induced increase in the expression of chalcone synthase (chs) genes was delayed by the treatments which increased photosynthesis rates and conferred protection. The results indicate that photosynthesis plays a key role in the amelioration of UV-B induced decline in mRNA levels for proteins. The minimal role of DNA repair by photolyase indicates that reduction in photosynthesis gene transcripts in response to UV-B represents a specific regulation rather than being a consequence of DNA damage. (author)

  5. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  6. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Kuang, Sheng-Yao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Yong-An [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: kyckgk@hotmail.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  7. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  8. Induced expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and IFN-gamma in immunologically activated rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by dexamethasone and cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Coleman, J W

    1995-10-01

    We examined the capacity of purified rat peritoneal connective tissue-type mast cells (PMC) to express mRNA for several cytokines. Stimulation of PMC with anti-IgE for 4 hr induced the expression of mRNA encoding interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Unstimulated PMC expressed detectable mRNA for TNF-alpha but not for the other four cytokines. Incubation of PMC with cyclosporin A (CsA) or dexamethasone (DEX), each at 10(-6) M for 24 hr, significantly inhibited the induced expression of mRNA for each of the five cytokines, and also inhibited release of biologically active TNF-alpha. Throughout these experiments mRNA levels of the housekeeping gene G3PDH were not altered by stimulation with anti-IgE or incubation with CsA or DEX. We conclude that immunological activation of rat PMC induces gene expression of several cytokines and that expression of these genes can be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs.

  9. Attenuation of Streptozotocin-Induced Lipid Profile Anomalies in the Heart, Brain, and mRNA Expression of HMG-CoA Reductase by Diosgenin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuang; Xu, Rihao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that contributes to pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring aglycone, is present abundantly in fenugreek. The steroidal saponin is being used as a traditional medicine for diabetes. The present study has investigated the effects of diosgenin on lipid profile in the heart and brain, mRNA expression, and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In our study, diosgenin was administered (40 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 45 days to control animals and experimentally induced diabetic rats. The effects of diosgenin on glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids (PLs) in the heart and brain were studied. The levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs, and HMGR activity were increased significantly (P rats. Administration of diosgenin to diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs levels, and also HMGR activity. In addition, the plasma insulin level was increased in diosgenin-treated diabetic rats. The above findings were correlated with histological observations of the heart and brain. The results showed that administration of diosgenin remarkably increased plasma insulin level with absolute reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, and HMGR level when compared to diabetic control rats. The results have suggested that diosgenin prevents hypercholesterolemia and hepatosteatosis by modulation of enzymatic expression that is associated with cholesterol metabolism.

  10. Radiolytic Reduction Characteristics of Artificial Oligodeoxynucleotides Possessing 2-Oxoalkyl Group or Disulfide Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Tanabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of advances have been made in the development of modified oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, and chemical or physical properties of which are controlled by external stimuli. These intelligent ODNs are promising for the next generation of gene diagnostics and therapy. This paper focuses on the molecular design of artificial ODNs that are activated by X-irradiation and their applications to regulation of hybridization properties, conformation change, radiation-activated DNAzyme, and decoy molecules.

  11. Sensitization of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to recombinant immunotoxin by immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Thomas; Hipp, Susanne; Kreitman, Robert J; Pastan, Ira; Peschel, Christian; Licht, Thomas

    2002-02-15

    A recombinant anti-CD25 immunotoxin, LMB-2, has shown clinical efficacy in hairy cell leukemia and T-cell neoplasms. Its activity in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is inferior but might be improved if B-CLL cells expressed higher numbers of CD25 binding sites. It was recently reported that DSP30, a phosphorothioate CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) induces immunogenicity of B-CLL cells by up-regulation of CD25 and other antigens. The present study investigated the antitumor activity of LMB-2 in the presence of DSP30. To this end, B-CLL cells from peripheral blood of patients were isolated immunomagnetically to more than 98% purity. Incubation with DSP30 for 48 hours augmented CD25 expression in 14 of 15 B-CLL samples, as assessed by flow cytometry. DSP30 increased LMB-2 cytotoxicity dose dependently whereas a control ODN with no CpG motif did not. LMB-2 displayed no antitumor cell activity in the absence of CpG-ODN as determined colorimetrically with an (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. In contrast, B-CLL growth was inhibited in 12 of 13 samples with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) in the range of LMB-2 plasma levels achieved in clinical studies. Two samples were not evaluable because of spontaneous B-CLL cell death in the presence of DSP30. Control experiments with an immunotoxin that does not recognize hematopoietic cells, and an anti-CD22 immunotoxin, confirmed that sensitization to LMB-2 was specifically due to up-regulation of CD25. LMB-2 was much less toxic to normal B and T lymphocytes compared with B-CLL cells. In summary, immunostimulatory CpG-ODNs efficiently sensitize B-CLL cells to a recombinant immunotoxin by modulation of its target. This new treatment strategy deserves further attention.

  12. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokender Kumar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti

  13. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti

  14. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein, but not mRNA, in a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Kawamura, Takuya; Tokui, Ryuji; Furuta, Kohei; Sugino, Mami; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-11-06

    Two channel proteins, inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) and water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), were recently identified as targets of an autoantibody response in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, respectively. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in a mouse model of demyelination induced by cuprizone, a copper chelator. Demyelination was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-proteolipid protein antibody in various brain regions, including the corpus callosum, of cuprizone-fed mice. Activation of microglial and astroglial cells was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry, using an anti-ionized calcium binding adapter molecule and a glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. Western blot analysis revealed the induction of Kir4.1 protein, but not AQP4, in the cortex of cuprizone-fed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the Kir4.1 protein induction in microvessels of the cerebral cortex. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the cortex did not change during cuprizone administration. These findings suggest that enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein in the brain with an inflammatory condition facilitates the autoantibody formation against Kir4.1 in patients with multiple sclerosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Yak response to high-altitude hypoxic stress by altering mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xianrong; Fu, Mei; Lan, Daoliang; Li, Jian; Zi, Xiangdong; Zhong, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are oxygen-dependent transcriptional activators, which play crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis and mammalian development, and regulate the transcription of genes involved in oxygen homeostasis in response to hypoxia. However, information on HIF-1α and HIF-2α in yak (Bos grunniens) is scarce. The complete coding region of yak HIF-2α was cloned, its mRNA expression in several tissues were determined, and the expression levels were compared with those of closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus), and the methylation status of promoter regions were analyzed to better understand the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in domesticated yak. The yak HIF-2α cDNA was cloned and sequenced in the present work reveals the evolutionary conservation through multiple sequence alignment, although 15 bases changed, resulting in 8 amino acid substitutions in the translated proteins in cattle. The tissue-specific expression results showed that HIF-1α is ubiquitously expressed, whereas HIF-2α expression is limited to endothelial tissues (kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and liver) and blood in yak. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions were higher in yak tissues than in cattle. The HIF-1α expression level is much higher in yak than cattle in these organs, except for the lung (P hypoxic stress response mechanism and may assist current medical research to understand hypoxia-related diseases.

  17. Expression profiles of mRNA and long noncoding RNA in the ovaries of letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rat model through deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lu-Lu; Xu, Ying; Li, Dan-Dan; Dai, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Jing-Shun; Ming, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ya-Lan; Zheng, Lian-Wen

    2018-05-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive-aged women. However, the exact pathophysiology of PCOS remains largely unclear. We performed deep sequencing to investigate the mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in the ovarian tissues of letrozole-induced PCOS rat model and control rats. A total of 2147 mRNAs and 158 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the PCOS models and control. Gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed mRNAs were associated with biological adhesion, reproduction, and metabolic process. Pathway analysis results indicated that these aberrantly expressed mRNAs were related to several specific signaling pathways, including insulin resistance, steroid hormone biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, autoimmune thyroid disease, and AMPK signaling pathway. The relative expression levels of mRNAs and lncRNAs were validated through qRT-PCR. LncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed to explore ceRNAs involved in the PCOS model and were also verified by qRTPCR experiment. These findings may provide insight into the pathogenesis of PCOS and clues to find key diagnostic and therapeutic roles of lncRNA in PCOS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new synthetic drug 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) induces rewarding effects and increases dopamine D1 receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Yoon, Seong Shoon; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Kim, Mikyung; Custodio, Raly James; Woo, Taeseon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jang, Choon-Gon; Yang, Ji Seul; Yoon, Yoon Mi; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2018-04-02

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice and self-administration test (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg/inf., i.v.) in rats. We also examined whether 5-IT (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) induces locomotor sensitization in mice following a 7-day treatment and drug challenge. Then, we explored the effects of 5-IT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on dopamine-related genes in the striatum, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental (VTA) of mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. 5-IT produced CPP in mice but was not reliably self-administered by rats. 5-IT also induced locomotor sensitization following repeated administration and drug challenge. Moreover, 5-IT increased mRNA levels of dopamine D1 receptor in the striatum and PFC and dopamine transporter in the SNc/VTA of mice. These results indicate that 5-IT has psychostimulant and rewarding properties, which may be attributed to its ability to affect the dopaminergic system in the brain. These findings suggest that 5-IT poses a substantial risk for abuse and addiction in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kitamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  20. EFFECT OF STENT ABSORBED c-myc ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDE ON SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS APOPTOSIS IN RABBIT CAROTID ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 李江; 崔翰斌; 徐仓宝; 朱参战

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent absorbed c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on smooth muscle cells apoptosis in a normal rabbit carotid arteries. Methods Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stents were implanted in the right carotid arteries of 32 rabbits under vision. Animals were randomly divided into control group and treated group receiving c-myc ASODN (n=16, respectively). On 7, 14, 30 and 90 days following the stenting procedure ,morphometry for caculation of neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were performed.The expression of c-myc protein was detected by immunohistochemical method. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results At 7 and 14 days after stenting,there were no detectable apoptotic cells in both groups. The apoptotic cells occurred in the neointima 30 and 90 days after stenting, and the number of apoptotic cells at 30 days were less [4.50±1.29 vs 25.75±1.89 (number/0.1mm2)] than that at 90 days [13.50±1.91 vs 41.50±6.46 (number/0.1mm2)]. Meanwhile c-myc ASODN induced more apoptotic cells than the control group(P<0.0001). c-myc protein expression was weak positive or negative in treated group and positive in control group.Conclusion c-myc ASODN can induce smooth muscle cells apoptosis after stenting in normal rabbit carotid arteries,and it can be used to prevent in-stent restenosis.

  1. Effects of probiotics, probiotic DNA and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on ovalbumin-sensitized Brown-Norway rats via TLR9/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Huang, Juan; Tang, Wenjing; Chen, Bing; Cai, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of living probiotics, probiotic DNA and the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) on both immune response and intestinal barrier function in ovalbumin-sensitized rat and the underlying mechanisms. Brown-Norway rats were orally sensitized with ovalbumin, and living probiotics, probiotic DNA extraction, synthetic CpG-ODN or non-CpG ODN control was administered. In the living probiotics, probiotic DNA and CpG-ODN groups, the allergic response was significantly inhibited, the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was shifted away from Th2 side, the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+high) Treg cells was increased, and the intestinal barrier function was improved. The levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mRNA and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as well as the IκB-α phosphorylation (p-IκB-α) was significantly increased in these three intervention groups compared with the OVA-positive group, whereas no such effects were found in the non-CpG ODN control group. These data show that the probiotic genomic DNA and the synthetic CpG-ODN was comparable with living probiotics in preventing food allergic response by immune modulation and intestinal barrier function enhancement, and the activation of TLR9/NF-κB signal pathway might be involved in this process. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluence dependence of the ultraviolet-light-induced accumulation of chalcone synthase mRNA and effects of blue and far-red light in cultured parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, B.; Hahlbrock, K.; Schäfer, E.

    1986-01-01

    The fluence dependence of the time course of accumulation of chalcone synthase mRNA in ultraviolet (UV)-light-irradiated cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and the additional effects of blue and far-red light have been investigated. Variations of the UV fluence had no detectable influence on the initial rate of increase in mRNA amount or translational activity, nor on the preceding lag period of approximately 3 h, but strongly influenced the duration of the transient increase. The effects were the same whether the fluence rate or the time of irradiation was varied to obtain a given fluence. Blue-light pretreatment of the cells resulted in increased amounts of mRNA and abolished the apparent lag period. This effect remained cryptic without the subsequent UV-light treatment. Irradiation with long-wavelength far-red light following UV-light pulses shortened the duration of the mRNA accumulation period. This effect was not altered by a preceding blue-light treatment. Thus, three photoreceptors, a UV-B receptor, a blue-light receptor and phytochrome, participate in the regulation of chalcone synthase mRNA accumulation in this system

  3. Ventilation-induced increases in EGFR ligand mRNA are not altered by intra-amniotic LPS or ureaplasma in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Noah H; Gisslen, Tate; Polglase, Graeme R; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis and mechanical ventilation are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Mechanical ventilation at birth activates both inflammatory and acute phase responses. These responses can be partially modulated by previous exposure to intra-amniotic (IA) LPS or Ureaplasma parvum (UP). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands participate in lung development, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 1 and ACE2 contribute to lung inflammation. We asked whether brief mechanical ventilation at birth altered EGFR and ACE pathways and if antenatal exposure to IA LPS or UP could modulate these effects. Ewes were exposed to IA injections of UP, LPS or saline multiple days prior to preterm delivery at 85% gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanized or mechanically ventilated for 2 to 3 hr. IA UP and LPS cause modest changes in the EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and betacellulin (BTC) mRNA expression. Mechanical ventilation greatly increased mRNA expression of AREG, EREG, and HB-EGF, with no additional increases resulting from IA LPS or UP. With ventilation AREG and EREG mRNA localized to cells in terminal airspace. EGFR mRNA also increased with mechanical ventilation. IA UP and LPS decreased ACE1 mRNA and increased ACE2 mRNA, resulting in a 4 fold change in the ACE1/ACE2 ratio. Mechanical ventilation with large tidal volumes increased both ACE1 and ACE2 expression. The alterations seen in ACE with IA exposures and EGFR pathways with mechanical ventilation may contribute to the development of BPD in preterm infants.

  4. Ventilation-induced increases in EGFR ligand mRNA are not altered by intra-amniotic LPS or ureaplasma in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah H Hillman

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis and mechanical ventilation are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in preterm infants. Mechanical ventilation at birth activates both inflammatory and acute phase responses. These responses can be partially modulated by previous exposure to intra-amniotic (IA LPS or Ureaplasma parvum (UP. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands participate in lung development, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 1 and ACE2 contribute to lung inflammation. We asked whether brief mechanical ventilation at birth altered EGFR and ACE pathways and if antenatal exposure to IA LPS or UP could modulate these effects. Ewes were exposed to IA injections of UP, LPS or saline multiple days prior to preterm delivery at 85% gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanized or mechanically ventilated for 2 to 3 hr. IA UP and LPS cause modest changes in the EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG, epiregulin (EREG, heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF, and betacellulin (BTC mRNA expression. Mechanical ventilation greatly increased mRNA expression of AREG, EREG, and HB-EGF, with no additional increases resulting from IA LPS or UP. With ventilation AREG and EREG mRNA localized to cells in terminal airspace. EGFR mRNA also increased with mechanical ventilation. IA UP and LPS decreased ACE1 mRNA and increased ACE2 mRNA, resulting in a 4 fold change in the ACE1/ACE2 ratio. Mechanical ventilation with large tidal volumes increased both ACE1 and ACE2 expression. The alterations seen in ACE with IA exposures and EGFR pathways with mechanical ventilation may contribute to the development of BPD in preterm infants.

  5. The experimental study of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with lipiodol in arterial embolization of liver cancer in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hanping; Feng Gansheng; Li Xin; Liang Huimin; Zheng Chuansheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibitory effects of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) on cultured Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression, and to observe the anti-tumor effects of intraarterial infusion of asODN mixed with lipiodol on rat liver cancer. Methods: VEGF asODN and sense ODN were added to the media of non-serum cultured Walker-256 cells, and the VEGF concentrations of the supernatants were detected by using ELISA 48 hours later. Cells of endothelial cell line ECV-304 were cultured in the supernatants. The growth of ECV-304 cells was observed by MTT method. 30 rats with Walker-256 carcinoma cells implanted into left liver lobe were randomly divided into 3 groups. 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP group, n=10), 3OD asODN mixed with 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP + asODN group, n=10), and 0.2 ml normal saline (control group, n=10) were infused into the hepatic artery. The volumes of tumors were measured by using MRI before and 7 days after the treatment. VEGF mRNA in cancerous and peri-cancerous tissues was detected by RT-PCR. The microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results: asODN could inhibit Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression. The tumor growth rate was lower in UFLP + asODN group than that in UFLP and control groups [(140.1±33.8)%, (177.9±64.9)%, and (403.9± 69.4)%, respectively, F=60.02, P 0.05). The MVD in UFLP + asODN group (53.1±18.4) was significantly less than that of control group (73.2±20.4) and UFLP group (80.3±18.5) (F=5.44, P<0.05). Conclusion: VEGF asODN could inhibit VEGF expression of Walker-256 cells. It may be an antiangiogenesis therapy drug in malignant tumor. VEGF asODN mixed with UFLP in embolizing liver cancer could decrease liver cancer growth, VEGF expression, and microvessel density better than UFLP alone

  6. Inhibitory effects of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on MHC class I-deficient and -proficient HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2006), s. 1836-1842 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * immunotherapy * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.693, year: 2006

  7. Immune stimulation by a CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide is enhanced when encapsulated and delivered in lipid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, B; Raney, S G; Semple, S C; Hope, M J

    2001-09-01

    The therapeutic benefit from phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PS ODN) containing immune stimulatory sequences (ISS) has been demonstrated in animal models of cancer and infection. In particular, when CpG-containing PS ODN are administered to mice, activation of macrophages and dendritic, NK, T, and B cells occurs, resulting in the release of an array of cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We have previously described stabilized antisense-lipid particles (SALP) for the i.v. administration of antisense ODN [Biochim Biophys Acta (2001) 1510:152--166]. Given the propensity for SALP to target macrophages in vivo it was of interest to determine whether they could enhance the potency of CpG ODN to induce an immune response. In this report we show that when CpG-containing SALP are administered intravenously to ICR mice the plasma concentrations of IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-alpha are greatly increased compared with the same dose of free ODN. The pattern of cytokine induction indicates that the immune response is T helper cell type 1-biased, similar to that observed for PS CpG ODN ISS in general. Furthermore, when phosphodiester (PO) ODN is substituted for PS ODN in the SALP formulation cytokine induction is even greater at the early time points, in marked contrast to free PO ODN, which is inactive. These results demonstrate that the immunogenicity of ISS is not only enhanced by encapsulation in lipid particles, which more closely mimic the way ISS DNA would normally be presented to antigen presenting cells by pathogens in vivo, but also SALP enable unmodified PO CpG ODN to be used as immune stimulants.

  8. The effect of TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on the intestinal immune response of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadgi, Omkar; Puteri, Dinda; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chu, Chun-Yen; Cheng, Ta-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B) was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1 β . Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB) and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds) and B (30 folds) isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668) and MyD88 (21 folds) at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395). Subsequently, IL-1 β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  9. The Effect of TLR9 Agonist CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides on the Intestinal Immune Response of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Byadgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1β. Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds and B (30 folds isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668 and MyD88 (21 folds at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395. Subsequently, IL-1β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  10. Differential production of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses by mucosal-type human B-lymphocytes exposed in vitro to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognasse, Fabrice; Acquart, Sophie; Beniguel, Lydie; Sabido, Odile; Chavarin, Patricia; Genin, Christian; Garraud, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    As B-lymphocytes play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, we aimed to examine the effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on purified tonsil-originating CD19+ B-cells, representing mucosal B-cells. We screened various K-type ODNs, reactive with human B-cells, and tested for the production of immunoglobulins in vitro. Using one CpG-ODN, DSP30, we observed that it could upregulate not only Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) mRNA expression in activated B-cells, but also the early expression of CD69 followed by the sequential expression of CD80, CD86 and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. Furthermore, mRNA expression of certain B-cell-derived cytokines was influenced by exposure to DSP30, with a strong upregulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and downregulation of IL1-beta. Stimulation of B-cells, co-stimulated with IL-2, IL-10 and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) with different CpG-ODNs, had differing effects on the terminal differentiation in vitro of B-cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. TLR9 is involved in innate immunity and the recognition of bound CpG DNA from invading bacterial pathogens. As tonsillar B-cells are mucosal-type B-lymphocytes, this study suggests that CpG-ODNs show promise as mucosal adjuvants in modulating the local production of immunoglobulins of certain classes and subclasses, a crucial issue in vaccine perspectives.

  11. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contraction-induced changes in skeletal muscle Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression - importance of exercise intensity and Ca(2+)-mediated signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Kusuhara, K; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca(2+) signalling regulate Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Methods: The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise. The import...

  13. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  14. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  15. Circadian transitions in radiation dose-dependent augmentation of mRNA levels for DNA damage-induced genes elicited by accurate real-time RT-PCR quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of intracellular response after DNA-damage by exposure to ionizing radiation have been studied. In the case of cells isolated from living body of human and experimental animals, alteration of the responsiveness by physiological oscillation such as circadian rhythm must be considered. To examine the circadian variation in the response of p53-responsible genes p21, mdm2, bax, and puma, we established a method to quantitate their mRNA levels with high reproducibility and accuracy based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and compared the levels of responsiveness in mouse hemocytes after diurnal irradiation to that after nocturnal irradiation. Augmentations of p21 and mdm2 mRNA levels with growth-arrest and of puma mRNA before apoptosis were confirmed by time-course experiment in RAW264.7, and dose-dependent increases in the peak levels of all the RNA were shown. Similarly, the relative RNA levels of p21, mdm2, bax, and puma per glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) also increased dose-dependently in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells isolated from whole-body-irradiated mice. Induction levels of all messages reduced by half after nighttime irradiation as compared with daytime irradiation in blood cells. In marrow cells, nighttime irradiation enhanced the p21 and mdm2 mRNA levels than daytime irradiation. No significant difference in bax or puma mRNA levels was observed between nighttime and daytime irradiation in marrow cells. This suggests that early-stage cellular responsiveness in DNA damage-induced genes is modulated between diurnal and nocturnal irradiation. (author)

  16. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of radio- and chemoresponses of murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathryn A.; Neal, Robert; Hunter, Nancy; Ariga, Hisanori; Ang, Kian; Milas, Luka

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motifs bind to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and stimulate both innate and adaptive immune reactions and possess anti-tumor activity. We recently reported that CpG ODN 1826 strongly enhances radioresponse of both immunogenic [Milas L, Mason K, Ariga H, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances tumor response to radiation. Cancer Res 2004;64:5074-7] and non-immunogenic [Mason KA, Ariga H, Neal R, et al. Targeting toll-like receptor-9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhances tumor response to fractionated radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:361-9] murine tumors. Using two immunogenic murine tumors, a fibrosarcoma (FSa) and a mammary carcinoma (MCa-K), the present study explored whether CpG ODN 1826 also improves the response of murine tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel (DOC). Materials and methods: CpG ODN 1826 (100 μg) was given sc three times: when leg tumors were 6 mm, when they grew to 8 mm and again 1 week later. DOC (33 mg/kg iv) and local tumor radiation (10 Gy) were given when tumors were 8 mm. Effects of the treatments were assayed by tumor growth delay, defined as days for tumors to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter. Results: Treatment with CpG ODN 1826 resulted in strongly enhanced response of FSa tumors to radiation and MCa-K tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent DOC. Enhancement of tumor treatment response was demonstrated by a strong prolongation in the primary tumor treatment endpoint, tumor growth delay. Coincidentally, this treatment also resulted in a higher rate of tumor cure than that observed after tumor radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. When all three agents were combined the effect was comparable to that of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with radiation in the case of FSa or of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with DOC in the case of MCa-K. Conclusion: Overall results show that CpG ODN 1826 can markedly improve tumor response

  17. L-leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and creatine monohydrate prevent myostatin-induced Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA down-regulation and myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; Ferguson, Brian S; Amin, Rajesh H; Dalbo, Vincent J; Baier, Shawn; Rathmacher, John A; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if L-leucine (Leu), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), or creatine monohydrate (Crea) prevented potential atrophic effects of myostatin (MSTN) on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. After four days of differentiation, myotubes were treated with MSTN (10 ng/ml) for two additional days and four treatment groups were studied: 1) 3x per day 10 mM Leu, 2) 3x per day 10 mM HMB, 3) 3x per day 10 mM Crea, 4) DM only. Myotubes treated with DM without MSTN were analyzed as the control condition (DM/CTL). Following treatment, cells were analyzed for total protein, DNA content, RNA content, muscle protein synthesis (MPS, SUnSET method), and fiber diameter. Separate batch treatments were analyzed for mRNA expression patterns of myostatin-related genes (Akirin-1/Mighty, Notch-1, Ski, MyoD) as well as atrogenes (MuRF-1, and MAFbx/Atrogin-1). MSTN decreased fiber diameter approximately 30% compared to DM/CTL myotubes (p HMB and Crea prevented MSTN-induced atrophy. MSTN did not decrease MPS levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes, but MSTN treatment decreased the mRNA expression of Akirin-1/Mighty by 27% (p HMB myotubes had similar Akirin-1/Mighty and MyoD mRNA levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes. Furthermore, MSTN + Crea myotubes exhibited a 36% (p HMB and Crea may reduce MSTN-induced muscle fiber atrophy by influencing Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA expression patterns. Future studies are needed to examine if Leu, HMB and Crea independently or synergistically affect Akirin-1/Mighty expression, and how Akirin-1/Mighty expression mechanistically relates to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivo.

  18. Common pathological mutations in PQBP1 induce nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and enhance exclusion of the mutant exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luciana; Kunde, Stella-Amrei; Sulistio, Tina O; Fischer, Ute; Grimme, Astrid; Frints, Suzanna G M; Schwartz, Charles E; Martínez, Francisco; Romano, Corrado; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2010-01-01

    The polyglutamine binding protein 1 (PQBP1) gene plays an important role in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Nine of the thirteen PQBP1 mutations known to date affect the AG hexamer in exon 4 and cause frameshifts introducing premature termination codons (PTCs). However, the phenotype in this group of patients is variable. To investigate the pathology of these PQBP1 mutations, we evaluated their consequences on mRNA and protein expression. RT-PCRs revealed mutation-specific reduction of PQBP1 mRNAs carrying the PTCs that can be partially restored by blocking translation, thus indicating a role for the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. In addition, these mutations resulted in altered levels of PQBP1 transcripts that skipped exon 4, probably as a result of altering important splicing motifs via nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS). This hypothesis is supported by transfection experiments using wild-type and mutant PQBP1 minigenes. Moreover, we show that a truncated PQBP1 protein is indeed present in the patients. Remarkably, patients with insertion/deletion mutations in the AG hexamer express significantly increased levels of a PQBP1 isoform, which is very likely encoded by the transcripts without exon 4, confirming the findings at the mRNA level. Our study provides significant insight into the early events contributing to the pathogenesis of the PQBP1 related XLMR disease.

  19. [CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation improves the success for karyotypic analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Hai-rong; Wang, Rong; Yu, Hui; Fan, Lei; Miao, Kou-rong; Li, Jian-yong

    2009-09-01

    To explore the effect of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in chromosome study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Blood or bone marrow cells of 70 CLL patients were cultured for 72 h with PHA, CpG-ODN and CpG-ODN combined with IL-2, respectively. Routine karyotype analysis with R banding technique and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed. The metaphase number>or=20 was considered as successful stimulation, which in PHA, CpG-ODN and CpG-ODN combined IL-2 groups were 90.0%, 68.6% and 68.6%, respectively, and the detection rates of chromosome aberrations were 3.2%, 43.6% and 43.6%, respectively. The aberrations rates detected by interphase FISH with a panel of probes was 64.3%. CpG-ODN DSP30 can effectively raise the detection rate of chromosome aberrations in CLL patients.

  20. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Toro-Ascuy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1, Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2, or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC and processing bodies (PBs. More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A, allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2, an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries.

  1. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen...... trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S...... and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 m...

  2. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  3. Formation of covalent complexes between human O sup 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and BCNU-treated defined length synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, T.P.; Remack, J.S. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1988-07-25

    Repair of chloroethylnitrosourea (CENU)-induced precursors of DNA interstrand cross-links by O{sup 6}-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (GAT or GATase) appears to be a factor in tumor resistance to therapy with this class of antineoplastic drugs. Since human GAT is highly specific for O{sup 6}-guanine, yet the probably cross-link structure is N{prime}-Guanine N{sup 3}cytosine ethane, rearrangement of the initial O{sup 6}-guanine adduct via O{sup 6},N{sup 1}ethanoguanine has been proposed. The authors suggested that GAT reaction with this intermediate would produce DNA covalently linked to protein through an ethane link from N{sup 1}-guanine to the alkylacceptor site on GAT. In preliminary studies they demonstrated a covalent complex between GAT and carmustine (BCNU)-treated DNA by a precipitation assay method. They have now developed a method for isolating the reaction product of BCNU-treated synthetic 14-mer ({sup 32}P)-labeled oligodeoxynucleotide and GAT using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This approach can be used to characterize the adducts induced by CENUs that lead to complex formation with GAT.

  4. Effects of electro-acupuncture on ovarian P450arom, P450c17α and mRNA expression induced by letrozole in PCOS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Jin, Chunlan; Wu, Huangan; Zhao, Jimeng; Cui, Yunhua; Liu, Huirong; Wu, Lingxiang; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a core factor in the series of reproductive and endocrine metabolic disorders involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in enzymatic activity and the expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom and theca cell P450c17α can lead to an atypical environment of local ovarian hormones, including excessive androgen levels. Rat models prepared with letrozole exhibit similar endocrine and histological changes to those that occur in human PCOS. We used such a model to study the role of electro-acupuncture (EA) in regulating ovarian P450arom and P450c17α enzymatic activity and mRNA expression in PCOS rats. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 42 days were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, PCOS, and PCOS EA) consisting of 10 rats each. The PCOS and PCOS EA groups were administered a gavage of 1.0 mg/kg(-1) of letrozole solution once daily for 21 consecutive days. Beginning in the ninth week, the PCOS EA group was administered low-frequency EA treatment daily for 14 consecutive days. After the treatment, we obtained the following results. The estrous cycles were restored in 8 of the 10 rats in the PCOS EA group, and their ovarian morphologies and ultrastructures normalized. The peripheral blood measurements (with ELISA) showed significantly decreased androgens (i.e., androstenedione and testosterone) with significantly increased estrogens (i.e., estrone, estradiol) and increased P450arom with decreased P450C17α. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α. Fluorescence quantitative PCR methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom mRNA as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α mRNA. These results may help explain the effects of electro-acupuncture in changing the local ovarian hyperandrogenic environment and improving reproductive and

  5. Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Ovarian P450arom, P450c17α and mRNA Expression Induced by Letrozole in PCOS Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huangan; Zhao, Jimeng; Cui, Yunhua; Liu, Huirong; Wu, Lingxiang; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a core factor in the series of reproductive and endocrine metabolic disorders involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in enzymatic activity and the expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom and theca cell P450c17α can lead to an atypical environment of local ovarian hormones, including excessive androgen levels. Rat models prepared with letrozole exhibit similar endocrine and histological changes to those that occur in human PCOS. We used such a model to study the role of electro-acupuncture (EA) in regulating ovarian P450arom and P450c17α enzymatic activity and mRNA expression in PCOS rats. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 42 days were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, PCOS, and PCOS EA) consisting of 10 rats each. The PCOS and PCOS EA groups were administered a gavage of 1.0 mg/kg−1 of letrozole solution once daily for 21 consecutive days. Beginning in the ninth week, the PCOS EA group was administered low-frequency EA treatment daily for 14 consecutive days. After the treatment, we obtained the following results. The estrous cycles were restored in 8 of the 10 rats in the PCOS EA group, and their ovarian morphologies and ultrastructures normalized. The peripheral blood measurements (with ELISA) showed significantly decreased androgens (i.e., androstenedione and testosterone) with significantly increased estrogens (i.e., estrone, estradiol) and increased P450arom with decreased P450C17α. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α. Fluorescence quantitative PCR methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom mRNA as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α mRNA. These results may help explain the effects of electro-acupuncture in changing the local ovarian hyperandrogenic environment and improving reproductive and

  6. Effects of electro-acupuncture on ovarian P450arom, P450c17α and mRNA expression induced by letrozole in PCOS rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism is a core factor in the series of reproductive and endocrine metabolic disorders involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Abnormalities in enzymatic activity and the expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom and theca cell P450c17α can lead to an atypical environment of local ovarian hormones, including excessive androgen levels. Rat models prepared with letrozole exhibit similar endocrine and histological changes to those that occur in human PCOS. We used such a model to study the role of electro-acupuncture (EA in regulating ovarian P450arom and P450c17α enzymatic activity and mRNA expression in PCOS rats. Female Sprague Dawley (SD rats aged 42 days were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, PCOS, and PCOS EA consisting of 10 rats each. The PCOS and PCOS EA groups were administered a gavage of 1.0 mg/kg(-1 of letrozole solution once daily for 21 consecutive days. Beginning in the ninth week, the PCOS EA group was administered low-frequency EA treatment daily for 14 consecutive days. After the treatment, we obtained the following results. The estrous cycles were restored in 8 of the 10 rats in the PCOS EA group, and their ovarian morphologies and ultrastructures normalized. The peripheral blood measurements (with ELISA showed significantly decreased androgens (i.e., androstenedione and testosterone with significantly increased estrogens (i.e., estrone, estradiol and increased P450arom with decreased P450C17α. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α. Fluorescence quantitative PCR methods showed enhanced expression of ovarian granular cell layer P450arom mRNA as well as decreased expression of theca cell layer P450C17α mRNA. These results may help explain the effects of electro-acupuncture in changing the local ovarian hyperandrogenic environment and improving reproductive

  7. A standardized seabuckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1) counters radiation induced renal histopathology, oxidative stress as well as changes in mRNA levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Madhu Bala; Prasad, Jagdish; Farooqi, Humaira; Abdin, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L., (common name Seabuckthorn; Family: Elaeagnaceae) is a plant growing naturally as well as cultivated in North-West Himalayas at 7000-15,000 feet. It is known for antioxidant and medicinal properties. Our earlier studies showed that administration of SBL-1 (30 mg/kg body weight), 30 minutes before 60 Co-γ-radiation (10 Gy, lethal dose) rendered > 90% survival in mice population. The present study was planned to investigate the effects of radioprotective dose (30 mg/kg body weight) dose of SBL-1 treatment in kidneys of irradiated and control animals. Strain 'A' male mice (weighing 28±2 g) were irradiated without or 30 minutes after administration of SBL-1. Animals were sacrificed at different days (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 15) after the treatment. Histopathology and biochemical assays were performed using standardized procedures. Gene expression study was performed by PCR of mRNA. The 60 Co γ-irradiated animals showed a significant reduction in total thiol (T-SH) content till day 5 (p< 0.05), activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.01) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) (p<0.05) and significant increase in LPx, ALP and free iron content (p<0.05) on all study days. Histopathology showed Glomeruli shrinkage, nuclear degeneration, tubular dilations, widening of tubular lumen and collapsing of cellular architecture which increased from day 2 till day 7. Significant alterations in mRNA levels of some of the key genes involved in acute renal failure were observed. In animals treated with SBL-1 before irradiation the T-SH increased significantly at day 2, 3 and 5, activity of catalase, SOD and GST decreased significantly (p<0.05) only at day 2 and 3 respectively. Significant increase in (p<0.05) LPx was observed till day 3, ALP levels only at day 3 while free iron content till day 5. Only mild changes in the tissues histology were observed at day 2, 5 and 7. By day 10 no significant difference was observed in comparison to

  8. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...... in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, which is most pronounced in cortical regions, indicating that a decreased functional response in IEG expression could be partly responsible for the cognitive deficits observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease....

  9. Steroid-induced polycystic ovaries in rats: effect of electro-acupuncture on concentrations of endothelin-1 and nerve growth factor (NGF, and expression of NGF mRNA in the ovaries, the adrenal glands, and the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloe Luigi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies on the effect of repeated electro-acupuncture (EA treatments in rats with steriod-induced polycystic ovaries (PCO, EA has been shown to modulate nerve growth factor (NGF concentration in the ovaries as well as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF in the median eminence (ME. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that repeated EA treatments modulates sympathetic nerve activity in rats with PCO. This was done by analysing endothelin-1 (ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor involved in ovarian functions, as well as NGF and NGF mRNA expression involved in the pathophysiological process underlying steroid-induced PCO. The main result in the present study was that concentrations of ET-1 in the ovaries were significantly lower in the PCO group receiving EA compared with the healthy control group (p p p p

  10. Preparation and quality test of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probe: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Bibo; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Yi; Li, Shaolin

    2009-06-01

    Molecular imaging of tumor antisense gene techniques have been applied to the study of magnetic resonance (MR) gene imaging associated with malignant tumors. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and tested a novel molecular probe, in which the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), and its efficiency was examined by in vitro MR imaging after SK-Br-3 mammary carcinoma cell lines (oncocytes) transfection. The SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was prepared through SPIO conjugated to ASODN using a chemical cross linking method. Its morphology and size were detected by atomic force microscope, size distribution were detected by laser granulometer, the conjugating rate and biological activity were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the stability was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, the probes were transfected into the SK-Br-3 oncocytes, cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic absorption spectrometry, and the signal change of the transfected cells was observed and measured using MR imaging. The morphology of the SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was mostly spherical with well-distributed scattering, and the diameters were between 25 and 40 nm (95%) by atomic force microscope and laser granulometer, the conjugating rate of the probe was 99%. Moreover, this probe kept its activity under physiological conditions and could conjugate with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. In addition, light microscopy revealed an intracellular uptake of iron oxides in the cytosol and electron microscopic studies revealed a lysosomal deposition of iron oxides in the transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probes, some of them gathered stacks, and the iron content of the group of transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probe is significantly higher (18.37 +/- 0.42 pg) than other contrast groups, the MR imaging showed that

  11. IB4(+) nociceptors mediate persistent muscle pain induced by GDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Chen, Xiaojie; Bogen, Oliver; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2012-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a well-known source of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which can produce mechanical hyperalgesia. Since some neuromuscular diseases are associated with both increased release of GDNF and intense muscle pain, we explored the role of GDNF as an endogenous mediator in muscle pain. Intramuscularly injected GDNF induced a dose-dependent (0.1-10 ng/20 μl) persistent (up to 3 wk) mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Once hyperalgesia subsided, injection of prostaglandin E(2) at the site induced a prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia (>72 h) compared with naïve rats (vibration increased muscle GDNF levels at 24 h, a time point where rats also exhibited marked muscle hyperalgesia. Intrathecal antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to mRNA encoding GFRα1, the canonical binding receptor for GDNF, reversibly inhibited eccentric exercise- and mechanical vibration-induced muscle hyperalgesia. Finally, electrophysiological recordings from nociceptors innervating the gastrocnemius muscle in anesthetized rats, revealed significant increase in response to sustained mechanical stimulation after local GDNF injection. In conclusion, these data indicate that GDNF plays a role as an endogenous mediator in acute and induction of chronic muscle pain, an effect likely to be produced by GDNF action at GFRα1 receptors located in IB4(+) nociceptors.

