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Sample records for oligoctenus ornatus ctenidae

  1. Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae)

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Muñoz, Leidy; Lanchero, Paula; Latorre, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first studies on the characterization of venom from Phoneutria boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae) (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897), done with Colombian species. After the electrostimulation extraction process, the venom showed physicochemical properties corresponding to a colorless and water-soluble liquid with a density of 0.86 mg/mL and 87% aqueous content. P. boliviensis venom and RP-HPLC fractions showed hemolytic activity and hydrolyzed the synthetic substrate 4-nitro-3-octano...

  2. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant

    FERNANDA R. NASCIMENTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.

  3. Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae).

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Muñoz, Leidy Johana Vargas; Lanchero, Paula; Latorre, Cesar Segura

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first studies on the characterization of venom from Phoneutria boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae) (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897), done with Colombian species. After the electrostimulation extraction process, the venom showed physicochemical properties corresponding to a colorless and water-soluble liquid with a density of 0.86 mg/mL and 87% aqueous content. P. boliviensis venom and RP-HPLC fractions showed hemolytic activity and hydrolyzed the synthetic substrate 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid, indicating the presence of phospholipases A2 enzymes. The electrophoretic profile showed an important protein content with molecular masses below 14 kDa, and differences between male and female protein content were also revealed. The RP-HPLC venom profile exposes differences between males and female content consistent with the electrophoretic profile. Five fractions collected from the RP-HPLC displayed significant larvicidal activity. Mass analysis indicates the presence of peptides ranging from 1047.71 to 3278.07 Da. Two peptides, Ctenitoxin-Pb48 and Ctenitoxin-Pb53, were partially identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS, which showed a high homology with other Ctenitoxins (family Tx3) from Phoneutria nigriventer, Phoneutria keyserlingi and Phoneutria reidyi affecting voltage-gated calcium receptors (Cav 1, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3) and NMDA-glutamate receptors.

  4. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  5. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  6. Preference for Male Traits Differ in Two Female Morphs of the Tree Lizard, Urosaurus ornatus

    Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Metro, Kevin J.; Miles, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-random female mating preferences may contribute to the maintenance of phenotypic variation in color polymorphic species. However, the effect of female preference depends on the types of male traits used as signals by receptive females. If preference signals derive from discrete male traits (i.e., morph-specific), female preferences may rapidly fix to a morph. However, female preference signals may also include condition-dependent male traits. In this scenario, female preference may differ depending on the social context (i.e., male morph availability). Male tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) exhibit a dewlap color polymorphism that covaries with mating behavior. Blue morph males are aggressive and defend territories, yellow males are less aggressive and defend smaller territories, and orange males are typically nomadic. Female U. ornatus are also polymorphic in dewlap color, but the covariation between dewlap color and female behavior is unknown. We performed an experiment to determine how female mate choice depends on the visual and chemical signals produced by males. We also tested whether female morphs differ in their preferences for these signals. Female preferences involved both male dewlap color and size of the ventral color patch. However, the female morphs responded to these signals differently and depended on the choice between the types of male morphs. Our experiment revealed that females may be capable of distinguishing among the male morphs using chemical signals alone. Yellow females exhibit preferences based on both chemical and visual signals, which may be a strategy to avoid ultra-dominant males. In contrast, orange females may prefer dominant males. We conclude that female U. ornatus morphs differ in mating behavior. Our findings also provide evidence for a chemical polymorphism among male lizards in femoral pore secretions. PMID:25033282

  7. Anatomy of the “false thumb” of Tremarctos ornatus (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae: phylogenetic and functional implications

    Salesa, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the radial sesamoid or “false thumb” of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus, showing its great morphological similarities with that of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca and the differences with that of the rest of the Ursidae. This points to the existence of a common origin for this structure in both species, but considering the accepted phylogenies of ursids, the sharing of a “false thumb” in T. ornatus and A. melanoleuca would be a plesiomorphy for these groups, whereas in the rest of the ursids the radial sesamoid was probably reduced, lacking the specialised function that this bone has in Tremarctinae and Ailuropodinae.Se describe por primera vez el sesamoideo radial o “falso pulgar” del oso de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus, mostrando la gran similitud morfológica con el del panda gigante (Ailuropoda melanoleuca y las diferencias que presenta con el resto de los Ursidae. Esto apunta a la existencia de un origen común para esta estructura en ambas especies, pero considerando las filogenias aceptadas de Ursidae, la presencia de falso pulgar en T. ornatus y A. melanoleuca sería una simplesiomorfía respecto al resto de úrsidos, en los cuales el sesamoideo radial nunca aumentó de tamaño, careciendo de la especializada función que posee en Tremarctinae y Ailuropodinae.

  8. Microsatellite analysis of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) across its range distribution.

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Castellanos, Armando; Arias, Leonardo

    2005-02-01

    DNA samples of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) from five Andean countries, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, were analyzed for nine microsatellite loci. Seven of them were polymorphic, which led us to investigate several population-genetic parameters. Private alleles and significant differences in gene frequencies were found among the populations studied, which demonstrated the extent of genetic differentiation among the spectacled bear populations. The levels of gene diversity measured with these microsatellites were rather modest in this species. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was especially found for the overall and the Ecuadorian samples, and might be due to the Wahl-und effect or consanguinity. Significant genetic heterogeneity was mainly observed among the Colombian and the Ecuadorian populations. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations clearly showed that two different gene pools were present, one present in the Venezuelan-Colombian bears and other in the Ecuadorian ones.

  9. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of

  10. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to

  11. Biologia populacional de Callinectes ornatus (Ordway na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population biology of Callinectes ornatus (Ordway in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 é a espécie mais abundante de Portunidae, capturada como fauna acompanhante na pesca artesanal do camarão sete-barbas. Durante o período de Agosto de 1996 a Julho de 2002, os caranguejos foram monitorados mensalmente na Armação do Itapocoroy. C. ornatus mostrou flutuações sazonais na abundância com as maiores taxas na primavera e no inverno. A variação da população quando a largura da carapaça variou de 2,0 a 10,0 cm, e a presença de juvenis foi comum ao longo do ano. As espécies apresentaram crescimento alométrico positivo, com os machos e as fêmeas chegando à primeira maturação gonadal com 5,8 e 5,2 cm, respectivamente. A pesca artesanal na Armação do Itapocoroy atua com alta intensidade sobre o estoque adulto.Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 is one abundant Portunidae species which is caught by sea-bob-shrimp's artisanal fishery in area. During the period from August, 1996 to July, 2002, the crabs were monitored monthly in the Armação do Itapocoroy. C. ornatus shows seasonal fluctuations in its abundance with higher rates in spring and winter. The population width variation of the carapace ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 cm, and the presence of juveniles was common along the year. The species present positive alometric growth, with males and females get to the first gonadal maturation with 5.8 cm and 5.2 cm, respectively. The artisanal fishery in Armação do Itapocory is acting with a higher intensity over the adult stock.

  12. Idade e crescimento de Callinectes danae e C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Age and growth of Callinectes danae and C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Karina A. Keunecke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 e C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constituem uma parcela importante da produção pesqueira na Baía de Guanabara. Ambas espécies compõem uma fração significativa da fauna-acompanhante sendo exaustivamente descartadas pelas pescarias de arrasto de camarões na costa brasileira. As curvas de crescimento de C. danae e C. ornatus foram calculadas por meio da análise de progressão modal. Para estimar os parâmetros biológicos, foi aplicado o modelo de crescimento de Bertalanffy e para estimar a longevidade foi usada a sua fórmula inversa. As curvas de crescimento foram: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t , ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t e ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t , respectivamente para C. danae e C. ornatus. A longevidade alcançada para as duas espécies foi em torno de 2,5 anos, além de validar as curvas de crescimento. O estudo do crescimento em crustáceos é de extrema importância, pois além de fornecer a informação biológica básica para o grupo, os parâmetros estimados subsidiam o ordenamento e manejo pesqueiro das espécies exploradas.Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constitute an important portion from the fishing products at Guanabara Bay. Both species compose a significant by-catch fraction being a lot discarded during shrimp trawlings along Brazilian coast. Growth curves were estimated by modal progression analysis. For the biological parameters it was applied the Bertalanffy growth function and for the age it was used its inverse formula. Growth curves of C. danae and C. ornatus were respectively: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t, ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t and ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t. The age for both species reached around 2.5 years, besides to confirm growth curves. Growth study in crustaceans is very important, because besides supplying biological information it subsidizes fishery management for exploted species.

  13. Responses of free radical metabolism to air exposure or salinity stress, in crabs (Callinectes danae and C. ornatus) with different estuarine distributions.

    Freire, Carolina A; Togni, Valéria G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2011-10-01

    The swimming crabs Callinectes danae and C. ornatus are found in bays and estuaries, but C. danae is more abundant in lower salinities, while C. ornatus remains restricted to areas of higher salinity. Experimental crabs of both species were submitted to: air exposure (Ae, 3h), reimmersion in 33‰ (control) sea water (SW) (Ri, 1h) following air exposure; hyposaline (Ho, 10‰ for 2h) or hypersaline (He, 40‰ for 2h) SW, then return to control 33‰ SW (RHo and RHe, for 1h). Hemolymph was sampled for osmolality and chloride determinations. Activity of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase] and levels of carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in hepatopancreas, muscle, anterior and posterior gills. In Ho groups, hemolymph concentrations were lower in both species, compared to He groups. C. danae displayed higher control activities of GPX (hepatopancreas and muscle) and catalase (all four tissues) than C. ornatus. C. ornatus presented increased activities of catalase and GPX in Ae, Ri, and He groups. Increased TBARS was seen in C. ornatus tissues (He group). The more euryhaline species displayed higher constitutive activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the less euryhaline species exhibited activation of these enzymes when exposed to air or hyper-salinity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  15. Estrutura populacional de Callinectes ornatus Ordway (Crustacea, Portunidae no Balneário Shangri-Lá, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brasil

    Baptista Cassiana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming crabs are commonly found in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery by-catch, which operate intensively in the Coastal Plain of Leste Beach, where is located Shangri-lá Beach (25°37'30"S and 48°25'08"W, Paraná State. This work aimed to study the population structure of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, the most abundant swimming crab in this beach. Between March 2000 and April 2001, fortnightly visits were accomplished in Shangri-lá at the fish market, where all swimming crabs of one otter-trawl were collected. The following data from each individual of C. ornatus were obtained: sex, carapace width (excluding lateral spines, weight, and the gonadal maturation stage, based on its color and size. Juveniles and mature males were dominant, mean sexual proportion was 2.2:1 (males:females. Two recruitment periods were detected, but few ovigerous females were obtained. Size at sexual maturation was estimated at 55mm for males, and 48 mm for females. Both sexes presented positives allometric growths. The results indicate that an important portion of C. ornatus population is captured in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery in Shangri-lá Beach (Paraná. Such information is important for futures plans of by-catch management in that area.