  12. A Role for Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Plants: Pathogen Responses Are Induced in Arabidopsis thaliana NMD Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, Samantha; Arciga-Reyes, Luis; Wootton, Lucie; De Torres Zabala, Marta; Truman, William; Graham, Neil; Grant, Murray; Davies, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a conserved mechanism that targets aberrant mRNAs for destruction. NMD has also been found to regulate the expression of large numbers of genes in diverse organisms, although the biological role for this is unclear and few evolutionarily conserved targets have been identified. Expression analyses of three Arabidopsis thaliana lines deficient in NMD reveal that the vast majority of NMD-targeted transcripts are associated with response to pathogens. Congruently, NMD mutants, in which these transcripts are elevated, confer partial resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. These findings suggest a biological rationale for the regulation of gene expression by NMD in plants and suggest that manipulation of NMD could offer a new approach for crop protection. Amongst the few non-pathogen responsive NMD-targeted genes, one potential NMD targeted signal, the evolutionarily conserved upstream open reading frame (CuORF), was found to be hugely over-represented, raising the possibility that this feature could be used to target specific physiological mRNAs for control by NMD. PMID:22384098

  13. Drought-Induced Effects on Nitrate Reductase Activity and mRNA and on the Coordination of Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism in Maize Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H.; Valadier, Marie-Hélène; Migge, Andrea; Becker, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown to the nine-leaf stage. Despite a saturating N supply, the youngest mature leaves (seventh position on the stem) contained little NO3− reserve. Droughted plants (deprived of nutrient solution) showed changes in foliar enzyme activities, mRNA accumulation, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate and amino acid contents. Total leaf water potential and CO2 assimilation rates, measured 3 h into the photoperiod, decreased 3 d after the onset of drought. Starch, glucose, fructose, and amino acids, but not sucrose (Suc), accumulated in the leaves of droughted plants. Maximal extractable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities increased slightly during water deficit, whereas the sensitivity of this enzyme to the inhibitor malate decreased. Maximal extractable Suc phosphate synthase activities decreased as a result of water stress, and there was an increase in the sensitivity to the inhibitor orthophosphate. A correlation between maximal extractable foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activity and the rate of CO2 assimilation was observed. The NR activation state and maximal extractable NR activity declined rapidly in response to drought. Photosynthesis and NR activity recovered rapidly when nutrient solution was restored at this point. The decrease in maximal extractable NR activity was accompanied by a decrease in NR transcripts, whereas Suc phosphate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNAs were much less affected. The coordination of N and C metabolism is retained during drought conditions via modulation of the activities of Suc phosphate synthase and NR commensurate with the prevailing rate of photosynthesis. PMID:9576798

  14. 3' RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends for validating viroid induced cleavage at the 3' extremity of the host mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bru, Pierrick; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RLM-RACE) is a widely-accepted method for the validation of direct cleavage of a target gene by a microRNA (miRNA) and viroid-derived small RNA (vd-sRNA). However, this method cannot be used if cleavage takes place in the 3' extremity of the target RNA, as this gives insufficient sequence length to design nested PCR primers for 5' RLM RACE. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed 3' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RLM RACE). In this method, an oligonucleotide adapter having 5' adenylated and 3' blocked is ligated to the 3' end of the cleaved RNA followed by PCR amplification using gene specific primers. In other words, in 3' RLM RACE, 3' end is mapped using 5' fragment instead of small 3' fragment. The method developed here was verified by examining the bioinformatics predicted and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) proved cleavage sites of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like mRNA in Potato spindle tuber viroid infected tomato plants. The 3' RLM RACE developed in this study has the potential to validate the miRNA and vd-sRNA mediated cleavage of mRNAs at its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide nanomedicines for the prophylaxis or treatment of cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), which are synthetic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), activate humoral and cellular immunity and are being developed as vaccine adjuvants to prevent or treat cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies. Free CpG ODNs have been used in many clinical trials implemented to verify their effects. However, recent research has reported that self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes demonstrate higher adjuvant effects than free CpG ODNs, owing to their improved uptake efficiency into cells expressing TLR9. Moreover, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes are able to deliver CpG ODNs and antigens (or allergens) to the same types of cells, which enables a higher degree of prophylaxis or therapeutic effect. In this review, the author describes recent trends in the research and development of CpG ODN nanomedicines containing self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes, focusing mainly on the results of preclinical and clinical studies.

  16. Use of oligodeoxynucleotide signature probes for identification of physiological groups of methylotrophic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, H.C.; Bratina, B.J.; Tsuji, K.; Hanson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide sequences that uniquely complemented 16S rRNAs of each group of methylotrophs were synthesized and used as hybridization probes for the identification of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathways for formaldehyde fixation. The specificity of the probes was determined by hybridizing radiolabeled probes with slot-blotted RNAs of methylotrophs and other eubacteria followed by autoradiography. The washing temperature was determined experimentally to be 50 and 52 degrees C for 9-α (serine pathway) and 10-γ (RuMP pathway) probes, respectively. RNAs isolated from serine pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 9-α, and RNAs from RuMP pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 10-γ. Nonmethylotrophic eubacterial RNAs did not bind to either probe. The probes were also labeled with fluorescent dyes. Cells fixed to microscope slides were hybridized with these probes, washed, and examined in a fluorescence microscope equipped with appropriate filter sets. Cells of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine or RuMP pathway specifically bind probes designed for each group. Samples with a mixture of cells of type I and II methanotrophs were detected and differentiated with single probes or mixed probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes, which enabled the detection of both types of cells in the same microscopic field

  17. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity

  18. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Alex M; Santhakumaran, Latha M; Nair, Sandhya K; Amenta, Peter S; Thomas, Thresia; He, Huixin; Thomas, T J

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN

  19. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Alex M [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Santhakumaran, Latha M [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Nair, Sandhya K [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Amenta, Peter S [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Thomas, Thresia [Department of Environmental and Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); He, Huixin [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Thomas, T J [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2006-11-14

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN.

  20. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alex M.; Santhakumaran, Latha M.; Nair, Sandhya K.; Amenta, Peter S.; Thomas, Thresia; He, Huixin; Thomas, T. J.

    2006-11-01

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN.

  1. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Gang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Honghong [No. 518 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710043, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Jiayin [The Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Zhao, Lina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Xu, Li, E-mail: lxuhelen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Liu, Zhiguo, E-mail: liuzhiguo@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  2. Response of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Verthelyi, D.; Klinman, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial DNA generates a "danger signal" that stimulates cellular elements of the mammalian immune system to proliferate and/or secrete cytokines. Stimulation is critically dependent on hexameric motifs that contain an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide: these are commonly found in bacter......Exposure to bacterial DNA generates a "danger signal" that stimulates cellular elements of the mammalian immune system to proliferate and/or secrete cytokines. Stimulation is critically dependent on hexameric motifs that contain an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide: these are commonly found...... in bacterial but not vertebrate DNA. Different motifs are optimally stimulatory in different species. This work examines whether oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG motifs stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs. Results show that pigs respond to CpG ODN by proliferating and secreting IL......-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha. By screening a large panel (>100) of ODNs, the palindromic hexamer 'ATCGAT' was identified as being optimally active in all animals examined (N = 10). These findings are the first to establish the immunostimulatory activity of CpG ODN in pigs, and suggest that the therapeutic...

  3. Parasite load induces progressive spleen architecture breakage and impairs cytokine mRNA expression in Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Amanda S; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pereira, Luiza de O R; Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Morgado, Fernanda N; Boité, Mariana C; Cupolillo, Elisa; Moraes, Milton O; Porrozzi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) shares many aspects with the human disease and dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL. Infected dogs develop progressive disease with a large clinical spectrum. A complex balance between the parasite and the genetic/immunological background of the host are decisive for infection evolution and clinical outcome. This study comprised 92 Leishmania infected mongrel dogs of various ages from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Spleen samples were collected for determining parasite load, humoral response, cytokine mRNA expression and histopathology alterations. By real-time PCR for the ssrRNA Leishmania gene, two groups were defined; a low (lowP, n = 46) and a high parasite load groups (highP, n = 42). When comparing these groups, results show variable individual humoral immune response with higher specific IgG production in infected animals but with a notable difference in CVL rapid test optical densities (DPP) between highP and lowP groups. Splenic architecture disruption was characterized by disorganization of white pulp, more evident in animals with high parasitism. All cytokine transcripts in spleen were less expressed in highP than lowP groups with a large heterogeneous variation in response. Individual correlation analysis between cytokine expression and parasite load revealed a negative correlation for both pro-inflammatory cytokines: IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6; and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TGFβ. TNF showed the best negative correlation (r2 = 0.231; pdogs with high parasite load associated with a structural modification in the splenic lymphoid micro-architecture. We also discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the uncontrolled parasite growth and clinical outcome.

  4. IL-17A acts via p38 MAPK to increase stability of TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA in human ASM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henness, Sheridan; van Thoor, Eveline; Ge, Qi; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret; Ammit, Alaina J

    2006-06-01

    Human airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays an immunomodulatory role in asthma. Recently, IL-17A has become of increasing interest in asthma, being found at elevated levels in asthmatic airways and emerging as playing an important role in airway neutrophilia. IL-17A predominantly exerts its neutrophil orchestrating role indirectly via the induction of cytokines by resident airway structural cells. Here, we perform an in vitro study to show that although IL-17A did not induce secretion of the CXC chemokine IL-8 from ASM cells, IL-17A significantly potentiates TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 protein secretion and gene expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P ASM cells, acting via a p38 MAPK-dependent posttranscriptional pathway to augment TNF-alpha-induced secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 from ASM cells.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  6. Maternal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles during pregnancy and lactation alters offspring hippocampal mRNA BAX and Bcl-2 levels, induces apoptosis and decreases neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Mohammadipour, Abbas; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-07-05

    The usage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) covers a vast area in different fields ranging from cosmetics and food to the production of drugs. Maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during developmental period has been associated with hippocampal injury and with a decrease in learning and memory status of the offspring. However, little is known about its injury mechanism. This paper describes the in vivo neurotoxic effects of TiO 2 -NPs on rat offspring hippocampus during developmental period. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats received intragastric TiO 2 -NPs (100mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day (GD) 2 to (GD) 21 and postnatal day (PD) 2 to (PD) 21 respectively. Animals in the control groups received an equal volume of distilled water via gavage. At the end of the treatment process, offspring were deeply anesthetized and sacrificed. Then brains of each group were collected and sections of the rat offspring's brains were stained using TUNEL staining (for detection of apoptotic cells) and immunostaining (for neurogenesis). Moreover, the right hippocampus (n=6 per each group) were removed from the right hemisphere for evaluating the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 level. Results of histopatological examination by TUNEL staining showed that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during pregnancy and lactation periods increased apoptotic cells significantly (P<0.01) in the offspring hippocampus. The immunolabeling of double cortin (DCX) protein as neurogenesis marker also showed that TiO 2 -NPs reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the offspring (P<0.05). Moreover, in comparison with the control group, the mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in the TiO 2 -NPs group significantly increased and decreased, respectively (P<0.01). These findings provide strong evidence that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs significantly impact hippocampal neurogenesis and apoptosis in the offspring. The potential impact of nanoparticle exposure for millions of pregnant mothers and

  7. Zingerone Suppresses Liver Inflammation Induced by Antibiotic Mediated Endotoxemia through Down Regulating Hepatic mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy....

  8. AP-1 Oligodeoxynucleotides Reduce Aortic Elastolysis in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Rawa; Zaradzki, Marcin; Remes, Anca; Seppelt, Philipp; Kunze, Reiner; Schröder, Hannes; Schwill, Simon; Ensminger, Stephan M; Robinson, Peter N; Karck, Matthias; Müller, Oliver J; Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H; Kallenbach, Klaus

    2017-12-15

    Marfan syndrome is characterized by high expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) associated with medial elastolysis and aortic root aneurysm. We aimed to reduce aortic elastolysis through decrease of MMP expression with decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs) neutralizing the transcription factor activating factor-1 (AP-1). AP-1 abundance in nuclear extracts as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased in isolated mAoSMC of mgR/mgR Marfan mice compared to wild-type cells. Exposure to AP-1 neutralizing dODNs resulted in a significant reduction of basal and interleukin-1β-stimulated MMP expression and activity in mAoSMCs. Moreover, increased migration and formation of superoxide radical anions was substantially decreased in mAoSMCs by AP-1 dODN treatment. Aortic grafts from donor Marfan mice were treated with AP-1- dODN ex vivo and implanted as infrarenal aortic interposition grafts in mgR/mgR mice. Pretreatment of aortic grafts with AP-1 dODN led to reduced elastolysis, macrophage infiltration, and MMP activity. Permeability of the endothelial monolayer was increased for dODN in mgR/mgR aortae with observed loss of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, enabling dODN to reach the tunica media. Targeting AP-1 activity offers a new potential strategy to treat the vascular phenotype associated with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T M; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  10. The ADH7 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is vanillin-inducible and enables mRNA translation under severe vanillin stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Thi My Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  11. Altered hepatic mRNA expression of immune response-associated DNA damage in mice liver induced by potassium bromate: Protective role of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Driss, Dorra; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Boudawara, Ons; Boudawara, Tahia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Samia; Mounir Zeghal, Khaled; Hakim, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Chronic exposure to potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ), a toxic halogen existing widely in the environment, environment through contaminated drinking water, has become a global problem of public health. The present study investigates the protective role of vanillin against KBrO 3 induced oxidative stress, distruption in inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Adult mice were exposed orally to KBrO 3 (2g/L of drinking water) for 2 weeks The co-administration of vanillin to the KBrO 3 -treated mice significantly prevented the plasma transaminases increase in. Furthermore, it inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and attenuated the KBrO 3 -mediated depletion of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level in the liver. In addition, vanillin markedly attenuated the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and COX2 and prevented KBrO 3 -induced hepatic cell alteration and necrosis, as indicated by histopathological data. DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, was also found to be low in the co-treated group. Thus, these findings show that vanillin acts as potent chemopreventive agent against KBrO 3 -mediated liver oxidative stress and genotoxicity through its antioxidant properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1796-1807, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Multiple Telemeric TTAGGG Motifs Suppress Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Subjected to Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a fundamental role in both the development and pathobiology of stroke. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have come to be recognized as critical players in the inflammation that ultimately contributes to stroke severity. Inflammasomes recognize microbial and host-derived danger signals and activate caspase-1, which in turn controls the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. We have shown that A151, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing multiple telemeric TTAGGG motifs, reduces IL-1β production by activated bone marrow derived macrophages that have been subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and LPS stimulation. Further, we demonstrate that A151 reduces the maturation of caspase-1 and IL-1β, the levels of both the iNOS and NLRP3 proteins, and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential within such cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that A151 reduces ischemic brain damage and NLRP3 mRNA levels in SHR-SP rats that have undergone permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings clearly suggest that the modulation of inflammasome activity via A151 may contribute to a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages subjected to conditions that model brain ischemia and modulate ischemic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Therefore, modulation of ischemic pathobiology by A151 may have a role in the development of novel stroke prevention and therapeutic strategies.

  13. In Vivo Short-Term Topical Application of BAY 11-7082 Prevents the Acidic Bile–Induced mRNA and miRNA Oncogenic Phenotypes in Exposed Murine Hypopharyngeal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence T. Sasaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bile-containing gastroesophageal reflux may promote cancer at extraesophageal sites. Acidic bile can accelerate NF-κB activation and molecular events, linked to premalignant changes in murine hypopharyngeal mucosa (HM. We hypothesize that short-term in vivo topical application of NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 can prevent acidic bile–induced early preneoplastic molecular events, suggesting its potential role in disease prevention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We topically exposed HM (C57Bl/6j wild-type to a mixture of bile acids at pH 3.0 with and without BAY 11-7082 3 times/day for 7 days. We used immunofluorescence, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and polymerase chain reaction microarrays to identify NF-κB activation and its associated oncogenic mRNA and miRNA phenotypes, in murine hypopharyngeal cells in vitro and in murine HM in vivo. RESULTS: Short-term exposure of HM to acidic bile is a potent stimulus accelerating the expression of NF-κB signaling (70 out of 84 genes and oncogenic molecules. Topical application of BAY 11-7082 sufficiently blocks the effect of acidic bile. BAY 11-7082 eliminates NF-κB activation in regenerating basal cells of acidic bile–treated HM and prevents overexpression of molecules central to head and neck cancer, including bcl-2, STAT3, EGFR, TNF-α, and WNT5A. NF-κB inhibitor reverses the upregulated “oncomirs” miR-155 and miR-192 and the downregulated “tumor suppressors” miR-451a and miR-375 phenotypes in HM affected by acidic bile. CONCLUSION: There is novel evidence that acidic bile–induced NF-κB–related oncogenic mRNA and miRNA phenotypes are generated after short-term 7-day mucosal exposure and that topical mucosal application of BAY 11-7082 can prevent the acidic bile–induced molecular alterations associated with unregulated cell growth and proliferation of hypopharyngeal cells.

  14. Encapsulation of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in lipid particles improves antitumoral efficacy in vivo in a human melanoma line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, C; Biroccio, A; Benassi, B; Stringaro, A; Stoppacciaro, A; Semple, S C; Zupi, G

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorothioate c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides [S]ODNs (free INX-6295) were encapsulated in a new liposome formulation and the antitumor activity was compared to the unencapsulated antisense in a human melanoma xenograft. The systemic administration of INX-6295 encapsulated in stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP INX-6295) improved plasma AUC (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and initial half-life of free INX-6295, resulting in a significant enhancement in tumor accumulation and improvement in tumor distribution of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Animals treated with SALP INX-6295 exhibited a prolonged reduction of c-myc expression, reduced tumor growth and increased mice survival. When administered in combination with cisplatin (DDP), SALP INX-6295 produced a complete tumor regression in approximately 30% of treated mice, which persisted for at least 60 days following the first cycle of treatment. Finally, the median survival of mice treated with DDP/SALP INX-6295 increased by 105% compared to 84% for animals treated with the combination DDP/free INX-6295. These data indicate that the biological activity and the therapeutic efficacy of c-myc antisense therapy may be improved when these agents are administered in lipid-based delivery systems.

  15. Roles of some antioxidants in modulation of cardiac myopathy induced by sodium nitrite via down-regulation of mRNA expression of NF-κB, Bax, and flt-1 and suppressing DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Mohamed Fadda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying pathology of cardiac damage involves various molecular and signaling pathways. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the role of Quercetin (Querc, alone or in combination with Melatonin (Melat against cardiac damage induced by sodium nitrite (Sod nit, as well as to elucidate different signaling pathways. Querc and Melat were injected intraperitoneally (i.p., followed by induction of hypoxia in rats by using a single dose of Sod nit (60 mg/kg, s.c.. Treatment with Sod nit significantly decreased hemoglobin (Hb levels in blood. Pretreatment of hypoxic rats with Querc and/or Melat elevated the declined Hb concentration. The forementioned antioxidants also successfully ameliorated the alteration of heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 and markers of cardiac injury, including troponin T (Trop. T, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF α, and C-reactive protein (CRP in the rats serum. Furthermore, RT-PCR revealed that these antioxidants successfully modulated mRNA expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, and flt-1. They also regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the apoptosis marker caspase 3, and oxidative DNA damage in cardiac tissue, compared to Sod nit-intoxicated rats. The present biochemical results are reinforced by histopathological examination. In Conclusion: The results reflected that treatment with Querc in combination with Melat was most effective in improving Sod nit-toxicity induced cardiac damage, thus confirming the promising role of this combination as an effective treatment for cardiac damage induced by other cardio-toxic agents.

  16. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Toshiyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Ichino, Motohide; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2005-11-16

    Adjuvants in vaccines are immune stimulants that play an important role in the induction of effective and appropriate immune responses to vaccine component(s). Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT) vaccine contains not only aluminum hydrate (alum) to enhance the immune response to the vaccine ingredients, but also, both for that purpose and as a principal ingredient, pertussis toxin (PT). However, both adjuvants strongly promote T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses. Th1 and Th2 type immune responses are counterbalanced in vivo, and a Th2-prone immune response is not effective against intracellular infections but promotes IgE production, which is related to allergic disease. In this study, we used the CpG motif contained in oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), which has an adjuvant effect and also induces the Th1 response, as an adjuvant to this vaccine, and we investigated its adjuvanticity and its potential to modulate immune responses to DPT vaccine. Administration of DPT vaccine with CpG-ODN (DPT-alum/ODN) to mice significantly reduced the total IgE levels and increased the anti-PT specific IgG2a titer in serum, in comparison with ordinary DPT vaccine (DPT-alum). Moreover, we investigated the antibody response to orally administrated ovalbumin (OVA) after vaccine administration. In the DPT-alum/ODN-administered group, the OVA specific IgE production in serum greatly decreased in comparison with that in the DPT-alum-administered group. These data indicate that CpG-ODN was not useful only as an efficient vaccine adjuvant but also shifted the immune responses substantially toward Th1 and modulated the Th1/Th2 immune response in DPT vaccine. These data suggested new applications of CpG-ODN as adjuvants in DPT vaccine.

  17. Expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye and effect of topical antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardon, F.; Zimmermann, M.

    1995-01-01

    Aims - Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate c-Fos and c-Jun proto-oncogene expression in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye. Methods -Eyes of anaesthetised rats were exposed to 1.5 J/cm 2 of ultraviolet radiation (280-380 nm). Animals were perfused 1, 6, or 24 hours after irradiation and tissue sections were incubated with specific antiserum to c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively. Non-irradiated contralateral eyes displayed no c-Fos and c-Jun immunoreactivity. One and 6 hours after ultraviolet exposure numerous c-Fos and c-Jun immunopositive nuclei were observed mainly in the epithelial cell layers of the cornea and the lens epithelium. Scattered labelled nuclei were detectable in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. Twenty four hours after irradiation c-Fos and c-Jun protein expression returned to near control levels. Histological signs of ultraviolet damage (for example, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation) were first recognisable in the corneal epithelium 6 hours after irradiation and became more apparent at later times. The rapid and sustained activation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the eye after single ultraviolet exposure may represent the molecular mechanism underlying ultraviolet induced photodamage and initiation of cell death. Furthermore, topical application of a c-fos antisense oligode-oxynucleotide to the ultraviolet exposed rat eye inhibited the increase in c-Fos expression in the cornea, suggesting therapeutic activity of antisense drugs in corneal malignant and infectious diseases. (author)

  18. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, D.; Palomo, A.B.; Edel, Michael John; Chen, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has ...

  19. Injury induces in vivo expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor mRNAs in skin epithelial cells and PDGF mRNA in connective tissue fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniades, H.N.; Galanopoulos, T.; Neville-Golden, J.; Kiritsy, C.P.; Lynch, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates many of the processes important in tissue repair, including proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of extracellular matrices. In this study, the authors have demonstrated with in situ hydridization and immunocytochemistry the reversible expression of 3-sis/PDGF-2 and PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) b mRNAs and their respective protein products in epithelial cells and fibroblasts following cutaneous injury in pigs. Epithelial cells in control, unwounded skin did not express c-sis and PDGF-R mRNAs, and fibroblasts expressed only PDGF-R mRNA. The expression levels in the injured site were correlated with the stage of tissue repair, being highest during the initial stages of the repair process and declining at the time of complete re-epithelialization and tissue remodeling. These studies provide a mulecular basis for understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal tissue repair. They suggest the possibility that a defect in these mechanisms may be associated with defective wound healing. It is also conceivable that chronic injury may induce irreversible gene expression leading to pathologic, unregulated cell growth

  20. Stress-induced activation of the immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) is restricted to telencephalic areas in the rat brain: relationship to c-fos mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Sheila; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2004-06-01

    Arc is an effector immediate early gene whose expression is induced in situations of increased neuronal activity. However, there is no report on the influence of stress on Arc expression. Here, we compared the induction of both c-fos and Arc mRNAs in the brain of rats exposed to one of three different stressful situations: novel environment, forced swimming and immobilization. An absent or weak c-fos mRNA signal was observed in control rats, whereas those exposed to one of three stressors showed enhanced c-fos expression in a wide range of brain areas. Constitutive Arc expression was observed in some areas such as cortex, striatum, hippocampus, reticular thalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex. In response to stressors, a strong induction of Arc was observed, but the pattern was different from that of c-fos. For instance, activation of Arc but not c-fos was observed in the nucleus accumbens after immobilization and in the hippocampus after novel environment. No Arc induction was observed in diencephalic and brainstem areas. The present data show that Arc has a neuroanatomically restricted pattern of induction in the brain after emotional stress. Telencephalic activation suggests that a more intense induction of synaptic plasticity is occurring in this area after exposure to emotional stressors.

  1. In Vivo TLR9 Inhibition Attenuates CpG-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boehm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9, a receptor for bacterial DNA, in septic cardiac depression has not been clarified in vivo. Thus, the aim of the study was to test possible TLR9 inhibitors (H154-thioate, IRS954-thioate, and chloroquine for their ability to protect the cardiovascular system in a murine model of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide- (ODN- dependent systemic inflammation. Sepsis was induced by i.p. application of the TLR9 agonist 1668-thioate in C57BL/6 wild type (WT and TLR9-deficient (TLR9-D mice. Thirty minutes after stimulation TLR9 antagonists were applied i.v. Survival was monitored up to 18 h after stimulation. Cardiac mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators was analyzed 2 h and 6 h after stimulation with 1668-thioate and hemodynamic parameters were monitored at the later time point. Stimulation with 1668-thioate induced a severe sepsis-like state with significant drop of body temperature and significantly increased mortality in WT animals. Additionally, there was a time-dependent increase of inflammatory mediators in the heart accompanied by development of septic heart failure. These effects were not observed in TLR9-D mice. Inhibition of TLR9 by the suppressive ODN H154-thioate significantly ameliorated cardiac inflammation, preserved cardiac function, and improved survival. This suppressive ODN was the most efficient inhibitor of the tested substances.

  2. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in osteoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Chen

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) in osteoblasts, and to relate P.e-LPS to bone absorption pathogenesis in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis. MG63 was treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 microg/mL) for different hours(0-24h). The expression of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. The level of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA increased significantly after treatment with P.e-LPS at more than 5 microg/mL (P<0.01)and for more than 1 hour (P<0.01), which indicated that P.e-LPS induced osteoblasts to express IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in dose and time dependent manners. P.e-LPS may promote bone resorption in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis by inducing IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

  3. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are a potent adjuvant for an inactivated polio vaccine produced from Sabin strains of poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunting; Shi, Huiying; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Yanwen; Xu, Honglin

    2009-11-05

    Poliovirus transmission is controlled globally through world-wide use of a live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the imminence of global poliovirus eradication calls for a switch to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Given the limited manufacturing capacity and high cost of IPV, this switch is unlikely in most developing and undeveloped countries. Adjuvantation is an effective strategy for antigen sparing. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) for an experimental IPV produced from Sabin strains of poliovirus. Our results showed that CpG-ODN, alone or in combination with alum, can significantly enhance both the humoral and cellular immune responses to IPV in mice, and, consequently, the antigen dose could be reduced substantially. Therefore, our study suggests that the global use of IPV could be facilitated by using CpG-ODN or other feasible adjuvants.

  4. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides containing GACGTT motifs enhance the immune responses elicited by a goose parvovirus vaccine in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ying; Yang, Wen-Jen; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2010-11-23

    Recombinant parvovirus VP2 (rVP2) was formulated with different types of adjuvant, including aluminum adjuvant and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and the immunological responses after vaccination in ducks were examined. In comparison with the control group, production of rVP2-specific antibodies, expression of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by rVP2, and percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells in PBMC were significantly increased in ducks immunized with rVP2 formulated with CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT motif. CpG ODNs with GACGTT motifs might be used to improve the efficacy of vaccines for ducks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Chromosome study on chronic lymphocytic leukemia using CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide as immunostimulant agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yafang; Xue, Yongquan; Chen, Suning; Yao, Li; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Juan; Pan, Jinlan; Wang, Yong; Bai, Shuxiao

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) can improve the detection rate of the karyotypic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) cells from 57 cases of CLL were collected and cultured with CpG-ODN DSP30+interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed (PWM) or IL-2, respectively. Five days later cells were harvested for chromosome preparation. Karyotypic analysis was done using R banding technique. Panel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out on 19 cases of CLL with normal karyotypes using the following probes: Cen12, D13S25, Rb1, ATM, p53, MYB and IgH. Genomic DNA from 21 cases of them was extracted from BM or PB leukocytes. The immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. CD38 and ZAP70 expressions in the leukemic cells were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The detection rate of karyotypic abnormalities in the CpG-ODN+IL-2 group (43.85%) was obviously higher than that in the PHA (15.09%), PWM (17.31%) and IL-2 (3.13%) groups (P<0.01). Fifty-two types of karyotypic abnormalities were found. Among them, trisomy12 (+12) or +12 with other abnormalities were the most common, while translocations were the most frequent structural abnormalities including 3 unbalanced and 11 balanced translocations, among them 7 had rearrangements involving 14q32. Thirteen cases showed one or more abnormalities on FISH including trisomy 12 and p53 deletion each in one case, IgH rearrangement and partial deletion each in one case, 13q14.3 deletion in 11 cases of which 5 cases also had Rb1 deletion, 1 case had Rb1 partial deletion. No case with ATM or MYB deletions was found. PCR detected IgVH mutations in 10/21 cases. FCM showed 10/45 cases were CD38 positive, but 35 /45 were CD38 negative, 11/27 cases expressed ZAP70, but 16/27 did not. Among the 26 cases examined for CD38 and ZAP70 expressions simultaneously, 5 cases

  6. Evaluation of protective efficacy of the synthetic peptide vaccine containing the T-helper 1 epitope with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide against feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. Cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in the prevention of FIP. Thus, induction of the cellular immune response is essential in vaccines against FIP virus (FIPV) infection. We immunized cats with peptides containing T-helper (Th)1 epitopes derived from the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the type I FIPV KU-2 strain (NP7 and NP8) with feline CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (fCpG-ODNs) as a vaccine adjuvant. Prevention against type II FIPV 79-1146 strain-induced FIP was slightly better in specific pathogen-free cats treated with NP7 and NP8 with fCpG-ODNs. However, immune tolerance was suggested to be induced by the high dose and frequency of NP7 and NP8 with fCpG-ODNs. Further investigations on the combination and concentrations of the peptides and fCpG-ODNs, dose, frequency and route of administration are needed.

  7. Characterization of insulin-like-growth factor II (IGF II mRNA positive hepatic altered foci and IGF II expression in hepatocellular carcinoma during diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Biswajit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like-growth factor II (IGF II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neoplasm of different tissues, including liver of rats and men. This growth factor is believed to exert its effect during cellular proliferation. During the process of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, different hepatic altered foci appear. They are believed to be the putative precursors of HCC in rats and in men. Thus, to study the role of the gene in a defined model of hepatocarcinogenesis was the target to elucidate its role in various cancer phenotypes during the entire development stage of cancer, right from earlier preneoplastic lesions to HCC Methods Antisense in situ hybridization technique was used here to characterize the type(s of foci in which IGF II mRNA had expressed during the development of hepatocarcinogenesis-induced by diethylnitrosamine and promoted by phenobarbital in rats. Various focal lesions have been categorized depending on the stages and sizes along with IGF II expression patterns in them. Immunohistochemical detection for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was made to detect the role of the gene in preneoplastic and neoplastic cellular proliferation. Results IGF II expression was located in the glycogen-storage acidophilic cell foci maximally followed by mixed cell lesions and the least in basophilic lesions. The expression of IGF II was found to be predominant in the HCC. The expression of gene was also located at the peripheral cells of spongiosis hepatis which are believed to be the precursor of ito cell carcinoma. It was noted that there is a direct correlation between IGF II expression and Immunohistochemical detection for PCNA. Conclusion It may be concluded that IGF II gene expression plays an important role during the development of neoplasia and the gene expresses in the sequence of events leading from glycogen-rich-acidophilic lesions to glycogen poor basophilic lesions to HCC with an

  8. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of two key enzymes of hypoxia-sensing pathways in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin): Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkivska, Helen; Chung, J. Sook; Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolov, Eugene P.; Techa, Sirinart; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen homeostasis is crucial for development, survival and normal function of all metazoans. A family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is critical in mediating the adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. The HIF transcription factor consists of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-dependent α subunit; the abundance of the latter determines the activity of HIF and is regulated by a family of O2- and Fe2+-dependent enzymes prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Currently very little is known about the function of this important pathway and the molecular structure of its key players in hypoxia-tolerant intertidal mollusks including oysters, which are among the animal champions of anoxic and hypoxic tolerance and thus can serve as excellent models to study the role of HIF cascade in adaptations to oxygen deficiency. We have isolated transcripts of two key components of the oxygen sensing pathway - the oxygen-regulated HIF-α subunit and PHD - from an intertidal mollusk, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and determined the transcriptional responses of these two genes to anoxia, hypoxia and cadmium (Cd) stress. HIF-α and PHD homologs from eastern oysters C. virginica show significant sequence similarity and share key functional domains with the earlier described isoforms from vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows that genetic diversification of HIF and PHD isoforms occurred within the vertebrate lineage indicating functional diversification and specialization of the oxygen-sensing pathways in this group, which parallels situation observed for many other important genes. HIF-α and PHD homologs are broadly expressed at the mRNA level in different oyster tissues and show transcriptional responses to prolonged hypoxia in the gills consistent with their putative role in oxygen sensing and the adaptive response to hypoxia. Similarity in amino acid sequence, domain structure and transcriptional

  9. CYP3A5 mRNA degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Florent; Cresteil, Thierry

    2005-09-01

    The total CYP3A5 mRNA level is significantly greater in carriers of the CYP3A5*1 allele than in CYP3A5*3 homozygotes. Most of the CYP3A5*3 mRNA includes an intronic sequence (exon 3B) containing premature termination codons (PTCs) between exons 3 and 4. Two models were used to investigate the degradation of CYP3A5 mRNA: a CYP3A5 minigene consisting of CYP3A5 exons and introns 3 to 6 transfected into MCF7 cells, and the endogenous CYP3A5 gene expressed in HepG2 cells. The 3'-untranslated region g.31611C>T mutation has no effect on CYP3A5 mRNA decay. Splice variants containing exon 3B were more unstable than wild-type (wt) CYP3A5 mRNA. Cycloheximide prevents the recognition of PTCs by ribosomes: in transfected MCF7 and HepG2 cells, cycloheximide slowed down the degradation of exon 3B-containing splice variants, suggesting the participation of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). When PTCs were removed from pseudoexon 3B or when UPF1 small interfering RNA was used to impair the NMD mechanism, the decay of the splice variant was reduced, confirming the involvement of NMD in the degradation of CYP3A5 splice variants. Induction could represent a source of variability for CYP3A5 expression and could modify the proportion of splice variants. The extent of CYP3A5 induction was investigated after exposure to barbiturates or steroids: CYP3A4 was markedly induced in a pediatric population compared with untreated neonates. However, no effect could be detected in either the total CYP3A5 RNA, the proportion of splice variant RNA, or the protein level. Therefore, in these carriers, induction is unlikely to switch on the phenotypic CYP3A5 expression in carriers of CYP3A5*3/*3.

  10. In vivo distribution of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides local delivered by gelatin-coated platinmn-iridium stents in rabbits and its effect on apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华; 邝碧娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Post-stenting restenosis is a significant clinical problem, involving vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis. It is reported that c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODNs) local delivered by catheter can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. This study was designed to assess tissue distribution of c-myc ASODN local delivered using gelatin-coated platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir) stents, and its effect on apoptosis of VSMCs. Methods Gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents that had absorbed caroboxyfluorescein-5-succimidyl ester (FAM) labeled c-myc ASODNs (550 μg per stent) were implanted into the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained at 45 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODNs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. Rabbits in the control group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents, and those in the treatment group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated stents that had absorbed c-myc ASODNs. 7, 14, 30, or 90 days (n=4, respectively, for each group) after the stenting procedure, the stented segments were harvested, and histopathological examinations were performed to calculate neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness. The expression of c-myc was assessed using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptotic VSMCs were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results According to fluorescence microscopic results, FAM-labeled c-myc ASODNs were concentrated in the target vessel media at the 45 minutes time point, and then dispersed to the adventitia. Morphometric analysis showed that neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness increased continuously up to 90 days after stent implantation, but that total neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were less in the treatment group than in the

  11. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  12. The bio-complex "reaction pattern in vertebrate cells" reduces cytokine-induced cellular adhesion molecule mRNA expression in human endothelial cells by attenuation of NF-kappaB translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnau, Cindy; Liebermann, Herbert E H; Helbig, Franz; Staudt, Alexander; Felix, Stephan B; Ewert, Ralf; Landsberger, Martin

    2009-02-28

    The bio-complex "reaction pattern in vertebrate cells" (RiV) is mainly represented by characteristic exosome-like particles--probably as reaction products of cells to specific stress. The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that RiV particle preparations (RiV-PP) reduce cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) by the attenuation of NF-kappaB translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). After 4 hours, pre-incubation of HUVEC with RiV-PP before stimulation with TNF-alpha significantly reduced ICAM-1 (65.5+/-10.3%) and VCAM-1 (71.1+/-12.3%) mRNA expression compared to TNF-alpha-treated cells (100%, n=7). ICAM-1 surface expression was significantly albeit marginally reduced in RiV/TNF-alpha- treated cells (92.0+/-5.6%, n=4). No significant effect was observed on VCAM-1 surface expression. In RiV/TNF-alpha-treated cells (n=4), NF-kappaB subunits p50 (85.7+/-4.1%) and p65 (85.0+/-1.8%) nuclear translocation was significantly reduced. RiV-PP may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in HUVEC by reducing CAM mRNA expression via attenuation of p50 and p65 translocation.

  13. [Impacts of the formula of Suoquanwan(SQW) on expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Ying; Wu, Qing-He; Huang, Ping; He, Jin-Yang

    2009-06-01

    To observe the impacts of the formula of Suoquanwan (SQW) on the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency. The model rats were induced by adenine (250 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, then treated respectively with SQW or dDAVP. The expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in kidney of Yang-deficiency model by realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR method were investigated. In model rats, the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney decreased, dDAVP and SQW high dose could increased the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney. The others had no influence on the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney. SQW can increase the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency.

  14. Impairment of FOS mRNA stabilization following translation arrest in granulocytes from myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomin; Shikama, Yayoi; Shichishima, Tsutomu; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kimura, Hideo; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kimura, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Although quantitative and qualitative granulocyte defects have been described in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the underlying molecular basis of granulocyte dysfunction in MDS is largely unknown. We recently found that FOS mRNA elevation under translation-inhibiting stimuli was significantly smaller in granulocytes from MDS patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to clarify the cause of the impaired FOS induction in MDS. We first examined the mechanisms of FOS mRNA elevation using granulocytes from healthy donors cultured with the translation inhibitor emetine. Emetine increased both transcription and mRNA stability of FOS. p38 MAPK inhibition abolished the emetine-induced increase of FOS transcription but did not affect FOS mRNA stabilization. The binding of an AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein HuR to FOS mRNA containing an ARE in 3'UTR was increased by emetine, and the knockdown of HuR reduced the FOS mRNA stabilizing effect of emetine. We next compared the emetine-induced transcription and mRNA stabilization of FOS between MDS patients and healthy controls. Increased rates of FOS transcription by emetine were similar in MDS and controls. In the absence of emetine, FOS mRNA decayed to nearly 17% of initial levels in 45 min in both groups. In the presence of emetine, however, 76.7±19.8% of FOS mRNA remained after 45 min in healthy controls, versus 37.9±25.5% in MDS (Pknowledge, this is the first report demonstrating attenuation of stress-induced FOS mRNA stabilization in MDS granulocytes.

  15. Localization of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in cartilage and bone cells of the rat. An in situ hybridization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Silvestrini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR mRNA expression was studied in the cartilage and bone cells of the femur of young adult rats to compare its distribution with that of the GR protein, which had previously been shown histochemically in the same areas. To achieve this, we used a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide as a probe, in line with the published human GR (hGR cDNA sequence. The probe was coupled to fluorescein (FL, applying a rapid Fast-Tag TM FL nucleic acid labeling method. Negative controls were achieved by using sense sequences of the hGR oligoprobe, similarly coupled by using the Fast-Tag TM FL labeling kit. Dewaxed sections were treated for in situ hybridization (ISH histochemistry with the antisense and sense oligoprobes. The ISH reaction product was more intense in the cytoplasm of proliferative and maturative chondrocytes of the growth plate cartilage than in that shown in the hypertrophic ones. In the metaphyseal secondary ossification zone, osteoblasts (OBs and osteocytes (OCs were variably labeled, whereas osteoclasts (OCLs were always intensely stained. The labeling was also visible in some bone marrow cells, in articular chondrocytes, in the cells of tendon-bone junctions, and in the perichondrium and periosteal cells. Our results confirm a cellular co-location of GR protein and mRNA. In agreement with GR immunolocalization, the variability of labeling appeared to be related to the cell cycle, the stage of differentiation and cell-type differences.

  16. Complement C1q regulates LPS-induced cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahide; Oritani, Kenji; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Ishikawa, Jun; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Kawamoto, Shinichirou; Ishida, Naoko; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Botto, Marina; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    We show here that C1q suppresses IL-12p40 production in LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Serum IL-12p40 concentration of C1q-deficient mice was higher than that of wild-type mice after intraperitoneal LPS-injection. Because neither globular head of C1q (gC1q) nor collagen-like region of C1q (cC1q) failed to suppress LPS-induced IL-12p40 production, both gC1q and cC1q, and/or some specialized conformation of native C1q may be required for the inhibition. While C1q did not affect mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MD-2, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), BMDC treated with C1q showed the reduced activity of NF-kappaB and the delayed phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after LPS-stimulation. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-induced IL-12p40 and TNF-alpha production, another MyD88-dependent TLR-mediated signal, was also suppressed by C1q treatment. Therefore, C1q is likely to suppress MyD88-dependent pathway in TLR-mediated signals. In contrast, C1q failed to suppress colony formation of B cells responding to LPS or LPS-induced CD40 and CD86 expression on BMDC in MyD88-deficient mice, indicating that inhibitory effects of C1q on MyD88-independent pathways may be limited. Taken together, C1q may regulate innate and adaptive immune systems via modification of signals mediated by interactions between invading pathogens and TLR.

  17. Involvement of over-expressed BMP4 in pentylenetetrazol kindling-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jinbo; Ma Yuxin; Yin Qing; Xu Haiwei; An Ning; Liu Shiyong; Fan Xiaotang; Yang Hui

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is one of a few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. Proliferation of neural precursors in the granule cell layer of the DG has been identified in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling epilepsy model, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism. We previously reported that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins-4 (BMP4) mRNA in the hippocampus was developmentally regulated and mainly localized in the DG of the adult. To explore the role of BMP4 in epileptic activity, we detected BMP4 expression in the DG during PTZ kindling process and explore its correlation with cell proliferation combined with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique. We found that dynamic changes in BMP4 level and BrdU labeled cells dependent on the kindling stage of PTZ induced seizure-prone state. The number of BMP4 mRNA-positive cells and BrdU labeled cells reached the top level 1 day after PTZ kindled, then declined to base level 2 months later. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between increased BMP4 mRNA expression and increased number of BrdU labeled cells. After effectively blocked expression of BMP4 with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ASODN), the BrdU labeled cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone(DG-SGZ) and hilus were significantly decreased 16d after First PTZ injection and 1, 3, 7, 14d after kindled respectively. These findings suggest that increased proliferation in the DG of the hippocampus resulted from kindling epilepsy elicited by PTZ maybe be modulated by BMP4 over-expression

  18. RhoA mediates the expression of acidic extracellular pH-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA through phospholipase D1 in mouse metastatic B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyonobu; Yuzawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Baba, Yuh; Nishimura, Yukio; Kato, Yasumasa

    2016-03-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by acidic extracellular pH (pHe). The present study examined the contribution of small GTP-binding proteins to phospholipase D (PLD) activation of acidic pHe-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production. Acidic pHe-induced MMP-9 production was reduced by C3 exoenzyme, which inhibits the Rho family of GTPases; cytochalasin D, which inhibits actin reorganization; and simvastatin, which inhibits geranylgeranylation of Rho. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RhoA, but not against Rac1 or Cdc42, significantly inhibited acidic pHe induction of MMP-9. Pull-down assays showed that acidic pHe increased the activated form of RhoA. Forced expression of constitutively active RhoA induced MMP-9 production, even at neutral pHe. RhoA siRNA also reduced acidic pHe induced PLD activity. Specific inhibition of PLD1 and Pld1 gene knockout significantly reduced acidic pHe-induced MMP-9 expression. In contrast, PLD2 inhibition or knockout had no effect on MMP-9 expression. These findings suggested that RhoA-PLD1 signaling is involved in acidic pHe induction of MMP-9.

  19. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  20. The VFH1 (YLL056C) promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables mRNA translation despite pronounced translation repression caused by severe vanillin stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Ishida, Yoko; Kato, Sae; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2018-03-25

    Vanillin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative fermentation inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass in bioethanol production. These biomass conversion inhibitors, particularly vanillin, are known to repress translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reported that the mRNAs of ADH7 and BDH2 were efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress despite marked repression of overall protein synthesis. In this study, we found that expression of VFH1 (YLL056C) was also significantly induced at the protein level by severe vanillin stress. Additionally, we demonstrated that the VFH1 promoter enabled the protein synthesis of other genes including GFP and ALD6 under severe vanillin stress. It is known that transcriptional activation of VFH1 is induced by furfural and HMF, and we herein verified that Vfh1 protein synthesis was also induced by furfural and HMF. The null mutant of VFH1 delayed growth in the presence of vanillin, furfural, and HMF, indicating the importance of Vfh1 for sufficient tolerance against these inhibitors. The protein levels of Vfh1 induced by the inhibitors tested were markedly higher than those of Adh7 and Bdh2, suggesting the superior utility of the VFH1 promoter over the ADH7 or BDH2 promoter for breeding optimized yeast strains for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression in cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Kern, P

    1997-04-01

    In the present study we investigated cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) after stimulation with different antigens. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we could demonstrate that restimulation with crude Echinococcus granulosus antigen (Eg-Ag) induced or enhanced Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, especially IL-5 (by using antigen from sheep cyst fluid) in 23 out of 26 investigated CE patients and IL-10 (by using antigen from camel cyst fluid) in 10 out of 10 investigated CE patients. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was absent in PBMC of healthy controls after Eg-Ag stimulation. To determine the specificity of this reaction we stimulated PBMC from 11 CE patients with crude Echinococcus multilocularis antigen (Em-Ag) and PBMC from 8 CE patients with Toxocara canis antigen (Tc-Ag). We found that the PBMC of patients showed a similar mRNA cytokine pattern on stimulation with Em-Ag when compared with Eg-Ag stimulation. The cytokine mRNA pattern on stimulation with Tc-Ag, however, resembled the cytokine mRNA pattern of unstimulated PBMC. Furthermore, the stimulation of PBMC with crude Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (H37Ra) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis revealed distinct IL-5 mRNA expression in all investigated CE patients, whereas in healthy controls IL-5 mRNA expression was very weak or totally absent. Thus, our results indicate an induction of Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in CE patients, which is frequently observed in parasite infections. Interestingly, this response persists after stimulation with tuberculosis antigens, which normally induce Th1 response.

  2. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, M.; Wouters, B.G.; Koumenis, C.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  3. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The hypoxic proteome is influenced by gene-specific changes in mRNA translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, Marianne; Seigneuric, Renaud; Magagnin, Michael G.; Beucken, Twan van den; Lambin, Philippe; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypoxia causes a rapid reduction in mRNA translation efficiency. This inhibition does not affect all mRNA species to the same extent and can therefore contribute significantly to hypoxia-induced differential protein expression. Our aim in this study was to characterize changes in gene expression during acute hypoxia and evaluate the contribution of regulation via mRNA translation on these changes. For each gene, the contribution of changes in mRNA abundance versus mRNA translation was determined. Materials and methods: DU145 prostate carcinoma cells were exposed to 4 h of hypoxia ( 2 ). Efficiently translated mRNAs were isolated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Affymetrix microarray technology was used to evaluate both the transcriptional and translational contribution to gene expression. Results were validated by quantitative PCR. Results: One hundred and twenty genes were more than 4-fold upregulated by hypoxia in the efficiently translated fraction of mRNA, in comparison to only 76 genes at the level of transcription. Of the 50 genes demonstrating the largest changes in translation, 11 were found to be more than 2-fold over represented in the translated fraction in comparison to their overall transcriptional level. The gene with the highest translational contribution to its induction was CITED-2, which is a negative regulator of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Conclusions: Gene-specific regulation of mRNA translation contributes significantly to differential gene expression during hypoxia

  5. The mRNA expression of XRCC repair genes in mice after γ-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Yue Jingyin; Li Jin; Mu Chuanjie; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of XRCC repair genes in radioresistance of IRM-2 inbred mice. Methods: Northern hybridization was used to measure mRNA expression of XRCC1 and XRCC5 genes in IRM-2 inbred mice. ICR/JCL and 615 after exposure to different doses of γ-ray radiation at different postirradiation time. Results: The levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in control IRM-2 mice were higher significantly than those in their control parental mice (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The mRNA expression of XRCC genes in ICR/JCL and 615 mice all increased to some extent after exposure 1, 2 and 4 Gy radiation. But the levels were significantly higher at 2h postirradiation (P<0.05) . The levels of XRCC mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice did not increase significnatly compared with the control mice after exposure 1 and 2 Gy radiation. But the levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression increased markedly at 4Gy 1h postirradiation (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion: The basal levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice were high. The high level of XRCC5 mRNA expression was involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks induced by higher dose radiation, which perhaps was one of radioresistance causes of IRM-2 mice. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA expression in detecting micrometastasis from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangying; Liu Delin; Chen Jie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and clinical significance of CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA and LUNX mRNA for detecting micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood and regional lymph nodes of lung cancer patients. Methods: Reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA for micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood of 48 lung cancer patients and 44 regional lymph nodes of such patients treated by curative resection. Peripheral blood of 30 patients with pulmonary benign lesions and 10 normal healthy volunteers and lymph nodes of 6 patients with benign pulmonary diseases served as control. Results: 1) LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA were expressed in all (35/35) lung cancer tissues. 2) In the peripheral blood from 48 lung cancer patients, 30 (62.5%) were positive for LUNX mRNA, 24 (50.0%) positive for CK19 mRNA and 32(66.7%) positive for CEA mRNA. The positive detection rates of micrometastasis in 44 lymph nodes from lung cancer patients were 36.4% (16 out of 44) for LUNX mRNA, 27.3% (12 out of 44) for CK19 mRNA and 40.9% (18 out of 44) for CEA mRNA. 3) In the 30 blood samples from patients with pulmonary benign diseases, 2 (6.7%) expressed CK19 mRNA, but none expressed LUNX mRNA or CEA mRNA. All the 3 molecular markers were negative in the 10 blood samples from healthy volunteers. In 11 lymph nodes from patients with pulmonary benign lesions, none was positive for any of the three markers. 4) In 44 regional lymph nodes from lung cancer patients, 6 (13.6%) were positive for metastasis by histopathological examination, with a positive rate significantly lower than that of the RT-PCR (P<0.05). 5) The micrometastatic positive rate in the peripheral blood of 40 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was significantly related to TNM stage (P=0.01). Conclusions: LUNX mRNA, CK19 MRNA, CEA mRNA are all appropriate target genes for the detection of micrometastasis from lung cancer. LUNX mRNA and CEA mRNA

  7. Adjuvant-Associated Peripheral Blood mRNA Profiles and Kinetics Induced by the Adjuvanted Recombinant Protein Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine M72/AS01 in Bacillus Calmette–Guérin-Vaccinated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. van den Berg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology has the potential to identify gene signatures associated with vaccine immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The main objective of this study was to identify optimal postvaccination time points for evaluating peripheral blood RNA expression profiles in relation to vaccine immunogenicity and potential efficacy in recipients of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine M72/AS01. In this phase II open-label study (NCT01669096; https://clinicaltrials.gov/, healthy Bacillus Calmette–Guérin-primed, HIV-negative adults were administered two doses (30 days apart of M72/AS01. Twenty subjects completed the study and 18 subjects received two doses. Blood samples were collected pre-dose 1, pre-dose 2, and 1, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 30 days post-dose 2. RNA expression in whole blood (WB and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was quantified using microarray technology. Serum interferon-gamma responses and M72-specific CD4+ T cell responses to vaccination, and the observed safety profile were similar to previous trials. Two different approaches were utilized to analyze the RNA expression data. First, a kinetic analysis of RNA expression changes using blood transcription modules revealed early (1 day post-dose 2 activation of several pathways related to innate immune activation, both in WB and PBMC. Second, using a previously identified gene signature as a classifier, optimal postvaccination time points were identified. Since M72/AS01 efficacy remains to be established, a PBMC-derived gene signature associated with the protective efficacy of a similarly adjuvanted candidate malaria vaccine was used as a proxy for this purpose. This approach was based on the assumption that the AS01 adjuvant used in both studies could induce shared innate immune pathways. Subjects were classified as gene signature positive (GS+ or gene signature negative (GS−. Assignments of subjects to GS+ or GS− groups were confirmed by significant differences in RNA

  8. Selective translation of the measles virus nucleocapsid mRNA by La protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eInoue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. Recently, we have shown that wild-type MeVs induce the suppression of protein synthesis in host cells (referred to as "shutoff" and that viral mRNAs are preferentially translated under shutoff conditions in infected cells. To determine the mechanism behind the preferential translation of viral mRNA, we focused on the 5 untranslated region (UTR of nucleocapsid (N mRNA. The La/SSB autoantigen (La was found to specifically bind to an N-5UTR probe. Recombinant La enhanced the translation of luciferase mRNA containing the N-5UTR (N-fLuc, and RNA interference of La suppressed N-fLuc translation. Furthermore, recombinant MeV lacking the La-binding motif in the N-5UTR displayed delayed viral protein synthesis and growth kinetics at an early phase of infection. These results suggest that La induced predominant translation of N mRNA via binding to its 5UTR under shutoff conditions. This is the first report on a cellular factor that specifically regulates paramyxovirus mRNA translation.

  9. Intramuscular administration of a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide modulates functional responses of neutrophils of neonatal foals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D Cohen

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen to modulate functional responses of neutrophils in neonatal foals. Eighteen foals were randomly assigned to receive either a CpG-ODN with Emulsigen (N = 9 or saline intramuscularly at ages 1 and 7 days. At ages 1, 3, 9, 14, and 28, blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated from each foal. Neutrophils were assessed for basal and Rhodococcus equi-stimulated mRNA expression of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 using real-time PCR, degranulation by quantifying the amount of β-D glucuronidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation using flow cytometry. In vivo administration of the CpG-ODN formulation on days 1 and 7 resulted in significantly (P<0.05 increased IFN-γ mRNA expression by foal neutrophils on days 3, 9, and 14. Degranulation was significantly (P<0.05 lower for foals in the CpG-ODN-treated group than the control group at days 3 and 14, but not at other days. No effect of treatment on ROS generation was detected. These results indicate that CpG-ODN administration to foals might improve innate and adaptive immune responses that could protect foals against infectious diseases and possibly improve responses to vaccination.

  10. Dwell-Time Distribution, Long Pausing and Arrest of Single-Ribosome Translation through the mRNA Duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2015-10-09

    Proteins in the cell are synthesized by a ribosome translating the genetic information encoded on the single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA). It has been shown that the ribosome can also translate through the duplex region of the mRNA by unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed model of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex we study theoretically the distribution of dwell times of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex under the effect of a pulling force externally applied to the ends of the mRNA to unzip the duplex. We provide quantitative explanations of the available single molecule experimental data on the distribution of dwell times with both short and long durations, on rescuing of the long paused ribosomes by raising the pulling force to unzip the duplex, on translational arrests induced by the mRNA duplex and Shine-Dalgarno(SD)-like sequence in the mRNA. The functional consequences of the pauses or arrests caused by the mRNA duplex and the SD sequence are discussed and compared with those obtained from other types of pausing, such as those induced by "hungry" codons or interactions of specific sequences in the nascent chain with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

  11. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel McLenachan

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages.

  12. mRNA Transfection of Mouse and Human Neural Stem Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, Dan; Palomo, Ana Belén Alvarez; Edel, Michael J.; Chen, Fred K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages. PMID:24386231

  13. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, Dan; Palomo, Ana Belén Alvarez; Edel, Michael J; Chen, Fred K

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages.

  14. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to 32 P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C → C x G or G x C → T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria

  15. Reversal of human allergen-specific CRTH2+ T(H)2 cells by IL-12 or the PS-DSP30 oligodeoxynucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, F; Cosmi, L; Manetti, R; Brugnolo, F; Parronchi, P; Maggi, E; Nagata, K; Romagnani, S

    2001-11-01

    The chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T(H)2 cells (CRTH2) is a receptor for prostaglandin D(2), which among human T cells is selectively expressed by T(H)2 and type 2 cytotoxic effectors. Our purpose was to assess whether the cytokine production profile of T(H)2 effectors could be reversed by exploiting their selective expression of CRTH2. CRTH2(+) T cells were purified from the blood of allergic subjects, stimulated with the specific allergen in the absence or presence of IL-12, and assessed by flow cytometry at the single-cell level for their ability to produce IL-4 and/or IFN-gamma after antigen or polyclonal stimulation. Both IL-12 and the PS-DSP30 oligodeoxynucleotide enabled CRTH2(+) allergen-stimulated T(H)2 cells to produce IFN-gamma. This change in the profile of cytokine production by T(H)2 cells from allergic subjects was related to the upregulation of IL-12 receptor beta2 chain and was associated with the loss of CRTH2. These data demonstrate that the cytokine production pattern of fully differentiated T(H)2 effectors can be changed to a less polarized profile, thus providing the physiologic basis for new immunotherapeutic strategies in allergic disorders.

  16. BALB/c Mice Vaccinated with Leishmania major Ribosomal Proteins Extracts Combined with CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Become Resistant to Disease Caused by a Secondary Parasite Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem and effective vaccines are not currently available. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with ribosomal proteins extracts administered in combination of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides protects susceptible BALB/c mice against primary Leishmania major infection. Here, we evaluate the long-term immunity to secondary infection conferred by this vaccine. We show that vaccinated and infected BALB/c mice were able to control a secondary Leishmania major challenge, since no inflammation and very low number of parasites were observed in the site of reinfection. In addition, although an increment in the parasite burden was observed in the draining lymph nodes of the primary site of infection we did not detected inflammatory lesions at that site. Resistance against reinfection correlated to a predominant Th1 response against parasite antigens. Thus, cell cultures established from spleens and the draining lymph node of the secondary site of infection produced high levels of parasite specific IFN-γ in the absence of IL-4 and IL-10 cytokine production. In addition, reinfected mice showed a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio for anti-Leishmania antibodies. Our results suggest that ribosomal vaccine, which prevents pathology in a primary challenge, in combination with parasite persistence might be effective for long-term maintenance of immunity.

  17. New treatment of periodontal diseases by using NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides via prevention of bone resorption and promotion of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Morita, Shosuke; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimosato, Takashi; Minobe, Noriko; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Thus, the blockade of the NF-kappaB pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating bone metabolic diseases. Periodontitis is subgingival inflammation caused by bacterial infection; this disease also is thought to be a chronic focal point responsible for systemic diseases. In this study, NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were topically applied for experimental periodontitis in a debris-accumulation model and wound healing in a bone-defect model of beagle dogs to investigate the effect of decoy ODN on bone metabolism. Application of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced interleukin-6 activity in crevicular fluid and improved alveolar bone loss in the analysis of dental radiographs and DEXA. Direct measurement of exposed root that lost alveolar bone support revealed that NF-kappaB decoy treatment dramatically protected bone from loss. In a bone-defect model, NF-kappaB decoy ODN promoted the healing process as compared with control scrambled decoy in micro-CT analysis. Overall, inhibition of NF-kappaB by decoy strategy prevented the progression of bone loss in periodontitis and promoted the wound healing in bone defects through the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Targeting of NF-kappaB might be a potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  18. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. ► UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. ► Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. ► This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/− islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2−/− and GK+/− islets compared with GK+/− islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/− mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/− mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  19. Interleukin-6 modifies mRNA expression in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle Adser; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 plays a role in exercise-induced PGC-1a and TNFa mRNA responses in skeletal muscle and to examine the potential IL-6 mediated AMPK regulation in these responses. Methods: Whole body IL-6 knockout and wildtype (WT) mal...

  20. Induction of interleukin-1β mRNA after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Sauter, A.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO).

  1. Correlation of mRNA Profiles, miRNA Profiles, and Functional Immune Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorrhynkus Mykiss) Infected With Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and in Fish Vaccinated With a DNA Vaccine Against VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Jørgensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    and are incorporated into the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), which target specific mRNA sequences, causing either mRNA degradation or translation repression. This results in altered mRNA and protein profiles characteristic of a particular cellular phenotype or physiological state. By targeting immune relevant m...

  2. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés P. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline, A2 (Carrageenan-only, A3 (laser 660nm only and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm. Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT's 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem sido usada para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios diversos em que a calicreína tecidual e a plasmática possuem participação ativa. A pré-calicreína plasmática (PPK é sintetizada pelos hepatócitos e secretada na corrente sanguínea, onde participa da ativação da coagulação, fibrinólise, geração de cininas e inflamação. A pré-calicreína tecidual está associada com importantes doenças (incluindo c

  3. Region specific regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression by dopamine neurons in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindefors, N; Brene, S; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rats with or without a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. Two populations of GAD mRNA positive neurons were found in the intact caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and fronto-parietal cortex. In caudate-putamen, only one out of ten of the GAD mRNA positive neurons expressed high levels, while in substantia nigra every second of the positive neurons expressed high levels of GAD mRNA. Relatively few, but intensively labelled neurons were found in the intact fronto-parietal cerebral cortex. In addition, one out of six of the GAD mRNA positive neurons in the fronto-parietal cortex showed a low labeling. On the ipsilateral side, the forebrain dopamine deafferentation induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing high levels of GAD mRNA in caudate-putamen, and a decrease in fronto-parietal cortex. A smaller decrease was also seen in substantia nigra. However, the total number of GAD mRNA positive neurons were not significantly changed in any of these brain regions. The changes in the levels of GAD mRNA after the dopamine lesion were confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Hence, midbrain dopamine neurons appear to control neuronal expression of GAD mRNA by a tonic down-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in caudate-putamen, and a tonic up-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex and substantia nigra.

  4. Assessment of flhDC mRNA levels in Serratia liquefaciens swarm cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Christensen, Allan Beck; Holmstrøm, K.

    2000-01-01

    We reported previously that artificial overexpression of the flhDC operon in liquid-grown Serratia liquefaciens resulted in the formation of filamentous, multinucleated, and hyperflagellated cells that were indistinguishable from surface-induced swarm cells (L. Eberl, G. Christiansen, S. Molin, a......, vegetative cells. This suggests that surface-induced S. liquefaciens swarm cell differentiation, although dependent on flhDC gene expression, does not occur through elevated flhDC mRNA levels....

  5. mRNA processing in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory center on basic enzymatic reactions of RNA. Still undefined are reactions involved in the conversion of precursors of mRA (pre-mRNA) to mRNA in eukaryotes. The pre-mRNA is called heterogeneous nuclear RNA and is 2 to 6 times larger than mRNA. The conversion, called splicing, involves a removal of internal sequences called introns by endoribonuclease action followed by a rejoining of the 3'- and 5'-end fragments, called exons, by ligating activity. It has not been possible yet to study the enzymes involved in vitro. Also undefined are reactions involved in the turnover or discarding of certain of the pre-mRNA molecules. Yeast is a simple eukaryote and may be expected to have the same, but perhaps simpler, processing reactions as the higher eukaryotes. Two enzymes involved in the processing of pre-mRNA and mRNA in yeast are under investigation. Both enzymes have been partially purified from ribonucleoprotein particles of yeast. The first is a unique decapping enzyme which cleaves [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp [ 14 C]RNA-poly (A) of yeast, yielding [ 3 H]m 7 GDP and is suggested by the finding that the diphosphate product, m 7 GpppA(G), and UDP-glucose are not hydrolyzed. The second enzyme is an endoribonuclease which converts both the [ 3 H] and [ 14 C] labels of [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) from an oligo(dT)-cellulose bound form to an unbound, acid-insoluble form. Results show that the stimulation involves an interaction of the labeled RNA with the small nuclear RNA. The inhibition of the enzyme by ethidium bromide and its stimulation by small nuclear RNA suggest that it may be a processing ribonuclease, requiring specific double-stranded features in its substrate. The characterization of the unique decapping enzyme and endoribonuclease may help to understand reactions involved in the processing of pre-mRNA and mRNA in eukaryotes

  6. Inhibition of Xenograft tumor growth by gold nanoparticle-DNA oligonucleotide conjugates-assisted delivery of BAX mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Yeom

    Full Text Available Use of non-biological agents for mRNA delivery into living systems in order to induce heterologous expression of functional proteins may provide more advantages than the use of DNA and/or biological vectors for delivery. However, the low efficiency of mRNA delivery into live animals, using non-biological systems, has hampered the use of mRNA as a therapeutic molecule. Here, we show that gold nanoparticle-DNA oligonucleotide (AuNP-DNA conjugates can serve as universal vehicles for more efficient delivery of mRNA into human cells, as well as into xenograft tumors generated in mice. Injections of BAX mRNA loaded on AuNP-DNA conjugates into xenograft tumors resulted in highly efficient mRNA delivery. The delivered mRNA directed the efficient production of biologically functional BAX protein, a pro-apoptotic factor, consequently inhibiting tumor growth. These results demonstrate that mRNA delivery by AuNP-DNA conjugates can serve as a new platform for the development of safe and efficient gene therapy.

  7. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  8. ZMS regulation of M2 muscarinic receptor mRNA stability requires protein factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongfang; Xia Zongqin; Hu Ya'er

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this work is to study the elevation mechanism of ZMS on muscarinic M2 receptor mRNA expression. Methods Actinomycin D was added to cultured CHOm2 cells to stop the de novo synthesis of M2 receptor mRNA and samples were taken at various times to determine the time course of mRNA of M2 receptor with real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Half-life of M2 receptor mRNA and the effect of ZMS on the half-life was obtained from the slope of the exponential curves. Cycloheximide was added at 4 h prior to and 24 h after the addition of ZMS to examine the effect of de novo protein synthesis on the action of ZMS. Results The half-life of m2 mRNA was prolonged by ZMS treatment without cycloheximide (4.75±0.54 h and 2.13 h±0.23 h for ZMS and vehicle treated groups, respectively, P<0.05). When cycloheximide was added to the culture medium 4h prior to the addition of ZMS, the effect of ZMS in prolonging the half-life of m2 mRNA disappeared (3.06 h±0.23 h and 3.00 h±l.20 h for cells with and without ZMS, respectively). However, when the ZMS was added to the medium 24h prior to the addition of cycloheximide, the action of ZMS was not abolished by cycloheximide (half-life was 5.43 h±1.13 h and 2.46 h±0.09 h for cells with and without ZMS, respectively). Conclusion These data suggest that de novo protein synthesis was required for the increase in M2 mRNA stability induced by ZMS. (authors)

  9. Principles of mRNA transport in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heym, Roland Gerhard; Niessing, Dierk

    2012-06-01

    mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism by which cellular asymmetry is achieved. In higher eukaryotes the mRNA transport machinery is required for such diverse processes as stem cell division and neuronal plasticity. Because mRNA localization in metazoans is highly complex, studies at the molecular level have proven to be cumbersome. However, active mRNA transport has also been reported in fungi including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis and Candida albicans, in which these events are less difficult to study. Amongst them, budding yeast S. cerevisiae has yielded mechanistic insights that exceed our understanding of other mRNA localization events to date. In contrast to most reviews, we refrain here from summarizing mRNA localization events from different organisms. Instead we give an in-depth account of ASH1 mRNA localization in budding yeast. This approach is particularly suited to providing a more holistic view of the interconnection between the individual steps of mRNA localization, from transcriptional events to cytoplasmic mRNA transport and localized translation. Because of our advanced mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization in yeast, the present review may also be informative for scientists working, for example, on mRNA localization in embryogenesis or in neurons.

  10. Coinjection with CpG-Containing Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Reduces the Pathogenicity of a Live Vaccine against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis but Maintains Its Potency and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Susana; Tabbara, Khaled; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bertholet, Sylvie; Verthelyi, Daniela; Klinman, Dennis; Seder, Robert A.; Sacks, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The inoculation of live, nonattenuated Leishmania major to produce a lesion in a selected site that heals, referred to as leishmanization, is to date the only vaccine against leishmaniasis that has proven to be effective in humans. Its use has been restricted or abandoned entirely, however, due to safety concerns. In an attempt to develop a leishmanization protocol that minimizes pathology while maintaining long-term protection, live parasites were coinjected with CpG-containing immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) alone or in combination with whole-cell lysates of heat-killed L. major promastigotes bound to alum (ALM). C57BL/6 mice infected intradermally by using L. major plus CpG ODN with or without ALM developed few or no dermal lesions and showed an early containment of parasite growth, while mice infected with L. major with or without ALM developed sizable dermal lesions that required up to 10 weeks to heal. The CpG ODNs provoked a transient inflammation that included an early recruitment and accumulation of gamma interferon-producing CD4+ lymphocytes in the site. Attenuation of the live vaccine did not compromise its ability to confer long-term immunity, as mice receiving L. major and CpG ODN plus ALM were totally protected against reinfection with L. major for up to 6 months. By comparison, the immunity elicited by two efficient nonlive vaccines began to wane by 6 months. Our results suggest that immune modulation using CpG ODNs might be a practical approach to improving the safety of a highly effective live vaccine that has already been widely applied. PMID:12933855

  11. Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-08-30

    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-Watson-Crick structures in oligodeoxynucleotides: Self-association of d(TpCpGpA) stabilized at acidic pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topping, R.J.; Stone, M.P.; Brush, C.K.; Harris, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1 H NMR spectrum of the tetradeoxynucleotide d(TpCpGpA) was examined as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration. At pH 7 and above the solution conformation for this oligodeoxynucleotide appears to be a mixture of random coil and Watson-Crick duplex. At 25 degree C, a pH titration of d(TpCpGaA) shown that distinct conformational changes occur as the pH is lowered below 7.0. These conformational changes are reversible upon readjusting the pH to neutrality, indicating the presence of a pH-dependent set of conformational equilibria. At 25 degree C, the various conformational state in the mixture are in rapid exchange on the NMR time scale. Examination of the titration curve shown the presence of distinct conformational states at pH greater than 7, and between pH 4 and pH 5. When the pH titration is repeated at 5 degree C, the conformational equilibria are in slow exchange on the NMR time scale; distinct signals from each conformational state are observable. The stable conformational state present between pH 4 and pH 5 represents an ordered conformation of d(TpCpGpA) which dissociates to a less ordered structure upon raising the temperature. The ordered conformation differs from the Watson-Crick helix, as is shown from nuclear Overhauser enhancement experiments, as well as chemical shift data. These results indicate that their ordered conformation is similar to the conformation of d(TpCpGpA) observed between pH 4 and pH 5. In the present case it is likely that stabilization of an ordered duplex conformation for d(TpCpGpA) is achieved by protonation of cytosine. A possible model which could explain the data involves formation of Hoogsteen C + :G base pairs

  13. Immunostimulation by cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides in combination with IL-2 can improve the success rate of karyotype analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaolan; Chen, Jiadi; Huang, Huifang

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) combined with interleukin-2 (IL-2) improves the number of mitotic metaphases and the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Bone marrow specimens were collected from 36 patients with CLL. CLL cells were cultured with CpG-ODN type DSP30 plus IL-2 for 72 h, following which R-banding analysis was conducted. Conventional culture without the immunostimulant served as the control group. The incidence of genetic abnormalities was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of five specific probes: D13S25 (13q14.3), RB1 (13q14), P53 (17p13), ATM (11q22.3) and CSP12 (trisomy 12, +12). In the control group, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of only 22.2, and 11.1% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. After immunostimulation with DSP30 plus IL-2, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of up to 91.6, and 41.6% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. FISH analysis detected 77.7% of abnormalities. FISH combined with CpG-ODN DSP30 plus IL-2 improved the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL to 83.3%. CpG-ODN DSP30 combined with IL-2 is effective in improving the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL cells. This combination with FISH analysis is conducive to increasing the detection rate of genetic abnormalities in CLL.

  14. Mechanisms of strand break formation in DNA due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation: the dependency of free base release on the length of alternating CG oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kiran K; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy; Purkayastha, Shubhadeep; Bernhard, William A

    2009-06-11

    The question of how NA base sequence influences the yield of DNA strand breaks produced by the direct effect of ionizing radiation was investigated in a series of oligodeoxynucleotides of the form (d(CG)(n))(2) and (d(GC)(n))(2). The yields of free base release from X-irradiated DNA films containing 2.5 waters/nucleotide were measured by HPLC as a function of oligomer length. For (d(CG)(n))(2), the ratio of the Gua yield to Cyt yield, R, was relatively constant at 2.4-2.5 for n = 2-4 and it decreased to 1.2 as n increased from 5 to 10. When Gua was moved to the 5' end, for example going from d(CG)(5) to d(GC)(5), R dropped from 1.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.1 +/- 0.1. These effects are poorly described if the chemistry at the oligomer ends is assumed to be independent of the remainder of the oligomer. A mathematical model incorporating charge transfer through the base stack was derived to explain these effects. In addition, EPR was used to measure the yield of trapped-deoxyribose radicals at 4 K following X-irradiation at 4 K. The yield of free base release was substantially greater, by 50-100 nmol/J, than the yield of trapped-deoxyribose radicals. Therefore, a large fraction of free base release stems from a nonradical intermediate. For this intermediate, a deoxyribose carbocation formed by two one-electron oxidations is proposed. This reaction pathway requires that the hole (electron loss site) transfers through the base stack and, upon encountering a deoxyribose hole, oxidizes that site to form a deoxyribose carbocation. This reaction mechanism provides a consistent way of explaining both the absence of trapped radical intermediates and the unusual dependence of free base release on oligomer length.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Enhanced Delivery and Potency of Self-Amplifying mRNA Vaccines by Electroporation in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuv Banerjee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based vaccines such as viral vectors, plasmid DNA (pDNA, and mRNA are being developed as a means to address limitations of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. DNA vaccines have been shown to be potent in a wide variety of animal species and several products are now licensed for commercial veterinary but not human use. Electroporation delivery technologies have been shown to improve the generation of T and B cell responses from synthetic DNA vaccines in many animal species and now in humans. However, parallel RNA approaches have lagged due to potential issues of potency and production. Many of the obstacles to mRNA vaccine development have recently been addressed, resulting in a revival in the use of non-amplifying and self-amplifying mRNA for vaccine and gene therapy applications. In this paper, we explore the utility of EP for the in vivo delivery of large, self-amplifying mRNA, as measured by reporter gene expression and immunogenicity of genes encoding HIV envelope protein. These studies demonstrated that EP delivery of self-amplifying mRNA elicited strong and broad immune responses in mice, which were comparable to those induced by EP delivery of pDNA.