  16. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  17. Indicios indirectos de la presencia del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 en el noroeste de Argentina Indirect evidence on the presence of the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in northwestern Argentina

    J. Fernando Del Moral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de osos andinos (Tremarctos ornatus en Argentina ha sido muy discutida debido a la ausencia de evidencia confirmativa. Muchos expertos en el oso dudan actualmente de su presencia en el país. No obstante, la Selva Tucumano-Boliviana o de Yungas es un ecosistema típico donde se puede encontrar esta especie; particularmente en el área estudiada, el hábitat parece ser de alta calidad para los osos. Entre los años 2001 y 2006, se recopilaron 23 casos de evidencia sobre la presencia de osos andinos en las provincias de Salta y Jujuy. Se registraron huellas, restos alimenticios y heces. Adicionalmente, se entrevistó a nativos, agricultores y cazadores para colectar otros datos sobre la especie. Se concluye que las selvas de Yungas del extremo noroeste de Argentina, deben ser consideradas un área con alta probabilidad de mantener una población residente de osos andinos. Aunque posiblemente esta sea una población aislada y pequeña, la presencia permanente de osos andinos en el noroeste de Argentina no debería ser puesta en duda.The presence of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus in Argentina has been disputed due to the absence of confirming evidence. Many Andean bear experts currently doubt on their presence in this country. Nevertheless, the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest or Yungas is a typical ecosystem where this species can be found, particularly in the studied area, in which the habitat appears to be of high quality for bears. Between 2001 and 2006, 23 cases of evidence on the presence of Andean bears in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy were recorded. Footprints, food remains and scats were found. In addition, natives, farmers, and hunters where interviewed to collect new data of this species. The conclusion is that the Yungas Forest of northwestern Argentina must be considered an area with high probability of maintaining a resident population of Andean bears. Although this is probably a small and perhaps isolated population, the

  18. Contrasting effects of landscape features on genetic structure in different geographic regions in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    Levy, Esther; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R; Kennington, W Jason

    2013-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have profound effects on the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations. Previously, we showed that in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, lizards residing on outcrops that are separated by cleared agricultural land are significantly more isolated and hold less genetic variation than lizards residing on neighbouring outcrops connected by undisturbed native vegetation. Here, we extend the fine-scale study to examine the pattern of genetic variation and population structure across the species' range. Using a landscape genetics approach, we test whether land clearing for agricultural purposes has affected the population structure of the ornate dragon lizard. We found significant genetic differentiation between outcrop populations (FST  = 0.12), as well as isolation by distance within each geographic region. In support of our previous study, land clearing was associated with higher genetic divergences between outcrops and lower genetic variation within outcrops, but only in the region that had been exposed to intense agriculture for the longest period of time. No other landscape features influenced population structure in any geographic region. These results show that the effects of landscape features can vary across species' ranges and suggest there may be a temporal lag in response to contemporary changes in land use. These findings therefore highlight the need for caution when assessing the impact of contemporary land use practices on genetic variation and population structure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A new voluntary blood collection method for the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus).

    Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

    Yusleni Fierro Toscazo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between one and three months old. Positive Gram bacilli occurred only in samples no older than a month, cocos and diplococos in samples between five and six months. Four fungus morphotypes were found, two of them being Mucor sp., and Trichoderma sp., in addition to Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. Trichoderma was associated with at least one more kind of fungus, for samples to older than one month, but no older than five months.

  1. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    Timoteo T. Watanabe; Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Gustavo Y. Hattori; Fernando J. Zara

    2014-01-01

    Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863) in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay) from Mar...

  2. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798).

    Sang, Huynh Minh; Fotedar, Ravi

    2010-03-01

    The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) (Bio-Mos, Alltech, USA) on the growth, survival, physiology, bacteria and morphology of the gut and immune response to bacterial infection of tropical rock lobsters (Panulirus ornatus) juvenile were investigated. Dietary inclusion level of MOS at 0.4% was tested against the control diet (trash fish) without MOS inclusion. At the end of 56 days of rearing period, a challenged test was also conducted to evaluate the bacterial infection resistant ability of the lobsters fed the two diets. Lobster juvenile fed MOS diet attained 2.86 +/- 0.07 g of total weigh and 66.67 +/- 4.76% survival rate which were higher (P lobsters fed control diet (2.35 +/- 0.14 g total weight and 54.76 +/- 2.38% survival rate, respectively) thus providing the higher (P lobsters fed MOS diet. Physiological condition indicators such as wet tail muscle index (Tw/B), wet hepatosomatic index (Hiw) and dry tail muscle index (Td/B) of the lobsters fed MOS supplemented diet were higher (P lobsters fed the control diet. Bacteria in the gut (both total aerobic and Vibrio spp.) and gut's absorption surface indicated by the internal perimeter/external perimeter ratio were also higher (P lobsters were fed MOS diet. Lobsters fed MOS diet were in better immune condition showed by higher THC and GC, and lower bacteraemia. Survival, THC, GC were not different among the lobsters fed either MOS or control diet after 3 days of bacterial infection while bacteraemia was lower in the lobsters fed MOS diet. After 7 days of bacterial infection the lobsters fed MOS diet showed higher survival, THC, GC and lower bacteraemia than the lobsters fed the control diet. The experimental trial demonstrated the ability of MOS to improve the growth performance, survival, physiological condition, gut health and immune responses of tropical spiny lobsters juveniles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of growth regulators on distribution of trichomes and the production of volatiles in micropropagated plants of Plectranthus ornatus

    Helna C. Passinho-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9.0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or 9.3 µM kinetin. Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of the 30, 60 and 90 days old in vitro plants permitted to determinate by GC/MS the composition comprised of 62 compounds. The data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and, the major constituents of these oils after treatment and aging were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Morphoanatomical analysis of trichomes, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, enabled the identification of non-glandular trichomes and four types of glandular trichomes, which comprised capitate and peltate glandular trichomes that were distributed on both sides of the leaf. We observed that the regulators influenced qualitative and quantitative profiles of the volatile organic compounds and the number and distribution of hairs on the leaf surface.

  4. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  5. K+ and NH4(+) modulate gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus: fine tuning of ammonia excretion.

    Garçon, D P; Masui, D C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

    2007-05-01

    To better comprehend the mechanisms of ionic regulation, we investigate the modulation by Na+, K+, NH4(+) and ATP of the (Na+, K+)-ATPase in a microsomal fraction from Callinectes ornatus gills. ATP hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with KM=0.61+/-0.03 mmol L(-1) and maximal rate of V=116.3+/-5.4 U mg(-1). Stimulation by Na+ (V=110.6+/-6.1 U mg(-1); K0.5=6.3+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)), Mg2+ (V=111.0+/-4.7 U mg(-1); K0.5=0.53+/-0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4(+) (V=173.3+/-6.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=5.4+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)) and K+ (V=116.0+/-4.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=1.5+/-0.1 mmol L(-1)) followed a single saturation curve, although revealing site-site interactions. In the absence of NH4(+), ouabain (K(I)=74.5+/-1.2 micromol L(-1)) and orthovanadate inhibited ATPase activity by up to 87%; the inhibition patterns suggest the presence of F0F1 and K+-ATPases but not Na+-, V- or Ca2+-ATPase as contaminants. (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity was synergistically modulated by K+ and NH4(+). At 10 mmol L(-1) K+, increasing NH4(+) concentrations stimulated maximum activity to V=185.9+/-7.4 U mg(-1). However, at saturating NH4(+) (50 mmol L(-1)), increasing K+ concentrations did not stimulate activity further. Our findings provide evidence that the C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase may be particularly well suited for extremely efficient active NH4(+) excretion. At elevated NH4(+) concentrations, the enzyme is fully active, regardless of hemolymph K+ concentration, and K+ cannot displace NH4(+) from its exclusive binding sites. Further, the binding of NH4(+) to its specific sites induces an increase in enzyme apparent affinity for K+, which may contribute to maintaining K+ transport, assuring that exposure to elevated ammonia concentrations does not lead to a decrease in intracellular potassium levels. This is the first report of modulation by ammonium ions of C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase, and should further our understanding of NH4(+) excretion in benthic crabs.

  6. Registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en la Reserva de la Biosfera sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, México A new record for the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus in the Sierra Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico

    Marcelo Aranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en un bosque de encino-pino de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, correspondiente a un individuo de 2 a 3 años de edad. Este registro es significativo ante la escasez de registros de esta especie en el occidente de México, los cuales corresponden a localidades en los estados de Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 y Guerrero (1. Se considera que el águila elegante está en peligro de extinción en México (NOM-059-ECOL-2001; su presencia en esta área natural protegida da aliento para su conservación.An immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus was observed and photographed while perched in pine-oak forest in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico. From plumage characteristics we believe the eagle to be 2-3 years old. This record is significant due to the paucity of records for this species in Western Mexico: Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 and Guerrero (1. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle is considered as a threatened species in Mexico, and this record from a natural protected area brings hope for its conservation.