  17. Impact of fasting followed by short-term exposure to interleukin-6 on cytochrome P450 mRNA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Pilegaard, Henriette; Knudsen, Jakob G

    2018-01-05

    The gene expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family is regulated by numerous factors. Fasting has been shown to induce increased hepatic CYP mRNA in both humans and animals. However, the coordinated regulation of CYP, CYP-regulating transcription factors, and transcriptional co-factors in the liver linking energy metabolism to detoxification has never been investigated. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been suggested to be released during fasting and has been shown to regulate CYP expression. The present study investigated the hepatic mRNA content of selected CYP, AhR, CAR, PXR and PPARα in mice fasted for 18h and subsequently exposed to IL-6. Furthermore, the impact of fasting on PGC-1α, HNF-4α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA was examined. Fasting induced a marked increase in Cyp2b10, Cyp2e1 and Cyp4a10 mRNA, while CYP1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp2a4 and Cyp3a11 mRNA levels remained unchanged. In accordance, the mRNA levels of CAR and PPARα were also increased with fasting. The PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA levels were also increased after fasting, while the HNF-4α mRNA levels remained unchanged. In mice subjected to IL-6 injection, the fasting-induced PXR, PPARα and PGC-1α mRNA responses were lower than after saline injection. In conclusion, fasting was demonstrated to be a strong inducer of hepatic CYP mRNA as well as selected transcription factors controlling the expression of the investigated CYP. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional co-factors acting as energy sensors and co-factors for CYP regulation was also increased in the liver, suggesting crosstalk at the molecular level between regulation of energy metabolism and detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 电针对脑缺血再灌注损伤大鼠海马诱导型一氧化氮合酶mRNA表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in hippocampus of the rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 黄建华; 方邦江; 袁凌松

    2005-01-01

    注后大鼠海马诱导型一氧化氮合酶mRNA表达,从而减少一氧化氮的产生,有助于减轻脑缺血再灌注损伤.%BACKGROUND: Researches indicate that inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) plays an important role in relieving destruction of blood brain barrier and protecting vascular endothelium and brain tissue in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Shuigou (DU26), Neiguan (PC6)and Zusanli (ST36) on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid (iNOS mRNA) in hippocampus of the rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian and Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University.METHODS: The experiment was completed at the Experimental Animal Center in Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Threegrade Acupuncture Immunological Laboratory of Shanghai Research Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian and Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from December 2003 to December 2004. Totally 40 SD rats were randomly divided as normal group, sham operation group, model group and electroacupuncture group with 10 in each group. The hypertension model rats were induced with bi-kidney-bi-clip method, then the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model was induced by reversible occlusion for a middle cerebral artery with a thread on the stroke prone renovascular hypertensive model rat. While the rats in sham operation group were operated without thread insertion. Shuigou (Du 26), bilateral Neiguan(PC 6) and bilateral Housanli (Zusanli, ST 36) were located according to"Atlas of Experimental Animal Acupoints" made by Hua's. Shuigou (Du26): 1 mm below nasal apex right on the Labium leporinum, be punctured 1 mm obliquely upward; Neiguan (PC 6): at the lateral palm of the forearm3 mm above wrist joint, between ulna and radius, be punctured 1 mm

  19. Bilateral downregulation of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with bone cancer pain induced by inoculation with Walker 256 breast tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Xue-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jing-Xiang; Lu, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Zhang-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Cheng; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of cancer-induced bone pain remains a clinical challenge and patients with bone metastasis are more likely to experience severe pain. The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a critical role in many aspects of nociceptor function. Therefore, we characterized a rat model of cancer pain and investigated the potential role of Nav1.8. Adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. Cancer pain was induced by inoculation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia. After surgery, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ambulation scores were evaluated to identify pain-related behavior. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine Nav1.8 mRNA expression in bilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 16-19 days after surgery. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to compare the expression and distribution of Nav1.8 in L4/L5 DRG between tumor-bearing and sham rats. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against Nav1.8 were administered intrathecally at 14-16 days after surgery to knock down Nav1.8 protein expression and changes in pain-related behavior were observed. Tumor-bearing rats exhibited mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain from day 7 after inoculation of Walker 256 cells. In the advanced stage of cancer pain (days 16-19 after surgery), normalized Nav1.8 mRNA levels assessed by real-time RT-PCR were significantly lower in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG of tumor-bearing rats compared with the sham group. Western-blot showed that the total expression of Nav1.8 protein significantly decreased bilaterally in DRG of tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, as revealed by immunofluorescence, only the expression of Nav1.8 protein in small neurons down regulated significantly in bilateral DRG of cancer pain rats. After administration of antisense ODNs against Nav1.8, Nav1.8 protein expression decreased significantly and tumor-bearing rats showed alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain. These

  20. Binding of NUFIP2 to Roquin promotes recognition and regulation of ICOS mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Nina; Davydova, Elena; Conrad, Christine; Behrens, Gesine; Maiser, Andreas; Stehklein, Jenny E; Brenner, Sven; Klein, Juliane; Jeridi, Aicha; Hoffmann, Anne; Lee, Eunhae; Dianzani, Umberto; Willemsen, Rob; Feederle, Regina; Reiche, Kristin; Hackermüller, Jörg; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Sharma, Sonia; Niessing, Dierk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2018-01-19

    The ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding proteins Roquin-1 and Roquin-2 are essential for appropriate immune cell function and postnatal survival of mice. Roquin proteins repress target mRNAs by recognizing secondary structures in their 3'-UTRs and by inducing mRNA decay. However, it is unknown if other cellular proteins contribute to target control. To identify cofactors of Roquin, we used RNA interference to screen ~1500 genes involved in RNA-binding or mRNA degradation, and identified NUFIP2 as a cofactor of Roquin-induced mRNA decay. NUFIP2 binds directly and with high affinity to Roquin, which stabilizes NUFIP2 in cells. Post-transcriptional repression of human ICOS by endogenous Roquin proteins requires two neighboring non-canonical stem-loops in the ICOS 3'-UTR. This unconventional cis-element as well as another tandem loop known to confer Roquin-mediated regulation of the Ox40 3'-UTR, are bound cooperatively by Roquin and NUFIP2. NUFIP2 therefore emerges as a cofactor that contributes to mRNA target recognition by Roquin.

  1. Regulation of mouse hepatic CYP2D9 mRNA expression by growth and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Oguro, Miki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2006-02-01

    The constitutive expression of CYP2D9 is sexually dimorphic, namely, strong in males, but diminutive in females. Repetition of mimic growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern impressively returned the mRNA expression level to that in intact mice: the GH secretion pattern's regulation of CYP2D9 mRNA expression has been predominantly disrupted by exogenous GH-administration. The extensive decline of CYP2D9 mRNA expression becoming a sexually non-specific P450 in 9-week-old male mice exposed as neonates to monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) suggested that the male GH secretion pattern is a key to the regulation of male-specific CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult mice. Dexamethasone (Dex) showed possibility to induce CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult MSG-neonatally treated mice of either sex. However, the antagonism was observed by co-administration of Dex and GH in the males. Dex-administration in adrenalectomized mice significantly elevated CYP2D9 mRNA expression levels. These findings suggest that an adrenal hormone participates in the regulatory mechanism of CYP2D9 mRNA expression in association with GH.

  2. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we show that chemically unmodified mRNA can achieve those goals as well by applying sequence-engineered molecules. Using erythropoietin (EPO) driven production of red blood cells as the biological model, engineered Epo mRNA elicited meaningful physiological responses from mice to nonhuman primates. Even in pigs of about 20 kg in weight, a single adequate dose of engineered mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) induced high systemic Epo levels and strong physiological effects. Our results demonstrate that sequence-engineered mRNA has the potential to revolutionize human protein therapies. PMID:26050989

  3. Oligodeoxynucleotides Expressing Polyguanosine Motifs Promote Anti-Tumor Activity through the Up-Regulation of IL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hong, Choongman; Klinman, Dennis M.; Shirota, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit an immune response capable of eliminating the tumor. One approach towards accomplishing that goal utilizes general (rather than tumor-specific) immunomodulatory agents to boost the number and activity of pre-existing cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We find that the intra-tumoral injection of poly-G ODN has such an effect, boosting anti-tumor immunity and promoting tumor regression. The anti-tumor activity of polyguanosine (poly-G) oligonucleotides (ODN) was mediated through CD8 T cells in a TLR9 independent manner. Mechanistically, poly-G ODN directly induced the phosphorylation of Lck (an essential element of the T cell signaling pathway), thereby enhancing the production of IL-2 and CD8 T cell proliferation. These findings establish poly-G ODN as a novel type of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23296706

  4. An investigation of nutrient-dependent mRNA translation in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarish Nagarajan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The larval period of the Drosophila life cycle is characterized by immense growth. In nutrient rich conditions, larvae increase in mass approximately two hundred-fold in five days. However, upon nutrient deprivation, growth is arrested. The prevailing view is that dietary amino acids drive this larval growth by activating the conserved insulin/PI3 kinase and Target of rapamycin (TOR pathways and promoting anabolic metabolism. One key anabolic process is protein synthesis. However, few studies have attempted to measure mRNA translation during larval development or examine the signaling requirements for nutrient-dependent regulation. Our work addresses this issue. Using polysome analyses, we observed that starvation rapidly (within thirty minutes decreased larval mRNA translation, with a maximal decrease at 6–18 hours. By analyzing individual genes, we observed that nutrient-deprivation led to a general reduction in mRNA translation, regardless of any starvation-mediated changes (increase or decrease in total transcript levels. Although sugars and amino acids are key regulators of translation in animal cells and are the major macronutrients in the larval diet, we found that they alone were not sufficient to maintain mRNA translation in larvae. The insulin/PI3 kinase and TOR pathways are widely proposed as the main link between nutrients and mRNA translation in animal cells. However, we found that genetic activation of PI3K and TOR signaling, or regulation of two effectors – 4EBP and S6K – could not prevent the starvation-mediated translation inhibition. Similarly, we showed that the nutrient stress-activated eIF2α kinases, GCN2 and PERK, were not required for starvation-induced inhibition of translation in larvae. These findings indicate that nutrient control of mRNA translation in larvae is more complex than simply amino acid activation of insulin and TOR signaling.

  5. mRNA Cancer Vaccines-Messages that Prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwitz, Christian; Kranz, Lena M

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, mRNA became increasingly recognized as a versatile tool for the development of new innovative therapeutics. Especially for vaccine development, mRNA is of outstanding interest and numerous clinical trials have been initiated. Strikingly, all of these studies have proven that large-scale GMP production of mRNA is feasible and concordantly report a favorable safety profile of mRNA vaccines. Induction of T-cell immunity is a multi-faceted process comprising antigen acquisition, antigen processing and presentation, as well as immune stimulation. The effectiveness of mRNA vaccines is critically dependent on making the antigen(s) of interest available to professional antigen-presenting cells, especially DCs. Efficient delivery of mRNA into DCs in vivo remains a major challenge in the mRNA vaccine field. This review summarizes the principles of mRNA vaccines and highlights the importance of in vivo mRNA delivery and recent advances in harnessing their therapeutic potential.

  6. Acute Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Independent Unconventional Splicing of XBP1 mRNA in the Nucleus of Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of expression of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1, a transcriptional factor, involves an unconventional mRNA splicing that removes the 26 nucleotides intron. In contrast to the conventional splicing that exclusively takes place in the nucleus, determining the location of unconventional splicing still remains controversial. This study was designed to examine whether the unconventional spicing of XBP1 mRNA could occur in the nucleus and its possible biological relevance. We use RT-PCR reverse transcription system and the expand high fidelity PCR system to detect spliced XBP1 mRNA, and fraction cells to determine the location of the unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA. We employ reporter constructs to show the presence of unconventional splicing machinery in mammal cells independently of acute endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Our results reveal the presence of basal unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA in the nucleus that also requires inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase and endonuclease 1α (IRE1α and can occur independently of acute ER stress. Furthermore, we confirm that acute ER stress induces the splicing of XBP1 mRNA predominantly occurring in the cytoplasm, but it also promotes the splicing in the nucleus. The deletion of 5′-nucleotides in XBP1 mRNA significantly increases its basal unconventional splicing, suggesting that the secondary structure of XBP1 mRNA may determine the location of unconventional splicing. These results suggest that the unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA can take place in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm, which possibly depends on the elaborate regulation. The acute ER stress-independent unconventional splicing in the nucleus is most likely required for the maintaining of day-to-day folding protein homeostasis.

  7. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oligodeoxynucleotides Can Transiently Up- and Downregulate CHS Gene Expression in Flax by Changing DNA Methylation in a Sequence-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dzialo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS has been recognized as an essential enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. Apart from the leading role in the production of phenolic compounds with many valuable biological activities beneficial to biomedicine, CHS is well appreciated in science. Genetic engineering greatly facilitates expanding knowledge on the function and genetics of CHS in plants. The CHS gene is one of the most intensively studied genes in flax. In our study, we investigated engineering of the CHS gene through genetic and epigenetic approaches. Considering the numerous restrictions concerning the application of genetically modified (GM crops, the main purpose of this research was optimization of the plant's modulation via epigenetics. In our study, plants modified through two methods were compared: a widely popular agrotransformation and a relatively recent oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN strategy. It was recently highlighted that the ODN technique can be a rapid and time-serving antecedent in quick analysis of gene function before taking vector-mediated transformation. In order to understand the molecular background of epigenetic variation in more detail and evaluate the use of ODNs as a tool for predictable and stable gene engineering, we concentrated on the integration of gene expression and gene-body methylation. The treatment of flax with a series of short oligonucleotides homologous to a different part of CHS gene isoforms revealed that those directed to regulatory gene regions (5′- and 3′-UTR activated gene expression, directed to non-coding region (introns caused gen activity reduction, while those homologous to a coding region may have a variable influence on its activity. Gene expression changes were accompanied by changes in its methylation status. However, only certain (CCGG motifs along the gene sequence were affected. The analyzed DNA motifs of the CHS flax gene are more accessible for methylation when located within a Cp

  9. Identification of a boron nitride nanosphere-binding peptide for the intracellular delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Zhi, Chunyi; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2012-09-01

    CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which results in the induction of immunostimulatory cytokines. We delivered CpG ODNs intracellularly using boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS). To enhance the loading capacity of CpG ODNs on BNNS, we used a phage display technique to identify a 12-amino acid peptide designated as BP7, with specific affinity for BNNS, and used it as a linker to load CpG ODNs on BNNS. The tyrosine residue (Y) at the eighth position from the N-terminus played a crucial role in the affinity of BP7 to BNNS. BNNS that bound BP7 (BNNS-BP7) were taken up by cells and showed no cytotoxicity, and CpG ODNs were successfully crosslinked with BP7 to create BP7-CpG ODN conjugates. Using BP7 as a linker, the loading efficiency of CpG ODNs on BNNS increased 5-fold compared to the direct binding of CpG ODNs to BNNS. Furthermore, the BP7-CpG ODN conjugate-loaded BNNS had a greater capacity to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than that of CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS. The higher amount of cytokine induction by BP7-CpG ODN conjugate-loaded BNNS may be attributed to a higher loading capacity and stronger binding to BNNS of the linker BP7. The greater functionality of BP7-conjugated CpG ODNs on BNNS expands the potential of BNNS for drug delivery applications.CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which results in the induction of immunostimulatory cytokines. We delivered CpG ODNs intracellularly using boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS). To enhance the loading capacity of CpG ODNs on BNNS, we used a phage display technique to identify a 12-amino acid peptide designated as BP7, with specific affinity for BNNS, and used it as a linker to load CpG ODNs on BNNS. The tyrosine residue (Y) at the eighth position from the N-terminus played a crucial role in the affinity of BP7 to BNNS. BNNS that bound BP7

  10. Presence of albumin mRNA precursors in nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver lacking cytoplasmic albumin mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Esumi, H; Takahashi, Y; Sekiya, T; Sato, S; Nagase, S; Sugimura, T

    1982-01-01

    Analbuminemic rats, which lack serum albumin, were previously found to have no albumin mRNA in the cytoplasm of the liver. In the present study, the existence of nuclear albumin mRNA precursors in the liver of analbuminemic rats was examined by RNA X cDNA hybridization kinetics. Albumin mRNA precursors were present in the nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver at almost normal levels, despite the absence of albumin mRNA from the cytoplasm. Nuclear RNA of analbuminemic rat liver was subjected to el...

  11. El aumento de la expresión del ARNm de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I homóloga (ECA-2 inducido por atorvastatina se asocia a menor fibrosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en un modelo de cardiomiopatía diabética Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin i converting enzyme (ACE2 mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1 ratas control, (2 ratas diabéticas y (3 ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día. Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1 normal control rats, (2 diabetic rats and (3 diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day. After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen

  12. Developmental changes in hypothalamic oxytocin and oxytocin receptor mRNA expression and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Yamamoto, Yuri; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) affects the central nervous system and is involved in a variety of social and non-social behaviors. Recently, the role played by OT in energy metabolism and its organizational effects on estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) during the neonatal period have gained attention. In this study, the developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of OT, the OT receptor (OTR), and ER-α were evaluated in male and female rats. In addition, the fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of OT and the OTR were evaluated. Hypothalamic explants were taken from postnatal day (PND) 10, 20, and 30 rats, and the mRNA level of each molecule was measured. Hypothalamic OT mRNA expression increased throughout the developmental period in both sexes. The rats' hypothalamic OTR mRNA levels were highest on PND 10 and decreased throughout the developmental period. In the male rats, the hypothalamic mRNA levels of ER-α were higher on PND 30 than on PND 10. On the other hand, no significant differences in hypothalamic ER-α mRNA expression were detected among the examined time points in the female rats, although hypothalamic ER-α mRNA expression tended to be higher on PND 30 than on PND 10. Significant positive correlations were detected between hypothalamic OT and ER-α mRNA expression in both the male and female rats. Hypothalamic OT mRNA expression was not affected by fasting at any of the examined time points in either sex. These results indicate that hypothalamic OT expression is not sensitive to fasting during the developmental period. In addition, as a positive correlation was detected between hypothalamic OT and ER-α mRNA expression, these two molecules might interact with each other to induce appropriate neuronal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurotrophin-3 mRNA a putative target of miR21 following status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risbud, Rashmi M; Lee, Carolyn; Porter, Brenda E

    2011-11-18

    Status epilepticus induces a cascade of protein expression changes contributing to the subsequent development of epilepsy. By identifying the cascade of molecular changes that contribute to the development of epilepsy we hope to be able to design therapeutics for preventing epilepsy. MicroRNAs influence gene expression by altering mRNA stability and/or translation and have been implicated in the pathology of multiple diseases. MiR21 and its co-transcript miR21, microRNAs produced from either the 5' or 3' ends of the same precursor RNA strand, are increased in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. We have identified a miR21 binding site, in the 3' UTR of neurotrophin-3 that inhibits translation. Neurotrophin-3 mRNA levels decrease in the hippocampus following SE concurrent with the increase in miR21. MiR21 levels in cultured hippocampal neurons inversely correlate with neurotrophin-3 mRNA levels. Treatment of hippocampal neuronal cultures with excess K(+)Cl(-), a depolarizing agent mimicking the episode of status epilepticus, also results in an increase in miR21 and a decrease in neurotrophin-3 mRNA. MiR21 is a candidate for regulating neurotrophin-3 signaling in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting Poxvirus Decapping Enzymes and mRNA Decay to Generate an Effective Oncolytic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Burgess

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the action of two virus-encoded decapping enzymes (D9 and D10 that remove protective caps from mRNA 5′-termini, Vaccinia virus (VACV accelerates mRNA decay and limits activation of host defenses. D9- or D10-deficient VACV are markedly attenuated in mice and fail to counter cellular double-stranded RNA-responsive innate immune effectors, including PKR. Here, we capitalize upon this phenotype and demonstrate that VACV deficient in either decapping enzyme are effective oncolytic viruses. Significantly, D9- or D10-deficient VACV displayed anti-tumor activity against syngeneic mouse tumors of different genetic backgrounds and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts. Furthermore, D9- and D10-deficient VACV hyperactivated the host anti-viral enzyme PKR in non-tumorigenic cells compared to wild-type virus. This establishes a new genetic platform for oncolytic VACV development that is deficient for a major pathogenesis determinant while retaining viral genes that support robust productive replication like those required for nucleotide metabolism. It further demonstrates how VACV mutants unable to execute a fundamental step in virus-induced mRNA decay can be unexpectedly translated into a powerful anti-tumor therapy. Keywords: oncolytic virus, mRNA decay, decapping

  15. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to promote a deviation from T lymphocyte production of pathogenic Th1 cytokines to less detrimental Th2 cytokines, but this is still controversial. We studied patterns of in vivo blood mononuclear cell (MNC...... of any Th1 or Th2 cytokines. The largest changes in cytokine mRNA levels occurred early (~9-12 h) after an IFN-beta injection. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a Th1- or Th2-mRNA-promoting effect of IFN-beta therapy. The therapeutic effect of IFN-beta is more likely attributable to the induction...

  16. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  17. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Kapiainen, Suvi; Harris, Lora; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-09-15

    Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis. In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink (Neovison vison), as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The mRNA expression was determined after overnight-7d of food deprivation and 28d of re-feeding and correlated to the liver fat %. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were 92.2-99.1%. As the mRNA expression was not affected by short-term fasting and did not correlate with the liver fat %, there seems to be no clear connection between adiponectin and the development of lipidosis in the American mink. In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Icaritin opposes the development of social aversion after defeat stress via increases of GR mRNA and BDNF mRNA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Wu, Jinfeng; Xia, Shijin; Li, Bei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2013-11-01

    Icariin is a major constituent of flavonoids isolated from Herba Epimedii. Several previous studies have demonstrated the antidepressant-like effects of icariin. After oral administration of icariin, 19 metabolites of icariin were detected in rat plasma. Icaritin is one such of metabolite of icariin. In this study, a chronic social defeat protocol is used as a mouse model for depression, and the effects of icaritin administration on social avoidance are investigated. The data indicates that icaritin (5mg/kg and 10mg/kg) oral administration opposes the development of social aversion after defeat stress. In vitro corticosterone sensitivity assay demonstrated that icaritin partially restored social defeat-induced impairment of glucocorticoid sensitivity. The expressions of GR mRNA and BDNFmRNA in the hippocampus were increased after icaritin treatment. Meanwhile, the social defeat-induced increases in CRH mRNA in hypothalamus were restored by icaritin administration. Our data also suggests that icaritin administration remarkably attenuated the increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α level that occur following exposure to social defeat. In conclusion, icaritin is a novel antidepressant. It partially restored social defeat-induced impairment of glucocorticoid sensitivity, HPA axis hyperactivity. These effects are at least partially attributed to normalization of the GR function and increases in BDNF expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trigeminal nerve injury-induced thrombospondin-4 up-regulation contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K-W; Kim, D-S; Zaucke, F; Luo, Z D

    2014-04-01

    Injury to the trigeminal nerve often results in the development of chronic pain states including tactile allodynia, or hypersensitivity to light touch, in orofacial area, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to cause up-regulation of thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in dorsal spinal cord that correlates with neuropathic pain development. In this study, we examined whether injury-induced TSP4 is critical in mediating orofacial pain development in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve. Orofacial sensitivity to mechanical stimulation was examined in a unilateral infraorbital nerve ligation rat model. The levels of TSP4 in trigeminal ganglia and associated spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1/C2 spinal cord (Vc/C2) from injured rats were examined at time points correlating with the initiation and peak orofacial hypersensitivity. TSP4 antisense and mismatch oligodeoxynucleotides were intrathecally injected into injured rats to see if antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment could reverse injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation and orofacial behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data indicated that trigeminal nerve injury induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 at a time point correlated with orofacial tactile allodynia. In addition, intrathecal treatment with TSP4 antisense, but not mismatch, oligodeoxynucleotides blocked both injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 and behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data support that infraorbital nerve injury leads to TSP4 up-regulation in trigeminal spinal complex that contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states. Blocking this pathway may provide an alternative approach in management of orofacial neuropathic pain states. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  20. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Hong, Li [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States); LeBlanc, Gerald A., E-mail: Gerald_LeBlanc@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  1. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Li Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  2. Cyclic-AMP mediated regulation of ABCB mRNA expression in mussel haemocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franzellitti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multixenobiotic resistance system (MXR allows aquatic organisms to cope with their habitat despite high pollution levels by over-expressing membrane and intracellular transporters, including the P-glycoprotein (Pgp. In mammals transcription of the ABCB1 gene encoding Pgp is under cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation; whether this is true in mollusks is not fully clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: cAMP/PKA regulation and ABCB mRNA expression were assessed in haemocytes from Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed in vivo for 1 week to 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX alone or in combination with 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP. FX significantly decreased cAMP levels and PKA activity, and induced ABCB mRNA down-regulation. FX effects were abolished in the presence of PROP. In vitro experiments using haemocytes treated with physiological agonists (noradrenaline and serotonin and pharmacological modulators (PROP, forskolin, dbcAMP, and H89 of the cAMP/PKA system were performed to obtain clear evidence about the involvement of the signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of ABCB. Serotonin (5-HT decreased cAMP levels, PKA activity and ABCB mRNA expression but increased the mRNA levels for a putative 5-HT1 receptor. Interestingly, 5-HT1 was also over-expressed after in vivo exposures to FX. 5-HT effects were counteracted by PROP. Forskolin and dbcAMP increased PKA activity as well as ABCB mRNA expression; the latter effect was abolished in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct evidence for the cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of ABCB transcription in mussels.

  3. Photobiomodulation effects on mRNA levels from genomic and chromosome stabilization genes in injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; da Silva Sergio, Luiz Philippe; Teixeira, Adilson Fonseca; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2018-04-26

    Muscle injuries are the most prevalent type of injury in sports. A great number of athletes have relapsed in muscle injuries not being treated properly. Photobiomodulation therapy is an inexpensive and safe technique with many benefits in muscle injury treatment. However, little has been explored about the infrared laser effects on DNA and telomeres in muscle injuries. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate photobiomodulation effects on mRNA relative levels from genes related to telomere and genomic stabilization in injured muscle. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, laser 25 mW, laser 75 mW, injury, injury laser 25 mW, and injury laser 75 mW. Photobiomodulation was performed with 904 nm, 3 J/cm 2 at 25 or 75 mW. Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly on the tibialis anterior muscle. After euthanasia, skeletal muscle samples were withdrawn and total RNA extracted for evaluation of mRNA levels from genomic (ATM and p53) and chromosome stabilization (TRF1 and TRF2) genes by real-time quantitative polymerization chain reaction. Data show that photobiomodulation reduces the mRNA levels from ATM and p53, as well reduces mRNA levels from TRF1 and TRF2 at 25 and 75 mW in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, photobiomodulation alters mRNA relative levels from genes related to genomic and telomere stabilization in injured skeletal muscle.

  4. Electroporated Antigen-Encoding mRNA Is Not a Danger Signal to Human Mature Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hoyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For therapeutic cancer vaccination, the adoptive transfer of mRNA-electroporated dendritic cells (DCs is frequently performed, usually with monocyte-derived, cytokine-matured DCs (moDCs. However, DCs are rich in danger-sensing receptors which could recognize the exogenously delivered mRNA and induce DC activation, hence influencing the DCs’ immunogenicity. Therefore, we examined whether electroporation of mRNA with a proper cap and a poly-A tail of at least 64 adenosines had any influence on cocktail-matured moDCs. We used 16 different RNAs, encoding tumor antigens (MelanA, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11, and WT1, and variants thereof. None of those RNAs induced changes in the expression of CD25, CD40, CD83, CD86, and CD70 or the secretion of the cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα of more than 1.5-fold compared to the control condition, while an mRNA encoding an NF-κB-activation protein as positive control induced massive secretion of the cytokines. To determine whether mRNA electroporation had any effect on the whole transcriptome of the DCs, we performed microarray analyses of DCs of 6 different donors. None of 60,000 probes was significantly different between mock-electroporated DCs and MelanA-transfected DCs. Hence, we conclude that no transcriptional programs were induced within cocktail-matured DCs by electroporation of single tumor-antigen-encoding mRNAs.

  5. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  6. Over-Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and Protein: Implications of Xenobiotic Induced Damage in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia with inv(16(p13.1q22; CBFβ-MYH11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. Benzene is converted to hematotoxic metabolites by the hepatic phase-I enzyme CYP2E1, and these metabolites are detoxified by the phase-II enzyme NQO1. The genes encoding these enzymes are highly polymorphic and studies of these polymorphisms have shown different pathogenic and prognostic features in various hematological malignancies. The potential role of different cytochrome p450 metabolizing enzymes in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in an area of active interest. In this study, we demonstrate aberrant CYP2E1 mRNA over-expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 11 cases of de novo AML with inv(16; CBFβ-MYH11. CYP2E1 mRNA levels correlated with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and with bone marrow blast counts in all cases. CYP2E1 over-expression correlated positively with NQO1 mRNA levels (R2 = 0.934, n = 7. By immunohistochemistry, CYP2E1 protein was more frequently expressed in AML with inv(16 compared with other types of AML (p < 0.001. We obtained serial bone marrow samples from two patients with AML with inv(16 before and after treatment. CYP2E1 mRNA expression levels decreased in parallel with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and blast counts following chemotherapy. In contrast, CYP1A2 transcript levels did not change in either patient. This is the first study to demonstrate concurrent over-expression of CYP2E1 and NQO1 mRNA in AML with inv(16. These findings also suggest that a balance between CYP2E1 and NQO1 may be important in the pathogenesis of AML with inv(16.

  7. Hydrophobically Modified siRNAs Silence Huntingtin mRNA in Primary Neurons and Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F Alterman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of RNA interference for neuroscience research have been limited by a lack of simple and efficient methods to deliver oligonucleotides to primary neurons in culture and to the brain. Here, we show that primary neurons rapidly internalize hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs added directly to the culture medium without lipid formulation. We identify functional hsiRNAs targeting the mRNA of huntingtin, the mutation of which is responsible for Huntington's disease, and show that direct uptake in neurons induces potent and specific silencing in vitro. Moreover, a single injection of unformulated hsiRNA into mouse brain silences Htt mRNA with minimal neuronal toxicity. Thus, hsiRNAs embody a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that enable simple and straightforward functional studies of genes involved in neuronal biology and neurodegenerative disorders in a native biological context.

  8. Full-length mRNA sequencing uncovers a widespread coupling between transcription initiation and mRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Allard, Guy; Tseng, Elizabeth; Sheynkman, Gloria M; de Klerk, Eleonora; Vermaat, Martijn; Yin, Raymund H; Johansson, Hans E; Ariyurek, Yavuz; den Dunnen, Johan T; Turner, Stephen W; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2018-03-29

    The multifaceted control of gene expression requires tight coordination of regulatory mechanisms at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Here, we studied the interdependence of transcription initiation, splicing and polyadenylation events on single mRNA molecules by full-length mRNA sequencing. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we find 2700 genes with interdependent alternative transcription initiation, splicing and polyadenylation events, both in proximal and distant parts of mRNA molecules, including examples of coupling between transcription start sites and polyadenylation sites. The analysis of three human primary tissues (brain, heart and liver) reveals similar patterns of interdependency between transcription initiation and mRNA processing events. We predict thousands of novel open reading frames from full-length mRNA sequences and obtained evidence for their translation by shotgun proteomics. The mapping database rescues 358 previously unassigned peptides and improves the assignment of others. By recognizing sample-specific amino-acid changes and novel splicing patterns, full-length mRNA sequencing improves proteogenomics analysis of MCF-7 cells. Our findings demonstrate that our understanding of transcriptome complexity is far from complete and provides a basis to reveal largely unresolved mechanisms that coordinate transcription initiation and mRNA processing.

  9. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  10. Highly efficient gene delivery by mRNA electroporation in human hematopoietic cells: superiority to lipofection and passive pulsing of mRNA and to electroporation of plasmid cDNA for tumor antigen loading of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, V F; Ponsaerts, P; Lardon, F; Nijs, G; Lenjou, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Van Bockstaele, D R; Berneman, Z N

    2001-07-01

    Designing effective strategies to load human dendritic cells (DCs) with tumor antigens is a challenging approach for DC-based tumor vaccines. Here, a cytoplasmic expression system based on mRNA electroporation to efficiently introduce tumor antigens into DCs is described. Preliminary experiments in K562 cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene revealed that mRNA electroporation as compared with plasmid DNA electroporation showed a markedly improved transfection efficiency (89% versus 40% EGFP(+) cells, respectively) and induced a strikingly lower cell toxicity (15% death rate with mRNA versus 51% with plasmid DNA). Next, mRNA electroporation was applied for nonviral transfection of different types of human DCs, including monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), CD34(+) progenitor-derived DCs (34-DCs) and Langerhans cells (34-LCs). High-level transgene expression by mRNA electroporation was obtained in more than 50% of all DC types. mRNA-electroporated DCs retained their phenotype and maturational potential. Importantly, DCs electroporated with mRNA-encoding Melan-A strongly activated a Melan-A-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone in an HLA-restricted manner and were superior to mRNA-lipofected or -pulsed DCs. Optimal stimulation of the CTL occurred when Mo-DCs underwent maturation following mRNA transfection. Strikingly, a nonspecific stimulation of CTL was observed when DCs were transfected with plasmid DNA. The data clearly demonstrate that Mo-DCs electroporated with mRNA efficiently present functional antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, electroporation of mRNA-encoding tumor antigens is a powerful technique to charge human dendritic cells with tumor antigens and could serve applications in future DC-based tumor vaccines.

  11. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    .05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...

  12. Quantitative tissue-specific dynamics of in vivo GILZ mRNA expression and regulation by endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Vivaswath S; Almon, Richard R; Jusko, William J; DuBois, Debra C

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are steroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and immune function. Synthetic GCs, or corticosteroids (CS), have appreciable clinical utility via their ability to suppress inflammation in immune-mediated diseases like asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent work has provided insight to novel GC-induced genes that mediate their anti-inflammatory effects, including glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ). Since GILZ comprises an important part of GC action, its regulation by both drug and hormone will influence CS therapy. In addition, GILZ expression is often employed as a biomarker of GC action, which requires judicious selection of sampling time. Understanding the in vivo regulation of GILZ mRNA expression over time will provide insight into both the physiological regulation of GILZ by endogenous GC and the dynamics of its enhancement by CS. A highly quantitative qRT-PCR assay was developed for measuring GILZ mRNA expression in tissues obtained from normal and CS-treated rats. This assay was applied to measure GILZ mRNA expression in eight tissues; to determine its endogenous regulation over time; and to characterize its dynamics in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver following treatment with CS. We demonstrate that GILZ mRNA is expressed in several tissues. GILZ mRNA expression in adipose tissue displayed a robust circadian rhythm that was entrained with the circadian oscillation of endogenous corticosterone; and is strongly enhanced by acute and chronic dosing. Single dosing also enhanced GILZ mRNA in muscle and liver, but the dynamics varied. In conclusion, GILZ is widely expressed in the rat and highly regulated by endogenous and exogenous GCs. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Increase of prolactin mRNA in the rat hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular injection of VIP or PACAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, S; Kacsóh, B; Obál, F; Fang, J; Krueger, J M

    1994-10-17

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), the structurally homologous pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and the pituitary hormone, prolactin (PRL) enhance rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). VIP and PACAP are both inducers of PRL gene expression and release in the pituitary gland. Little is known about PRL regulation in the brain although it is hypothesized that the REMS-promoting activity of i.c.v. administered VIP may be mediated via the activation of cerebral PRL. To test whether VIP or PACAP in fact increase intracerebral mRNA, the peptides (VIP: 30 or 300 pmol; PACAP: 220 pmol) were injected i.c.v. into rats at dark onset. 1 h later, cDNA was synthesized from purified hypothalamic mRNA. Standardized amounts were analysed for PRL using the polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blotting and hybridization. Compared with beta-actin mRNA levels, both VIP and PACAP increased PRL mRNA levels in a dose-dependent fashion though VIP was more effective on a molar basis. The previously reported alternatively spliced PRL mRNA (lacking exon 4) was not detected. The data support the hypothesis that the REMS-promoting activity of central VIP and PACAP might be mediated by cerebral PRL.

  14. ALS Associated Mutations in Matrin 3 Alter Protein-Protein Interactions and Impede mRNA Nuclear Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Ashley; Garcia-Mansfield, Krystine; Singh, Gurkaran; Bakkar, Nadine; Pirrotte, Patrick; Bowser, Robert

    2017-11-06

    Mutations in Matrin 3 have recently been linked to ALS, though the mechanism that induces disease in these patients is unknown. To define the protein interactome of wild-type and ALS-linked MATR3 mutations, we performed immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry using NSC-34 cells expressing human wild-type or mutant Matrin 3. Gene ontology analysis identified a novel role for Matrin 3 in mRNA transport centered on proteins in the TRanscription and EXport (TREX) complex, known to function in mRNA biogenesis and nuclear export. ALS-linked mutations in Matrin 3 led to its re-distribution within the nucleus, decreased co-localization with endogenous Matrin 3 and increased co-localization with specific TREX components. Expression of disease-causing Matrin 3 mutations led to nuclear mRNA export defects of both global mRNA and more specifically the mRNA of TDP-43 and FUS. Our findings identify a potential pathogenic mechanism attributable to MATR3 mutations and further link cellular transport defects to ALS.

  15. Attenuation in the rph-pyrE operon of Escherichia coli and processing of the dicistronic mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1992-01-01

    We have substituted on a plasmid the native promoter of the Escherichia coli rph-pyrE operon with an inducible transcription-initiation signal. The plasmid was used to study the mRNA chains derived from the operon at different intracellular concentrations of UTP and as a function of time following...... induction of transcription. The results showed that dicistronic rph-pyrE mRNA was formed when the UTP pool was low, and that a monocistronic rph mRNA was the major transcription product in high-UTP pools, thus supporting an UTP-controlled attenuation mechanism for regulation of pyrE gene expression. However......, the dicistronic rph-pyrE transcript was rapidly processed into two monocistronic mRNA units, and a cleavage site was mapped near the attenuator in the intercistronic region, close to the site where transcription was terminated in high-UTP pools. Furthermore, the major 3' end of the pyrE mRNA was mapped near...

  16. mRNA: From a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2013-02-01

    Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has proven to be safe, well tolerated and capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, the direct application of mRNA for in situ modification of APCs, hence immunization was shown to be feasible and at least as effective as DC-based immunization in pre-clinical models. It is believed that application of mRNA as an off-the-shelf vaccine represents an important step in the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we will discuss the use of ex vivo mRNA-modified DCs and "naked mRNA" for cancer immunotherapy focusing on parameters such as the employed DC subtype, DC activation stimulus and route of immunization. In addition, we will provide an overview on the clinical trials published so far, trying to link their outcome to the aforementioned parameters.

  17. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. New potential markers of in vitro tomato morphogenesis identified by mRNA differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, A; Soragni, E; Bolchi, A; Petrucco, S; Ottonello, S; Branca, C

    1996-12-01

    The identification of plant genes involved in early phases of in vitro morphogenesis can not only contribute to our understanding of the processes underlying growth regulator-controlled determination, but also provide novel markers for evaluating the outcome of in vitro regeneration experiments. To search for such genes and to monitor changes in gene expression accompanying in vitro regeneration, we have adapted the mRNA differential display technique to the comparative analysis of a model system of tomato cotyledons that can be driven selectively toward either shoot or callus formation by means of previously determined growth regulator supplementations. Hormone-independent transcriptional modulation (mainly down-regulation) has been found to be the most common event, indicating that a non-specific reprogramming of gene expression quantitatively predominates during the early phases of in vitro culture. However, cDNA fragments representative of genes that are either down-regulated or induced in a programme-specific manner could also be identified, and two of them (G35, G36) were further characterized. One of these cDNA fragments, G35, corresponds to an mRNA that is down-regulated much earlier in callus- (day 2) than in shoot-determined explants (day 6). The other, G36, identifies an mRNA that is transiently expressed in shoot-determined explants only, well before any macroscopic signs of differentiation become apparent, and thus exhibits typical features of a morphogenetic marker.

  19. Promoter Methylation and mRNA Expression of Response Gene to Complement 32 in Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasab, E. E.; Nasab, E. E.; Hashemi, M.; Rafighdoost, F.

    2016-01-01

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32), induced by activation of complements, has been characterized as a cell cycle regulator; however, its role in carcinogenesis is still controversial. In the present study we compared RGC32 promoter methylation patterns and mRNA expression in breast cancerous tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Materials and Methods. Sixty-three breast cancer tissues and 63 adjacent non neoplastic tissues were included in our study. Design. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (Nested-MSP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to determine RGC32 promoter methylation status and its mRNA expression levels, respectively. Results. RGC32 methylation pattern was not different between breast cancerous tissue and adjacent non neoplastic tissue (OR=2.30, 95% CI=0.95-5.54). However, qPCR analysis displayed higher levels of RGC32 mRNA in breast cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (1.073 versus 0.959; P=0.001), irrespective of the promoter methylation status. The expression levels and promoter methylation of RGC32 were not correlated with any of patients’ clinical characteristics (P>0.05).

  20. mRNA localization mechanisms in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysangela R Alves

    Full Text Available Asymmetric mRNA localization is a sophisticated tool for regulating and optimizing protein synthesis and maintaining cell polarity. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulated localization of transcripts are widespread in higher eukaryotes and fungi, but not in protozoa. Trypanosomes are ancient eukaryotes that branched off early in eukaryote evolution. We hypothesized that these organisms would have basic mechanisms of mRNA localization. FISH assays with probes against transcripts coding for proteins with restricted distributions showed a discrete localization of the mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Moreover, cruzipain mRNA was found inside reservosomes suggesting new unexpected functions for this vacuolar organelle. Individual mRNAs were also mobilized to RNA granules in response to nutritional stress. The cytoplasmic distribution of these transcripts changed with cell differentiation, suggesting that localization mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of stage-specific protein expression. Transfection assays with reporter genes showed that, as in higher eukaryotes, 3'UTRs were responsible for guiding mRNAs to their final location. Our results strongly suggest that Trypanosoma cruzi have a core, basic mechanism of mRNA localization. This kind of controlled mRNA transport is ancient, dating back to early eukaryote evolution.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates the Hypocretin system via mRNA degradation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuqin; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Anni; Wang, Yuping; Jia, Jianping; Fang, Haotian; Yang, Youfeng; Hu, Meng; Ding, Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the Hypocretin system is regulated by TNF-α. Prepro-Hypocretin and Hypocretin receptor 2 (HcrtR2) can be detected at a very low level in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. In response to TNF-α, Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated, and also HcrtR2 protein level is down-regulated in B35 cells. To investigate the mechanism, exogenous rat Prepro-Hypocretin and rat HcrtR2 were overexpressed in B35 cells. In response to TNF-α, protein and mRNA of Prepro-Hypocretin are significantly decreased (by 93% and 94%, respectively), and the half-life of Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA is decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of HcrtR2 mRNA level is not affected by TNF-α treatment; however, HcrtR2 protein level is significantly decreased (by 86%) through ubiquitination in B35 cells treated with TNF-α. Downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 and -2 (cIAP-1 and -2) abrogates the HcrtR2 ubiquitination induced by TNF-α. The control green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is not affected by TNF-α treatment. These studies demonstrate that TNF-α can impair the function of the Hypocretin system by reducing the levels of both Prepro-Hypocretin and HcrtR2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BAY11 enhances OCT4 synthetic mRNA expression in adult human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Jason P; Crespo, Agustin Vega; Li, You; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Byrne, James A

    2013-02-06

    The OCT4 transcription factor is involved in many cellular processes, including development, reprogramming, maintaining pluripotency and differentiation. Synthetic OCT4 mRNA was recently used (in conjunction with other reprogramming factors) to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells. Here, we discovered that BAY 11-7082 (BAY11), at least partially through an NF-κB-inhibition based mechanism, could significantly increase the expression of OCT4 following transfection of synthetic mRNA (synRNA) into adult human skin cells. We tested various chemical and molecular small molecules on their ability to suppress the innate immune response seen upon synthetic mRNA transfection. Three molecules - B18R, BX795, and BAY11 - were used in immunocytochemical and proliferation-based assays. We also utilized global transcriptional meta-analysis coupled with quantitative PCR to identify relative gene expression downstream of OCT4. We found that human skin cells cultured in the presence of BAY11 resulted in reproducible increased expression of OCT4 that did not inhibit normal cell proliferation. The increased levels of OCT4 resulted in significantly increased expression of genes downstream of OCT4, including the previously identified SPP1, DUSP4 and GADD45G, suggesting the expressed OCT4 was functional. We also discovered a novel OCT4 putative downstream target gene SLC16A9 which demonstrated significantly increased expression following elevation of OCT4 levels. For the first time we have shown that small molecule-based stabilization of synthetic mRNA expression can be achieved with use of BAY11. This small molecule-based inhibition of innate immune responses and subsequent robust expression of transfected synthetic mRNAs may have multiple applications for future cell-based research and therapeutics.

  3. Protein Structure and the Sequential Structure of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren; Engelbrecht, Jacob

    1996-01-01

    entries in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank produced 719 protein chains with matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence, and secondary structure assignment, By neural network analysis, we found strong signals in mRNA sequence regions surrounding helices and sheets, These signals do not originate from......A direct comparison of experimentally determined protein structures and their corresponding protein coding mRNA sequences has been performed, We examine whether real world data support the hypothesis that clusters of rare codons correlate with the location of structural units in the resulting...... protein, The degeneracy of the genetic code allows for a biased selection of codons which may control the translational rate of the ribosome, and may thus in vivo have a catalyzing effect on the folding of the polypeptide chain, A complete search for GenBank nucleotide sequences coding for structural...

  4. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  5. Antisense imaging of epidermal growth factor-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Judy; Chen, Paul; Mrkobrada, Marko [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hu, Meiduo [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Vallis, Katherine A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Molecular imaging of the expression of key genes which determine the response to DNA damage following cancer treatment may predict the effectiveness of a particular treatment strategy. A prominent early response gene for DNA damage is the gene encoding p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates progression through the cell cycle. In this study, we explored the feasibility of imaging p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression at the mRNA level using an 18-mer phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) labeled with {sup 111}In. The known induction of the p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells following exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used as an experimental tool. Treatment of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro with EGF (20 nM) increased the ratio of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} mRNA/{beta}-actin mRNA threefold within 2 h as measured by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A concentration-dependent inhibition of EGF-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} protein expression was achieved in MDA-MB-468 cells by treatment with antisense ODNs with up to a tenfold decrease observed at 1 {mu}M. There was a fourfold lower inhibition of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} protein expression by control sense or random sequence ODNs. Intratumoral injections of EGF (15 {mu}g/day x 3 days) were employed to induce p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. RT-PCR of explanted tumors showed a threefold increased level of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} mRNA compared with normal saline-treated tumors. Successful imaging of EGF-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts was achieved at 48 h post injection of {sup 111}In-labeled antisense ODNs (3.7 MBq; 2 {mu}g). Tumors displaying basal levels of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in the absence of EGF treatment could not be visualized. Biodistribution studies showed a significantly higher tumor

  6. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acids synthesis in goose fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding on mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, in order to understand the mechanism of hepatic stea - tosis in the goose. Using Landes geese (Anser anser and Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides as experimental animals, we quantified the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACCα and fatty acid synthase (FAS, and of two transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins- 1 (SREBP-1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR, and measured the lipid and triglyceride (TG content in the liver and the plasma level of glucose, insulin and TG. Our results indicated that compared to the control group, the overfeeding induced an increase of the lipid and TG content in the liver and also of the plasma insulin and TG concentration in both breeds. However, the plasma glucose level decreased after overfeeding in the Sichuan White goose, and there was no evident change in the Landes goose. Lastly, the mRNA expression of ACCα, FAS, SREBP-1 and ChREBP in the overfed group was lower than in the control group in both breeds. We concluded that the lipogenesis pathway plays a role in overfeeding- induced hepatic steatosis and that the decreased mRNA level of related genes may be the indicator of hepatic steatosis.

  7. Complexity on Acute Myeloid Leukemia mRNA Transcript Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sequence analysis of acute myeloid leukemia mRNA. Six transcript variants of mlf1 mRNA, with more than 2000 bps, are analyzed by focusing on the autocorrelation of each distribution. Through the correlation matrix, some patches and similarities are singled out and commented, with respect to similar distributions. The comparison of Kolmogorov fractal dimension will be also given in order to classify the six variants. The existence of a fractal shape, patterns, and symmetries are discussed as well.

  8. Detection of melatonin receptor mRNA in human muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei

    2004-01-01

    To verify the expression of melatonin receptor mRNA in human, muscle, muscle beside vertebrae was collected to obtain total RNA and the mRNA of melatonin receptor was detected by RT-PCR method. The electrophoretic results of RT-PCR products by mt 1 and MT 2 primer were all positive and the sequence is corresponding with human melatonin receptor cDNA. It suggests that melatonin may act on the muscle beside vertebrae directly and regulate its growth and development. (authors)

  9. The upstream open reading frame of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA negatively regulates translation of the downstream main open reading frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki, E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN1A mRNA is a bona fide NMD substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uORF of CDKN1A mRNA is efficiently translated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translation of downstream main ORF is negatively regulated by translation of uORF in CDKN1A mRNA. -- Abstract: The first round of translation occurs on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), which is composed of nuclear cap-binding protein 80 and 20 (CBP80/20). During this round of translation, aberrant mRNAs are recognized and downregulated in abundance by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which is one of the mRNA quality control mechanisms. Here, our microarray analysis reveals that the level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; also known as Waf1/p21) mRNAs increases in cells depleted of cellular NMD factors. Intriguingly, CDKN1A mRNA contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF), which is a NMD-inducing feature. Using chimeric reporter constructs, we find that the uORF of CDKN1A mRNA negatively modulates translation of the main downstream ORF. These findings provide biological insights into the possible role of NMD in diverse biological pathways mediated by CDKN1A.

  10. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  11. WNT2B2 mRNA, up-regulated in primary gastric cancer, is a positive regulator of the WNT- beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kirikoshi, H; Terasaki, H; Shiokawa, K

    2001-12-21

    Genetic alterations of WNT signaling molecules lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13 gene on human chromosome 1p13, which is homologous to proto-oncogene WNT2 on human chromosome 7q31. WNT2B1 and WNT2B2 mRNAs, generated from the WNT2B gene due to alternative splicing of the alternative promoter type, encode almost identical polypeptides with divergence in the N-terminal region. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in NT2 cells with the potential of neuronal differentiation. Here, we describe our investigations of expression of WNT2B mRNAs in various types of human primary cancer. Matched tumor/normal expression array analysis revealed that WNT2B mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in 2 of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA was found to be preferentially up-regulated in a case of primary gastric cancer (signet ring cell carcinoma). Function of WNT2B1 mRNA and that of WNT2B2 mRNA were investigated by using Xenopus axis duplication assay. Injection of synthetic WNT2B1 mRNA into the ventral marginal zone of fertilized Xenopus eggs at the 4-cell stage did not induce axis duplication. In contrast, ventral injection of synthetic WNT2B2 mRNA induced axis duplication in 90% of embryos (complete axis duplication, 24%). These results strongly suggest that WNT2B2 up-regulation in some cases of gastric cancer might lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

  12. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  13. Impact of gastro-esophageal reflux on mucin mRNA expression in the esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Mayne, George C; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Watson, David I; Leong, Mary P; Neijman, Gabriëlle E; Michael, Michael Z; McKay, Andrew R; Astill, David; Hussey, Damian J

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the expression of mucin genes in the esophageal mucosa associated with uncomplicated gastro-esophageal reflux disease have not been evaluated even though such changes could be associated with reflux-induced mucosal damage. We therefore sought to identify reflux-induced changes in mucin gene expression using a cell line and biopsies from the esophageal mucosa in patients with and without reflux. MUC-1, MUC-3, MUC-4, and MUC-5AC gene expressions were investigated in the HET-1A cell line following exposure to acid (pH 4) and/or bile (120 muM of a bile salt milieu), and in esophageal mucosal biopsies from controls, subjects with non-erosive gastro-esophageal reflux, and subjects with reflux associated with ulcerative esophagitis (erosive). The mucosal biopsies were also evaluated for IL-6 mRNA expression (inflammatory marker) and CK-14 mRNA expression (mucosal basal cell layer marker). Gene expression was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the cell line studies, there were differences in mRNA levels for all of the evaluated mucins following treatment with either acid or the acid and bile combination. In the studies which evaluated tissue specimens, IL-6 and CK-14 mRNA levels increased according to degree of reflux pathology. The expression of MUC-1 and MUC-4 in mucosa from patients with erosive reflux was lower than in subjects without reflux and in patients with non-erosive reflux, whereas the expression of MUC-3 and MUC-5AC was increased (although these differences did not reach significance at p reflux groups. The correlation between IL-6 and MUC-3 was significant within the control and erosive reflux groups, and the correlation between MUC-1 and MUC-5AC was significant within the erosive reflux group. The results of this study suggest that the profile of mucin expression in the esophageal mucosa is influenced by the pH and composition of the gastro-esophageal reflux. Further work should explore the

  14. How does a scanning ribosomal particle move along the 5'-untranslated region of eukaryotic mRNA? Brownian Ratchet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, Alexander S

    2009-11-17

    A model of the ATP-dependent unidirectional movement of the 43S ribosomal initiation complex (=40S ribosomal subunit + eIF1 + eIF1A + eIF2.GTP.Met-tRNA(i) + eIF3) during scanning of the 5'-untranslated region of eukaryotic mRNA is proposed. The model is based on the principles of molecular Brownian ratchet machines and explains several enigmatic data concerning the scanning complex. In this model, the one-dimensional diffusion of the ribosomal initiation complex along the mRNA chain is rectified into the net-unidirectional 5'-to-3' movement by the Feynman ratchet-and-pawl mechanism. The proposed mechanism is organized by the heterotrimeric protein eIF4F (=eIF4A + eIF4E + eIF4G), attached to the scanning ribosomal particle via eIF3, and the RNA-binding protein eIF4B that is postulated to play the role of the pawl. The energy for the useful work of the ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is supplied from ATP hydrolysis induced by the eIF4A subunit: ATP binding and its hydrolysis alternately change the affinities of eIF4A for eIF4B and for mRNA, resulting in the restriction of backward diffusional sliding of the 43S ribosomal complex along the mRNA chain, while stochastic movements ahead are allowed.

  15. Wig1 prevents cellular senescence by regulating p21 mRNA decay through control of RISC recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2012-11-14

    Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence.

  16. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression during virus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Christian; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2006-01-01

    and activational effects of IL-21 on different leukocytes come into play in vivo in an immune response has so far not been fully investigated. We show here for the first time in vivo, that IL-21 mRNA is produced in the spleen when mice are challenged with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or lymphocytic...... choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We show in HSV-2 challenged mice that this production takes place in CD4+ T cell fractions and is absent in CD4+ T cell-depleted fractions. We also show that the peak of IL-21 mRNA production in both the HSV-2 and LCMV-challenged mice coincides with the onset of the adaptive immune...

  17. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6......) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals...

  18. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin by mRNA display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiadom, Kwabena P.A.B.; Muhie, Seid; Yang, David C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely toxic. The metalloproteases associated with the toxins cleave proteins essential for neurotransmitter secretion. Inhibitors of the metalloprotease are currently sought to control the toxicity of BoNTs. Toward that goal, we produced a synthetic cDNA for the expression and purification of the metalloprotease of BoNT/A in Escherichia coli as a biotin-ubiquitin fusion protein, and constructed a combinatorial peptide library to screen for BoNT/A light chain inhibitors using mRNA display. A protease assay was developed using immobilized intact SNAP-25 as the substrate. The new peptide inhibitors showed a 10-fold increase in affinity to BoNT/A light chain than the parent peptide. Interestingly, the sequences of the new peptide inhibitors showed abundant hydrophobic residues but few hydrophilic residues. The results suggest that mRNA display may provide a general approach in developing peptide inhibitors of BoNTs

  19. CUP promotes deadenylation and inhibits decapping of mRNA targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igreja, Catia; Izaurralde, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    CUP is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that represses the expression of specific maternal mRNAs prior to their posterior localization. Here, we show that CUP employs multiple mechanisms to repress the expression of target mRNAs. In addition to inducing translational repression, CUP maintains mRNA targets in a repressed state by promoting their deadenylation and protects deadenylated mRNAs from further degradation. Translational repression and deadenylation are independent of eIF4E binding and require both the middle and C-terminal regions of CUP, which collectively we termed the effector domain. This domain associates with the deadenylase complex CAF1–CCR4–NOT and decapping activators. Accordingly, in isolation, the effector domain is a potent trigger of mRNA degradation and promotes deadenylation, decapping and decay. However, in the context of the full-length CUP protein, the decapping and decay mediated by the effector domain are inhibited, and target mRNAs are maintained in a deadenylated, repressed form. Remarkably, an N-terminal regulatory domain containing a noncanonical eIF4E-binding motif is required to protect CUP-associated mRNAs from decapping and further degradation, suggesting that this domain counteracts the activity of the effector domain. Our findings indicate that the mode of action of CUP is more complex than previously thought and provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of mRNA expression by 4E-BPs. PMID:21937713

  20. Sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of sub-chronic low dose testicular injury in the Fischer 344 rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Pacheco

    Full Text Available Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1 identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD using microarrays; 2 expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3 test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ. Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05. All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05. In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05. The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat.

  1. Cup regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E

    2017-01-01

    The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Porcine blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses to PAMP molecules: comparison of mRNA and protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved molecules of microorganisms inducing innate immune cells to secrete distinct patterns of cytokines. In veterinary species, due to a lack of specific antibodies, cytokines are often monitored as expressed mRNA only. This study investigated...... the induction of IFN-α, IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 by PAMP-molecules [CpG oligonucleotide D19 (CpG), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3Cys and poly-U] in porcine blood mononuclear cells (BMC) within a 24h period. As expected, cytokine responses were PAMP-specific, CpG inducing IFN...

  3. Natural selection and algorithmic design of mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barry; Skiena, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences serve as templates for proteins according to the triplet code, in which each of the 4(3) = 64 different codons (sequences of three consecutive nucleotide bases) in RNA either terminate transcription or map to one of the 20 different amino acids (or residues) which build up proteins. Because there are more codons than residues, there is inherent redundancy in the coding. Certain residues (e.g., tryptophan) have only a single corresponding codon, while other residues (e.g., arginine) have as many as six corresponding codons. This freedom implies that the number of possible RNA sequences coding for a given protein grows exponentially in the length of the protein. Thus nature has wide latitude to select among mRNA sequences which are informationally equivalent, but structurally and energetically divergent. In this paper, we explore how nature takes advantage of this freedom and how to algorithmically design structures more energetically favorable than have been built through natural selection. In particular: (1) Natural Selection--we perform the first large-scale computational experiment comparing the stability of mRNA sequences from a variety of organisms to random synonymous sequences which respect the codon preferences of the organism. This experiment was conducted on over 27,000 sequences from 34 microbial species with 36 genomic structures. We provide evidence that in all genomic structures highly stable sequences are disproportionately abundant, and in 19 of 36 cases highly unstable sequences are disproportionately abundant. This suggests that the stability of mRNA sequences is subject to natural selection. (2) Artificial Selection--motivated by these biological results, we examine the algorithmic problem of designing the most stable and unstable mRNA sequences which code for a target protein. We give a polynomial-time dynamic programming solution to the most stable sequence problem (MSSP), which is asymptotically no more complex

  4. Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577 Chiba (Japan); Yamano, Yuko; Kagawa, Jun [Tokyo Womens' Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666 Tokyo (Japan); Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Shujuan [Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 42-1 Jixian Street, 110005 Shenyang (China); Hara, Kunio [Institute for Science of Labour, 2-8-14 Miyamae-ku, 216-8501 Kawasaki (Japan); Ichiba, Masayoshi; Zhang, Jiusong [Saga Medical School, 5-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, 849-8501 Saga (Japan); Liu, Tiefu; Li, Landi [Angang Public Health and Anti-epidemic Station Lishan District, 23 Shengoushi Yutian Street, 114034 Anshan (China); Takahashi, Ken [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2002-09-16

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is induced through the Ah receptor and is involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the validity of a quantitative analysis of CYP1B1 mRNA in peripheral human blood cells for the estimation of PAH exposure, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the relative levels of CYP1B1 mRNA in 37 Chinese coke oven workers and 13 control workers. A large inter-individual difference in the levels was observed. The average level of the CYP1B1 mRNA in workers at the top work site, where the PAH exposure level from the coke ovens was highest, was significantly higher than in workers at the middle site (P<0.01) or the controls (P=0.02). A non-significant positive correlation was found between the CYP1B1 mRNA levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (R=0.22, P=0.13), and a significant correlation between these mRNA levels and urinary cotinine (R=0.33, P=0.02). It was interesting that a significant positive correlation between CYP1B1 mRNA and 1-hydroxypyrene was observed in subjects with the Leu/Leu type of CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism (R=0.33, P=0.02, n=38) and a non-significant correlation in subjects with the Leu/Val and Val/Val types (R=-0.36, P=0.25, n=12), although the number of subjects in this strata analysis was small. Our preliminary study suggests that PAH exposure in coke ovens and smoking maybe associated with CYP1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells although mRNA is generally unstable and could be expressed following exposure to other agents.

  5. Relationship of calcitonin mRNA expression to the differentiation state of HL 60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, P; Bacher, M; Pflüger, K H

    1994-05-01

    Raised plasma levels of immunoreactive human calcitonin (ihCT) can be found in patients with myeloid leukemia and seem to indicate a poor prognosis. High levels were found in acute undifferentiated and acute myeloblastic leukemia. To test whether CT expression could be a marker of myeloid differentiation, we used the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL 60 which also expresses ihCT as a model system for myeloid differentiation. Exponentially growing HL 60 cells as well as differentiation induced HL 60 cells expressed a single 1.0 Kb CT transcript. The induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the granulocytic lineage by DMSO or HMBA had no effect on the level of CT transcripts. Induction of monocytic/macrophagic differentiation by TPA resulted in a transient, about 10-fold elevated expression of CT steady state mRNA after 24 h. In contrast to TPA, induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the monocytic pathway by Vit D3 had no detectable effect on the level of the CT in RNA expression at corresponding time points. These findings suggest that the transient induction of CT steady state mRNA expression by TPA is rather a direct effect of the phorbol ester than commitment along the monocytic line of differentiation.

  6. Synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins and distinguish mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shunsuke; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nagaike, Takashi; Tomita, Kozo; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-07

    Synthetic biology has great potential for future therapeutic applications including autonomous cell programming through the detection of protein signals and the production of desired outputs. Synthetic RNA devices are promising for this purpose. However, the number of available devices is limited due to the difficulty in the detection of endogenous proteins within a cell. Here, we show a strategy to construct synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins in living cells, control translation and distinguish cell types. We engineered protein-binding aptamers that have increased stability in the secondary structures of their active conformation. The designed devices can efficiently respond to target proteins including human LIN28A and U1A proteins, while the original aptamers failed to do so. Moreover, mRNA delivery of an LIN28A-responsive device into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) revealed that we can distinguish living hiPSCs and differentiated cells by quantifying endogenous LIN28A protein expression level. Thus, our endogenous protein-driven RNA devices determine live-cell states and program mammalian cells based on intracellular protein information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Keratin14 mRNA expression in human pneumocytes during quiescence, repair and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    Full Text Available The lung alveoli slowly self-renew pneumocytes, but their facultative regeneration capacity is rapidly efficient after an injury, so fibrosis infrequently occurs. We recently observed Keratin 14 (KRT14 expression during diffuse alveolar damage (DAD, but not in controls. We wonder if KRT14 may be a marker of pneumocyte transition from quiescence to regeneration. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses highlighted the presence of KRT14 (mRNA and protein only in human lung samples with DAD or interstitial lung disease (ILD. In the exponentially growing cell lines A549 and H441, the mRNA and protein levels of KRT14 peaked at day one after cell seeding and decreased at day two, opposite to what observed for the proliferation marker E2F1. The inverse relation of KRT14 versus E2F1 expression holds true also for other proliferative markers, such as cyclin E1 and cyclin D1. Of interest, we also found that E2F1 silencing caused cell cycle arrest and increased KRT14 expression, whilst E2F1 stimulation induced cell cycle progression and decreased KRT14. KRT14 also increased in proliferative pneumocytes (HPAEpiC just before transdifferentiation. Overall, our results suggest that KRT14 is a viable biomarker of pneumocyte activation, and repair/regeneration. The involvement of KRT14 in regenerative process may suggest a novel pharmaceutical target to accelerate lung repair.

  8. Skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression is fiber-type specific and increases during hindlimb unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.; Gordon, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic mice lacking a functional myostatin (MSTN) gene demonstrate greater skeletal muscle mass resulting from muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia (McPherron, A. C., A. M. Lawler, and S. -J. Lee. Nature 387: 83-90, 1997). Therefore, we hypothesized that, in normal mice, MSTN may act as a negative regulator of muscle mass. Specifically, we hypothesized that the predominately slow (type I) soleus muscle, which demonstrates greater atrophy than the fast (type II) gastrocnemius-plantaris complex (Gast/PLT), would show more elevation in MSTN mRNA abundance during hindlimb unloading (HU). Surprisingly, MSTN mRNA was not detectable in weight-bearing or HU soleus muscle, which atrophied 42% by the 7th day of HU in female ICR mice. In contrast, MSTN mRNA was present in weight-bearing Gast/PLT muscle and was significantly elevated (67%) at 1 day but not at 3 or 7 days of HU. However, the Gast/PLT muscle had only atrophied 17% by the 7th day of HU. Because the soleus is composed only of type I and IIa fibers, whereas the Gast/PLT expresses type IId/x and IIb in addition to type I and IIa, it was necessary to perform a more careful analysis of the relationship between MSTN mRNA levels and myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform expression (as a marker of fiber type). A significant correlation (r = 0.725, P < 0. 0005) was noted between the percentage of MHC isoform IIb expression and MSTN mRNA abundance in several muscles of the mouse hindlimb. These results indicate that MSTN expression is not strongly associated with muscle atrophy induced by HU; however, it is strongly associated with MHC isoform IIb expression in normal muscle.

  9. IL-2 induction of IL-1 beta mRNA expression in monocytes. Regulation by agents that block second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Varesio, L

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that in mixed cultures of PBL incubation with human rIL-2 induces the rapid expression of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA. Because studies have demonstrated that IL-2R can be expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood monocytes, we chose to investigate whether IL-1 ...

  10. mRNA expression profile of prostaglandin D2 receptors in rat trigeminovascular system, and effect of prostaglandins in rat migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Jansen-Olesen, I.; Gupta, S.

    2015-01-01

    not changed in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Conclusions: PGD2 induced vasodilation of MMA is mainly mediated by activation of DP1 receptors. Furthermore, high expression of DP1 mRNA in TG and DRG suggest that PGD2 might play a role in migraine pathophysiology. However, infusion of PG mix in awake rats did...

  11. Evaluation of an mRNA lipofection procedure for human dendritic cells and induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against enhanced green fluorescence protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kozue; Fukui, Mikiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Yuichiro; Imai, Kohzoh; Hinoda, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    We utilized an mRNA lipofection procedure in human dendritic cells (DCs) and attempted to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). EGFP mRNA was transfected into phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes or adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived DCs using a liposomal reagent. Lipofection efficiency was measured by flow cytometry. In PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, increasing concentrations of liposome or mRNA increased EGFP expression levels by up to 64.4%, but caused a decrease in cell viability. A similar trend was also observed in DCs. For 70% DC viability, the concentration of liposomes was 24 microl/ml, and the mRNA concentration was 6 microg/ml. Under these conditions, ELISPOT and (51)Cr release assays were performed on CD8+ T cells stimulated twice with EGFP mRNA-transfected DCs. The number of interferon-gamma-producing cells was increased when the CD8+ T cells were cocultured for 24 h with PHA-stimulated lymphocytes transfected with EGFP mRNA. The level of specific lysis of EGFP mRNA-transfected DCs also increased to approximately 80%, with an effector to target ratio of 40:1. These data suggest that EGFP is immunogenic for human T cells, confirming that our lipofection procedure may be of use for inducing specific CTLs. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. CCL5 promotes proliferation of MCF-7 cells through mTOR-dependent mRNA translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murooka, Thomas T.; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2009-01-01

    The proliferative capacity of cancer cells is regulated by factors intrinsic to cancer cells and by secreted factors in the microenvironment. Here, we investigated the proto-oncogenic potential of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. At physiological levels, CCL5, a ligand for CCR5, enhanced MCF-7.CCR5 proliferation. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited this CCL5-inducible proliferation. Because mTOR directly modulates mRNA translation, we investigated whether CCL5 activation of CCR5 leads to increased translation. CCL5 induced the formation of the eIF4F translation initiation complex through an mTOR-dependent process. Indeed, CCL5 initiated mRNA translation, shown by an increase in high-molecular-weight polysomes. Specifically, we show that CCL5 mediated a rapid up-regulation of protein expression for cyclin D1, c-Myc and Dad-1, without affecting their mRNA levels. Taken together, we describe a mechanism by which CCL5 influences translation of rapamycin-sensitive mRNAs, thereby providing CCR5-positive breast cancer cells with a proliferative advantage.

  13. Nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in the CGS1 gene of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, Hitoshi; Nagami, Yoko; Haraguchi, Yuhi; Nakamoto, Mari; Nishimura, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Ryoko; Nagao, Nobuhiro; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Kadokura, Yoshitomo; Naito, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis CGS1 gene that codes for cystathionine γ-synthase is feedback regulated at the step of mRNA stability in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). A short stretch of amino acid sequence, called the MTO1 region, encoded by the first exon of CGS1 itself is involved in this regulation. Here, we demonstrate, using a cell-free system, that AdoMet induces temporal translation elongation arrest at the Ser-94 codon located immediately downstream of the MTO1 region, by analyzing a translation intermediate and performing primer extension inhibition (toeprint) analysis. This translation arrest precedes the formation of a degradation intermediate of CGS1 mRNA, which has its 5′ end points near the 5′ edge of the stalled ribosome. The position of ribosome stalling also suggests that the MTO1 region in nascent peptide resides in the ribosomal exit tunnel when translation elongation is temporarily arrested. In addition to the MTO1 region amino acid sequence, downstream Trp-93 is also important for the AdoMet-induced translation arrest. This is the first example of nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in eukaryotes. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ribosome stalls at the step of translocation rather than at the step of peptidyl transfer. PMID:16027170

  14. Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to salt stress in Polygonum sibiricum Laxm leaves, stem and underground stem. ... PcOZI-1 mRNA in untreated plants was detected at low levels in underground stem, leaves and at higher levels in stem. PcOZI-1 mRNA accumulation was transiently induced ...

  15. [Expression of heat shock protein 70 and its mRNA in career exposure to manganese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Shao, Hua; Chi, Mingfeng; Zhang, Zhihu; Shan, Yongle; Zou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the expression levels of heat shock protein70 (HSPs70) and HSPs70 mRNA in different exposure to manganese, and research the neuroprotective effect on the career exposure to manganese. From 2008 to 2009, with cross-sectional study design, and in a locomotive and rolling stock works, by stratified random sampling method, the exposed sample consisted of 180 welders from different welding shops and 100 unexposed in the last three years, non-welder controls with age-matched workers of similar socioeconomic status from the same industry. The control workers had not been exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. The mRNA expressions of four different metabolic enzyme were detected by SYBR Green I quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of the two enzymes mRNA in different exposure to manganese were analyzed. The expressions of HSPs70 were detected by Western blot. The concentration of air manganese was determined by GFAAS. The average concentration of 8 h time (8h-TWA) was used to express the level of individual exposure to manganese, according to the air manganese workplace occupational exposure limit (8h-TWA=0.15 mg/m3), the exposed group is divided into high exposed group (>0.15 mg/m3) and low exposure group (<0.15 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to manganese dose of exposed group ((0.25±0.31) mg/m3) was higher than the control group ((0.06±0.02) mg/m3) (t=6.15, P=0.001); individuals exposed to manganese dose of high exposure group for (0.42±0.34) mg/m3, which was higher than low exposure group (0.09±0.07) mg/m3 (t=9.80, P=0.001). HSPs70 mRNA and protein of exposure group (5.65±0.21, 3.26±0.15) were higher than the reference group (0.41±0.03, 1.32±0.12) (t=18.91, t=8.68, P=0.001). HSP70 mRNA and protein of high exposure group (6.48±0.37, 3.67±0.26) were higher than the low exposure group (5.15±0.23, 3.02±0.19) (t=3.24, t=2.01, P=0.003, P=0.043). The expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes HSPs70 level and HSPs70 mRNA

  16. Peptide-enhanced mRNA transfection in cultured mouse cardiac fibroblasts and direct reprogramming towards cardiomyocyte-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kunwoo Lee,1,2 Pengzhi Yu,3 Nithya Lingampalli,1 Hyun Jin Kim,1 Richard Tang,1 Niren Murthy1,2 1Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2UC Berkeley and UCSF Joint Graduate Program in Bioengineering, Berkeley/San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: The treatment of myocardial infarction is a major challenge in medicine due to the inability of heart tissue to regenerate. Direct reprogramming of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes via the delivery of transcription factor mRNAs has the potential to regenerate cardiac tissue and to treat heart failure. Even though mRNA delivery to cardiac fibroblasts has the therapeutic potential, mRNA transfection in cardiac fibroblasts has been challenging. Herein, we develop an efficient mRNA transfection in cultured mouse cardiac fibroblasts via a polyarginine-fused heart-targeting peptide and lipofectamine complex, termed C-Lipo and demonstrate the partial direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts towards cardiomyocyte cells. C-Lipo enabled the mRNA-induced direct cardiac reprogramming due to its efficient transfection with low toxicity, which allowed for multiple transfections of Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT mRNAs for a period of 2 weeks. The induced cardiomyocyte-like cells had α-MHC promoter-driven GFP expression and striated cardiac muscle structure from a-actinin immunohistochemistry. GMT mRNA transfection of cultured mouse cardiac fibroblasts via C-Lipo significantly increased expression of the cardiomyocyte marker genes, Actc1, Actn2, Gja1, Hand2, and Tnnt2, after 2 weeks of transfection. Moreover, this study provides the first direct evidence that the stoichiometry of the GMT reprogramming factors influence the expression of cardiomyocyte marker genes. Our results demonstrate that mRNA delivery is a potential approach for cardiomyocyte generation. Keywords: direct cardiac

  17. Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Gomis, Susantha; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality. Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks. However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response. Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks. Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity. Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination. In addition, the use of a CpG-ODN adjuvant had a dose-sparing effect on antibody titer. Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Expression profiles of mRNA after exposure yeast and rice to heavy-ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Mizukami, Satomi; Nojima, Kumie

    2005-01-01

    We have studied expression profiles of mRNA after exposure yeast cells to heavy-ion radiation. Yeast cells was exposed by heavy-ion radiation with the levels of 6, 12, 25, 50, and 100 Gy. We could confirm the reproducibility of physiological state of yeast cells under the experimental conditions by DNA microarray. We could also confirm the reproducibility of viability of yeast cells after exposure to heavy-ion radiation. We thus applied yeast cells exposed with 25 Gy was applied to DNA microarray analysis. The strongly induced genes were HUG1 RAR4 RNR2 for DNA repairing genes and GLC3 GSY1 for energy metabolism genes. (author)

  20. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2002-02-22

    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  1. Detection of tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein in exosome-like microvesicles from blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs.

  2. Detection of tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein in exosome-like microvesicles from blood and saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieping Yang

    Full Text Available The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs.

  3. AS1411-Induced Growth Inhibition of Glioma Cells by Up-Regulation of p53 and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 via Nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    Full Text Available AS1411 binds nucleolin (NCL and is the first oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer to reach phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers. However, the mechanisms by which AS1411 targets and kills glioma cells and tissues remain unclear. Here we report that AS1411 induces cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and inhibits cell viability by up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 in human glioma cells. NCL was overexpressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm in human glioma U87, U251 and SHG44 cells compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA. AS1411 bound NCL and inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells but not NHA, which was accompanied with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1. Moreover, AS1411 treatment resulted in the G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells, which was however abolished by overexpression of NCL. Further, AS1411 induced cell apoptosis, which was prevented by silencing of p53 and overexpression of Bcl-2. In addition, AS1411 inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells in an Akt1-dependent manner. Importantly, AS1411 inhibited the growth of glioma xenograft and prolonged the survival time of glioma tumor-bearing mice. These results revealed a promising treatment of glioma by oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer.

  4. Nucleolin Mediates MicroRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA Deadenylation but Increases Translation of CSF-1 mRNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K.

    2013-01-01

    CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3′UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of

  5. Activation of pluripotency genes in human fibroblast cells by a novel mRNA based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R Plews

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been used to induce somatic cells to re-enter the pluripotent state. Viral transduction of reprogramming genes yields higher efficiency but involves random insertions of viral sequences into the human genome. Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be obtained with the removable PiggyBac transposon system or an episomal system, both approaches still use DNA constructs so that resulting cell lines need to be thoroughly analyzed to confirm they are free of harmful genetic modification. Thus a method to change cell fate without using DNA will be very useful in regenerative medicine.In this study, we synthesized mRNAs encoding OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, KLF4 and SV40 large T (LT and electroporated them into human fibroblast cells. Upon transfection, fibroblasts expressed these factors at levels comparable to, or higher than those in human embryonic stem (ES cells. Ectopically expressed OCT4 localized to the cell nucleus within 4 hours after mRNA introduction. Transfecting fibroblasts with a mixture of mRNAs encoding all five factors significantly increased the expression of endogenous OCT4, NANOG, DNMT3β, REX1 and SALL4. When such transfected fibroblasts were also exposed to several small molecules (valproic acid, BIX01294 and 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and cultured in human embryonic stem cell (ES medium they formed small aggregates positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and OCT4 protein within 30 days.Our results demonstrate that mRNA transfection can be a useful approach to precisely control the protein expression level and short-term expression of reprogramming factors is sufficient to activate pluripotency genes in differentiated cells.

  6. A glimpse at mRNA dynamics reveals cellular domains and rapid trafficking through granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, Alice Myriam Christi van

    2011-01-01

    mRNA transport and targeting are essential to gene expression regulation. Specific mRNA sequences can bind several proteins and together form RiboNucleoProtein particles (RNP). The various proteins within the RNP determine mRNA fate: translation, transport or decay. RNP composition varies with

  7. Identifying mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancer: with application to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou Louis S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA regulate mRNA levels in a tissue specific way, either by inducing degradation of the transcript or by inhibiting translation or transcription. Putative mRNA targets of microRNA identified from seed sequence matches are available in many databases. However, such matches have a high false positive rate and cannot identify tissue specificity of regulation. Results We describe a simple method to identify direct mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancers from expression level measurements in patient matched tumor/normal samples. The word "direct" is used here in a strict sense to: a represent mRNA which have an exact seed sequence match to the microRNA in their 3'UTR, b the seed sequence match is strictly conserved across mouse, human, rat and dog genomes, c the mRNA and microRNA expression levels can distinguish tumor from normal with high significance and d the microRNA/mRNA expression levels are strongly and significantly anti-correlated in tumor and/or normal samples. We apply and validate the method using clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples, limiting our analysis to mRNA targets which undergo degradation of the mRNA transcript because of a perfect seed sequence match. Dysregulated microRNA and mRNA are first identified by comparing their expression levels in tumor vs normal samples. Putative dysregulated microRNA/mRNA pairs are identified from these using seed sequence matches, requiring that the seed sequence be conserved in human/dog/rat/mouse genomes. These are further pruned by requiring a strong anti-correlation signature in tumor and/or normal samples. The method revealed many new regulations in ccRCC. For instance, loss of miR-149, miR-200c and mir-141 causes gain of function of oncogenes (KCNMA1, LOX, VEGFA and SEMA6A respectively and increased levels of miR-142-3p, miR-185, mir-34a, miR-224, miR-21 cause loss of function of tumor suppressors LRRC2, PTPN13, SFRP1

  8. The expression of apoB mRNA editing factors is not the sole determinant for the induction of editing in differentiating Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, Chad A.; Smith, Harold C.