  7. Nuevas evidencias de la presencia del Oso Andino (Tremarctos ornatus en las Yungas de Puno, el registro más austral de Perú

    Gisella Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El oso de anteojos Tremarctos ornatus es el único representante de la familia Ursidae en Suramérica. La población más grande y de distribución continua del oso andino en el Perú, se localiza en la ladera oriental de la cordillera oriental, incluyendo al departamento de Puno, donde casi todos los registros de esta especie provienen solamente de encuestas. Se describe aquí dos registros indirectos de la presencia del oso en el departamento de Puno, obtenidos en agosto del año 2009. El primer registro corresponde a una feca, con semillas perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, encontrada en Yanacocha; y el segundo registro corresponde a unas marcas de garras del oso hallado en Challohuma. Este último representa el registro más austral con- firmado para la distribución del oso de anteojos en el Perú. Nuestros registros evidencian una continuidad en la distribución de esta especie en la vertiente oriental de la cordillera andina, desde el sur del Perú hasta el noroeste de Bolivia. Estos registros se hallan también muy próximos al Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS, uno de los corredores de conservación más importantes en el mundo, y muestran la importancia de establecer estrategias de conservación tanto dentro como fuera de la zona de amortiguamiento del PNBS.

  8. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea, Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatus. Muestras de la superficie, boca e intestino de ambos anélidos se inocularon en agar sangre, agar sangre con ampicilina y agar eosina azul de metileno. La identificación de las bacterias y su sensibilidad a antibióticos se evaluaron por el método automatizado Vitek (Biomerieux®. Se hicieron en total 26 aislamientos pertenecientes a 12 especies de nueve géneros. Enterobacter cloacae fue la especie más frecuente en ambos anélidos. Las bacterias fueron sensibles a los antibióticos comúnmente empleados en las infecciones causadas por este tipo de microorganismos. Se sugiere hacer profilaxis con antibióticos en los pacientes que reciban terapia con los anélidos investigados e implementar los protocolos estandarizados para el lavado de los animales antes de su uso y para el aseo de los acuarios en donde se los mantenga.

  9. Métodos de secagem e rendimento dos extratos de folhas de Plectranthus barbatus (boldo-da-terra e P. ornatus (boldo-miúdo Methods estimated drying and percentage of extracts in leaves of Plectranthus barbatus (Brazilian bold and P. ornatus (false bold

    T.S. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus sp. pertence à família Lamiaceae e inclui cerca de 300 espécies. Duas delas, P. barbatus (PB e P. ornatus (PO destacam-se pelo interesse medicinal. As principais substâncias encontradas em Plectranthus sp. são os diterpenóides, óleos essenciais e compostos fenólicos. A melhor forma de utilizar as folhas de PB e PO é a fresco; porém, na comercialização há necessidade de recorrer a processos de secagem. Entretanto, isto pode interferir no princípio ativo, desta forma, estudos para determinar o melhor método gravimétrico são importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar qual o melhor método de secagem, onde haja maior perda de água possível, e calcular os rendimentos dos extratos visando avaliar se o método gravimétrico interfere na quantidade de extrato produzido. Desta forma, utilizou-se quatro métodos de secagem e após evaporação do solvente, fez-se o cálculo do rendimento dos extratos secos. O percentual de água foi superior em PB e PO (média geral de 90,12±8,22%. Dentre as secagens, em estufa de ventilação forçada (EVF foi mais eficiente em PB (88,87% e em estufa convencional (ECO foi melhor em PO (95,13%. O maior rendimento do extrato seco em PB foi na secagem em camada delgada (CD (20,96%, enquanto que em PO foi ECO (41,34%. Não houve correlação entre o método de secagem e o rendimento de extrato obtido.Plectranthus sp. belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes about 300 species. Two of them, P. barbatus (PB and P. ornatus (PO, have medicinal interest. The main substances found in Plectranthus sp. are the diterpenoids, essential oils and phenolic compounds. The best way to use the leaves of PB and PO is cool; but for marketing there is a need of resort to drying processes. However, this may interfere on the values of active principle; thus, studies to determine the best gravimetric methods are important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best method of drying, where there

  10. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  11. Zur Identifikation einer nach Deutschland eingeschleppten Kammspinnenart (Araneae: Ctenidae: Phoneutria boliviensis

    Jäger, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data and a drawing of the epigyne of Phoneutria boliviensis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, recently recorded from Germany, are presented. The specimen was introduced with cargo (bananas from Brazil. Characters of the single female are illustrated to facilitate identification in the future, since in the two recent revisions of the genus no drawing of the epigyne of P. boliviensis was included. Another case of introduction from 1998 of an unidentified subadult Phoneutria specimen, probably P. boliviensis too, with bananas from Ecuador is documented.

  12. Modeling distribution of Phoneutria bahiensis (Araneae: Ctenidae: an endemic and threatened spider from Brazil

    Marcelo A Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.

  13. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Gephyroctenus (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae Revisão do gênero de aranhas neotropicais Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae

    Daniele Polotow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G. acre sp. nov., do Estado do Acre, Brasil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. e G. mapia sp. nov., do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil; G. juruti sp. nov., do Department de Loreto, Peru e Estado do Pará, Brazil; e G. panguana sp. nov., do Department de Huanuco, Peru. Os machos do gênero podem ser distinguidos pela presença de uma fenda retrolateral no címbio, origem retrolateral do êmbolo, êmbolo longo e fino, apófise média com um gancho subdistal e projeção hialina na base do êmbolo no palpo, e as fêmeas podem ser distinguidas pelos campo mediano e campos laterais fundidos em uma única placa, aberturas copulatórias localizadas em um átrio e dutos copulatórios alongados no epígino. Observações de campo sobre o comportamento de caça de formigas em embaúbas (Cecropia são fornecidas para duas espécies deste gênero, G. philodromoides e G. mapia sp. nov.

  14. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae) II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...

  15. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    E. FOLLY-RAMOS

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  16. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  17. Microbiological aspects of phyllosoma rearing of the ornate rock lobster Panulirus ornatus

    Bourne, D.; Webster, N.; Payne, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Rock lobsters of the Palinuridae are the most valuable wild fisheries sector in Australia and are currently target aquaculture species. Significant challenges exist however to produce commercial scale quantities of post-larvae due to an extended larval phase which acerbates a high rate of larval...

  18. Leftward shift in the voltage-dependence for Ca2+ currents activation induced by a new toxin from Phoneutria reidyi (Aranae, Ctenidae) venom.

    Vieira, L B; Pimenta, A M C; Richardson, M; Bemquerer, M P; Reis, H J; Cruz, J S; Gomez, M V; Santoro, M M; Ferreira-de-Oliveira, R; Figueiredo, S G; Snutch, T P; Cordeiro, M N

    2007-02-01

    Various neurotoxins have been described from the venom of the Brazilian spider Phoneutria nigriventer, but little is known about the venoms of the other species of this genus. In the present work, we describe the purification and some structural and pharmacological features of a new toxin (PRTx3-7) from Phoneutria reidyi that causes flaccid paralysis in mice. The observed molecular mass (4627.26 Da) was in accordance with the calculated mass for the amidated form of the amino acid sequence (4627.08 Da). The presence of an alpha-amidated C-terminus was confirmed by MS/MS analysis of the C-terminal peptide, isolated after enzymatic digestion of the native protein with Glu-C endoproteinase. The purified protein was injected (intracerebro-ventricular) into mice at dose levels of 5 microg/mouse causing immediate agitation and clockwise gyration, followed by the gradual development of general flaccid paralysis. PRTx3-7 at 1 microM inhibited by 20% the KCl-induced increase on [Ca2+]i in rat brain synaptosomes. The HEK cells permanently expressing L, N, P/Q and R HVA Ca2+ channels were also used to better characterize the pharmacological features of PRTx3-7. To our surprise, PRTx3-7 shifted the voltage-dependence for activation towards hyperpolarized membrane potentials for L (-4 mV), P/Q (-8 mV) and R (-5 mV) type Ca2+ currents. In addition, the new toxin also affected the steady state of inactivation of L-, N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents.

  19. Caracterización de microorganismos involucrados en la descomposición de material vegetal consumido por Oso Andino Tremarctos ornatus (Ursidae

    Yusleni Fierro Toscano

    2005-07-01

    menores a seis meses. Cocobacilos Gram (+ solo aparecieron en hojas entre uno y tres meses y los bacilos Gram (+ exclusivamente en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos se presentaron únicamente en la muestra de hoja de cinco y seis meses en descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, de los cuales se identificaron Mucor spp. y Thricoderma spp. Los otros dos morfotipos no fueron identificados. Thricoderma spp. se encuentra asociado a por lo menos un hongo más.

  20. Análisis genético molecular del Oso Andino ( Tremarctos ornatus en el norte de los andes (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador: Una visión global

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    G10B, G10C y G10X. Un exhaustivo análisis genético poblacional permitió determinar los siguientes aspectos fundamentales: (1 No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg ni en el conjunto global de muestras ni en el conjunto particular de muestras para cada uno de esos países, al utilizar los tests exactos con cadenas de Markov y con el método de Fisher.

  1. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  2. Estructura genética y simulaciones de máxima verosimilitud y Estadística Bayesiana aplicada a la conservación genética del Oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus en Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 115 muestras de oso andino procedentes de Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador yBolivia mediante 5 microsatélites (G1A, G1D, G10B, G10C, G10M, G10P, G10X, UarMu 50,UarMu, 59. Se detectó: (1 No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg en ninguna de laspoblaciones analizadas en cada uno de los países, lo que evidencia la existencia de efectoWahlund. (2 Los niveles de variabilidad genética fueron bajos (H=0.40, población total.Alarmantemente bajo fue el nivel de heterocigocidad en la población de Ecuador (H=0.27. (3Los niveles de flujo génico resultaron bajísimos (Nm=0.2-0.3.

  3. Fatal clostridial enterotoxemia (Clostrium glycolcum) in an ornate nile monitor (Veranus ornarus)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Weese, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium glycolium was identified as the cause of circulatory collapse and death in a female, 3-year old, captive-bred ornate Nile monitor (Veranus ornatus). Anaerobic culture af fecal samples from 12 other monitor lizards from collection failed to demonstrate the prese......Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium glycolium was identified as the cause of circulatory collapse and death in a female, 3-year old, captive-bred ornate Nile monitor (Veranus ornatus). Anaerobic culture af fecal samples from 12 other monitor lizards from collection failed to demonstrate...

  4. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    2010-05-21

    ... listed Final listing rule ANIMALS Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew... Sorex ornatus Endangered........ U.S.A.... La Graciosa thistle Cirsium Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 65 FR 14888, 3/20/ loncholepis... Fish and Wildlife Office at (760) 431-9440. For the Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew, California clapper...

  5. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  6. Vibrio damsela associated with diseased fish in Denmark

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    of a nurse shark (Orectolobus ornatus) held in captivity, and one was from the water in the aquarium where the rags and shark were kept. This is the first report on the isolation of V. damsela in Denmark and the first report on this organism associated with diseased farmed rainbow trout. Ecological...

  7. The Umbrella Bird

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  8. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  9. 50 CFR 665.121 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... margaritaceus. uloulo-gatala, patagaloa surge wrasse Thalassoma purpureum. lape-moana red ribbon wrasse... undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) fe'e fe'e octopus octopus Octopus cyanea, Octopus ornatus. Polynemidae umiumia, i'ausi threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis. Pricanthidae (Bigeye...

  10. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  11. Nueva especie de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae from the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Javier Ponce Saavedra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides mascota sp. nov. de Mascota, Estado de Jalisco, México. Se hace una comparación con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Es una especie de importancia médica que no se había recolectado o reconocido previamente.Centruroides mascota sp. nov. from Mascota, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared with C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, which are morphologically and geographically nearest to it. This medically important species had not been collected or recognized previously

  12. Revisão sistemática de Promitobates Roewer 1913 e análise filogenética de Mitobatinae Simon1879 (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

    Cibele Bragagnolo

    2009-01-01

    As 10 especies nominais de Promitobates foram utilizadas na analise cladistica da subfamilia Mitobatinae. A especie P. ornatus (Mello-Leitao, 1922), amplamente distribuida e polimorfica, foi decomposta em quatro unidades monomorficas e sua taxonomia testada durante a analise cladistica. Outras duas especies que apresentaram polimorfismos (P. hatschbachi H. Soares, 1945 e P. viridigranulatus Soares & Soares, 1946) tambem foram separadas em duas unidades distintas. A analise cladistica foi efet...

  13. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  14. Piojos (Phthiraptera: Insecta) de aves de la familia Laridae (Aves: Charadriiformes) en Chile

    GONZÁLEZ-ACUÑA, DANIEL; FISCHER, CHRISTOF; PALMA, RICARDO; MORENO, LUCILA; BARRIENTOS, CARLOS; MUÑOZ, LISANDRO; ARDILES, KAREN; CICCHINO, ARMANDO

    2006-01-01

    Seis especies de piojos (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae) fueron colectadas sobre cuatro especies de aves marinas de la familia Laridae en la costa de Chile. Se registran: Saemundssonia sternae (Linnaeus, 1758) y Quadraceps sellatus (Burmeister, 1838) sobre el gaviotín boreal (Sterna hirundo, Linnaeus, 1758); Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780), Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) y Quadraceps ornatus (Grube, 1851) parasitando a la gaviota dominicana (Larus dominicanus Lichte...

  15. MOUTSINGA.xps

    HP Pro 2000

    L'étude vise à évaluer le régime alimentaire des poissons-chats du bassin de la rivière Léfini selon les ... 3 espèces de poissons, en fonction des saisons, le coefficient de condition, le pourcentage d'occurrence, ... subsidence, the food regime of C. ornatus, varied more than in periods of rise in the water level, with high.

  16. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders.

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.

  17. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California.Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0·52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study.Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0·2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites.The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4–5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus.Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi.At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus.Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species

  18. Ecological aspects of a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae population in São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR./ Aspectos ecológicos da população de Cosmopolites sordidus, (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR

    Cristiane Rohde

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar was studied in banana crops (cultivar Nanicão at São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, using roof-tile-like baits, between June/2003 and May/2004. Adults infected by entomopathogenic fungi were recorded, and predators were also found on the baits. A comparative bioassay was carried out between the Beauveria bassiana isolate obtained from the experiment area and from other regions in Brazil against C. sordidus adults. The population peaks of C. sordidus adults occurred in June and July, a period with mild temperatures and low precipitation. The population of C. sordidus larvae, however, was concentrated in December. The insect predators found in the area were insects of the following orders: Coleoptera (Carabidae, Dermaptera (Forficulidae, Hemiptera (Reduviidae, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and spiders of the families Ctenidae, Clubionidae, and Lycosidae, with a population peak two months after the pest population peak. A low number of C. sordidus adults infected by B. bassiana was found, with an annual mean of 0.44%. In the laboratory, the B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic to the insects.Estudou-se a dinâmica populacional de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em cultivo de banana(cultivar Nanicão, em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, através de iscas do tipo telha, entre junho/2003 a maio/2004. Atribuiu-se conceito ao estado de conservação da isca, visando observar sua durabilidade e atratividade. Registraram-se adultos infectados por fungos entomopatogênicos, sendo também encontrados predadores nas iscas. Realizou-se um bioensaio com isolados de Beauveria bassiana da área experimental e de Centros de Pesquisa do Brasil, para avaliar a patogenicidade em C. sordidus. Verificou-se que os picos populacionais de adultos de C. sordidus ocorreram em junho e julho, período de temperaturas amenas e baixas precipitações, enquanto que as larvas foram mais abundantes em dezembro. Os insetos predadores

  19. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  20. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  1. Was the Giant Short-Faced Bear a Hyper-Scavenger? A New Approach to the Dietary Study of Ursids Using Dental Microwear Textures

    Donohue, Shelly L.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schubert, Blaine W.; Ungar, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic environmental changes associated with global cooling since the late Miocene, and the onset of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene served as a backdrop to the evolutionary radiation of modern bears (family Ursidae). These environmental changes likely prompted changes in food availability, and triggered dietary adaptations that served as motive forces in ursid evolution. Here, we assess correspondence of dental microwear textures of first and second lower molars with diet in extant ursids. We use the resulting baseline data to evaluate the hypothesis that the Pleistocene giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, was a bone consumer and hyper-scavenger at Rancho La Brea, California, USA. Significant variation along the tooth row is consistent with functional differentiation, with the second molar serving as a better dietary recorder than the first. Results evince significant variation among species: carnivorous and omnivorous ursids (Ursus maritimus, U. americanus) have significantly higher and more variable complexity (Asfc) than more herbivorous ones (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Tremarctos ornatus, U. malayanus), and A. melanoleuca is differentiated from U. maritimus and U. americanus by significantly higher and more variable anisotropy (epLsar) values. Arctodus simus from Rancho La Brea exhibits wear attributes most comparable to its closest living relative (T. ornatus), which is inconsistent with hard-object (e.g., bone) consumption, and the hypothesis that short-faced bears were bone consuming hyper-scavengers across their range. PMID:24204860

  2. Was the giant short-faced bear a hyper-scavenger? A new approach to the dietary study of ursids using dental microwear textures.

    Donohue, Shelly L; DeSantis, Larisa R G; Schubert, Blaine W; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic environmental changes associated with global cooling since the late Miocene, and the onset of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene served as a backdrop to the evolutionary radiation of modern bears (family Ursidae). These environmental changes likely prompted changes in food availability, and triggered dietary adaptations that served as motive forces in ursid evolution. Here, we assess correspondence of dental microwear textures of first and second lower molars with diet in extant ursids. We use the resulting baseline data to evaluate the hypothesis that the Pleistocene giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, was a bone consumer and hyper-scavenger at Rancho La Brea, California, USA. Significant variation along the tooth row is consistent with functional differentiation, with the second molar serving as a better dietary recorder than the first. Results evince significant variation among species: carnivorous and omnivorous ursids (Ursus maritimus, U. americanus) have significantly higher and more variable complexity (Asfc) than more herbivorous ones (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Tremarctos ornatus, U. malayanus), and A. melanoleuca is differentiated from U. maritimus and U. americanus by significantly higher and more variable anisotropy (epLsar) values. Arctodus simus from Rancho La Brea exhibits wear attributes most comparable to its closest living relative (T. ornatus), which is inconsistent with hard-object (e.g., bone) consumption, and the hypothesis that short-faced bears were bone consuming hyper-scavengers across their range.

  3. Was the giant short-faced bear a hyper-scavenger? A new approach to the dietary study of ursids using dental microwear textures.

    Shelly L Donohue

    Full Text Available Dramatic environmental changes associated with global cooling since the late Miocene, and the onset of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene served as a backdrop to the evolutionary radiation of modern bears (family Ursidae. These environmental changes likely prompted changes in food availability, and triggered dietary adaptations that served as motive forces in ursid evolution. Here, we assess correspondence of dental microwear textures of first and second lower molars with diet in extant ursids. We use the resulting baseline data to evaluate the hypothesis that the Pleistocene giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, was a bone consumer and hyper-scavenger at Rancho La Brea, California, USA. Significant variation along the tooth row is consistent with functional differentiation, with the second molar serving as a better dietary recorder than the first. Results evince significant variation among species: carnivorous and omnivorous ursids (Ursus maritimus, U. americanus have significantly higher and more variable complexity (Asfc than more herbivorous ones (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Tremarctos ornatus, U. malayanus, and A. melanoleuca is differentiated from U. maritimus and U. americanus by significantly higher and more variable anisotropy (epLsar values. Arctodus simus from Rancho La Brea exhibits wear attributes most comparable to its closest living relative (T. ornatus, which is inconsistent with hard-object (e.g., bone consumption, and the hypothesis that short-faced bears were bone consuming hyper-scavengers across their range.