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA is edited at cytidine 6666 in the enterocytes lining the small intestine of all mammals; converting a CAA codon to a UAA stop codon. The conversion is ∼80% efficient in this tissue and leads to the expression of the truncated protein, ApoB48, essential for secretion of dietary lipid as chylomicrons. Caco-2 cell raft cultures have been used as an in vitro model for the induction of editing activity during human small intestinal cell differentiation. This induction of apoB mRNA editing has been ascribed to the expression of APOBEC-1. In agreement our data demonstrated differentiation-dependent induction of expression of the editing enzyme APOBEC-1 and in addition we show alternative splicing of the essential auxiliary factor ACF. However, transfection of these editing factors in undifferentiated proliferating Caco-2 cells was not sufficient to induce robust apoB mRNA editing activity. Only differentiation of Caco-2 cells could induce more physiological like levels of apoB mRNA editing. The data suggested that additional regulatory mechanism(s) were induced by differentiation that controlled the functional activity of editing factors.

  9. Matrin 3 binds and stabilizes mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Salton

    Full Text Available Matrin 3 (MATR3 is a highly conserved, inner nuclear matrix protein with two zinc finger domains and two RNA recognition motifs (RRM, whose function is largely unknown. Recently we found MATR3 to be phosphorylated by the protein kinase ATM, which activates the cellular response to double strand breaks in the DNA. Here, we show that MATR3 interacts in an RNA-dependent manner with several proteins with established roles in RNA processing, and maintains its interaction with RNA via its RRM2 domain. Deep sequencing of the bound RNA (RIP-seq identified several small noncoding RNA species. Using microarray analysis to explore MATR3's role in transcription, we identified 77 transcripts whose amounts depended on the presence of MATR3. We validated this finding with nine transcripts which were also bound to the MATR3 complex. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of MATR3 for maintaining the stability of several of these mRNA species and conclude that it has a role in mRNA stabilization. The data suggest that the cellular level of MATR3, known to be highly regulated, modulates the stability of a group of gene transcripts.

  10. Excision of a viral reprogramming cassette by delivery of synthetic Cre mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yuin-Han; Yang, Jimmy Chen; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Guo, Chunguang; Cherry, Anne; Rossi, Derrick J.; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides an invaluable resource for cell therapy, in vitro modeling of human disease, and drug screening. To date, most human iPS cells have been generated with integrating retro- and lenti-viruses and are limited in their potential utility because residual transgene expression may alter their differentiation potential or induce malignant transformation. Alternatively, transgene-free methods using adenovirus and protein transduction are limited by low efficiency. This report describes a protocol for the generation of transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells using retroviral transfection of a single vector, which includes the coding sequences of human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC linked with picornaviral 2A plasmids. Moreover, after reprogramming has been achieved, this cassette can be removed using mRNA transfection of Cre recombinase. The method described herein to excise reprogramming factors with ease and efficiency facilitates the experimental generation and use of transgene-free human iPS cells. PMID:22605648

  11. Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes mRNA expression of RelA and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mo; Zhou, Lianlian; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Wu; Lin, Xiangyang

    2017-07-01

    The role of inflammation in tumorigenesis and development is currently well established. Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) activation induces canonical and noncanonical nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathways, which are linked to inflammation‑induced carcinogenesis. In the present study, 5,637 bladder cancer cells were cultured and the activation of LTβR was induced by functional ligand, lymphotoxin (LT) α1β2, and silencing with shRNA. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect the mRNA expression levels of NF‑κB family members RelA and RelB, cytokines including LTα, LTβ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, TNF superfamily member 14, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β, and proliferation‑related genes including CyclinD1 and Survivin. The expression of phospho‑p65 was determined by western blotting. Activation of LTβR on bladder cancer 5,637 cells was demonstrated to upregulate the mRNA expression levels of the RELA proto‑oncogene, RelA, by 2.5‑fold compared with unstimulated cells, while no significant change was observed in the RELB proto‑oncogene NF‑κB member mRNA levels. Expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)‑1β mRNA levels were significantly increased nearly 5‑fold and 1.5‑fold, respectively, following LTβR activation compared with unstimulated cells. The LTβR‑induced upregulation of RelA, TNFα and IL‑1β was decreased by ~33, 27, and 26% respectively when LTβR was silenced via short hairpin RNA. Activation of LTβR had no effect on 5,637 cell growth, despite CyclinD1 and Survivin mRNA levels increasing by ~2.7 and 1.3‑fold, respectively, compared with unstimulated cells. In conclusion, activation of LTβR induced the expression of RelA mRNA levels. LTβR activation might be an important mediator in promoting an inflammatory microenvironment in bladder cancer, via the upregulation of TNFα and IL‑1β mRNA levels. LTβR may

  12. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freake, H.C.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere.

  13. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freake, H.C.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by 3 H 2 O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere

  14. Regulation of c-myc and c-fos mRNA levels by polyomavirus: distinct roles for the capsid protein VP1 and the viral early proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zullo, J.; Stiles, C.D.; Garcea, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP 1 protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP 1 protein stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation in a dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane at the onset of infection to increase the levels of mRNA for the cellular genes associated with cell competence for DNA replication, and subsequently these levels are maintained by the action of the early viral proteins

  15. Viperin mRNA is a novel target for the human RNase MRP/RNase P endoribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, Sandy; Hinson, Ella R; Onnekink, Carla; Hermanns, Pia; Zabel, Bernhard; Cresswell, Peter; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2011-07-01

    RNase MRP is a conserved endoribonuclease, in humans consisting of a 267-nucleotide RNA associated with 7-10 proteins. Mutations in its RNA component lead to several autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasias, including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Because the known substrates of mammalian RNase MRP, pre-ribosomal RNA, and RNA involved in mitochondrial DNA replication are not likely involved in CHH, we analyzed the effects of RNase MRP (and the structurally related RNase P) depletion on mRNAs using DNA microarrays. We confirmed the upregulation of the interferon-inducible viperin mRNA by RNAi experiments and this appeared to be independent of the interferon response. We detected two cleavage sites for RNase MRP/RNase P in the coding sequence of viperin mRNA. This is the first study providing direct evidence for the cleavage of a mRNA by RNase MRP/RNase P in human cells. Implications for the involvement in the pathophysiology of CHH are discussed.

  16. Dietary fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport by altering LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J D; Cuthbert, J A; Spady, D K

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of LDL in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and the type of lipid in the diet. Recent studies in the hamster have shown that dietary fatty acids differentially affect circulating LDL levels primarily by altering receptor-dependent LDL uptake in the liver. To investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect, rates of receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver were correlated with LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels in hamsters fed safflower oil or coconut oil and varying amounts of cholesterol. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively). These fatty acid-induced changes in hepatic LDL receptor activity were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that dietary fatty acids regulate the LDL receptor pathway largely at the mRNA level. Images PMID:8349814

  17. Chronic Stress Reduces Nectin-1 mRNA Levels and Disrupts Dendritic Spine Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Perirhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In adulthood, chronic exposure to stressful experiences disrupts synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous studies have shown that perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory is impaired by chronic stress. However, the stress effects on molecular expression and structural plasticity in the perirhinal cortex remain unclear. In this study, we applied the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS paradigm and measured the mRNA levels of nectin-1, nectin-3 and neurexin-1, three synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs implicated in the adverse stress effects, in the perirhinal cortex of wild-type (WT and conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 conditional knockout (CRHR1-CKO mice. Chronic stress reduced perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels in WT but not CRHR1-CKO mice. In conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone conditional overexpression (CRH-COE mice, perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels were also reduced, indicating that chronic stress modulates nectin-1 expression through the CRH-CRHR1 system. Moreover, chronic stress altered dendritic spine morphology in the main apical dendrites and reduced spine density in the oblique apical dendrites of perirhinal layer V pyramidal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic stress disrupts cell adhesion and dendritic spine plasticity in perirhinal neurons, which may contribute to stress-induced impairments of perirhinal cortex-dependent memory.

  18. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  19. Translational profiling in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: no evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneichyk, Tatsiana; Bindreither, Daniel; Mantinger, Christine; Grazio, Daniela; Goetsch, Katrin; Kofler, Reinhard; Rainer, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are natural stress induced steroid hormones causing cell cycle arrest and cell death in lymphoid tissues. Therefore they are the central component in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, in particular childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (chALL). GCs act mainly via regulating gene transcription, which has been intensively studied by us and others. GC control of mRNA translation has also been reported but has never been assessed systematically. In this study we investigate the effect of GCs on mRNA translation on a genome-wide scale. Childhood T- (CCRF-CEM) and precursor B-ALL (NALM6) cells were exposed to GCs and subjected to "translational profiling", a technique combining sucrose-gradient fractionation followed by Affymetrix Exon microarray analysis of mRNA from different fractions, to assess the translational efficiency of the expressed genes. Analysis of GC regulation in ribosome-bound fractions versus transcriptional regulation revealed no significant differences, i.e., GC did not entail a significant shift between ribosomal bound and unbound mRNAs. In the present study we analyzed for the first time possible effects of GC on the translational efficiency of expressed genes in two chALL model systems employing whole genome polysome profiling. Our results did not reveal significant differences in translational efficiency of expressed genes thereby arguing against a potential widespread regulatory effect of GCs on translation at least in the investigated in vitro systems.

  20. Metallothionein mRNA induction is correlated with the decrease of DNA strand breaks in cadmium exposed zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Châtel, Amélie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2014-05-15

    We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells using synthetic modified mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Luigi; Manos, Philip D.; Ahfeldt, Tim; Loh, Yuin-Han; Li, Hu; Lau, Frank; Ebina, Wataru; Mandal, Pankaj; Smith, Zachary D.; Meissner, Alexander; Daley, George Q.; Brack, Andrew S.; Collins, James J.; Cowan, Chad; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is limited by the low efficiency of iPS derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPS cells towards clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, non-integrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate anti-viral re...

  2. A survey of photoproducts of an irradiated oligodeoxynucleotide by monochromatic photons with the energy ranged from 6.5 to 22.5 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Saito, Mikio; Taniguchi, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    We have irradiated 2'-deoxyadenylyl-(3'-5')-2'-deoxyadenosine (dephospho(dA) 2 ) in solid state with a newly developed synchrotron irradiation system over 6.5 to 22.5 eV photon energy range (190 to 55 nm in wavelength). Densitometric analysis of thin-layer chromatogram of photoproducts indicated that adenine and deoxyadenosine monophosphate were commonly produced above 7.3 eV (170 nm) in approximately equal amount. Deoxyribose was not detected by the fluorescence method with scratched materials from the chromatogram at any location except deoxyadenosine monophosphate and parent oligonucleotide positions. The photoproducts above mentioned were not observed at 6.5 eV (190 nm) even after very high radiation fluence. The energy dependence of this degradation indicates that the shorter the wavelength in use the smaller the fluence it requires. Careful examination of irradiated oligonucleotide on the chromatograms shows that the major portion of deoxyadenosine monophosphate so produced was the 5'phospho derivative. This site-selective degradation, independent of photon energy, seemed to be a remarkable characteristic of vacuum-UV induced effects above 7 eV. It is hypothesised that the deoxypentose moiety was first destroyed in one of the nucleoside residues due to the strong absorption in the sugar-phosphate group, liberating adenine on the one hand and leaving 5'-deoxyadenosine monophosphate. (author)

  3. Potyviral VPg enhances viral RNA Translation and inhibits reporter mRNA translation in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelin, Katri; Hafrén, Anders; Rantalainen, Kimmo I; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2011-09-01

    Viral protein genome-linked (VPg) plays a central role in several stages of potyvirus infection. This study sought to answer questions about the role of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) VPg in viral and host RNA expression. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in trans, a dual role of VPg in translation is observed. It repressed the expression of monocistronic luciferase (luc) mRNA and simultaneously induced a significant upregulation in the expression of both replicating and nonreplicating PVA RNAs. This enhanced viral gene expression was due at least to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of PVA RNA, eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and iso 4E [eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E], and the presence of a sufficient amount of VPg. Coexpression of VPg with viral RNA increased the viral RNA amount, which was not the case with the monocistronic mRNA. Both mutations at certain lysine residues in PVA VPg and eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E depletion reduced its ability to upregulate the viral RNA expression. These modifications were also involved in VPg-mediated downregulation of monocistronic luc expression. These results suggest that VPg can titrate eIF4Es from capped monocistronic RNAs. Because VPg-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression required eIF4Es, it is possible that VPg directs eIF4Es to promote viral RNA expression. From this study it is evident that VPg can serve as a specific regulator of PVA expression by boosting the viral RNA amounts as well as the accumulation of viral translation products. Such a mechanism could function to protect viral RNA from being degraded and to secure efficient production of coat protein (CP) for virion formation.

  4. Potyviral VPg Enhances Viral RNA Translation and Inhibits Reporter mRNA Translation In Planta▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelin, Katri; Hafrén, Anders; Rantalainen, Kimmo I.; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    Viral protein genome-linked (VPg) plays a central role in several stages of potyvirus infection. This study sought to answer questions about the role of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) VPg in viral and host RNA expression. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in trans, a dual role of VPg in translation is observed. It repressed the expression of monocistronic luciferase (luc) mRNA and simultaneously induced a significant upregulation in the expression of both replicating and nonreplicating PVA RNAs. This enhanced viral gene expression was due at least to the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of PVA RNA, eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and iso 4E [eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E], and the presence of a sufficient amount of VPg. Coexpression of VPg with viral RNA increased the viral RNA amount, which was not the case with the monocistronic mRNA. Both mutations at certain lysine residues in PVA VPg and eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E depletion reduced its ability to upregulate the viral RNA expression. These modifications were also involved in VPg-mediated downregulation of monocistronic luc expression. These results suggest that VPg can titrate eIF4Es from capped monocistronic RNAs. Because VPg-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression required eIF4Es, it is possible that VPg directs eIF4Es to promote viral RNA expression. From this study it is evident that VPg can serve as a specific regulator of PVA expression by boosting the viral RNA amounts as well as the accumulation of viral translation products. Such a mechanism could function to protect viral RNA from being degraded and to secure efficient production of coat protein (CP) for virion formation. PMID:21697470

  5. Intestinal cellular localization of PCNA protein and CYP1A mRNA in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to a model toxicant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsvik Pål A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the intestinal cellular localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cytochrome P450 A1 (CYP1A expression in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to a model toxicant. The stress response was induced by intraperitoneal injection of four salmon with a single dose (50 mg/kg of the CYP1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF and intestinal tissue (mid and distal intestine; MI and DI was sampled seven days later. Samples for histology and gene transcription analysis were collected from four exposed fish and four control fish. PCNA was assessed by immunohistochemistry, CYP1A mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization (ISH and finally the transcription of five genes was quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time RT-PCR; two detoxifying genes (CYP1A and glutathione S-transferase; GST, a stress marker gene (heat shock protein 70; HSP70, PCNA and a gene marker of apoptosis (caspase 6A. Results PCNA protein and CYP1A mRNA were successfully localized in the intestinal cells (MI of both experimental groups. At the cellular level, BNF significantly lowered intestinal cell proliferation and increased the CYP1A mRNA levels compared to the control group. The real-time RT-PCR data, which showed an increased mRNA expression both in the MI and DI of 139- and 62-fold, respectively, confirmed the increased cellular CYP1A mRNA levels detected using ISH. HSP70 expression was also up-regulated in the exposed fish. The other examined genes did not show any differential regulation in the experimental fish group. Conclusion This study showed that CYP1A mRNA had a specific intestinal cellular transcription pattern in Atlantic salmon exposed to BNF. At the cellular level CYP1A mRNA expression was always observed at or around the cell nucleus close to the basolateral cell membrane and at the tissue level CYP1A mRNA expression was most frequently observed in the basal and apex area of the intestinal

  6. Hedgehog signaling pathway is active in GBM with GLI1 mRNA expression showing a single continuous distribution rather than discrete high/low clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vikas; Das, Tapojyoti; Gulati, Puneet; Biswas, Nidhan K; Rote, Sarang; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Samarendra N; Deb, Sumit; Saha, Suniti K; Chowdhury, Anup K; Ghosh, Subhashish; Rudin, Charles M; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression--as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution-unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the "high-Hh" cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the "low-Hh" cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 μM) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them.

  7. Improved differentiation of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells by PDX-1 mRNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Thi-My Nguyen, Phuoc; Thai-Quynh Nguyen, Anh; Minh Pham, Vuong; Nguyen-Tu Bui, Anh; Thi-Tung Dang, Loan; Gia Nguyen, Khue; Kim Phan, Ngoc

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have sought to identify diabetes mellitus treatment strategies with fewer side effects. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy was previously considered as a promising therapy; however, it requires the cells to be trans-differentiated into cells of the pancreatic-endocrine lineage before transplantation. Previous studies have shown that PDX-1 expression can facilitate MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), but the methods employed to date use viral or DNA-based tools to express PDX-1, with the associated risks of insertional mutation and immunogenicity. Thus, this study aimed to establish a new method to induce PDX-1 expression in MSCs by mRNA transfection. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro, with stemness confirmed by surface markers and multipotentiality. MSCs were transfected with PDX-1 mRNA by nucleofection and chemically induced to differentiate into IPCs (combinatorial group). This IPC differentiation was then compared with that of untransfected chemically induced cells (inducer group) and uninduced cells (control group). We found that PDX-1 mRNA transfection significantly improved the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs, with 8.3±2.5% IPCs in the combinatorial group, 3.21±2.11% in the inducer group and 0% in the control. Cells in the combinatorial group also strongly expressed several genes related to beta cells (Pdx-1, Ngn3, Nkx6.1 and insulin) and could produce C-peptide in the cytoplasm and insulin in the supernatant, which was dependent on the extracellular glucose concentration. These results indicate that PDX-1 mRNA may offer a promising approach to produce safe IPCs for clinical diabetes mellitus treatment. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CCS mRNA transcripts and serum CCS protein as copper marker in adults suffering inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Arredondo, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The chaperone to Zn-Cu superoxide dismutase (CCS) has been postulated as a candidate copper indicator, changing in a consistent manner in induced and recovered copper deficiency, in experimental cell and animal models. In real life people have various conditions that may modify molecules acting as acute phase proteins, such as serum ceruloplasmin and copper concentration and could alter CCS responses. With the hypothesis that CCS mRNA transcripts and protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes in comparison to healthy individuals, we assessed adult individuals who, although not ill had conditions known to induce variable degrees of inflammation. Screening of 600 adults resulted in two study groups, formed on the basis of their clinical history and levels of serum C reactive protein (CRP): Group 1 (n = 61, mean (range) CRP = 0.9 (0.3-2.0 mg/dL) and Group 2 (n = 150, mean (range) CRP = 6.1 (4.3-8.7 mg/dL). Results showed that mRNA transcripts relative abundance was not different for CCS, MTIIA, TNF-alpha and Cu-Zn-SOD by group (p > 0.05, one way Anova), nor between sexes (p > 0.05, one way Anova). Distribution of CCS mRNA transcripts and CCS protein in serum did not show any differences or trends. Results disproved our hypothesis that CCS abundance of transcripts and CCS protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes, adding further support to the idea that CCS may be a copper marker.

  9. Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, G.; Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared

  10. Effect of in vitro estrogenic pesticides on human oestrogen receptor α and β mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander Grünfeld, Heidi; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2004-01-01

    of the ERα mRNA level, but only significantly for prochloraz, dieldrin, and tolchlofos-methyl. Alone no pesticides affected the ERβ mRNA level significantly, but chlorpyrifos increased the mRNA level weakly. Co-exposure with E2 elicited a significant increased ERβ mRNA level by prochloraz, fenarimol...

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα mRNA expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and non-cancerous liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα regulates lipid metabolism in the liver. It is unclear, however, how this receptor changes in liver cancer tissue. On the other hand, mouse carcinogenicity studies showed that PPARα is necessary for the development of liver cancer induced by peroxisome proliferators, and the relationship between PPARα and the development of liver cancer have been the focus of considerable attention. There have been no reports, however, demonstrating that PPARα is involved in the development of human liver cancer. Methods The subjects were 10 patients who underwent hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. We assessed the expression of PPARα mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and non-cancerous tissue, as well as the expression of target genes of PPARα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and cyclin D1 mRNAs. We also evaluated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the glycolytic system. Results The amounts of PPARα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA in cancerous sections were significantly increased compared to those in non-cancerous sections. The level of cyclin D1 mRNA tends to be higher in cancerous than non-cancerous sections. Although there was a significant correlation between the levels of PPARα mRNA and cyclin D1 mRNA in both sections, however the correlation was higher in cancerous sections. Conclusion The present investigation indicated increased expression of PPARα mRNA and mRNAs for PPARα target genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma. These results might be associated with its carcinogenesis and characteristic features of energy production.

  12. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Sharon K.; Mata, Miguel A.; Zhang, Liang; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. PMID:23872491

  13. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Sinturel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3′-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3′-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3′-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3′-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5′-3′ cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression.

  14. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinturel, Flore; Navickas, Albertas; Wery, Maxime; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; Torchet, Claire; Benard, Lionel

    2015-09-22

    Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3'-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3'-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3'-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3'-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs) form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5'-3' cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of mRNA translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Weissman, Jonathan S; Vale, Ronald D

    2015-08-25

    Passage through mitosis is driven by precisely-timed changes in transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. However, the importance of translational regulation during mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, using ribosome profiling, we find both a global translational repression and identified ~200 mRNAs that undergo specific translational regulation at mitotic entry. In contrast, few changes in mRNA abundance are observed, indicating that regulation of translation is the primary mechanism of modulating protein expression during mitosis. Interestingly, 91% of the mRNAs that undergo gene-specific regulation in mitosis are translationally repressed, rather than activated. One of the most pronounced translationally-repressed genes is Emi1, an inhibitor of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) which is degraded during mitosis. We show that full APC activation requires translational repression of Emi1 in addition to its degradation. These results identify gene-specific translational repression as a means of controlling the mitotic proteome, which may complement post-translational mechanisms for inactivating protein function.

  16. IER5 gene's mRNA expression after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Kuke; Shen Jingjing; Xu Lili; Li Yanling; Zhou Ping; Ma Binrong; Zhao Zengqiang; Sui Jianli; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of irradiation on IER5 gene expression. Methods: Two kinds of cells (AHH-1 and HeLa) and the BALB/c-nu mice inoculated with tumor cells were exposed to 60 Co γ- rays and analyzed by real-time PCR. The above-mentioned irradiated objects were firstly divided into groups by different doses and post-radiation time, then mRNA were extracted and reverse-transcripted to DNA before real-time PCR test. Results: Under the same condition, AHH-1 was more sensitive to radiation than HeLa. The dose level corresponding to the expression peak of AHH-1 was less than that of HeLa. For AHH-1 cells, the response to 2 Gy irradiation was earlier than that to 10 Gy. But there was not remarkable difference for HeLa response between 2 and 10 Gy, and the top transcriptional levels for both cells nearly simultaneously appeared at 2 h after irradiation. In addition, the IER5 gene of human liver tumor was more sensitive than that of lung cancer and brain tumor. Conclusions: IER5 might be a candidate biomarker of radiation injury, and had the potential value in radiation-therapy for liver tumor. (authors)

  17. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.; D'Agostino, J.B.; Frazier, M.L.; Besch, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A + ) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A + ) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a 32 P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

  18. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A.; D' Agostino, J.B.; Frazier, M.L.; Besch, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a /sup 32/P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II.

  19. In human granulosa cells from small antral follicles, androgen receptor mRNA and androgen levels in follicular fluid correlate with FSH receptor mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Rasmussen, I. A.; Kristensen, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    significantly with the expression of AMHRII, but did not correlate with any of the hormones in the follicular fluid. These data demonstrate an intimate association between AR expression in immature granulosa cells, and the expression of FSHR in normal small human antral follicles and between the follicular......Human small antral follicles (diameter 3-9 mm) were obtained from ovaries surgically removed for fertility preservation. From the individual aspirated follicles, granulosa cells and the corresponding follicular fluid were isolated in 64 follicles, of which 55 were available for mRNA analysis (24...... and to the follicular fluid concentrations of AMH, inhibin-B, progesterone and estradiol. AR mRNA expression in granulosa cells and the follicular fluid content of androgens both showed a highly significant positive association with the expression of FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells. AR mRNA expression also correlated...

  20. Rifampin modulation of xeno- and endobiotic conjugating enzyme mRNA expression and associated microRNAs in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufford, Brandon T; Robarge, Jason D; Eadon, Michael T; Gao, Hongyu; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yunlong; Desta, Zeruesenay; Skaar, Todd C

    2018-04-01

    Rifampin is a pleiotropic inducer of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. This work utilized a global approach to evaluate rifampin effects on conjugating enzyme gene expression with relevance to human xeno- and endo-biotic metabolism. Primary human hepatocytes from 7 subjects were treated with rifampin (10 μmol/L, 24 hours). Standard methods for RNA-seq library construction, EZBead preparation, and NextGen sequencing were used to measure UDP-glucuronosyl transferase UGT, sulfonyltransferase SULT, N acetyltransferase NAT, and glutathione-S-transferase GST mRNA expression compared to vehicle control (0.01% MeOH). Rifampin-induced (>1.25-fold) mRNA expression of 13 clinically important phase II drug metabolizing genes and repressed (>1.25-fold) the expression of 3 genes ( P  accounting for simultaneous induction of both CYP3A4 and UGT1A4 predicted a ~10-fold decrease in parent midazolam exposure with only a ~2-fold decrease in midazolam N-glucuronide metabolite exposure. These data reveal differential effects of rifampin on the human conjugating enzyme transcriptome and potential associations with miRNAs that form the basis for future mechanistic studies to elucidate the interplay of conjugating enzyme regulatory elements.

  1. Differential Expression of Sox11 and Bdnf mRNA Isoforms in the Injured and Regenerating Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix L. Struebing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In both the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS, axonal injury induces changes in neuronal gene expression. In the PNS, a relatively well-characterized alteration in transcriptional activation is known to promote axonal regeneration. This transcriptional cascade includes the neurotrophin Bdnf and the transcription factor Sox11. Although both molecules act to facilitate successful axon regeneration in the PNS, this process does not occur in the CNS. The present study examines the differential expression of Sox11 and Bdnf mRNA isoforms in the PNS and CNS using three experimental paradigms at different time points: (i the acutely injured CNS (retina after optic nerve crush and PNS (dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve crush, (ii a CNS regeneration model (retina after optic nerve crush and induced regeneration; and (iii the retina during a chronic form of central neurodegeneration (the DBA/2J glaucoma model. We find an initial increase of Sox11 in both PNS and CNS after injury; however, the expression of Bdnf isoforms is higher in the PNS relative to the CNS. Sustained upregulation of Sox11 is seen in the injured retina following regeneration treatment, while the expression of two Bdnf mRNA isoforms is suppressed. Furthermore, two isoforms of Sox11 with different 3′UTR lengths are present in the retina, and the long isoform is specifically upregulated in later stages of glaucoma. These results provide insight into the molecular cascades active during axonal injury and regeneration in mammalian neurons.

  2. Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2004-01-01

    growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured mRNA...... or VEGF mRNA was not changed with prolonged hypoxic exposure in SLR, and both genes were similarly expressed in SLR and HAN. In SLR, whole body mass, mean muscle fibre area and capillary to muscle fibre ratio remained unchanged during acclimatization. The capillary to fibre ratio was lower in HAN than...... in SLR (2.4+/-0.1 vs 3.6+/-0.2; PRNA expression and capillary density are not significantly increased by 8 weeks of exposure to high altitude and are not increased in Aymara high-altitude natives compared with sea level residents....

  3. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  4. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  5. Heterologous Expression of Membrane and Soluble Proteins Derepresses GCN4 mRNA Translation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, L.; Pedersen, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    -ATPase also induced GCN4 translation. Derepression of GCN4 translation required phosphorylation of eIF-2 , the tRNA binding domain of Gcn2p, and the ribosome-associated proteins Gcn1p and Gcn20p. The increase in Gcn4p density in response to heterologous expression did not induce transcription from the HIS4...... promoter, a traditional Gcn4p target.......This paper describes the first physiological response at the translational level towards heterologous protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 ) by Gcn2p protein kinase mediates derepression of GCN4 mRNA translation. Gcn4...

  6. v-Src oncogene product increases sphingosine kinase 1 expression through mRNA stabilization: alteration of AU-rich element-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, S; Murakami, M; Banno, Y; Ito, H; Kimura, A; Gao, S; Furuhata, A; Takagi, A; Kojima, T; Suzuki, M; Nozawa, Y; Murate, T

    2008-10-09

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is overexpressed in solid tumors and leukemia. However, the mechanism of SPHK1 overexpression by oncogenes has not been defined. We found that v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells showed a high SPHK1 mRNA, SPHK1 protein and SPHK enzyme activity. siRNA of SPHK1 inhibited the growth of v-Src-NIH3T3, suggesting the involvement of SPHK1 in v-Src-induced oncogenesis. v-Src-NIH3T3 showed activations of protein kinase C-alpha, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Their inhibition suppressed SPHK1 expression in v-Src-NIH3T3, whereas their overexpression increased SPHK1 mRNA in NIH3T3. Unexpectedly, the nuclear run-on assay and the promoter analysis using 5'-promoter region of mouse SPHK1 did not show any significant difference between mock- and v-Src-NIH3T3. Furthermore, the half-life of SPHK1 mRNA in mock-NIH3T3 was nearly 15 min, whereas that of v-Src-NIH3T3 was much longer. Examination of two AU-rich region-binding proteins, AUF1 and HuR, that regulate mRNA decay reciprocally, showed decreased total AUF1 protein associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated form and increased serine-phosphorylated HuR protein in v-Src-NIH3T3. Modulation of AUF1 and HuR by their overexpression or siRNA revealed that SPHK1 mRNA in v-Src- and mock-NIH3T3 was regulated reciprocally by these factors. Our results showed, for the first time, a novel mechanism of v-Src-induced SPHK1 overexpression.

  7. Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin-Specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T Follicular Helper Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Lindgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID and intramuscular (IM administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in vaccine-draining lymph nodes along with an increase in circulating H10-specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T follicular helper cells, a population shown to correlate with high avidity antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in humans. Collectively, this study demonstrates that mRNA/LNP vaccines potently induce an immunological repertoire associated with the generation of high magnitude and quality antibodies.

  8. Identification of sperm mRNA biomarkers associated with testis injury during preclinical testing of pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dere, Edward; Spade, Daniel J.; Hall, Susan J.; Altemus, Aimee; Smith, James D.; Phillips, Jonathan A.; Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Blanchard, Kerry T.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The human testis is sensitive to toxicant-induced injury but current methods for detecting adverse effects are limited, insensitive and unreliable. Animal studies use sensitive histopathological endpoints to assess toxicity, but require testicular tissue that is not available during human clinical trials. More sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers of testicular injury are needed to better monitor testicular toxicity in both clinical and preclinical. Adult male Wistar Han rats were exposed for 4 weeks to compounds previously associated with testicular injury, including cisplatin (0, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg/kg/day), BI665915 (0, 20, 70, 100 mg/kg/d), BI665636 (0, 20, 100 mg/kg/d) or BI163538 (0, 70, 150, 300 mg/kg/d) to evaluate reproductive toxicity and assess changes in sperm mRNA levels. None of the compounds resulted in any significant changes in body, testis or epididymis weights, nor were there decreases in testicular homogenization resistant spermatid head counts. Histopathological evaluation found that only BI665915 treatment caused any testicular effects, including minor germ cell loss and disorganization of the seminiferous tubule epithelium, and an increase in the number of retained spermatid heads. A custom PCR-array panel was used to assess induced changes in sperm mRNA. BI665915 treatment resulted in a significant increase in clusterin (Clu) levels and decreases in GTPase, IMAP family member 4 (Gimap4), prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) and transmembrane protein with EGF like and two follistatin like domains 1 (Tmeff1) levels. Correlation analysis between transcript levels and quantitative histopathological endpoints found a modest association between Clu with retained spermatid heads. These results demonstrate that sperm mRNA levels are sensitive molecular indicators of testicular injury that can potentially be translated into a clinical setting. - Highlights: • Testing of pharmaceutical compounds identified altered sperm mRNA transcripts.

  9. Identification of sperm mRNA biomarkers associated with testis injury during preclinical testing of pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dere, Edward [Division of Urology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Spade, Daniel J.; Hall, Susan J. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Altemus, Aimee; Smith, James D.; Phillips, Jonathan A.; Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Blanchard, Kerry T. [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Boekelheide, Kim, E-mail: kim_boekelheide@brown.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The human testis is sensitive to toxicant-induced injury but current methods for detecting adverse effects are limited, insensitive and unreliable. Animal studies use sensitive histopathological endpoints to assess toxicity, but require testicular tissue that is not available during human clinical trials. More sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers of testicular injury are needed to better monitor testicular toxicity in both clinical and preclinical. Adult male Wistar Han rats were exposed for 4 weeks to compounds previously associated with testicular injury, including cisplatin (0, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg/kg/day), BI665915 (0, 20, 70, 100 mg/kg/d), BI665636 (0, 20, 100 mg/kg/d) or BI163538 (0, 70, 150, 300 mg/kg/d) to evaluate reproductive toxicity and assess changes in sperm mRNA levels. None of the compounds resulted in any significant changes in body, testis or epididymis weights, nor were there decreases in testicular homogenization resistant spermatid head counts. Histopathological evaluation found that only BI665915 treatment caused any testicular effects, including minor germ cell loss and disorganization of the seminiferous tubule epithelium, and an increase in the number of retained spermatid heads. A custom PCR-array panel was used to assess induced changes in sperm mRNA. BI665915 treatment resulted in a significant increase in clusterin (Clu) levels and decreases in GTPase, IMAP family member 4 (Gimap4), prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) and transmembrane protein with EGF like and two follistatin like domains 1 (Tmeff1) levels. Correlation analysis between transcript levels and quantitative histopathological endpoints found a modest association between Clu with retained spermatid heads. These results demonstrate that sperm mRNA levels are sensitive molecular indicators of testicular injury that can potentially be translated into a clinical setting. - Highlights: • Testing of pharmaceutical compounds identified altered sperm mRNA transcripts.

  10. Changes in angiotensin AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the rat brain after immobilization stress and inhibition of central nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, A; Jurkovicova, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O

    2001-06-01

    To study functional interactions between angiotensin II AT1 receptors and nitric oxide (NO) activity in different brain areas in rats exposed to immobilization stress. Central inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was provided by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of (N-omega-nitro-L-arginine-methylester) L-NAME and analysis of AT1 receptor mRNA was performed using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The immobilization in prone position lasted 2 hrs and the rats were sacrificed 24 hr later. The hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex were isolated from fresh brains. In the cortex, gene expression of AT1 receptors was unaffected either by L-NAME treatment, or by a single exposure to immobilization stress for 2 hours followed by 24 hours of rest. In the hippocampus, the repeated treatment with L-NAME increased mRNA levels of AT1 receptors approximately 9-times compared to those in the control (untreated) group. Immobilization also increased AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the hippocampus which was similar to that induced by the L-NAME. The increase of AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the hippocampus of immobilized rats was not further altered when the animals were pretreated with L-NAME. In control rats, exposure to immobilization resulted in a significant rise in mRNA levels coding for AT1 receptors in the hypothalamus, but not in the thalamus. L-NAME treatment showed a tendency of increase in AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. Moreover, when animals treated with L-NAME were subjected to immobilization, a further increase in AT1 receptor mRNA levels was observed in the hypothalamus in comparison with corresponding controls. The present data indicate that a single immobilization stress results in increased gene expression of AT1 receptors in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. The rise in AT1 mRNA levels in the same brain structures after repeated treatment with L-NAME allow to suggest an

  11. Green tea increases anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin and decreases pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor mRNA levels in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel Anne M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36 family proteins have anti-inflammatory activity by binding to and destabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs such as Tnf mRNA, and represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-related diseases. Tea has anti-inflammatory properties but the molecular mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We hypothesized that TTP and/or its homologues might contribute to the beneficial effects of tea as an anti-inflammatory product. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the effects of green tea (0, 1, and 2 g solid extract/kg diet on the expression of Ttp family genes (Ttp/Tis11/Zfp36, Zfp36l1/Tis11b, Zfp36l2/Tis11d, Zfp36l3, pro-inflammatory genes (Tnf, Csf2/Gm-csf, Ptgs2/Cox2, and Elavl1/Hua/Hur and Vegf genes in liver and muscle of rats fed a high-fructose diet known to induce insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and TNF-alpha levels. Results Ttp and Zfp36l1 mRNAs were the major forms in both liver and skeletal muscle. Ttp, Zfp36l1, and Zfp36l2 mRNA levels were more abundant in the liver than those in the muscle. Csf2/Gm-csf and Zfp36l3 mRNAs were undetectable in both tissues. Tea (1 g solid extract/kg diet increased Ttp mRNA levels by 50–140% but Tnf mRNA levels decreased by 30% in both tissues, and Ptgs2/Cox2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% in the muscle. Tea (2 g solid extract/kg diet increased Elavl1/Hua/Hur mRNA levels by 40% in the liver but did not affect any of the other mRNA levels in liver or muscle. Conclusion These results show that tea can modulate Ttp mRNA levels in animals and suggest that a post-transcriptional mechanism through TTP could partially account for tea's anti-inflammatory properties. The results also suggest that drinking adequate amounts of green tea may play a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  12. Analysis of thyroid hormone receptor βA mRNA expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as a means to detect agonism and antagonism of thyroid hormone action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Robert; Lutz, Ilka; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Kloas, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis represents a unique biological model to study thyroid hormone (TH) action in vivo. In this study, we examined the utility of thyroid hormone receptors α (TRα) and βA (TRβA) mRNA expression patterns in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as molecular markers indicating modulation of TH action. During spontaneous metamorphosis, only moderate changes were evident for TRα gene expression whereas a marked up-regulation of TRβA mRNA occurred in hind limbs (prometamorphosis), head (late prometamorphosis), and tail tissue (metamorphic climax). Treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles with 1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) caused a rapid induction of TRβA mRNA in head and tail tissue within 6 to 12 h which was maintained for at least 72 h after initiation of T3 treatment. Developmental stage had a strong influence on the responsiveness of tadpole tissues to induce TRβA mRNA during 24 h treatment with thyroxine (0, 1, 5, 10 nM T4) or T3 (0, 1, 5, 10 nM). Premetamorphic tadpoles were highly sensitive in their response to T4 and T3 treatments, whereas sensitivity to TH was decreased in early prometamorphic tadpoles and strongly diminished in late prometamorphic tadpoles. To examine the utility of TRβA gene expression analysis for detection of agonistic and antagonistic effects on T3 action, mRNA expression was assessed in premetamorphic tadpoles after 48 h of treatment with the synthetic agonist GC-1 (0, 10, 50, 250 nM), the synthetic antagonist NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM), and binary combinations of NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM) and T3 (1 nM). All tested concentrations of GC-1 as well as the highest concentration of NH-3 caused an up-regulation of TRβA expression. Co-treatment with NH-3 and T3 revealed strong antagonistic effects by NH-3 on T3-induced TRβA mRNA up-regulation. Results of this study suggest that TRβA mRNA expression analysis could serve as a sensitive molecular testing approach to study effects of environmental compounds on the thyroid system in

  13. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Coordinated Regulations of mRNA Synthesis and Decay during Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis Cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Arae, Toshihiro

    2017-04-18

    Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation. Therefore, it is important to assess the regulatory steps to increase our understanding of gene regulation. Here, we analyzed temporal changes in mRNA amounts and half-lives in response to cold stress in Arabidopsis cell cultures based on genome-wide analysis. In this mRNA decay array method, mRNA half-life measurements and microarray analyses were combined. In addition, temporal changes in the integrated value of transcription rates were estimated from the above two parameters using a mathematical approach. Our results showed that several cold-responsive genes, including Cold-regulated 15a, were relatively destabilized, whereas the mRNA amounts were increased during cold treatment by accelerating the transcription rate to overcome the destabilization. Considering the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and degradation, this apparently contradictory result supports that mRNA destabilization is advantageous for the swift increase in CBF-responsive genes in response to cold stress.