  4. ASPEK REPRODUKSI LOBSTER (Panulirus sp. DI PERAIRAN TELUK EKAS PULAU LOMBOK

    M Junaidi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to know some reproduction aspects of lobster, including sex ratio, gonad maturity level, size of first gonad mature, fekundity, and relationship of length-weight some. This research was conducted in June until November 2009 in Ekas Bay. During research 5 lobsters species were obtained, they are Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus P. penicillatus and P. longiceps, with their of is well-balanced (1:1. Size of first gonad mature of P. homarus at carapace length 77,44 mm that happened during June - November with fekundity 28.000 - 96.000 granule, P. versicolor at carapace length 82,20 mm that happened during June - September with fekundity 16.500 - 71.000 granule, P. ornatus at carapace length 76,74 mm that happened during September - November with fekundity 47.000 - 87.000 granule, P. penicillatus at carapace length 69,84 mm that happened during June - November with fekundity 31.000 - 150.000 granule and P. longiceps at carapace length 68,47 mm that happened in June - August with fekundity 47.000 - 140.000 granule. Relationship of carapace length and body weight of five species, also male and female was described using linier regression equation and have negative allometrict pattern, where accretion of carapace length was quicker than body weight accretion.Keyword : reproduction aspect, lobster, Ekas Bay

  5. Especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae de la costa del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the coast of the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Javier Ponce-Saavedra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides chamela sp. nov. de Chamela en el estado de Jalisco, México. Se compara con C. elegans (Thorell, especie con la que es simpátrida. También se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra y Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra y Francke y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Además, con C. meisei Hoffmann, que habita en las costas de Guerrero, porque este taxón se había considerado como subespecie de C. elegans. En la comparación se incluyen C. infamatus (C.L. Koch y C. ornatus (Pocock, por ser especies "rayadas" registradas para el estado de Jalisco.Centruroides chamela sp. nov. from Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared primarily with C. elegans Thorell, because both species are sympatric. It is also compared with C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra et Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra et Francke and C. tecomanus Hoffmann which are morphologically and geographically nearest to the new species. Centruroides meisei Hoffmann, which inhabits the coast of Guerrero is compared because this species was previously classified as a subspecies of C. elegans. Finally, C. infamatus (C.L. Koch and C. ornatus (Pocock are included in the comparisons because they are also present in the state of Jalisco, and belong to the "striped" section of the genus.

  6. An arboreal spider protects its offspring by diving into the water of tank bromeliads.

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Dézerald, Olivier; Dejean, Alain

    2018-03-01

    Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) individuals frequently live in association with tank bromeliads, including Aechmea bracteata, in Quintana Roo (Mexico). Whereas C. salei females without egg sacs hunt over their entire host plant, females carrying egg sacs settle above the A. bracteata reservoirs they have partially sealed with silk. There they avoid predators that use sight to detect their prey, as is known for many bird species. Furthermore, if a danger is more acute, these females dive with their egg sacs into the bromeliad reservoir. An experiment showed that this is not the case for males or females without egg sacs. In addition to the likely abundance of prey found therein, the potential of diving into the tank to protect offspring may explain the close association of this spider with bromeliads. These results show that, although arboreal, C. salei evolved a protective behavior using the water of tank bromeliads to protect offspring. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

    Yann Hénaut

    Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  8. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  9. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  10. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between ‘Aechmea-areas’ and ‘control-areas’ of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests. PMID:25494055

  11. Trophic transference of microplastics under a low exposure scenario: Insights on the likelihood of particle cascading along marine food-webs.

    Santana, M F M; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2017-08-15

    Microplastics are emergent pollutants in marine environments, whose risks along food-web still need to be understood. Within this knowledge gap, MPs transference and persistence along trophic levels are key processes. We assessed the potential occurrence of these processes considering a less extreme scenario of exposure than used previously, with microplastics present only in the hemolymph of prey (the mussel Perna perna) and absent in the gut cavity. Predators were the crab Callinectes ornatus and the puffer fish Spheoeroides greeleyi. Transference of microplastics occurred from prey to predators but without evidences of particle persistence in their tissues after 10days of exposure. This suggests a reduced likelihood of trophic cascading of particles and, consequently, a reduced risk of direct impacts of microplastics on higher trophic levels. However, the contact with microplastics along food-webs is still concerning, modulated by the concentration of particles in prey and predators' depuration capacity and rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Tropical terrestrial model ecosystems for evaluation of soil fauna and leaf litter quality effects on litter consumption, soil microbial biomass and plant growth Efeitos de fauna de solo e qualidade de liteira sobre o consumo, biomassa microbiana e crescimento de plantas em modelo de ecossistemas terrestres tropicais

    Bernhard Förster

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate whether terrestrial model ecosystems (TMEs are a useful tool for the study of the effects of litter quality, soil invertebrates and mineral fertilizer on litter decomposition and plant growth under controlled conditions in the tropics. Forty-eight intact soil cores (17.5-cm diameter, 30-cm length were taken out from an abandoned rubber plantation on Ferralsol soil (Latossolo Amarelo in Central Amazonia, Brazil, and kept at 28ºC in the laboratory during four months. Leaf litter of either Hevea pauciflora (rubber tree, Flemingia macrophylla (a shrubby legume or Brachiaria decumbens (a pasture grass was put on top of each TME. Five specimens of either Pontoscolex corethrurus or Eisenia fetida (earthworms, Porcellionides pruinosus or Circoniscus ornatus (woodlice, and Trigoniulus corallinus (millipedes were then added to the TMEs. Leaf litter type significantly affected litter consumption, soil microbial biomass and nitrate concentration in the leachate of all TMEs, but had no measurable effect on the shoot biomass of rice seedlings planted in top soil taken from the TMEs. Feeding rates measured with bait lamina were significantly higher in TMEs with the earthworm P. corethrurus and the woodlouse C. ornatus. TMEs are an appropriate tool to assess trophic interactions in tropical soil ecossistems under controlled laboratory conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo de ecossistema terrestre (TME como ferramenta para o estudo dos efeitos da qualidade da liteira, de invertebrados do solo e da fertilização mineral na decomposição da liteira e no crescimento das plantas em condições controladas. Foram coletados quarenta e oito cilindros de solo intacto (Latossolo Amarelo de 17,5 cm de diâmetro e 30 cm de comprimento em um seringal abandonado na Amazônia Central brasileira e mantidos a 28ºC em laboratório, por quatro meses. Folhas da liteira de Hevea pauciflora (seringueira, ou de Flemingia

  13. The species of Colletinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.

    Ferrari, Rafael R; Silveira, Fernando A

    2015-01-28

    The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais is a species-rich territory about as large as France, which houses the headwaters of some of the most important rivers in Brazil, as well as a variety of phytogeographic domains, with a poorly known insect fauna. Here, a synopsis of the bee species included in the genera Colletes Latreille, 1802 and Rhynchocolletes Moure, 1943 (Colletidae: Colletinae) occurring in this state is presented, including synonymies, diagnoses, redescriptions and identification keys to females and males of the eight recognized species, including one described as new. These species are Rhynchocolletes albicinctus Moure, 1943; Colletes altimontanus Ferrari & Silveira sp. nov.; C. argentinus Friese, 1908 stat. rev., C. meridionalis Schrottky, 1902; C. ornatus Schrottky, 1902; C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, 1896; C. rufipes Smith, 1879; and C. rugicollis Friese, 1900. Colletes extensicornis Vachal, 1909 is here proposed to be a junior synonym of C. meridionalis.

  14. Towards a revision of the genus Periclimenes: resurrection of Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902, and designation of three new genera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Zdeněk Ďuriš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on recently published molecular phylogenies of Indo-West Pacific palaemonid shrimps and further morphological evidence, the systematic position of several species of the polyphyletic genus Periclimenes is revised. The generic name Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902 is re-established for the anemone-associated P. brevicarpalis. Actinimenes gen. n., is proposed for the anemone-associated P. inornatus, P. ornatellus and P. ornatus, all of which have a subspatulate first pereiopod. Cristimenes gen. n., is designated for the echinoderm-associated species, P. commensalis, P. cristimanus, and P. zanzibaricus, all with a unique carpo-propodal articulation of the second pereiopods. Rapimenes gen. n. is established for the hydroid and antipatharian-associated P. brucei, P. granulimanus, and P. laevimanus, for which the long, slender and unequal second pereiopods and prehensile ambulatory propodi are the main synapomorphic characters.

  15. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    L. E. Codd

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  16. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini from South Africa

    Enrico Ricchiardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E. ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation.

  17. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    D. Brent Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they were omnivorous and may have consumed more bone than U. arctos. Here, we used dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA to further interpret the diet of the cave bear. Microscopic wear features were assessed and compared to modern ursids, including the cave bears’ closest living relative, U. arctos. Results suggest that U. spelaeus consumed a diet with a diversity of textural properties, similar to most other bears and only distinguishable from the hyper-carnivorous polar bear (Ursus maritimus. Further, only U. maritimus can be distinguished from all bear species here examined (i.e., the giant panda bear, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; sun-bear, Ursus malayanus; spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; American black bear, Ursus americanus; and U. arctos, with significantly greater area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc of microwear surfaces. The DMTA of A. melanoleuca also has significantly lower Asfc than T. ornatus and U. americanus, consistent with observed dietary behavior. As modern bears vary their diets seasonally and across their range, it may be difficult to characterize the dietary ecology of extinct bears using dental microwear alone. Nevertheless, DMTA here demonstrates that U. spelaeus had a diet distinct from the hyper-carnivorous U. maritimus and instead likely consumed food with textural properties most similar to other herbivorous/omnivorous bears. Lastly, the European cave bear and North American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus may have had

  18. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was undertaken from January to March 2015. Diseases status was determined by application of molecular plat-form, polymerase chain reaction (PCR with designation of specific primer for MHD (254F/R, 254F: 5’-CGA-GGA-CCA-GAG-ATG-GAC-CTT-3’ and 254R: 5’-GCT-CAT-TGT-CAC-CGC-CAT-TGT-3’ with PCR size product of 254 bp. and for cloned the pathogen was used TA-cloning Invitrogen for the DNA plasmid as positive control for other analysis. Several tissue samples i.e hepatopancreas, haemolymph, part of muscle hepatopancreas P. homarus and P. ornatus were taken from cage culture farms at Gerupuk Bay then preserved on 90% ethanol for further analysis by PCR and then the amplificated DNA were cloned into pCR®2.1 plasmid and transformed into competent E. coli. The result showed that almost all lobster samples from Gerupuk Bay were positive infected by MHD, as the results of PCR amplification whereas the band appeared at 254bp. Also MHD plasmid has been successfully cloned and will be used for further examination. Histopathologically in hepatopancreas infection have seen necrosis that contain numerous of rickettsia-like bacteria.

  19. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  20. Fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders: a global pattern.

    Martin Nyffeler

    Full Text Available More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders--observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens--are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil. Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae, in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae, and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae. The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences. There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the 'swimming' huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae] predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders. Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.

  1. Fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders: a global pattern.

    Nyffeler, Martin; Pusey, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders--observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens--are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the 'swimming' huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.

  2. Food availability and predation risk drive the distributional patterns of two pulmonate gastropods in a mangrove-saltmarsh transitional habitat.

    Peng, Yisheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Shing Yip

    2017-09-01

    The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats. For both species, the maximum population abundance occurred in the upper saltmarsh and the ecotone between mangrove and saltmarsh at 361.0 and 358.0 ind.m -2 , respectively, which was four times that of the lower saltmarsh. Mangroves were evaluated as the optimal habitat for the pulmonates in terms of the environmental parameters moisture content and food availability. However, due to its longer inundation duration within each tidal cycle, use of the mangrove habitat by the pulmonates was impeded because of difficulties in oxygen acquisition under submerged conditions. Laboratory experiments revealed the oxygen intake of the pulmonates dropped abruptly to 4.3-9.0% of aerial rates when submerged. This result indicated that mangroves were not the optimal habitat for the pulmonates. Furthermore, the visiting frequency of predators (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and toadfishes, Tetraodontidae) was 1.3 times higher in the mangrove compared to those in the ecotone and upper saltmarsh habitats. Underwater video recording also suggested high mortality of these gastropods at 31.7-88.9% in mangrove and 0.80-0.98 times higher than that in saltmarsh, resulting from the predators preying in the mangrove habitat during high tides. Despite the abiotic factors facilitating the distribution of the pulmonates in the mangrove, the

  3. Dinosaur Footprints and Other Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds of Morocco

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J.; Sereno, Paul C.; Wilson, Jeff A.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age ‘lower’ and ‘upper’ units of the ‘Kem Kem beds’ in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous. PMID:24603467

  4. Use of spatial capture–recapture to estimate density of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.

  5. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them.

  7. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  8. Widespread utility of highly informative AFLP molecular markers across divergent shark species.

    Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks.

  9. Bounded and unbounded boundaries - Untangling mechanisms for estuarine-marine ecological connectivity: Scales of m to 10,000 km - A review

    Wolanski, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the self-recruitment and connectivity of estuarine and coastal fauna and flora were made possible by an integration of physical oceanographic observations and modelling with results from studies of the behaviour of the seeds, eggs, larvae, propagules, juveniles and polyps, of population dynamics, microchemical tagging using natural and artificial markers, genetics and direct observations of trajectories. The species studied in those case studies were jellyfish in marine lakes, corals in acidified bays, seagrass, mangrove propagules, mussels and oysters, prawns, some estuarine fish larvae, the copepod Calanus finmarchius in the North Sea, sea turtles in the Coral Sea, and the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus in the Southeast Asia archipelago. The spatial scales for self-recruitment and connectivity vary with the species from a few m to 10,000 km, and the temporal scales vary from one to three generations. These studies suggest that, with increasing physical openness of a given site for a given species, self-recruiting increasingly relies on the behaviour of the species. Estuarine and coastal systems thus are simultaneously bounded and unbounded depending on the sites and the species considered and, although often ignored, the integration of oceanographic and behavioural understanding is increasingly required. This paper has shown the importance of understanding the hydrological and ecological dynamics with unbounded boundaries in creating the connectivity between parts of the aquatic continuum from the river catchment to the open seas.

  10. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  11. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  12. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Victor Manuel Vidal-Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll.

  13. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.9306

    Edmar Antônio Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.  

  14. Modelos alométricos para estimativa da área foliar de boldo pelo método não destrutivo

    Samuel Ferreira da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A área foliar é uma das mais importantes medidas de avaliação do crescimento vegetativo, em virtude de estar ligada ao incremento de matéria seca nas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar e obter o melhor modelo matemático para estimativa da área foliar do boldo (Plectranthus ornatus em função das suas dimensões alométricas. Utilizou-se um cultivo de boldo localizado na propriedade São Domingos no município de Alegre - ES, onde foram coletadas 80 folhas de 12 arbustos em outubro de 2013. As regressões foram determinadas considerando-se a área foliar real (AFR como variável dependente e o comprimento (C, largura (L e o produto do (C x L de cada folha como variáveis independentes. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a equação exponencial    y = 22033e0,1523x foi o melhor modelo matemático para estimar a área foliar do boldo, com R² de 0,62. Os modelos que utilizaram apenas a largura das folhas mostraram-se mais adequados para estimar a área das folhas do boldo, uma vez que apresentam maior correlação.

  15. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-04-22

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast.

  16. Kvintilianas apie iškalbos privalumus | Quintilian: on the virtues of eloquence

    Rasa Valienė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian we find a presentation of a theory of the virtues of eloquence: purity of language (latinitas, clarity (perspicuitas, appropriateness (aptum and ornament (ornatus. All of them were originated by earlier Greek philosophers Aristotle and Theophrastus. Later this theory was taken on and elaborated by Roman rhetoricians – Cicero and Quintilian. Aristotle in his Rhetoric explicitly identified three of the four virtues (clarity, appropriateness and correctness. Theophrastus created a theory of four virtues of eloquence (correctness, clarity, appropriateness and ornament. His system was adopted by most of others. Dionysius, however, developed the most complex system of virtues. He presented a theory of virtues, which were divided into necessary (purity of language, appropriateness, lucidity and brevity and accessory ones. The accessory virtues were further subdivided into another three groups. Rhetorica ad Herennium offered a three fold system: elegantia (including both correctness and clarity, compositio (similar to appropriateness and diginitas (similar to ornament. Basically, in almost all aspects being closer to Cicero (who continues the tradition of Theophrastus, Quintilian is more focused on his theory of eloquence. He discusses the virtues of eloquence very widely and deeply, step by step, drawing a number of examples and including the educational process of an orator. Above all, although the theory of four virtues of Quintilian has been influenced by Ciceron, to some extent in general it does not claim originality and plays a paramount role in modern rhetorics, stylistic and pedagogy.

  17. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical pirate spiders of the genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Araneae, Mimetidae) with the description of five new species.

    Benavides, Ligia R; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-01-12

    We revise the Neotropical spider genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Mimetidae). Gelanor is distributed from northeast Mexico to southern Uruguay , from sea level to 1,600 m. We describe five new species of Gelanor and report eleven new synonymies. Gelanor is here circumscribed to include ten species: Gelanor fortuna new species, Gelanor juruti new species, Gelanor moyobamba new species, Gelanor siquirres new species, Gelanor waorani new species, Gelanor altithorax Keyserling, 1893 (= Gelanor lanei Soares, 1941 new synonymy), Gelanor consequus O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 (= Gelanor depressus Chickering, 1956 new synonymy, Gelanor gertschi Chickering, 1947 new synonymy and Gelanor heraldicus Petrunkevitch, 1925 new synonymy), Gelanor innominatus Chamberlin, 1916, Gelanor latus (Keyserling, 1881) (= Gelanor mixtus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor mabelae Chickering, 1947 new synonymy, Gelanor ornatus Schenkel, 1953 new synonymy and Gelanor proximus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy) and Gelanor zonatus (C.L. Koch, 1845) (= Gelanor distinctus O-P. Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor insularis Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy and Gelanor obscurus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy). In addition, we describe for the first time the males of G. altithorax and G. consequus. Species descriptions are provided for all ten species in the genus, together with a compilation of available data, including type specimens, type localities and morphological diagnoses. Light and electron microscope images and updated data on known geographical distributions, are also provided. We also discuss the phylogenetic placement of Gelanor in Mimetidae.

  18. Strawberry crinkle virus, a Cytorhabdovirus needing more attention from virologists.

    Posthuma, K I; Adams, A N; Hong, Y

    2000-11-01

    Summary Taxonomic relationship: A member of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the genus Cytorhabdovirus (type member: Lettuce necrotic yellows virus), family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Members of the family Rhabdoviridae can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Physical properties: Virions are bacilliform, 74-88 nm in diameter and 163-383 nm in length with surface projections probably composed of trimers of the glycoprotein G, occurring in the cytoplasm in either the coated or the uncoated form (Fig. 1). The nucleocapsid is enclosed in a host-derived envelope. Within the virion, the SCV genome consists of a single negative-sense single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 13 kb. Viral proteins: The SCV genome encodes at least five proteins: the nucleocapsid (N) protein (45 kDa), the matrix (M) protein (77 kDa), the nonstructural protein [Ns, 55 kDa, also known as phosphoprotein (P)], the glycoprotein (G, 23 kDa) and the large (L) protein. Hosts: The natural host range of SCV is limited to species of the genus Fragaria L. Experimental hosts include Physalis pubescens L., P. floridana Rydb., Nicotiana occidentalis, N. glutinosa L. and N. clevelandi Gray. SCV also replicates in its insect vectors Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell and C. jacobi Hille Ris Lamberts. When injected as purified virus, SCV replicates in aphids Hyperomyzus lactucae (L.), Macrosiphon euphorbiae Thomas, Myzus ornatus Laing, Megoura viciae Buckton, and Acyrthosiphoa pisum (Harris).