  15. Primary induction of vitellogenin mRNA in the rooster by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A T; Deeley, R G; Gordon, J I; Udell, D S; Mullinix, K P; Goldberger, R F

    1978-01-01

    We have studied the kinetics of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in rooster liver after a primary injection of 17beta-estradiol. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA have been determined both by hybridization of total cellular RNA to vitellogenin cDNA and by translation of vitellogenin mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system. The results obtained by both methods of analysis are in good agreement and indicate that vitellogenin mRNA is present in the liver of normal roosters at a level of 0-5 molecules per liver cell and increases in amount during the 3 days following injection of estrogen, reaching a level of almost 6000 molecules per cell at the peak of the response. The level of vitellogenin mRNA declined exponentially during the next 14 days with a half-life of 29 hr, reaching a level of less than 10 molecules per cell at 17 days after injection of the hormone. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA after stimulation with estrogen have been correlated with the in vivo rate of synthesis of the vitellogenin polypeptide. The results indicate that the rate of vitellogenin synthesis is closely correlated with the level of vitellogenin mRNA. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that vitellogenin mRNA does not exist in the liver in an untranslated form after withdrawal from estrogen. PMID:273910

  16. Survivin mRNA antagonists using locked nucleic acid, potential for molecular cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Westergaard, Majken; Hansen, Henrik Frydenlund

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of different locked nucleic acid modified antisense mRNA antagonists against Survivin in a prostate cancer model. These mRNA antagonists were found to be potent inhibitors of Survivin expression at low nanomolar concentrations. Additionally there was a pronounced ...

  17. Coordinated Regulations of mRNA Synthesis and Decay during Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis Cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Arae, Toshihiro; Isai, Shiori; Sakai, Akira; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Suzuki, Yuya; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Yamaguchi, Junji; Naito, Satoshi; Chiba, Yukako

    2017-01-01

    stress in Arabidopsis cell cultures based on genome-wide analysis. In this mRNA decay array method, mRNA half-life measurements and microarray analyses were combined. In addition, temporal changes in the integrated value of transcription rates were

  18. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  19. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  20. Exogenous mRNA encoding tetanus or botulinum neurotoxins expressed in Aplysia neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochida, Sumiko; Poulain, Bernard; Eisel, Ulrich; Binz, Thomas; Kurazono, Hisao; Niemann, Heiner; Tauc, Ladislav; Bullock, Theodore H.

    1990-01-01

    Injection of exogenous mRNA purified from various tissue preparations into cellular translation systems such as Xenopus oocytes has allowed expression of complex proteins (e.g., receptors for neurotransmitters). No evidence for expression of injected exogenous mRNA, however, has been reported in

  1. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  2. Quantitative analyses of postmortem heat shock protein mRNA profiles in the occipital lobes of human cerebral cortices: implications in cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ukhee; Seo, Joong-Seok; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Son, Gi Hoon; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative RNA analyses of autopsy materials to diagnose the cause and mechanism of death are challenging tasks in the field of forensic molecular pathology. Alterations in mRNA profiles can be induced by cellular stress responses during supravital reactions as well as by lethal insults at the time of death. Here, we demonstrate that several gene transcripts encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), a gene family primarily responsible for cellular stress responses, can be differentially expressed in the occipital region of postmortem human cerebral cortices with regard to the cause of death. HSPA2 mRNA levels were higher in subjects who died due to mechanical asphyxiation (ASP), compared with those who died by traumatic injury (TI). By contrast, HSPA7 and A13 gene transcripts were much higher in the TI group than in the ASP and sudden cardiac death (SCD) groups. More importantly, relative abundances between such HSP mRNA species exhibit a stronger correlation to, and thus provide more discriminative information on, the death process than does routine normalization to a housekeeping gene. Therefore, the present study proposes alterations in HSP mRNA composition in the occipital lobe as potential forensic biological markers, which may implicate the cause and process of death.

  3. Role of protein and mRNA oxidation in seed dormancy and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayat eel-maarouf-bouteau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are key players in the regulation of seed germination and dormancy. Although their regulated accumulation is a prerequisite for germination, the cellular basis of their action remains unknown, but very challenging to elucidate due to the lack of specificity of these compounds that can potentially react with all biomolecules. Among these, nucleic acids and proteins are very prone to oxidative damage. RNA is highly sensitive to oxidation because of its single-stranded structure and the absence of a repair system. Oxidation of mRNAs induces their decay through processing bodies or results in the synthesis of aberrant proteins through altered translation. Depending on the oxidized amino acid, ROS damage of proteins can be irreversible (i.e. carbonylation thus triggering the degradation of the oxidized proteins by the cytosolic 20S proteasome or can be reversed through the action of thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins or glutaredoxins (cysteine oxidation or by methionine sulfoxide reductase (methionine oxidation. Seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state, referred to as after-ripening, requires both selective mRNA oxidation and protein carbonylation. Similarly, seed imbibition of non-dormant seeds is associated with targeted oxidation of a subset of proteins. Altogether, these specific features testify that such oxidative modifications play important role in commitment of the cellular functioning toward germination completion.

  4. The potential role of IGF-I receptor mRNA in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡洪宇; 邹伟; 刘丹; 史榕荇; 程丽华; 殷慧清; 刘晓民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA(IGF-IR mRNA) in the onset and development of retinopathy in diabetic rats.Methods A diabetic model was duplicated in Wistar rats. The early changes in the retina were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of IGF-IR mRNA was analyzed using in situ hybridization.Results Weak expression of IGF-IR mRNA(5%) was found in retinas of normal rats, but was significantly increased (15% and 18%) in the retinas of diabetic rats after 3 and 6 months of diabetes (P<0.01). In situ hybridization and morphological study demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between IGF-IR mRNA expression and retinal changes at various stages.Conclusion Increased IGF-IR mRNA might play an important role in the onset and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Simultaneous isolation of mRNA and native protein from minute samples of cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2014-01-01

    Precious biological samples often lack a sufficient number of cells for multiple procedures, such as extraction of mRNA while maintaining protein in a non-denatured state suitable for subsequent characterization. Here we present a new method for the simultaneous purification of mRNA and native...... in their native state for traditional protein assays. We validated the procedure using neonatal rat ovaries and small numbers of human granulosa cells, demonstrating the extraction of mRNA suitable for gene expression analysis with simultaneous isolation of native proteins suitable for downstream characterization...... proteins from samples containing small numbers of cells. Our approach utilizes oligodeoxythymidylate [oligo(dT)25]-coated paramagnetic beads in an optimized reaction buffer to isolate mRNA comparable in quantity and quality to mRNA isolated with existing methods, while maintaining the proteins...

  6. Selenium Deficiency Influences the mRNA Expression of Selenoproteins and Cytokines in Chicken Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yilin; Zhao, Jinxin; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P chicken erythrocytes (P chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines in chicken erythrocytes, revealing a relationship between Se and the chicken immune system. This study offers information regarding the mechanism of Se deficiency-induced hemolysis.

  7. Changes in apoptotic microRNA and mRNA expression profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans during the Shenzhou-8 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ying; Li Shuai; Xu Dan; Wang Junjun; Sun Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Radiation and microgravity exposure have been proven to induce abnormal apoptosis in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression, but whether space conditions, including radiation and microgravity, activate miRNAs to regulate the apoptosis is undetermined. For that purpose, we investigated miRNome and mRNA expression in the ced-1 Caenorhabditis elegans mutant vs the wild-type, both of which underwent spaceflight, spaceflight 1g-centrifuge control and ground control conditions during the Shenzhou-8 mission. Results showed that no morphological changes in the worms were detected, but differential miRNA expression increased from 43 (ground control condition) to 57 and 91 in spaceflight and spaceflight control conditions, respectively. Microgravity altered miRNA expression profiling by decreasing the number and significance of differentially expressed miRNA compared with 1 g incubation during spaceflight. Alterations in the miRNAs were involved in alterations in apoptosis, neurogenesis larval development, ATP metabolism and GTPase-mediated signal transduction. Among these, 17 altered miRNAs potentially involved in apoptosis were screened and showed obviously different expression signatures between space conditions. By integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA, miR-797 and miR-81 may be involved in apoptosis by targeting the genes ced-10 and both drp-1 and hsp-1, respectively. Compared with ground condition, space conditions regulated apoptosis though a different manner on transcription, by altering expression of seven core apoptotic genes in spaceflight condition, and eight in spaceflight control condition. Results indicate that, miRNA of Caenorhabditis elegans probably regulates apoptotic gene expression in response to space environmental stress, and shows different behavior under microgravity condition compared with 1 g condition in the presence of space radiation. (author)

  8. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  9. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  10. Complement mRNA in the mammalian brain: responses to Alzheimer's disease and experimental brain lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S A; Lampert-Etchells, M; Pasinetti, G M; Rozovsky, I; Finch, C E

    1992-01-01

    This study describes evidence in the adult human and rat brain for mRNAs that encode two complement (C) proteins, C1qB and C4. C proteins are important effectors of humoral immunity and inflammation in peripheral tissues but have not been considered as normally present in brain. Previous immunocytochemical studies showed that C proteins are associated with plaques, tangles, and dystrophic neurites in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their source is unknown. Combined immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques show C4 mRNA in pyramidal neurons and C1qB mRNA in microglia. Primary rat neuron cultures also show C1qB mRNA. In the cortex from AD brains, there were two- to threefold increases of C1qB mRNA and C4 mRNA, and increased C1qB mRNA prevalence was in part associated with microglia. As a model for AD, we examined entorhinal cortex perforant path transection in the rat brain, which caused rapid increases of C1qB mRNA in the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The role of brain-derived acute and chronic C induction during AD and experimental lesions can now be considered in relation to functions of C proteins that pertain to cell degeneration and/or cell preservation and synaptic plasticity.

  11. Single-cell mRNA transfection studies: delivery, kinetics and statistics by numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Carolin; Schwake, Gerlinde; Stögbauer, Tobias R; Rappl, Susanne; Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Ligon, Thomas S; Rädler, Joachim O

    2014-05-01

    In artificial gene delivery, messenger RNA (mRNA) is an attractive alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) since it does not require transfer into the cell nucleus. Here we show that, unlike for pDNA transfection, the delivery statistics and dynamics of mRNA-mediated expression are generic and predictable in terms of mathematical modeling. We measured the single-cell expression time-courses and levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) using time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry (FC). The single-cell analysis provides direct access to the distribution of onset times, life times and expression rates of mRNA and eGFP. We introduce a two-step stochastic delivery model that reproduces the number distribution of successfully delivered and translated mRNA molecules and thereby the dose-response relation. Our results establish a statistical framework for mRNA transfection and as such should advance the development of RNA carriers and small interfering/micro RNA-based drugs. This team of authors established a statistical framework for mRNA transfection by using a two-step stochastic delivery model that reproduces the number distribution of successfully delivered and translated mRNA molecules and thereby their dose-response relation. This study establishes a nice connection between theory and experimental planning and will aid the cellular delivery of mRNA molecules. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonsense mutations in the human β-globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human α- and β-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with β 0 -thalassemia have shown that for both the β-17 and the β-39 mutations less than normal levels of β-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human β-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned β-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human β-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation

  13. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro

    2011-07-01

    IRE1 plays an essential role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast and mammals. We found that a double mutant of Arabidopsis IRE1A and IRE1B (ire1a/ire1b) is more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than the wild-type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated that bZIP60 mRNA is spliced by ER stress, removing 23 ribonucleotides and therefore causing a frameshift that replaces the C-terminal region of bZIP60 including the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a shorter region without a TMD. This splicing was detected in ire1a and ire1b single mutants, but not in the ire1a/ire1b double mutant. We conclude that IRE1A and IRE1B catalyse unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor.

  14. miR-132 Regulates Dendritic Spine Structure by Direct Targeting of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Magdalena; Miłek, Jacek; Cymerman, Iwona A; Łęski, Szymon; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Dziembowska, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Mir-132 is a neuronal activity-regulated microRNA that controls the morphology of dendritic spines and neuronal transmission. Similar activities have recently been attributed to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an extrasynaptic protease. In the present study, we provide evidence that miR-132 directly regulates MMP-9 mRNA in neurons to modulate synaptic plasticity. With the use of luciferase reporter system, we show that miR-132 binds to the 3'UTR of MMP-9 mRNA to regulate its expression in neurons. The overexpression of miR-132 in neurons reduces the level of endogenous MMP-9 protein secretion. In synaptoneurosomes, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced signaling stimulates the dissociation of miR-132 from polyribosomal fractions and shifts it towards the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP)-containing fraction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the overexpression of miR-132 in the cultured hippocampal neurons from Fmr1 KO mice that have increased synaptic MMP-9 level provokes enlargement of the dendritic spine heads, a process previously implicated in enhanced synaptic plasticity. We propose that activity-dependent miR-132 regulates structural plasticity of dendritic spines through matrix metalloproteinase 9.

  15. Insulin Signaling Augments eIF4E-Dependent Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyun; Ahn, Seyoung; Jayabalan, Aravinth K; Ohn, Takbum; Koh, Hyun Chul; Hwang, Jungwook

    2016-07-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) modulates the level of mRNA harboring a premature termination codon (PTC) in a translation-dependent manner. Inhibition of translation is known to impair NMD; however, few studies have investigated the correlation between enhanced translation and increased NMD. Here, we demonstrate that insulin signaling events increase translation, leading to an increase in NMD of eIF4E-bound transcripts. We provide evidence that (i) insulin-mediated enhancement of translation augments NMD and rapamycin abrogates this enhancement; (ii) an increase in AKT phosphorylation due to inhibition of PTEN facilitates NMD; (iii) insulin stimulation increases the binding of up-frameshift factor 1 (UPF1), most likely to eIF4E-bound PTC-containing transcripts; and (iv) insulin stimulation induces the colocalization of UPF1 and eIF4E in processing bodies. These results illustrate how extracellular signaling promotes the removal of eIF4E-bound NMD targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fas ligand expression in human and mouse cancer cell lines; a caveat on over-reliance on mRNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Aideen E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During carcinogenesis, tumors develop multiple mechanisms for evading the immune response, including upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L expression. Expression of FasL may help to maintain tumor cells in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of anti-tumor immune effector cells. Recently this idea has been challenged by studies reporting that tumor cells of varying origin do not express FasL. In the present study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize FasL expression in tumors of both murine and human origin over a 72 hour time period. Methods RNA and protein was extracted from six human (SW620, HT29, SW480, KM12SM, HCT116, Jurkat and three mouse (CMT93, CT26, B16F10 cancer cell lines at regular time intervals over a 72 hour time period. FasL expression was detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR, using intron spanning primers, and at the protein level by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal FasL- specific antibody. Results Expression of FasL mRNA and protein was observed in all cell lines analysed. However, expression of FasL mRNA varied dramatically over time, with cells negative for FasL mRNA at many time points. In contrast, 8 of the 9 cell lines constitutively expressed FasL protein. Thus, cells can abundantly express FasL protein at times when FasL mRNA is absent. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the importance of complete analysis of FasL expression by tumor cells in order to fully characterize its biological function and may help to resolve the discrepancies present in the literature regarding FasL expression and tumor immune privilege.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII binds to two distant regions of coa mRNA to arrest translation and promote mRNA degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Chevalier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum sensing system that temporally controls a large number of virulence factors including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. Staphylocoagulase is one major virulence factor, which promotes clotting of human plasma. Like the major cell surface protein A, the expression of staphylocoagulase is strongly repressed by the quorum sensing system at the post-exponential growth phase. Here we used a combination of approaches in vivo and in vitro to analyze the mechanism used by RNAIII to regulate the expression of staphylocoagulase. Our data show that RNAIII represses the synthesis of the protein through a direct binding with the mRNA. Structure mapping shows that two distant regions of RNAIII interact with coa mRNA and that the mRNA harbors a conserved signature as found in other RNAIII-target mRNAs. The resulting complex is composed of an imperfect duplex masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of coa mRNA and of a loop-loop interaction occurring downstream in the coding region. The imperfect duplex is sufficient to prevent the formation of the ribosomal initiation complex and to repress the expression of a reporter gene in vivo. In addition, the double-strand-specific endoribonuclease III cleaves the two regions of the mRNA bound to RNAIII that may contribute to the degradation of the repressed mRNA. This study validates another direct target of RNAIII that plays a role in virulence. It also illustrates the diversity of RNAIII-mRNA topologies and how these multiple RNAIII-mRNA interactions would mediate virulence regulation.

  18. A novel link between Sus1 and the cytoplasmic mRNA decay machinery suggests a broad role in mRNA metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis Ana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is achieved by the coordinated action of multiple factors to ensure a perfect synchrony from chromatin epigenetic regulation through to mRNA export. Sus1 is a conserved mRNA export/transcription factor and is a key player in coupling transcription initiation, elongation and mRNA export. In the nucleus, Sus1 is associated to the transcriptional co-activator SAGA and to the NPC associated complex termed TREX2/THSC. Through these associations, Sus1 mediates the nuclear dynamics of different gene loci and facilitate the export of the new transcripts. Results In this study, we have investigated whether the yeast Sus1 protein is linked to factors involved in mRNA degradation pathways. We provide evidence for genetic interactions between SUS1 and genes coding for components of P-bodies such as PAT1, LSM1, LSM6 and DHH1. We demonstrate that SUS1 deletion is synthetic lethal with 5'→3' decay machinery components LSM1 and PAT1 and has a strong genetic interaction with LSM6 and DHH1. Interestingly, Sus1 overexpression led to an accumulation of Sus1 in cytoplasmic granules, which can co-localise with components of P-bodies and stress granules. In addition, we have identified novel physical interactions between Sus1 and factors associated to P-bodies/stress granules. Finally, absence of LSM1 and PAT1 slightly promotes the Sus1-TREX2 association. Conclusions In this study, we found genetic and biochemical association between Sus1 and components responsible for cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism. Moreover, Sus1 accumulates in discrete cytoplasmic granules, which partially co-localise with P-bodies and stress granules under specific conditions. These interactions suggest a role for Sus1 in gene expression during cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism in addition to its nuclear function.

  19. Negative regulation of neuromedin U mRNA expression in the rat pars tuberalis by melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Aizawa

    Full Text Available The pars tuberalis (PT is part of the anterior pituitary gland surrounding the median eminence as a thin cell layer. The characteristics of PT differ from those of the pars distalis (PD, such as cell composition and gene expression, suggesting that the PT has a unique physiological function compared to the PD. Because the PT highly expresses melatonin receptor type 1, it is considered a mediator of seasonal and/or circadian signals of melatonin. Expression of neuromedin U (NMU that is known to regulate energy balance has been previously reported in the rat PT; however, the regulatory mechanism of NMU mRNA expression and secretion in the PT are still obscure. In this study, we examined both the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression in the rat PT and the effects of melatonin on NMU in vivo. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of laser microdissected PT samples revealed that NMU mRNA expression in the PT has diurnal variation that is high during the light phase and low during the dark phase. Furthermore, melatonin administration significantly suppressed NMU mRNA expression in the PT in vivo. On the other hand, 48 h fasting did not have an effect on PT-NMU mRNA expression, and the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression was maintained. We also found the highest expression of neuromedin U receptor type 2 (NMUR2 mRNA in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, followed by the arcuate nucleus and the spinal cord. These results suggest that NMU mRNA expression in the PT is downregulated by melatonin during the dark phase and shows diurnal change. Considering that NMU mRNA in the PT showed the highest expression level in the brain, PT-NMU may act on NMUR2 in the brain, especially in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, with a circadian rhythm.

  20. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masayo; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Shindo, Motohiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Sawada, Koji; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncated peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.

  1. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toki, Yasumichi [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Sasaki, Katsunori, E-mail: k-sasaki@asahikawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastrointestinal Immunology and Regenerative Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroki [Department of Legal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masayo; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Shindo, Motohiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Sawada, Koji; Fujiya, Mikihiro [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Torimoto, Yoshihiro [Oncology Center, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka [Department of Gastroenterology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncated peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.

  2. Identification of stress responsive genes by studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shimpei; Yahara, Koji

    2018-03-01

    Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays. Our framework stratifies all genes in terms of the extent of time delay, conducts gene clustering in each stratum, and performs a non-parametric statistical test of the correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in a gene cluster. Consequently, we revealed stronger correlations than previously reported between mRNA and protein abundance in two metabolic pathways. Moreover, we identified a pair of stress responsive genes ( ADC17 and KIN1 ) that showed a highly similar time series of mRNA and protein abundance. Furthermore, we confirmed robustness of the analysis framework by applying it to another genome-wide time-series data and identifying a cytoskeleton-related gene cluster (keratin 18, keratin 17, and mitotic spindle positioning) that shows similar correlation. The significant correlation and highly similar changes of mRNA and protein abundance suggests a concerted role of these genes in cellular stress response, which we consider provides an answer to the question of the specific relationships between mRNA and protein in a cell. In addition, our framework for studying the relationship between mRNAs and proteins in a cell will provide a basis for studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential

  3. Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated ncRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Humans Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Shvedova

    Full Text Available As the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT in consumer products continues to rise, studies have expanded to determine the associated risks of exposure on human and environmental health. In particular, several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT could pose a carcinogenic risk similar to asbestos fibers. However, to date the potential markers of MWCNT exposure are not yet explored in humans.In the present study, global mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of exposed workers, having direct contact with MWCNT aerosol for at least 6 months (n = 8, were compared with expression profiles of non-exposed (n = 7 workers (e.g., professional and/or technical staff from the same manufacturing facility.Significant changes in the ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were observed between exposed and non-exposed worker groups. An integrative analysis of ncRNA-mRNA correlations was performed to identify target genes, functional relationships, and regulatory networks in MWCNT-exposed workers. The coordinated changes in ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed a set of miRNAs and their target genes with roles in cell cycle regulation/progression/control, apoptosis and proliferation. Further, the identified pathways and signaling networks also revealed MWCNT potential to trigger pulmonary and cardiovascular effects as well as carcinogenic outcomes in humans, similar to those previously described in rodents exposed to MWCNTs.This study is the first to investigate aberrant changes in mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of humans exposed to MWCNT. The significant changes in several miRNAs and mRNAs expression as well as their regulatory networks are important for getting molecular insights into the MWCNT-induced toxicity and pathogenesis in humans. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate the potential applicability of such changes in mRNAs and miRNAs as prognostic markers

  4. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein.

  5. Advanced cell-based modeling of the royal disease: characterization of the mutated F9 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, L; Luce, E; Vazquez, J L; Richaud-Patin, Y; Jimenez-Delgado, S; Corrales, I; Borras, N; Casacuberta-Serra, S; Weber, A; Parra, R; Altisent, C; Follenzi, A; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A; Raya, A; Vidal, F; Barquinero, J

    2017-11-01

    Essentials The Royal disease (RD) is a form of hemophilia B predicted to be caused by a splicing mutation. We generated an iPSC-based model of the disease allowing mechanistic studies at the RNA level. F9 mRNA analysis in iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells showed the predicted abnormal splicing. Mutated F9 mRNA level was very low but we also found traces of wild type transcripts. Background The royal disease is a form of hemophilia B (HB) that affected many descendants of Queen Victoria in the 19th and 20th centuries. It was found to be caused by the mutation F9 c.278-3A>G. Objective To generate a physiological cell model of the disease and to study F9 expression at the RNA level. Methods Using fibroblasts from skin biopsies of a previously identified hemophilic patient bearing the F9 c.278-3A>G mutation and his mother, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both the patient's and mother's iPSCs were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and their F9 mRNA was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results and Conclusion We demonstrated the previously predicted aberrant splicing of the F9 transcript as a result of an intronic nucleotide substitution leading to a frameshift and the generation of a premature termination codon (PTC). The F9 mRNA level in the patient's HLCs was significantly reduced compared with that of his mother, suggesting that mutated transcripts undergo nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), a cellular mechanism that degrades PTC-containing mRNAs. We also detected small proportions of correctly spliced transcripts in the patient's HLCs, which, combined with genetic variability in splicing and NMD machineries, could partially explain some clinical variability among affected members of the European royal families who had lifespans above the average. This work allowed the demonstration of the pathologic consequences of an intronic mutation in the F9 gene and represents the first bona fide cellular model of HB allowing the

  6. HLA-G allelic variants are associated with differences in the HLA-G mRNA isoform profile and HLA-G mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F; Hylenius, Sine; Rørbye, Christina

    2003-01-01

    between mother and fetus in several ways. Finally, the expression of membrane-bound HLA-G and soluble HLA-G has been proposed to influence the outcome of pregnancy, and an aberrant HLA-G expression in pre-eclamptic placentas and spontaneous abortions has been reported. Here, an association between certain...... HLA-G polymorphisms and the mRNA levels of the different alternatively spliced HLA-G isoforms in first trimester trophoblast cell populations is reported. Several alternatively spliced HLA-G mRNA isoforms, including a 14-bp polymorphism in the 3'UTR end (exon 8) of the HLA-G gene, are expressed...

  7. All-in-one detector of circulating mRNA based on a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Gumulec, Jaromir; Svoboda, Ondrej; Raudenska, Martina; Hudcova, Kristyna; Sekora, Jiri; Balogh, Jaroslav; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Metallothionein is significantly elevated in various tumors, notably in prostate cancer on both mRNA and protein level. We demonstrated a strong predictive potential of free circulating metallothionein 2A isoform mRNA for patients with this cancer. Circulating mRNA detection relies on expensive equipment and requires high level of expertise. In this work we developed compact "all-in-one" laboratory system which replace microvolume spectrophotometer, thermocycler and realtime PCR machines. We managed to design and construct a microprocessor controlled heating/cooling chamber that ensures required temperature gradient. The chamber includes implemented optical system to enable fluorescence excitation and fluorescence analysis using a smart-phone.

  8. Adipose tissue interleukin-18 mRNA and plasma interleukin-18: effect of obesity and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    resistance was tested. Furthermore, we speculated that acute exercise and exercise training would regulate AT IL-18 mRNA expression. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Non-obese subjects with BMI women: n = 18; men; n = 11) and obese subjects with BMI >30 kg/m(2) (women: n = 6; men: n = 7...... of regular physical activity with improved insulin sensitivity.......OBJECTIVES: Obesity and a physically inactive lifestyle are associated with increased risk of developing insulin resistance. The hypothesis that obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue (AT) interleukin (IL)-18 mRNA expression and that AT IL-18 mRNA expression is related to insulin...

  9. Assessing mRNA nuclear export in mammalian cells by microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eliza S; Palazzo, Alexander F

    2017-08-15

    The nuclear export of mRNAs is an important yet little understood part of eukaryotic gene expression. One of the easiest methods for monitoring mRNA export in mammalian tissue culture cells is through the microinjection of DNA plasmids into the nucleus and monitoring the distribution of the transcribed product over time. Here we describe how to setup a microscope equipped with a micromanipulator used in cell microinjections, and we explain how to perform a nuclear mRNA export assay and obtain the nuclear export rate for any given mRNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in porcine mesangial cells by comparative kinetic RT/PCR: comparison with ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceol, M; Forino, M; Gambaro, G; Sauer, U; Schleicher, E D; D'Angelo, A; Anglani, F

    2001-01-01

    Gene expression can be examined with different techniques including ribonuclease protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). These methods differ considerably in their sensitivity and precision in detecting and quantifying low abundance mRNA. Although there is evidence that RT/PCR can be performed in a quantitative manner, the quantitative capacity of this method is generally underestimated. To demonstrate that the comparative kinetic RT/PCR strategy-which uses a housekeeping gene as internal standard-is a quantitative method to detect significant differences in mRNA levels between different samples, the inhibitory effect of heparin on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced-TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT/PCR and RPA, the standard method of mRNA quantification, and the results were compared. The reproducibility of RT/PCR amplification was calculated by comparing the quantity of G3PDH and TGF-beta1 PCR products, generated during the exponential phases, estimated from two different RT/PCR (G3PDH, r = 0.968, P = 0.0000; TGF-beta1, r = 0.966, P = 0.0000). The quantitative capacity of comparative kinetic RT/PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results obtained from RPA and RT/PCR using linear regression analysis. Starting from the same RNA extraction, but using only 1% of the RNA for the RT/PCR compared to RPA, significant correlation was observed (r = 0.984, P = 0.0004). Moreover the morphometric analysis of ISH signal was applied for the semi-quantitative evaluation of the expression and localisation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in the entire cell population. Our results demonstrate the close similarity of the RT/PCR and RPA methods in giving quantitative information on mRNA expression and indicate the possibility to adopt the comparative kinetic RT/PCR as reliable quantitative method of mRNA analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. microRNA-independent recruitment of Argonaute 1 to nanos mRNA through the Smaug RNA-binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, Benjamin D; Smibert, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    Argonaute 1 directly interacts with the RNA binding protein Smaug in Drosophila, is thereby recruited to the Smaug target nanos mRNA and is required for Smaug-mediated translational repression of the nanos mRNA.

  12. Detrimental ELAVL-1/HuR-dependent GSK3β mRNA stabilization impairs resolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hoffman

    Full Text Available A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is accumulation of protein-rich edema in the distal airspaces and its removal is critical for patient survival. Previous studies have shown a detrimental role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3β during ARDS via inhibition of alveolar epithelial protein transport. We hypothesized that post-transcriptional regulation of GSK3β could play a functional role in ARDS resolution. To address this hypothesis, we performed an in silico analysis to identify regulatory genes whose expression correlation to GSK3β messenger RNA utilizing two lung cancer cell line array datasets. Among potential regulatory partners of GSK3β, these studies identified the RNA-binding protein ELAVL-1/HuR (Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision, Drosophila-Like as a central component in a likely GSK3β signaling network. ELAVL-1/HuR is a RNA-binding protein that selectively binds to AU-rich elements of mRNA and enhances its stability thereby increasing target gene expression. Subsequent studies with siRNA suppression of ELAVL-1/HuR demonstrated deceased GSK3β mRNA and protein expression and improved clearance of FITC-albumin in A549 cells. Conversely, stabilization of ELAVL-1/HuR with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 resulted in induction of GSK3β at mRNA and protein level and attenuated FITC-albumin clearance. Utilizing ventilator-induced lung injury or intra-tracheal installation of hydrochloric acid to induce ARDS in mice, we observed increased mRNA and protein expression of ELAVL-1/HuR and GSK3β. Together, our findings indicate a previously unknown interaction between GSK3β and ELAV-1 during ARDS, and suggest the inhibition of the ELAV-1- GSK3β pathways as a novel ARDS treatment approach.

  13. Modulation of DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes in styrene-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanova, Monika; Stetina, Rudolf; Vodickova, Ludmila; Vaclavikova, Radka; Hlavac, Pavel; Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Naccarati, Alessio; Polakova, Veronika; Soucek, Pavel; Kuricova, Miroslava; Manini, Paola; Kumar, Rajiv; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Decreased levels of single-strand breaks in DNA (SSBs), reflecting DNA damage, have previously been observed with increased styrene exposure in contrast to a dose-dependent increase in the base-excision repair capacity. To clarify further the above aspects, we have investigated the associations between SSBs, micronuclei, DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression in XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes on 71 styrene-exposed and 51 control individuals. Styrene concentrations at workplace and in blood characterized occupational exposure. The workers were divided into low (below 50 mg/m 3 ) and high (above 50 mg/m 3 ) styrene exposure groups. DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes by Comet assay. The mRNA expression levels were determined by qPCR. A significant negative correlation was observed between SSBs and styrene concentration at workplace (R = - 0.38, p = 0.001); SSBs were also significantly higher in men (p = 0.001). The capacity to repair irradiation-induced DNA damage was the highest in the low exposure group (1.34 ± 1.00 SSB/10 9 Da), followed by high exposure group (0.72 ± 0.81 SSB/10 9 Da) and controls (0.65 ± 0.82 SSB/10 9 Da). The mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC negatively correlated with styrene concentrations in blood and at workplace (p < 0.001) and positively with SSBs (p < 0.001). Micronuclei were not affected by styrene exposure, but were higher in older persons and in women (p < 0.001). In this study, we did not confirm previous findings on an increased DNA repair response to styrene-induced genotoxicity. However, negative correlations of SSBs and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC with styrene exposure warrant further highly-targeted study.

  14. Localization of insulin receptor mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Porte, D. Jr.; Stahl, W.L.; Baskin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin receptor mRNA was demonstrated in rat brain slices by in situ hybridization with three 35 S-oligonucleotide probes and contact film autoradiography. Specificity was confirmed by showing that (a) excess unlabeled probe abolished the signal, (b) an oligonucleotide probe for rat neuropeptide Y mRNA showed a different distribution of hybridization signal, and (c) the distribution of insulin receptor binding was consistent with the distribution of insulin receptor mRNA. Insulin receptor mRNA was most abundant in the granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, cerebellum and dentate gyrus, in the pyramidal cell body layers of the pyriform cortex and hippocampus, in the choroid plexus and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus

  15. FATHEAD MINNOW VITELLOGENIN: CDNA SEQUENCE AND MRNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION AFTER 17 BETA-ESTRADIOL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG mRNA was developed for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a species proposed for routine endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) screening.

  16. 60Co γ-irradiation enhances expression of GAP-43 mRNA in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Bingyin; Cai Wenqin; Zhang Chenggang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of GAP-43 mRNA and nerve regeneration in rat brain after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. The expression of GAP-43 was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using Dig-cRNA probe. Results: It was found that the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased in the cerebral cortex, caudate, putamen, globus pallidum, thalamus and hypothalamus one week after 8 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation. The peak of GAP-43 mRNA expression was observed in the fourth week and then began to decrease but still remained at a higher than normal level. However, it decreased to a low level after 7 weeks. Conclusion: Enhanced expression of GAP-43 mRNA after 60 Co γ-irradiation in rat brain is associated with nerve regeneration and reconstruction of synapse

  17. Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. 2011 Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's syndrome. J. Genet. ... of Alzheimer disease at an earlier age than subjects with- ... family and personal informed consent. .... In effect, they report that.

  18. Nerve growth factor mRNA in brain: localization by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennert, P.D.; Heinrich, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is a 118 amino acid polypeptide that plays an important role in the differentiation and survival of neurons. The recent discovery that a mRNA that encodes beta Nerve Growth Factor is present in brain suggests that the Nerve Growth Factor gene may not only regulate gene expression of peripheral but also of central neurons. To identify the site(s) of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA production in the brain and to determine which cells express the Nerve Growth Factor gene, the technique of in situ hybridization was employed. A 32P-labeled RNA probe complementary to Nerve Growth Factor mRNA hybridized to cells in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. These observations identify for the first time cellular sites of Nerve Growth Factor gene expression in the central nervous system, and suggest that Nerve Growth Factor mRNA is produced by neurons

  19. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures

  20. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. A. Fontoura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses.

  1. Structure of an RNA dimer of a regulatory element from human thymidylate synthase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Dibrov, Sergey; McLean, Jaime; Hermann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    An oligonucleotide representing a regulatory element of human thymidylate synthase mRNA has been crystallized as a dimer. The structure of the asymmetric dimer has been determined at 1.97 Å resolution.

  2. Naturally occurring BRCA2 alternative mRNA splicing events in clinically relevant samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackenthal, James D; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Zhang, Bifeng

    2016-01-01

    patterns and thereby disrupt gene function. mRNA analyses are therefore among the tests used to interpret the clinical significance of some genetic variants. However, these could be confounded by the appearance of naturally occurring alternative transcripts unrelated to germline sequence variation...... to characterise the spectrum of naturally occurring BRCA2 mRNA alternate-splicing events. METHODS: mRNA was prepared from several blood and breast tissue-derived cells and cell lines by contributing ENIGMA laboratories. cDNA representing BRCA2 alternate splice sites was amplified and visualised using capillary...... or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing. RESULTS: We demonstrate the existence of 24 different BRCA2 mRNA alternate-splicing events in lymphoblastoid cell lines and both breast cancer and non-cancerous breast cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: These naturally occurring alternate-splicing events...