  19. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    Jenny Yoo

    Full Text Available Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus. Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  20. Plastica Dei et rhétorique du corps. Écritures de l’apparence au Moyen Âge (XIIe-XIIIe siècles

    Carlos F. Clamote Carreto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : (Dé voilant les sept arts libéraux sous les traits emblématiques de dames dont les corps élégants et séducteurs sont parés de somptueux vêtements ornés de toutes les figures et couleurs de style, le fameux traité de Martianus Capella, Les noces de Philologie et de Mercure, qui fixera pour plusieurs siècles à venir le concept de littérature et toutes les formes du savoir clérical ancrées dans l’art de la lettre, assume sans ambages la défense du plasma fictionnelle contre l’empire de la plastica Dei dont Tertullien s’était fait, quelques siècles auparavant, le plus virulent des avocats. Cette déchirure épistémologique, renforcée par l’ambivalence inhérente à la conception du corps et de la parure dans la tradition biblique et exégétique, marquera définitivement les contours du récit médiéval et la conception même de l’apparence et du paraître dans l’Occident médiéval. L’imaginaire courtois développe ainsi une sémiologie complexe où les ornements qui recouvrent à profusion la surface du corps, lui assignant (ou refusant une place dans la société et dans la vaste syntaxe du monde, sont autant de métaphores reluisantes et trompeuses de l’ornatus rhétorique sur lesquelles s’appuiera, au fil des textes, toute une réflexion sur le langage poétique et le pouvoir de la représentation.Abstract : Plastica Dei and the Rhetoric of Body. Writings of Appearance in the Middle Ages (12th -13th CenturiesRevealing the Seven Liberal Arts through the emblematic features of ladies whose elegant, seductive bodies are covered with sumptuous clothes, adorned with all the figures and colours of style, the famous work by Martianus Capella, The marriage of Philology and Mercury - which will establish, for many centuries to come, the concept of literature as well as all the other forms of clerical knowledge anchored on the art of the letter- assumes clearly the defence of the fictional plasma vis

  1. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach=Medicina popular em Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná: uma abordagem etnobotânica

    Gisele Caroline Novakowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.Apresenta-se resultado de estudo etnobotânico (fevereiro a agosto/2009 visando melhoramento e racionalização das práticas medicinais populares fundamentadas no uso de plantas. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 220 famílias pertencentes à zona urbana do município de Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná. Durante as entrevistas foram registradas as seguintes informações das plantas utilizadas: nome comum, parte usada, modo de preparo, local de coleta, indica

  2. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  3. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Carlos F. Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  4. Chitosan-immobilized pectinolytics with novel catalytic features and fruit juice clarification potentialities.

    Irshad, Muhammad; Murtza, Aimen; Zafar, Muddassar; Bhatti, Khizar Hayat; Rehman, Abdul; Anwar, Zahid

    2017-11-01

    Biological macromolecules are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially relevant enzymes. The presence of polysaccharides in the form of the disrupted cell wall and cell materials are among major challenges in the fruit juice industry. The breakdown of such biological macromolecules including cellulose and pectin is vital for the juices processing. In this background, pectinolytic enzymes including polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PME) were isolated from Aspergillus ornatus, statistically optimized and purified via ammonium sulfate fractionation (ASF), dialysis, and Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography. After passing through Sephadex G-100 column, PG, PL, and PME were 2.60-fold, 3.30-fold, and 4.52-fold purified with specific activities of 475.2U/mg, 557.1U/mg, and 205.7U/mg. The active PG, PL, and PME, each separately, were surface immobilized using various concentrations of chitosan and dextran polyaldehyde as a macromolecular crosslinking agent. Prior to exploit for juice clarification purposes, various parameters including pH, thermal and Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of purified and chitosan-immobilized fractions were investigated. A considerable improvement in the pH and thermal profiles was recorded after immobilization. However, the negligible difference between the K m and V max values of purified free and chitosan-immobilized fractions revealed that the conformational flexibility of pectinolytics was retained as such. A significant color and turbidity reductions were recorded after 60min treatment with CTS-PG, followed by CTS-PME, and CTS-PL. It can be concluded that the clarification of apples, mango, peach, and apricot juices was greatly affected by CTS-PG, CTS-PME, and CTS-PL treatments rendering them as potential candidatures for food industry applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Dwi Mairida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Inasua

    Ferymon Mahulette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inasua is a traditionally product of wet salt fish fermentation produced by Teon, Nila and Serua (TNS Communities in Central Maluku, Indonesia. The community made this fermented fish to anticipate the lean time when fisherman could not go to sea.  The  fish that used as inasua raw material is demersal fishes that live around coral reefs, such as Samandar fish (Siganatus guttatus, Gala-gala fish (Lutjanus sp. and Sikuda fish (Lethrinus ornatus. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of bacterial indigenous in  Inasua from three producers in Seram Island. The measurement of pH from inasua samples were 5.9, 5.0 and 5.8, respectively. The highest number of lactic acid bacteria was found from  Gala – gala inasua was 2,5x107 cfu/g sample. Isolation of all isolates bacteria from inasua showed that a total of 7 isolates of bacteria was obtained  from Samadar inasua, 9 isolates from  Gala-gala inasua, and 7 isolates from  Sikuda inasua.  From a total of 23 isolates, only 6 isolates had characteristic as lactic acid bacteria that were Gram  positive, negative catalase, and cocci shape. The microscopic characteristics  of the isolates are coccid in pairs or uniforms which combine to form tetrads. Carbohydrate utilization test  of selected isolate by using API 50 CHB kit indicated that 13 carbohydrates are fermented by these isolates  after incubation for 48 hours. The research  was concluded that the dominant bacteria in inasua sample  is  cocci-lactic acid bacteria. Keywords : fermented fish, inasua, lactic acid bacteria, MRSA medium

  7. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  8. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  9. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  10. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  12. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland bird species continue to decline steeply across North America. Road-based surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS are often used to estimate trends and population sizes and to build species distribution models for grassland birds, although roadside survey counts may introduce bias in estimates because of differences in habitats along roadsides and in off-road surveys. We tested for differences in land cover composition and in the avian community on 21 roadside-based survey routes and in an equal number of adjacent off-road walking routes in the grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. Off-road routes (n = 225 point counts had more native grassland and short shrubs and less fallow land and road area than the roadside routes (n = 225 point counts. Consequently, 17 of the 39 bird species differed between the two route types in frequency of occurrence and relative abundance, measured using an indicator species analysis. Six species, including five obligate grassland species, were more prevalent at off-road sites; they included four species listed under the Canadian federal Species At Risk Act or listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii, Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii, the Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus, and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii. The six species were as much as four times more abundant on off-road sites. Species more prevalent along roadside routes included common species and those typical of farmland and other human-modified habitats, e.g., the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, the Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia, and the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus. Differences in avian community composition between roadside and off-road surveys suggest that the use of BBS data when generating population estimates or distribution models may overestimate certain common species and underestimate others of conservation

  13. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  14. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  15. BUDIDAYA LOBSTER (Panulirus sp. DI VIETNAM DAN APLIKASINYA DI INDONESIA

    Akhmad Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Desa Xuan Tun di Kecamatan Van Ninh Kota Nha Trang Provinsi Khanh Hoa merupakan lokasi pertama kegiatan budidaya lobster di Vietnam yang dilakuan pada tahun 1992. Secara umum di Kota Nha Trang, ada tiga jenis lobster yang dibudidayakan yaitu lobster mutiara (Panulirus ornatus, lobster pasir (Panulirus homarus, dan lobster batik (Panulirus longipes, karena benih lobster tersebut mudah didapat pada awalnya, cepat tumbuh, berukuran besar, warna cerah, dan memiliki harga yang tinggi. Kegiatan budidaya lobster pada dasarnya terdiri atas: penangkapan benih lobster, produksi tokolan lobster, dan pembesaran lobster yang masing-masing merupakan segmen usaha tersendiri. Pakan yang digunakan dalam produksi tokolan dan pembesaran lobster adalah berupa udang, kerang, tiram, cumi-cumi, dan ikan rucah, di mana sebagian besar dari pakan tersebut digunakan ikan rucah terutama pada pembesaran lobster. Sebagai akibat penggunaan pakan tersebut dan peningkatan jumlah keramba jaring apung yang cukup signifikan berdampak pada penurunan kualitas perairan yang memicu berkembangya penyakit susu (milky haemolymph disease sehingga terjadi penurunan produksi. Terkait dengan hasil yang didapatkan tersebut, ke depan diperlukan berbagai kegiatan termasuk untuk dapat diaplikasikan di Indonesia. Kegiatan tersebut meliputi: produksi benih lobster secara buatan di hatcheri dan penggunaan pakan buatan berupa moist pellet. Upaya pencegahan penyakit susu dan perlakuan-perlakuan praktis untuk mencegah perkembangan serangan penyakit susu juga perlu mendapat perhatian. Perkembangan budidaya lobster yang begitu cepat memicu terjadinya penurunan daya dukung lahan. Oleh karena itu, kegiatan untuk menentukan daya dukung lahan dan kesesuaian lahan menjadi penting untuk dilakukan untuk menentukan lokasi dan jumlah keramba jaring apung yang dapat dioperasikan. Penentuan daya dukung lahan dan evaluasi kesesuaian lahan tidak hanya dilakukan pada daerah yang

  16. Phenacoccinae de Centro y Sudamérica (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae: Sistemática y Filogenia Central and South American Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae: Systematics and Phylogeny

    María Cristina Granara De Willink

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sistemático y cladístico de las especies de Phenacoccus Cockerell neotropicales. Se describen e ilustran 18 especies nuevas: Phenacoccus argentinus Granara de Willink, Ph. berberis Granara de Willink, Ph. chubutensis Granara de Willink, Ph. ornatus Granara de Willink, Ph. persimilis Granara de Willink (Argentina; Ph. erythrinus Granara de Willink (Brasil y Argentina; Ph. peruvianus Granara de Willink (Argentina y Perú; Ph. sisymbriifolium Granara de Willink (Argentina y Uruguay; Ph. chilindrinae Granara de Willink, Ph. cornicirculus Granara de Willink, Ph. ruellia Granara de Willink, Ph. setosus Granara de Willink, Ph. sonoraensis Granara de Willink (México; Ph. hirsutus Granara de Willink (Puerto Rico; Ph. multicerarii Granara de Willink (Venezuela; Ph. sisalanus Granara de Willink (Haití y República Dominicana; Ph. toconaoensis Granara de Willink (Chile, y Ph. uruguayensis Granara de Willink (Uruguay. Todas las especies de Phenacoccus conocidas anteriormente para la región (24 en total son diagnosticadas. También se citan, ilustran y describen Phenacoccus artemisiae Ehrhorn y Ph. graminicola Leonardi, encontradas por primera vez en la Argentina. Se incluyen claves de géneros de Phenacoccinae neotropicales y de las especies de Phenacoccus neotropicales y también una lista de plantas hospederas de los Phenacoccus, que contiene 48 Familias Botánicas y 124 especies. Finalmente se realizó un análisis cladístico de los Phenacoccinae neotropicales, que incluye además de Phenacoccus los siguientes géneros: Brasiliputo Williams & Granara de Willink, Brevennia Goux, Chileputo Williams & Granara de Willink, Heliococcus Sulc, Heterococcus Ferris, Mammicoccus Balachowsky, Peliococcus Borchsenius, Pellizzaricoccus Kozár. Una matriz de 60 taxones (que incluye 10 géneros y 111 caracteres morfológicos, fue analizada mediante el criterio de parsimonia con el género Puto Signoret como taxón raíz. Los resultados

  17. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata), with some data on Slovak fauna

    Mašán, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , 1918 = Kleemannia plumosa (Oudemans, 1902); Ameroseius eumorphus Bregetova, 1977 and Kleemannia potchefstroomensis Kruger & Loots, 1980 = Kleemannia pseudoplumosa (Rack, 1972); Ameroseius gilarovi Petrova, 1986 = Kleemannia plumigera Oudemans, 1930; Ameroseius imparsetosus Westerboer, 1963 = Ameroseius georgei (Turk, 1943); Ameroseius lanatus Solomon, 1969 and Ameroseius fimetorum Karg, 1971 = Kleemannia tenella (Berlese, 1916); Ameroseius lanceosetis Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Kleemannia pavida (C. L. Koch, 1839); Ameroseius marginalis Fan & Li, 1993 and Ameroseius sichuanensis Fan & Li, 1993 = Kleemannia insignis (Bernhard, 1963); Ameroseius pseudofurcatus Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Ameroseius furcatus Karg, 1971; Ameroseius stramenis Karg, 1976 and Lasioseius (Lasioseius) gracilis Halbert, 1923 = Kleemannia delicata (Berlese, 1918); Epicriopsis langei Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 and Epicriopsis baloghi Kandil, 1978 = Epicriopsis palustris Karg, 1971; Epicriopsis rivus Karg, 1971 = Epicriopsis mirabilis Willmann, 1956; Neocypholaelaps ewae Haitlinger, 1987 = Neocypholaelaps indicus Evans, 1963; Neocypholaelaps lindquisti Prasad, 1968, Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis Haitlinger, 1987 and Afrocypholaelaps analicullus Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus, 2010 = Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963); Sinoseius pinnatus Huhta & Karg, 2010 = Sinoseius lobatus Bai, Gu & Fang, 1995. Ameroseius womersleyi Mašán, is a replacement name proposed for Ameroseius ornatus Womersley, 1956, a junior secondary homonym of Cornubia ornata Turk, 1943 [= Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806)]. Cornubia georgei Turk, 1943 is removed from synonymy with Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806). An annotated catalogue of the world species of Ameroseiidae is provided, partly based on type (in more than 60 species) and non-type specimens from various museum deposits and personal collections, including new or revised material from Slovakia. It contains 206 named species (138 valid species, 37

  18. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata, with some data on Slovak fauna

    Peter Mašán

    2017-09-01

    , 1918 = Kleemannia plumosa (Oudemans, 1902; Ameroseius eumorphus Bregetova, 1977 and Kleemannia potchefstroomensis Kruger & Loots, 1980 = Kleemannia pseudoplumosa (Rack, 1972; Ameroseius gilarovi Petrova, 1986 = Kleemannia plumigera Oudemans, 1930; Ameroseius imparsetosus Westerboer, 1963 = Ameroseius georgei (Turk, 1943; Ameroseius lanatus Solomon, 1969 and Ameroseius fimetorum Karg, 1971 = Kleemannia tenella (Berlese, 1916; Ameroseius lanceosetis Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Kleemannia pavida (C. L. Koch, 1839; Ameroseius marginalis Fan & Li, 1993 and Ameroseius sichuanensis Fan & Li, 1993 = Kleemannia insignis (Bernhard, 1963; Ameroseius pseudofurcatus Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Ameroseius furcatus Karg, 1971; Ameroseius stramenis Karg, 1976 and Lasioseius (Lasioseius gracilis Halbert, 1923 = Kleemannia delicata (Berlese, 1918; Epicriopsis langei Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 and Epicriopsis baloghi Kandil, 1978 = Epicriopsis palustris Karg, 1971; Epicriopsis rivus Karg, 1971 = Epicriopsis mirabilis Willmann, 1956; Neocypholaelaps ewae Haitlinger, 1987 = Neocypholaelaps indicus Evans, 1963; Neocypholaelaps lindquisti Prasad, 1968, Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis Haitlinger, 1987 and Afrocypholaelaps analicullus Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus, 2010 = Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963; Sinoseius pinnatus Huhta & Karg, 2010 = Sinoseius lobatus Bai, Gu & Fang, 1995. Ameroseius womersleyi Mašán, is a replacement name proposed for Ameroseius ornatus Womersley, 1956, a junior secondary homonym of Cornubia ornata Turk, 1943 [= Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806]. Cornubia georgei Turk, 1943 is removed from synonymy with Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806. An annotated catalogue of the world species of Ameroseiidae is provided, partly based on type (in more than 60 species and non-type specimens from various museum deposits and personal collections, including new or revised material from Slovakia. It contains 206 named species (138 valid species, 37 synonyms, nine

  19. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus. The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1285-1294. Epub 2011 September 01.

  20. Biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous deposits in north of Birjand, (Shushud section

    farah jalili

    2014-11-01

    sequence could be divided into two informal members. The lower member is formed by intercalation of marl, shaly marl, thin bedded limestone and sandstone. The upper member includes medium to thick bedded limestone, medium bedded sandy limestone that changes to red sandstone. Moreover, in the upper part medium bedded limestone and sandy limestone are predominant. The upper boundary with Eocene deposits is unconformable. In the lower member, the following assemblage is identified; Abathomphalus sp., Bolivinoides draco draco, Dentalina granti, Gavelinella sp., Globotruncanita conica, Globotruncana arca, Globotruncana sp., Globotruncanita stuarti, Heterohelix sp., Heterohelix globulosa, Marssonella turris, Neoflabellina cf. permutata, Pseudotextularia sp., Pseudotextularia elegans, Pseudotextularia nuttalli, Planomalina sp., Schackonia sp. The following assemblage is also recognised in the upper member; Bolivinita planate, Goupilloudina iranica, Goupilloudina shirazensis, Globotruncanita stuarti, Heterohelix globulosa, Iranites ornatus, Lepidorbitoides socialis, Lepidorbitoides sp., Nezzazzata sp., Orbitoides media, Omphalocyclus macroporus, Orbitoides tissoti, Orbitoides apiculata. Pseudorotalia persica, Pseudotextularia elegans, Sulcoperculina sp., Siderolites calcitrapoides, Sirtina sp., Textularid. Globigerinelloides sp., Globotruncanita stuarti, Iranites ornatus, Lepidorbitoides socialis, Lepidorbitoides sp., Nezzazzata sp., Omphalocyclus macroporus, Orbitoides media, Pseudorotalia persica. Above the deposits that attributed to Cretaceous with a basal conglomerate, there is a sequence that the following foraminifera are identified; Alveolina pasticillata, Alveolina leupoldi, Alveolina aragonensis, Alveolina aff. pisella Alveolina (Glomalveolina primaeva, Alveolina aff. rutimeyeri, Alveolina (Glomalveolina sp., Biloculina sp., Miscellanea aff. iranica, Miscellanea sp., Nummulites convexa, Nummulites cf. guettardi. Based on the identified benthic and palnktonic foraminifera

  1. A revision of the family Cerococcidae Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Coccomorpha) with particular reference to species from the Afrotropical, western Palaearctic and western Oriental Regions, with the revival of Antecerococcus Green and description of a new genus and fifteen new species, and with ten new synonomies.

    Hodgson, Chris J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-03-14

    morphological limits of all current genera, including those from outside the western Palaearctic, western Oriental and Afrotropical Regions. This resulted in a new genus, Cerochiton Hodgson & Williams, gen. nov., with three species from the Oriental Region. This genus also falls within the Cerococcus-group of genera. In addition, it was found that, with the inclusion of As. ovoides (Cockerell) from South Africa, Asterococcus was not morphologically monophyletic and so this species has been transferred to Antecerococcus as Antecerococcus ovoides (Cockerell), comb. nov. The following revived combinations are included: Antecerococcus bryoides Maskell and A. stellatus Maskell. In addition, the following Cerococcus species have been transferred to Antecerococcus as comb. nov.: Cerococcus albospicatus Green, C. ankaratrae Mamet, C. asparagi Joubert, C. camarai Neves, C. cistarum Balachowsky, C. cliffortiae Joubert, C. cycliger Goux, C. dumonti Vayssière, C. fradei Castel-Branco, C. gabonensis Lambdin, C. gallicolus Mamet, C. intermedius Balachowsky, C. laniger Goux, C. longipilosus Archangelskaya, C. madagascariensis Mamet, C. multipororum Lambdin & Kosztarab, C. oranensis Balachowsky, C. ornatus Green, C. passerinae Brain, C. perowskiae Archangelskaya, C. philippiae Lambdin & Kosztarab, C. pileae Mamet, C. pocilliferus Neves, C. polyporus Matesova, C. roseus Green, C. royenae Brain, C. ruber Balachowsky, C. steppicus Balachowsky and C. theydoni Hall. The following have also been transferred to Antecerococcus as comb. nov.: Amelococcus alluaudi Marchal, Cercococcus eremobius Scott, Eriococcus paradoxus indica Maskell, Phenacobryum indigoferae Borchsenius and Pollinia ovoides Cockerell. Two further undescribed species were discovered, one from Mexico and the other from Java, and a number of synonyms were found of names that are now all in Antecerococcus, as follows: Cerococcus camarai Neves is a junior synonym of Cerococcus intermedius Balachowsky, syn. nov.; Cerococcus cycliger Goux