  3. Effects of clofibric acid on mRNA expression profiles in primary cultures of rat, mouse and human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, Lysiane; Lamboley, Christelle; Viollon-Abadie, Catherine; Grass, Peter; Hartmann, Nicole; Laurent, Stephane; Heyd, Bruno; Mantion, Georges; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Staedtler, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The mRNA expression profile in control and clofibric acid (CLO)-treated mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes was analyzed using species-specific oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (Affymetrix). A statistical empirical Bayes procedure was applied in order to select the significantly differentially expressed genes. Treatment with the peroxisome proliferator CLO induced up-regulation of genes involved in peroxisome proliferation and in cell proliferation as well as down-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis in hepatocytes of rodent but not of human origin. CLO treatment induced up-regulation of microsomal cytochrome P450 4a genes in rodent hepatocytes and in two of six human hepatocyte cultures. In addition, genes encoding phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450s were also up-regulated by CLO in rodent and human hepatocyte cultures. Up-regulation of phenobarbital-inducible UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase genes by CLO was observed in both rat and human but not in mouse hepatocytes. CLO treatment induced up-regulation of L-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene in hepatocytes of both rodent and human origin. However, while genes of the cytosolic, microsomal, and mitochondrial pathways involved in fatty acid transport and metabolism were up-regulated by CLO in both rodent and human hepatocyte cultures, genes of the peroxisomal pathway of lipid metabolism were up-regulated in rodents only. An up-regulation of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) by CLO was observed only in human hepatocyte cultures, suggesting that this trans-activating factor may play a key role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in human liver as well as in the nonresponsiveness of human liver to CLO-induced regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis

  4. Effects of clofibric acid on mRNA expression profiles in primary cultures of rat, mouse and human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Lysiane; Lamboley, Christelle; Viollon-Abadie, Catherine; Grass, Peter; Hartmann, Nicole; Laurent, Stephane; Heyd, Bruno; Mantion, Georges; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Staedtler, Frank

    2003-09-01

    The mRNA expression profile in control and clofibric acid (CLO)-treated mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes was analyzed using species-specific oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (Affymetrix). A statistical empirical Bayes procedure was applied in order to select the significantly differentially expressed genes. Treatment with the peroxisome proliferator CLO induced up-regulation of genes involved in peroxisome proliferation and in cell proliferation as well as down-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis in hepatocytes of rodent but not of human origin. CLO treatment induced up-regulation of microsomal cytochrome P450 4a genes in rodent hepatocytes and in two of six human hepatocyte cultures. In addition, genes encoding phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450s were also up-regulated by CLO in rodent and human hepatocyte cultures. Up-regulation of phenobarbital-inducible UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase genes by CLO was observed in both rat and human but not in mouse hepatocytes. CLO treatment induced up-regulation of L-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene in hepatocytes of both rodent and human origin. However, while genes of the cytosolic, microsomal, and mitochondrial pathways involved in fatty acid transport and metabolism were up-regulated by CLO in both rodent and human hepatocyte cultures, genes of the peroxisomal pathway of lipid metabolism were up-regulated in rodents only. An up-regulation of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1alpha) by CLO was observed only in human hepatocyte cultures, suggesting that this trans-activating factor may play a key role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in human liver as well as in the nonresponsiveness of human liver to CLO-induced regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  5. Regulation of mRNA Translation Is a Novel Mechanism for Phthalate Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ling

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of plasticizers that are widely used in many consumer products and medical devices, thus generating a huge burden to human health. Phthalates have been known to cause a number of developmental and reproductive disorders functioning as endocrine modulators. They are also involved in carcinogenesis with mechanisms less understood. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of phthalate toxicity, in this study we reported a new effect of phthalates on mRNA translation/protein synthesis, a key regulatory step of gene expression. Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP was found to directly inhibit mRNA translation in vitro but showed a complicated pattern of affecting mRNA translation in cells. In human kidney embryonic cell (HEK-293T, BBP increased cap-dependent mRNA translation at lower concentrations but showed inhibitory effect at higher concentrations. Cap-independent translation was not affected. On the other hand, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP as a major metabolite of another important phthalate di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP inhibited both can-dependent and -independent mRNA translation in vivo. In contrast, BBP and MEHP exhibited an overall promoting effect on mRNA translation in cancer cells. Mechanistic studies identified that the level and phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP (eIF4E binding protein and the amount of eIF4GI in eIF4F complex were altered in accordance with the effect of BBP on translation. BBP was also identified to directly bind to eIF4E, providing a further mechanism underlying the regulation of mRNA by phthalate. At the cellular level BBP inhibited normal cell growth but slightly promoted cancer cells (HT29 growth. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that phthalates can directly regulate mRNA translation as a novel mechanism to mediate their biological toxicities.

  6. Lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is involved in unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hikaru; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Saito, Natsuho; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is the cause of unexplained infertility. Thirty-one patients aged infertility and 18 with male partner infertility as a control group) whose serum anti-Müllerian hormone level was >0.5 ng/μL were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent oocyte retrieval under a short protocol from June 2012 to October 2013. Real-time PCR was carried out using mRNA extracted from granulosa cells retrieved from mature follicles. We compared FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells between the unexplained infertility group and the male infertility group. The relation between FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells and assisted reproduction technology clinical outcome was also examined. FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio was significantly lower in the unexplained infertility group than in the male infertility group. Moreover, FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio showed a positive correlation with both the number of retrieved oocytes and serum anti-Müllerian hormone level. A positive correlation was also identified between FOXO1 mRNA expression and total dose of hMG. As well, the number of retrieved oocytes in the unexplained infertility group was statistically lower than that in the male infertility group. A lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells leads to poor oocyte development in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Petra A.; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1–sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination. PMID:23390377

  8. Creatine kinase and alpha-actin mRNA levels decrease in diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, B.; Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac atrophy and isoenzyme redistribution. To determine if tissue specific changes occur in mRNAs coding for α-actin and creatine kinase (CK), they performed RNA blot analysis. Total ventricular RNA from control (C) and 4 wk old diabetic (D) rats were hybridized with 32 P cDNA probes for α-actin and CK. A tissue independent cDNA probe, CHOA was also used. Signal intensity was quantified by photodensitometry. D CK mRNA was 47 +/- 16% lower in D vs C. Insulin increases CK mRNA by 20% at 1.5 hs, and completely reverses the deficit after 4 wks. D α-actin mRNA is 66 +/- 18% lower in D vs C. Insulin normalized α-actin mRNA by 5 hs. CHOA mRNA is unchanged in D vs C, but D + insulin CHOA mRNA is 30 +/- 2% lower than C. In rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, muscle specific CK and α-actin mRNAs are decreased. Insulin treatment reverses these changes

  9. Myeloperoxidase mRNA detection for lineage determination of leukemic blasts: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, D; Anstett, M J

    1995-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) mRNA is an early myeloid marker; its detection in the morphologically and immunophenotypically primitive blasts of acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) establishes myeloid lineage and allows reclassification as acute myelogenous leukemia with minimal differentiation (AML-MO). We have previously reported a procedure for MPO mRNA detection by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and an adaptation for use of routine hematology smears. This variant procedure allows retrospective analysis of mRNA and is used in the present study to evaluate the lineage of leukemic blasts in seven cases with morphology and cytochemistry consistent with AUL. All hematology smears used in this study were air-dried, unstained or Wright-stained and stored at room temperature for periods varying between 3 days and 2 years. MPO mRNA was detected in six cases, establishing the myeloid lineage of the blasts and the diagnosis of AML-MO. In the remaining case, the blasts were MPO mRNA negative, confirming the diagnosis of AUL. The RT-PCR procedure for retrospective mRNA analysis is useful in the clinical setting, due to its high specificity and sensitivity, speed (less than 24 h), safety (no radioactivity) and convenient use of routine hematology smears; it is particularly attractive in clinical situations when fresh or frozen specimens are no longer available at the time when the need for molecular diagnostics becomes apparent.

  10. Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE. Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms.

  11. Whole genome mRNA transcriptomics analysis reveals different modes of action of the diarrheic shellfish poisons okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin-1 versus azaspiracid-1 in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bovee, Toine F H; Portier, Liza; de Haan, Laura; Peijnenburg, Ad; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2018-02-01

    A study with DNA microarrays was performed to investigate the effects of two diarrhetic and one azaspiracid shellfish poison, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) respectively, on the whole-genome mRNA expression of undifferentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells. Previously, the most responding genes were used to develop a dedicated array tube test to screen shellfish samples on the presence of these toxins. In the present study the whole genome mRNA expression was analyzed in order to reveal modes of action and obtain hints on potential biomarkers suitable to be used in alternative bioassays. Effects on key genes in the most affected pathways and processes were confirmed by qPCR. OA and DTX-1 induced almost identical effects on mRNA expression, which strongly indicates that OA and DTX-1induce similar toxic effects. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicates that both compounds induce hypoxia related pathways/processes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The gene expression profile of AZA-1 is different and shows increased mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and glycolysis, suggesting a different mode of action for this toxin. Future studies should reveal whether identified pathways provide suitable biomarkers for rapid detection of DSPs in shellfish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet-induced obesity attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D I; Lemus, M B; Kua, E; Andrews, Z B

    2011-07-01

    Obesity impairs arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-releated peptide (AgRP) neuronal function and renders these homeostatic neurones unresponsive to the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on feeding behaviour, ARC neuronal activation and mRNA expression following another orexigenic stimulus, an overnight fast. We show that 9 weeks of high-fat feeding attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia by suppressing ARC neuronal activation and hypothalamic NPY/AgRP mRNA expression. Thus, the lack of appropriate feeding responses in DIO mice to a fast is caused by failure ARC neurones to recognise and/or respond to orexigenic cues. We propose that fasting-induced hyperphagia is regulated not by homeostatic control of appetite in DIO mice, but rather by changes in the reward circuitry. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E 2 ), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E 2 , showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E 2 treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer

  14. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Kyren A. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Environmental and Biotechnology Centre, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); To, Sarah Q. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chand, Ashwini L. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Clyne, Colin D., E-mail: Colin.clyne@princehenrys.org [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  15. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Protein functional features are reflected in the patterns of mRNA translation speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-09

    The degeneracy of the genetic code makes it possible for the same amino acid string to be coded by different messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. These "synonymous mRNAs" may differ largely in a number of aspects related to their overall translational efficiency, such as secondary structure content and availability of the encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Consequently, they may render different yields of the translated polypeptides. These mRNA features related to translation efficiency are also playing a role locally, resulting in a non-uniform translation speed along the mRNA, which has been previously related to some protein structural features and also used to explain some dramatic effects of "silent" single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work we perform the first large scale analysis of the relationship between three experimental proxies of mRNA local translation efficiency and the local features of the corresponding encoded proteins. We found that a number of protein functional and structural features are reflected in the patterns of ribosome occupancy, secondary structure and tRNA availability along the mRNA. One or more of these proxies of translation speed have distinctive patterns around the mRNA regions coding for certain protein local features. In some cases the three patterns follow a similar trend. We also show specific examples where these patterns of translation speed point to the protein's important structural and functional features. This support the idea that the genome not only codes the protein functional features as sequences of amino acids, but also as subtle patterns of mRNA properties which, probably through local effects on the translation speed, have some consequence on the final polypeptide. These results open the possibility of predicting a protein's functional regions based on a single genomic sequence, and have implications for heterologous protein expression and fine-tuning protein function.

  17. The ribosome structure controls and directs mRNA entry, translocation and exit dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkcuoglu, Ozge; Doruker, Pemra; Jernigan, Robert L; Sen, Taner Z; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here, the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that these experimentally observed motions during translocation are inherently controlled by the ribosomal shape and only partially dependent upon GTP hydrolysis. Normal mode analysis further reveals the mobility of A- and P-tRNAs to increase in the absence of the E-tRNA. In addition, the dynamics of the E-tRNA is affected by the absence of the ribosomal protein L1. The mRNA in the entrance tunnel interacts directly with helicase proteins S3 and S4, which constrain the mRNA in a clamp-like fashion, as well as with protein S5, which likely orients the mRNA to ensure correct translation. The ribosomal proteins S7, S11 and S18 may also be involved in assuring translation fidelity by constraining the mRNA at the exit site of the channel. The mRNA also interacts with the 16S 3' end forming the Shine–Dalgarno complex at the initiation step; the 3' end may act as a 'hook' to reel in the mRNA to facilitate its exit

  18. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Wei; Li, Jin; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-11-08

    The Polycomb group (PcG) genes are a class of regulators responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. PcG expression is deregulated in some types of human cancer. Both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are of the key PcG proteins. We investigate the expression and clinicopathological roles of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric cancer. The expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in a series of 71 gastric cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues distant from the tumorous lesion was assayed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The correlation between Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA expression, and between Mel-18 or Bmi-1 mRNA level and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 genes was variably detected, but overexpression of Bmi-1 mRNA and decreased expression of Mel-18 mRNA were the most frequent alteration. In addition, the expression of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 mRNA inversely correlates in gastric tumors. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between Bmi-1 overexpression and tumor size, depth of invasion, or lymph node metastasis, and a significant negative correlation between Mel-18 low-expression with lymph node metastasis or the clinical stage were observed. Our data suggest that Mel-18 and Bmi-1 may play crucial but opposite roles in gastric cancer. Decreased Mel-18 and increased Bmi-1 mRNA expression was associated with the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. It is possible to list Bmi-1 and Mel-18 as biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer.

  19. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  20. mRNA fragments in in vitro culture media are associated with bovine preimplantation embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for fragments of mRNA POSTN and VSNL-1, in four additional biological replicates of media. To better understand the mechanisms of mRNA secretion into the media, the expression of a predicted RNA binding protein of POSTN, PUM2, was knocked down using an antisense oligonucleotide gapmer. Supplementation of a PUM2 gapmer significantly reduced blastocyst development and decreased secretion of POSTN mRNA into the media. Overall, differential mRNA expression in the media was repeatable and sets the framework for future study of mRNA biomarkers in in vitro culture media to improve predictability of reproductive performance.

  1. Consequences of metaphase II oocyte cryopreservation on mRNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamayou, S; Bonaventura, G; Alecci, C; Tibullo, D; Di Raimondo, F; Guglielmino, A; Barcellona, M L

    2011-04-01

    We studied the consequences of freezing/thawing processes on mRNA contents in MII oocytes after slow-freezing/rapid thawing (SF/RT) and vitrification/warming (V/W) protocols, and compared the results to fresh MII oocytes. We quantified the nuclear transcript mRNA responsible for the translation of proteins belonging either to trans-regulatory protein family or to functional structural proteins such as proteins involved in DNA structural organization (NAP1L1, TOP1, H1F0H1), chromosomal structure maintenance (SMC, SCC3, RAD21, SMC1A, SMC1B, STAG3, REC8), mitochondrial energetic pathways (ATP5GJ, SDHC), cell cycle regulation and processes (CLTA, MAPK6, CKS2) and staminal cell potency-development competence stage (DPPA3, OCT4, FOXJ2). Surplus MII oocytes were donated from patients in IVF cycles and divided in three groups of 15 oocytes. Group 1 was comprised of non-cryopreserved oocytes and Groups 2 and 3 underwent SF/RT and V/W procedures, respectively. There was an overall decrease of mRNA extracted from cryopreserved oocytes compared to control group. Only 39.4% of mRNA content were preserved after SF/RT while 63.3% of mRNA content were maintained after V/W. Oocyte cryopreservation is associated with molecular injury associated with the decrease of stored mRNA. However the V/W protocol is more conservative than SF/RT resulting in a level of mRNA sufficient to maintain biologic functions in the subsequent fertilized oocyte. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arc mRNA induction in striatal efferent neurons associated with response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daberkow, D P; Riedy, M D; Kesner, R P; Keefe, K A

    2007-07-01

    The dorsal striatum is involved in motor-response learning, but the extent to which distinct populations of striatal efferent neurons are differentially involved in such learning is unknown. Activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein is an effector immediate-early gene implicated in synaptic plasticity. We examined arc mRNA expression in striatopallidal vs. striatonigral efferent neurons in dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum of rats engaged in reversal learning on a T-maze motor-response task. Male Sprague-Dawley rats learned to turn right or left for 3 days. Half of the rats then underwent reversal training. The remaining rats were yoked to rats undergoing reversal training, such that they ran the same number of trials but ran them as continued-acquisition trials. Brains were removed and processed using double-label fluorescent in situ hybridization for arc and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA. In the reversal, but not the continued-acquisition, group there was a significant relation between the overall arc mRNA signal in dorsomedial striatum and the number of trials run, with rats reaching criterion in fewer trials having higher levels of arc mRNA expression. A similar relation was seen between the numbers of PPE(+) and PPE(-) neurons in dorsomedial striatum with cytoplasmic arc mRNA expression. Interestingly, in behaviourally activated animals significantly more PPE(-) neurons had cytoplasmic arc mRNA expression. These data suggest that Arc in both striatonigral and striatopallidal efferent neurons is involved in striatal synaptic plasticity mediating motor-response learning in the T-maze and that there is differential processing of arc mRNA in distinct subpopulations of striatal efferent neurons.

  3. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  4. Specificity in endoplasmic reticulum-stress signaling in yeast entails a step-wise engagement of HAC1 mRNA to clusters of the stress sensor Ire1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anken, Eelco; Pincus, David; Coyle, Scott; Aragón, Tomás; Osman, Christof; Lari, Federica; Gómez Puerta, Silvia; Korennykh, Alexei V; Walter, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Insufficient protein-folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces the unfolded protein response (UPR). In the ER lumen, accumulation of unfolded proteins activates the transmembrane ER-stress sensor Ire1 and drives its oligomerization. In the cytosol, Ire1 recruits HAC1 mRNA, mediating its non-conventional splicing. The spliced mRNA is translated into Hac1, the key transcription activator of UPR target genes that mitigate ER-stress. In this study, we report that oligomeric assembly of the ER-lumenal domain is sufficient to drive Ire1 clustering. Clustering facilitates Ire1's cytosolic oligomeric assembly and HAC1 mRNA docking onto a positively charged motif in Ire1's cytosolic linker domain that tethers the kinase/RNase to the transmembrane domain. By the use of a synthetic bypass, we demonstrate that mRNA docking per se is a pre-requisite for initiating Ire1's RNase activity and, hence, splicing. We posit that such step-wise engagement between Ire1 and its mRNA substrate contributes to selectivity and efficiency in UPR signaling.

  5. Effects of temperature and melatonin on day-night expression patterns of arginine vasotocin and isotocin mRNA in the diencephalon of a temperate wrasse Halichoeres tenuispinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchekioua, Selma; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takeuchi, Yuki; Lee, Young-Don; Takemura, Akihiro

    2018-06-01

    Most wrasses are protogynous species that swim to feed, reproduce during the daytime, and bury themselves under the sandy bottom at night. In temperate and subtropical wrasses, low temperature influences emergence from the sandy bottom in the morning, and induces a hibernation-like state in winter. We cloned and characterized the prohormone complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) in a temperate wrasse (Halichoeres tenuispinis) and examined the effects of day/night and temperature on their expression in the diencephalon, because these neurohypophysial peptides are related to the sex behavior of wrasses. The full-length cDNAs of pro-AVT and pro-IT were 938 base pairs (154 amino acids) and 759 base pairs (156 amino acids) in length, respectively. Both pro-peptides contained a signal sequence followed by the respective hormones and neurophysin connected by a Gly-Lys-Arg bridge. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that pro-AVT mRNA expression was specifically observed in the diencephalon, whereas pro-IT mRNA expression was seen in the whole brain. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA abundance of pro-AVT and pro-IT was higher at midday (zeitgeber time 6; ZT6) than at midnight (ZT18) under 12 h light and 12 h darkness (LD 12:12) conditions, but not under constant light. Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin decreased the mRNA abundance of pro-AVT, but not of pro-IT. When fish were reared under LD 12:12 conditions at 25, 20, and 15 °C, day high and night low mRNA expressions of pro-AVT and pro-IT were maintained. A field survey revealed seasonal variation in the number of swimming fish at observatory sites; many fish emerged from the sandy bottom in summer, but not in winter, suggesting a hibernation-like state under the sandy bottom under low temperature conditions. We conclude that the day-night fluctuation of pro-AVT and pro-IT mRNA abundance in the brain is not affected by temperature and

  6. MiR-520b suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lu, Zhanping; Gao, Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Song, Tianqiang, E-mail: tjchi@hotmai.com [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-05-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are able to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. We previously reported that miR-520b was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its deregulation was involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that miR-520b suppresses cell proliferation in HCC through targeting the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA. Notably, we identified that miR-520b was able to target 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TET1 mRNA by luciferase reporter gene assays. Then, we revealed that miR-520b was able to reduce the expression of TET1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. In terms of function, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation and colony formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-520b expression remarkably inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells, but TET1 overexpression could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-520b. Furthermore, anti-miR-520b enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells, whereas silencing of TET1 abolished anti-miR-520b-induced acceleration of cell proliferation. Then, we validated that the expression levels of miR-520b were negatively related to those of TET1 mRNA in clinical HCC tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-520b depresses proliferation of liver cancer cells through targeting 3′UTR of TET1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • TET1 is a novel target gene of miR-520b. • TET1 is upregulated in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b is negatively correlated with TET1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b depresses the proliferation of HCC cells through targeting TET1 mRNA.

  7. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Weiying, E-mail: zhwybao@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-08

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells through

  8. Ddx19 links mRNA nuclear export with progression of transcription and replication and suppresses genomic instability upon DNA damage in proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodroj, Dana; Serhal, Kamar; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-09-03

    The DEAD-box Helicase 19 (Ddx19) gene codes for an RNA helicase involved in both mRNA (mRNA) export from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and in mRNA translation. In unperturbed cells, Ddx19 localizes in the cytoplasm and at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore. Here we review recent findings related to an additional Ddx19 function in the nucleus in resolving RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) generated during collision between transcription and replication, and upon DNA damage. Activation of a DNA damage response pathway dependent upon the ATR kinase, a major regulator of replication fork progression, stimulates translocation of the Ddx19 protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Only nuclear Ddx19 is competent to resolve R-loops, and down regulation of Ddx19 expression induces DNA double strand breaks only in proliferating cells. Overall these observations put forward Ddx19 as an important novel mediator of the crosstalk between transcription and replication.

  9. Effects of clofibric acid alone and in combination with 17β-estradiol on mRNA abundance in primary hepatocytes isolated from rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovadinová, I; Liedtke, A; Schirmer, K

    2014-09-01

    Clofibric acid (CA) is the active substance of lipid lowering drugs. It is resistant to degradation, polar in nature, and has been found ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. Though CA is classified as a peroxisomal proliferator in rodents and is considered as a potential endocrine disruptor, little information exists on the effects of CA in aquatic organisms, such as fish. In the present study, we examined the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator- and estrogen-sensitive genes on the exposure of primary rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes to CA alone and in combination with the natural female sex hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2). Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout hepatocytes are relatively refractory to the effects of CA on the PPAR signaling pathway and lipid metabolism. Moreover, CA did not show recognizable estrogenic activity, but after the induction of vitellogenesis by E2, CA significantly reduced vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA abundance. Apparently, the indirect repression of VTG transcription, independent of estrogen receptors, occurred. The mechanism is not yet clearly understood but may involve disruption of the stabilization of VTG mRNA known to be induced by E2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs; SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs.

  11. [Expression of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA in hippocampal neurons in experimental diabetes mellitus: link with apoptosis and necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebid', Iu V; Dosenko, V Ie; Skybo, H H

    2010-01-01

    There is a huge body of evidence showing that long-termed diabetes mellitus is followed with hippocampal dysfunction. The goal of this work was to investigate the expression of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA in CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of hippocampus in parallel with processes of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) in development dynamics of streptozotocine-induced diabetes. We have studied hippocampal neurons using chromatine dye Hoechst-33342 and immunohistochemical detection of apoptotic cell death marker caspase-3. At day 3 and 7 after injection of streptozotocine we have performed visualization of caspase-3-immunopositive neurons showing signs of neurodegeneration in hippocampal sections using confocal microscope Olympus FV1000. The rate of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA expression was determined with RT-PCR. The results indicated elevation of PSMB9 mRNA content (from 4807 +/- 0.392 arbU up to 20,023 +/- 4949 arbU on day 3 and up to 20,253 +/- 5141 arbU on day 7). A maximal number of cells with signs of chromatin condensation was observed at day 3 and day 7 in CA2 and CA3 area (11.51% and 12.49% respectively). That indicates an intensification of proapoptotic processes. Summarizing the results presented above we can conclude that during the first week of diabetes mellitus development, hippocampal cells undergo the process of impairment and degeneration.

  12. Immediate-early gene response to repeated immobilization: Fos protein and arc mRNA levels appear to be less sensitive than c-fos mRNA to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Sheila; Rotllant, David; Marín-Blasco, Ignacio J; Armario, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Stress exposure resulted in brain induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs), considered as markers of neuronal activation. Upon repeated exposure to the same stressor, reduction of IEG response (adaptation) has been often observed, but there are important discrepancies in literature that may be in part related to the particular IEG and methodology used. We studied the differential pattern of adaptation of the IEGs c-fos and arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) after repeated exposure to a severe stressor: immobilization on wooden boards (IMO). Rats repeatedly exposed to IMO showed reduced c-fos mRNA levels in response to acute IMO in most brain areas studied: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and locus coeruleus. In contrast, the number of neurons showing Fos-like immunoreactivity was only reduced in the MeA and the various subregions of the PVN. IMO-induced increases in arc gene expression were restricted to telencephalic regions and reduced by repeated IMO only in the mPFC. Double-labelling in the LS of IMO-exposed rats revealed that arc was expressed in only one-third of Fos+ neurons, suggesting two populations of Fos+ neurons. These data suggest that c-fos mRNA levels are more affected by repeated IMO than corresponding protein, and that arc gene expression does not reflect adaptation in most brain regions, which may be related to its constitutive expression. Therefore, the choice of a particular IEG and the method of measurement are important for proper interpretation of the impact of chronic repeated stress on brain activation.

  13. Characterization of the ptr5+ gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Ikeda, Terumasa; Mizuki, Fumitaka; Tani, Tokio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We cloned the ptr5 + gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast. ► The ptr5 + gene was found to encode nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). ► Seh1p and Mlo3p are multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5 mutation. ► Ptr5p/Nup85p functions in nuclear mRNA export through the mRNA export factor Rae1p. ► Ptr5p/Nup85p interacts genetically with pre-mRNA splicing factors. -- Abstract: To analyze the mechanisms of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, we have isolated eleven mutants, ptr [poly(A) + RNA transport] 1 to 11, which accumulate poly(A) + RNA in the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of those, the ptr5–1 mutant shows dots- or a ring-like accumulation of poly(A) + RNA at the nuclear periphery after shifting to the nonpermissive temperature. We cloned the ptr5 + gene and found that it encodes a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). The ptr5–1 mutant shows no defects in protein transport, suggesting the specific involvement of Ptr5p/Nup85p in nuclear mRNA export in S. pombe. We identified Seh1p, a nucleoporin interacting with Nup85p, an mRNA-binding protein Mlo3p, and Sac3p, a component of the TREX-2 complex involved in coupling of nuclear mRNA export with transcription, as multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5–1 mutation. In addition, we found that the ptr5–1 mutation is synthetically lethal with a mutation of the mRNA export factor Rae1p, and that the double mutant exaggerates defective nuclear mRNA export, suggesting that Ptr5p/Nup85p is involved in nuclear mRNA export through Rae1p. Interestingly, the ptr5–1 mutation also showed synthetic effects with several prp pre-mRNA splicing mutations, suggesting a functional linkage between the NPCs and the splicing apparatus in the yeast nucleus.

  14. Extracellular tumor-related mRNA in plasma of lymphoma patients and survival implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied anomalous extracellular mRNAs in plasma from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and their survival implications. mRNAs studied have been reported in the literature as markers of poor (BCL2, CCND2, MYC and favorable outcome (LMO2, BCL6, FN1 in tumors. These markers were also analyzed in lymphoma tissues to test possible associations with their presence in plasma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: mRNA from 42 plasma samples and 12 tumors from patients with DLBCL was analyzed by real-time PCR. Samples post-treatment were studied. The immunohistochemistry of BCL2 and BCL6 was defined. Presence of circulating tumor cells was determined by analyzing the clonality of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes by PCR. In DLBCL, MYC mRNA was associated with short overall survival. mRNA targets with unfavorable outcome in tumors were associated with characteristics indicative of poor prognosis, with partial treatment response and with short progression-free survival in patients with complete response. In patients with low IPI score, unfavorable mRNA targets were related to shorter overall survival, partial response, high LDH levels and death. mRNA disappeared in post-treatment samples of patients with complete response, and persisted in those with partial response or death. No associations were found between circulating tumor cells and plasma mRNA. Absence of BCL6 protein in tumors was associated with presence of unfavorable plasma mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Through a non-invasive procedure, tumor-derived mRNAs can be obtained in plasma. mRNA detected in plasma did not proceed from circulating tumor cells. In our study, unfavorable targets in plasma were associated with poor prognosis in B-cell lymphomas, mainly MYC mRNA. Moreover, the unfavorable targets in plasma could help us to classify patients with poor outcome within the good prognosis group according to IPI.

  15. Identification of stress responsive genes by studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Morimoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays. Our framework stratifies all genes in terms of the extent of time delay, conducts gene clustering in each stratum, and performs a non-parametric statistical test of the correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in a gene cluster. Consequently, we revealed stronger correlations than previously reported between mRNA and protein abundance in two metabolic pathways. Moreover, we identified a pair of stress responsive genes (ADC17 and KIN1 that showed a highly similar time series of mRNA and protein abundance. Furthermore, we confirmed robustness of the analysis framework by applying it to another genome-wide time-series data and identifying a cytoskeleton-related gene cluster (keratin 18, keratin 17, and mitotic spindle positioning that shows similar correlation. The significant correlation and highly similar changes of mRNA and protein abundance suggests a concerted role of these genes in cellular stress response, which we consider provides an answer to the question of the specific relationships between mRNA and protein in a cell. In addition, our framework for studying the relationship between mRNAs and proteins in a cell will provide a basis for studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance after

  16. 2'-O-methylation in mRNA disrupts tRNA decoding during translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhong; Indrisiunaite, Gabriele; DeMirci, Hasan; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Wang, Jinfan; Petrov, Alexey; Prabhakar, Arjun; Rechavi, Gideon; Dominissini, Dan; He, Chuan; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-03-01

    Chemical modifications of mRNA may regulate many aspects of mRNA processing and protein synthesis. Recently, 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides was identified as a frequent modification in translated regions of human mRNA, showing enrichment in codons for certain amino acids. Here, using single-molecule, bulk kinetics and structural methods, we show that 2'-O-methylation within coding regions of mRNA disrupts key steps in codon reading during cognate tRNA selection. Our results suggest that 2'-O-methylation sterically perturbs interactions of ribosomal-monitoring bases (G530, A1492 and A1493) with cognate codon-anticodon helices, thereby inhibiting downstream GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and A-site tRNA accommodation, leading to excessive rejection of cognate aminoacylated tRNAs in initial selection and proofreading. Our current and prior findings highlight how chemical modifications of mRNA tune the dynamics of protein synthesis at different steps of translation elongation.

  17. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA for zygote injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Beaton, Benjamin P; Spate, Lee D; Benne, Joshua A; Murphy, Stephanie L; O'Gorman, Chad W; Spate, Anna M; Prather, Randall S; Wells, Kevin D

    2018-03-01

    Production of Cas9 mRNA in vitro typically requires the addition of a 5´ cap and 3´ polyadenylation. A plasmid was constructed that harbored the T7 promoter followed by the EMCV IRES and a Cas9 coding region. We hypothesized that the use of the metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) triplex structure downstream of an IRES/Cas9 expression cassette would make polyadenylation of in vitro produced mRNA unnecessary. A sequence from the mMalat1 gene was cloned downstream of the IRES/Cas9 cassette described above. An mRNA concentration curve was constructed with either commercially available Cas9 mRNA or the IRES/ Cas9/triplex, by injection into porcine zygotes. Blastocysts were genotyped to determine if differences existed in the percent of embryos modified. The concentration curve identified differences due to concentration and RNA type injected. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA provides an alternative source of Cas9 for use in zygote injections.

  18. Photodynamic antisense regulation of mRNA having a point mutation with psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Maiko; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based drugs, such as antisense oligonucleotide, ribozyme, and small interfering RNA, are specific compounds that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. To develop more effective nucleic acid-based drugs, we focused on photo-reactive antisense oligonucleotides. We have optimized the structure of psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide to improve their sequence selectivity and photo-crosslinking efficiency. Previously, we reported that photo reactive oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-psoralenyl-methoxyethyl adenosine (2'-Ps-eom) showed drastic photo-reactivity with a strictly sequence specific manner in vitro. In this report, we evaluated the binding ability toward intracellular target mRNA. The 2'-Ps-eom selectively photo-cross-linked to the target mRNA extracted from cells. The 2'-Ps-eom also cross-linked to target mRNA in cells. Furthermore, 2'-Ps-eom did not cross-link to mRNA having a mismatch base. These results suggest that 2'-Ps-eom is a powerful antisense molecule to inhibit the expression of mRNA having a point mutation.

  19. Regulation of the growth hormone (GH) receptor and GH-binding protein mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Hidesuke; Ohashi, Shin-Ichirou; Abe, Hiromi; Chihara, Kazuo [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    In fasting rats, a transient increase in growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) mRNA levels was observed after 1 day, in muscle, heart, and liver, but not in fat tissues. The liver GH receptor (GHR) mRNA level was significantly increased after 1 day (but not after 5 days) of bovine GH (bGH) treatment in fed rats. Both the liver GHR mRNA level and the net increment of plasma IGF-I markedly decreased after 5 days of bGH administration in fasting rats. These findings suggest that GHR and GHBP mRNAs in the liver are expressed in a different way and that the expression of GHBP mRNA is regulated differently between tissues, at least in rats. The results also suggest that refractoriness to GH in a sustained fasting state might be beneficial in preventing anabolic effects of GH. In humans, GHR mRNA in lymphocytes, from subjects with either GH-deficiency or acromegaly, could be detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In one patient with partial GH insensitivity, a heterozygous missense mutation (P561T) was identified in the cytoplasmic domain of GHR. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Hepatic chemerin mRNA in morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajor, Maciej; Kukla, Michał; Waluga, Marek; Liszka, Łukasz; Dyaczyński, Michał; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Żądło, Dominika; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Chapuła, Mateusz; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Bułdak, Rafał J; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic chemerin mRNA, serum chemerin concentration, and immunohistochemical staining for chemerin and and chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) in hepatic tissue in 56 morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to search for a relationship with metabolic and histopathological features. Chemerin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, chemerin, and CMKLR1 immunohistochemical expression with specific antibodies, while serum chemerin concentration was assessed with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum chemerin concentration reached 874.1 ±234.6 ng/ml. There was no difference in serum chemerin levels between patients with BMI steatosis, and definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver chemerin mRNA was observed in all included patients and was markedly, but insignificantly, higher in those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, hepatocyte ballooning, greater extent of steatosis, and definite NASH. Hepatic chemerin mRNA might be a predictor of hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) but seemed not to be a primary driver regulating liver necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. The lack of association between serum chemerin and hepatic chemerin mRNA may suggest that adipose tissue but not the liver is the main source of chemerin in morbidly obese women.

  1. Quantitative PCR--new diagnostic tool for quantifying specific mRNA and DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, B O; Sorensen, B S; Overgaard, J

    2004-01-01

    of a subset of ligands from the EGF system is increased in bladder cancer. Furthermore, measurement of the mRNA concentration gives important information such as the expression of these ligands correlated to the survival of the patients. In addition to the alterations at the mRNA level, changes also can occur...... at the DNA level in the EGF system. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the number of genes coding for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is increased in a number of breast tumors. It is now possible to treat breast cancer patients with a humanized antibody reacting with HER2...... of mRNA or DNA in biological samples. In this study quantitative PCR was used to investigate the role of the EGF (epidermal growth factor) system in cancer both for measurements of mRNA concentrations and for measurements of the number of copies of specific genes. It is shown that the mRNA expression...

  2. Kinetics of lipid-nanoparticle-mediated intracellular mRNA delivery and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-10-01

    mRNA delivery into cells forms the basis for one of the new and promising ways to treat various diseases. Among suitable carriers, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) with a size of about 100 nm are now often employed. Despite high current interest in this area, the understanding of the basic details of LNP-mediated mRNA delivery and function is limited. To clarify the kinetics of mRNA release from LNPs, the author uses three generic models implying (i) exponential, (ii) diffusion-controlled, and (iii) detachment-controlled kinetic regimes, respectively. Despite the distinct differences in these kinetics, the associated transient kinetics of mRNA translation to the corresponding protein and its degradation are shown to be not too sensitive to the details of the mRNA delivery by LNPs (or other nanocarriers). In addition, the author illustrates how this protein may temporarily influence the expression of one gene or a few equivalent genes. The analysis includes positive or negative regulation of the gene transcription via the attachment of the protein without or with positive or negative feedback in the gene expression. Stable, bistable, and oscillatory schemes have been scrutinized in this context.

  3. Applying the breaks on gene expression - mRNA deadenylation by Pop2p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Van, Lan Bich

    When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems to be the ......When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems...... to be the shortening of the poly(A) tail (deadenylation), as this step is slower than the subsequent decapping and degradation of the mRNA body. The Mega-Dalton Ccr4-Not complex contains two exonucleases, Ccr4p and Pop2p, responsible for this process. It is not known at present why two conserved nucleases are needed...

  4. Tau mRNA 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio is increased in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Escudero, Vega; Gargini, Ricardo; Martín-Maestro, Patricia; García, Esther; García-Escudero, Ramón; Avila, Jesús

    2017-08-10

    Neurons frequently show an imbalance in expression of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) relative to the coding DNA sequence (CDS) region of mature messenger RNAs (mRNA). The ratio varies among different cells or parts of the brain. The Map2 protein levels per cell depend on the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio rather than the total mRNA amount, which suggests powerful regulation of protein expression by 3'UTR sequences. Here we found that MAPT (the microtubule-associated protein tau gene) 3'UTR levels are particularly high with respect to other genes; indeed, the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio of MAPT is balanced in healthy brain in mouse and human. The tau protein accumulates in Alzheimer diseased brain. We nonetheless observed that the levels of RNA encoding MAPT/tau were diminished in these patients' brains. To explain this apparently contradictory result, we studied MAPT mRNA stoichiometry in coding and non-coding regions, and found that the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio was higher in the hippocampus of Alzheimer disease patients, with higher tau protein but lower total mRNA levels. Our data indicate that changes in the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio have a regulatory role in the disease. Future research should thus consider not only mRNA levels, but also the ratios between coding and non-coding regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The actin binding cytoskeletal protein Moesin is involved in nuclear mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Ildikó; Bajusz, Csaba; Borsos, Barbara N; Pankotai, Tibor; Dopie, Joseph; Jankovics, Ferenc; Vartiainen, Maria K; Erdélyi, Miklós; Vilmos, Péter

    2017-10-01

    Current models imply that the evolutionarily conserved, actin-binding Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) proteins perform their activities at the plasma membrane by anchoring membrane proteins to the cortical actin network. Here we show that beside its cytoplasmic functions, the single ERM protein of Drosophila, Moesin, has a novel role in the nucleus. The activation of transcription by heat shock or hormonal treatment increases the amount of nuclear Moesin, indicating biological function for the protein in the nucleus. The distribution of Moesin in the nucleus suggests a function in transcription and the depletion of mRNA export factors Nup98 or its interacting partner, Rae1, leads to the nuclear accumulation of Moesin, suggesting that the nuclear function of the protein is linked to mRNA export. Moesin localizes to mRNP particles through the interaction with the mRNA export factor PCID2 and knock down of Moesin leads to the accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. Based on our results we propose that, beyond its well-known, manifold functions in the cytoplasm, the ERM protein of Drosophila is a new, functional component of the nucleus where it participates in mRNA export. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Fujimori, Akira; Kinoshita, Keiji; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by γ-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses.