WorldWideScience

Sample records for oligocene epoch

  1. Pliocene geomagnetic polarity epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Cox, A.; Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, C.S.

    1967-01-01

    A paleomagnetic and K-Ar dating study of 44 upper Miocene and Pliocene volcanic units from the western United States suggests that the frequency of reversals of the earth's magnetic field during Pliocene time may have been comparable with that of the last 3.6 m.y. Although the data are too limited to permit the formal naming of any new polarity epochs or events, four polarity transitions have been identified: the W10 R/N boundary at 3.7 ?? 0.1 m.y., the A12 N/R boundary at 4.9 ?? 0.1 m.y., the W32 N/R boundary at 9.0 ?? 0.2m.y., and the W36 R/N boundary at 10.8 ?? 0.3 - 1.0 m.y. The loss of absolute resolution of K-Ar dating in older rocks indicates that the use of well defined stratigraphic successions to identify and date polarity transitions will be important in the study of Pliocene and older reversals. ?? 1967.

  2. Oligocene cetaceans from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cisneros, Atzcalli Ehécatl; González Barba, Gerardo; Fordyce, Robert Ewan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Baja California Sur has an important Cenozoic marine fossil record which includes diverse but poorly known Oligocene cetaceans from Mexico. Here we review the cetacean fossil record including new observations from materials that elucidate the evolution of the Neoceti in the Pacific basin. Fossils were collected from outcrops of the El Cien Formation (Oligocene-Early Miocene) and from San Gregorio Formation (Late Oligocene). The specimens belong to the paleontological collection of Mu...

  3. The quantum epoché.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Paavo

    2015-12-01

    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoché (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to "phenomena" or "appearances", a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoché even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoché connected to phenomenological description, the "quantum epoché" nevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  5. Problematic microscopic trace (?) fossils, Oligocene, Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Boorová, D.; Holcová, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2013), s. 60-71 ISSN 0869-5938 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Pannonian Basin * Oligocene * microfossils * meiofauna * burrows Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.714, year: 2013

  6. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  7. Epochality, Global Capitalism and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hope

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available What type of capitalism do we live in today? My answer to this question draws upon two interrelated lines of argument. Firstly, I will argue that we inhabit an epoch of global capitalism. The precursors of this kind of capitalism originated from the late nineteenth century when the development of telegraph networks, modern transport systems and world time zones provided a global template for industrialisation and Western imperialism. From about 1980 a confluence of global events and processes bought a fully-fledged global capitalism into being. These included the collapse of Fordist Keynesianism, national Keynesianism and Soviet Communism along with First, Second and Third World demarcations; the international proliferation of neo-liberal policy regimes; the growth of transnational corporations in all economic sectors; the predominance of financialisation and the reconstitution of global workforces. Secondly, I will argue that the shift from organic surface energy to underground fossil energy intertwined the time of the earth with the time of human history as nature was being instrumentalised as a resource for humanity. Understanding the capitalist relations of power involved here requires that we rethink the emergence of industrial capitalism in the historical context of a world system built upon unequal socio-ecological exchange between core and periphery. Today, global capitalism has intensified the anthropogenic feedback loops associated with CO2 emissions and climate change and universalised the organisational frameworks of profit extraction and socio-ecological destruction. I refer here to the transnational systems of fossil fuel capitalism along with their interlinkages with financialisation and advertising/commodity fetishism. From the preceding lines of argument I will briefly outline the intra-capitalist and planetary-ecological crises out of which transnational coalitions of opposition might emerge.

  8. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  9. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  10. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer.

  11. LEDDB : LOFAR Epoch of Reionization Diagnostic Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Rubi, O.; Veligatla, V. K.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Lampropoulos, P.; Offringa, A. R.; Jelic, V.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Zaroubi, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key science projects of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) is the detection of the cosmological signal coming from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Here we present the LOFAR EoR Diagnostic Database (LEDDB) that is used in the storage, management, processing and analysis of the LOFAR EoR

  12. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H

    1969-02-07

    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent.

  13. Observing the epoch of galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidel, C C

    1999-04-13

    Significant observational progress in addressing the question of the origin and early evolution of galaxies has been made in the past few years, allowing for direct comparison of the epoch when most of the stars in the universe were forming to prevailing theoretical models. There is currently broad consistency between theoretical expectations and the observations, but rapid improvement in the data will provide much more critical tests of theory in the coming years.

  14. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, C.C. III; Prothero, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the causes of climatic changes and associated faunal and floral extinctions at the close of the Eocene Epoch have long been controversial because of, in part, uncertainties in correlation and dating of global events. New single-crystal laser fusion (SCLF) 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates on tephra from key magnetostratigraphic and fossil-bearing sections necessitate significant revision in North American late Paleogene chronology. The Chadronian-Orellan North American Land Mammal Age boundary, as a result, is shifted from 32.4 to 34.0 Ma (million years ago), the Orellan-Whitneyan boundary is shifted from 30.8 to 32.0 Ma, and the Whitneyan-Arikareean boundary is now approximately 29.0 Ma. The new dates shift the correlation of Chron C12R from the Chadronian to within the Orellan-Whitneyan interval, the Chadronian becomes late Eocene in age, and the North American Oligocene is restricted to the Orellan, Whitneyan, and early Arikareean. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary, and its associated climate change and extinction events, as a result, correlates with the Chadronian-Orellan boundary, not the Duchesnean-Chadronian boundary. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2012-10-23

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  16. A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index. Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement. The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw, density (ρsw and pressure (Psw and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h, but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.

  17. Crocodilian faunal renewal in the Upper Oligocene of Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Miguel Telles; Cahuzac, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    The presence of Tomistomine Crocodilians ( Tomistoma sp.) is first recorded in the Upper Oligocene of Western Europe (Chattian, Saint-Geours-de-Maremne, Aquitaine basin). Immigration, probably of Asiatic origin, occurred ca. 26 Ma, prior to the previously earliest records for Lowermost Miocene. Tomistoma points to warm, at least subtropical environments, in agreement with data on invertebrates and fish fauna. Immigrations to Western Europe of Tomistoma (and of Gavialis, in Miocene times) during Upper Oligocene and Lower-Middle Miocene seem related to climatic warming and eustatic rise events. There was a renewal of the European Crocodilian fauna, much impoverished in Late Eocene and reduced to Diplocynodon.

  18. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  19. Palm leaves from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new palm leaf impressions, cf. Iguanura wallichiana and Palmacites makumensis sp. nov. are described from the Makum Coalfield, Tinsukia District, Assam. They belong to the Tikak Parbat Formation being considered as Late Oligocene (Chattian 28–23 Myr) in age. Their presence, along with the other known fossil ...

  20. Palynological Zonation of Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-31

    Dec 31, 2017 ... Keywords: Lithozones; Niger delta Basin; Palynomorphs; Oligocene to Early Miocene; Depobelt. The Niger Delta is ... province on the West African continental margin. It lies mainly in the ... Nigeria depends largely on the oil and gas derived from it. ... generation, accumulation and retention of hydrocarbons.

  1. Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, David R.; HERA

    2015-01-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA - reionization.org) roadmap uses the unique properties of the neutral hydrogen (HI) 21cm line to probe our cosmic dawn: from the birth of the first stars and black holes, through the full reionization of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM). HERA is a collaboration between the Precision Array Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER - eor.berkeley.edu), the US-based Murchison Widefield Array (MWA - mwatelescope.org), and MIT Epoch of Reionization (MITEOR) teams along with the South African SKA-SA, University of KwaZulu Natal and the University of Cambridge Cavendish Laborabory. HERA has recently been awarded a National Science Foundation Mid-Scale Innovation Program grant to begin the next phase.HERA leverages the operation of the PAPER and MWA telescopes to explore techniques and designs required to detect the primordial HI signal in the presence of systematics and radio continuum foreground emission some four orders of magnitude brighter. With this understanding, we are now able to remove foregrounds to the limits of our sensitivity, culminating in the first physically meaningful upper limits. A redundant calibration algorithm from MITEOR improves the sensitivity of the approach.Building on this, the next stage of HERA incorporates a 14m diameter antenna element that is optimized both for sensitivity and for minimizing foreground systematics. Arranging these elements in a compact hexagonal grid yields an array that facilitates calibration, leverages proven foreground removal techniques, and is scalable to large collecting areas. HERA will be located in the radio quiet environment of the SKA site in the Karoo region of South Africa (where PAPER is currently located). It will have a sensitivity close to two orders of magnitude better than PAPER and the MWA to ensure a robust detection. With its sensitivity and broader frequency coverage, HERA can paint an uninterrupted picture through reionization, back to the

  2. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  3. LSST and the Epoch of Reionization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezić, Željko

    2018-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), a next generation astronomical survey, sited on Cerro Pachon in Chile, will provide an unprecedented amount of imaging data for studies of the faint optical sky. The LSST system includes an 8.4m (6.7m effective) primary mirror and a 3.2 Gigapixel camera with a 9.6 sq. deg. field of view. This system will enable about 10,000 sq. deg. of sky to be covered twice per night, every three to four nights on average, with typical 5-sigma depth for point sources of r = 24.5 (AB). With over 800 observations in the ugrizy bands over a 10-year period, these data will enable coadded images reaching r = 27.5 (about 5 magnitudes deeper than SDSS) as well as studies of faint time-domain astronomy. The measured properties of newly discovered and known astrometric and photometric transients will be publicly reported within 60 sec after closing the shutter. The resulting hundreds of petabytes of imaging data for about 40 billion objects will be used for scientific investigations ranging from the properties of near-Earth asteroids to characterizations of dark matter and dark energy. For example, simulations estimate that LSST will discover about 1,000 quasars at redshifts exceeding 7; this sample will place tight constraints on the cosmic environment at the end of the reionization epoch. In addition to a brief introduction to LSST, I review the value of LSST data in support of epoch of reionization experiments and discuss how international participants can join LSST.

  4. New insights on the Marseille-Aubagne Oligocene basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nury, D.; Villenueve, M.; Azrithac, P.; Gartner, A.; Linneann, U.; Chateauneuf, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    The Marseille-Aubagne Basins, which extend from Marseille to Roquevaire, occupy more than fifty per cent of the Marseille-Aubagne geological map, with approximately one million people living in this area. Despite this geological importance they are still poorly known. The first synthetic view was delivered in the 1935 geological map. Studied by Bonifay, the Quaternary deposits have been included in the 1969 geological map. Nevertheless, the Oligocene formations remained unmodified until Nury, who provided a lot of very detailed stratigraphic data. New studies have been carried out in the frame of the third issue of the 1:50,000 geological map. These studies allow us to distinguish between three different basins: the ''Jarret basin'' in the northern part, the ''Prado basin'' in the southwestern part and the ''Aubagne basin'' in the eastern part. Each of them contains its own stratigraphic succession, including several formations from the Rupelian to the Chattian. Globally, the Lower to Upper Rupelian formations are tectonically deformed, whilst deposits from the Latest Rupelian to the Latest Chattian show only slight deformation. Thus, two main geodynamic stages have been distinguished: the first beginning with the Early Oligocene extensive regime leading to the opening of NNE-SSW troughs all over the European platform and, the second, beginning with a NNW-SSE extensive regime coeval with the Western Mediterranean rifting. The key point that separates these two stages from each other is a possible Late Rupelian compressive regime. To sum up, this basin can be considered as a natural archive for the Oligocene events. Therefore, these basins should be considered as master pieces for the Oligocene palaeogeographic and geodynamic reconstructions. (Author)

  5. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  7. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  8. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT THE PRESENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z ≤ 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω {sub m} = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the L{sub m} -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, L{sub m} , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter ''metric plane'' relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of L{sub m} , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, r{sub x} of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = –2.33 power law over 1 < r{sub x} < 10{sup 3} kpc. The median offset is ∼10 kpc, but ∼15% of the BCGs have r{sub x} > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV {sub 1}|/σ {sub c} follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both L{sub m} and α increase with σ {sub c}. The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on L{sub m} . Likewise, residuals from

  9. Tropical sea surface temperature variability near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water temperature decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based temperature estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean temperatures were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based temperatures can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor temperature constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than temperature, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged temperatures recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic δ18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late

  10. The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionisation with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Pritchard, J.; Mellema, G.; Aguirre, J.; Ahn, K.; Barkana, R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bernardi, G.; Bonaldi, A.; Briggs, F.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Chang, T. C.; Chapman, E.; Chen, X.; Ciardi, B.; Dayal, P.; Ferrara, A.; Fialkov, A.; Fiore, F.; Ichiki, K.; Illiev, I. T.; Inoue, S.; Jelic, V.; Jones, M.; Lazio, J.; Maio, U.; Majumdar, S.; Mack, K. J.; Mesinger, A.; Morales, M. F.; Parsons, A.; Pen, U. L.; Santos, M.; Schneider, R.; Semelin, B.; de Souza, R. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Vedantham, H.; Wagg, J.; Webster, R.; Wyithe, S.; Datta, K. K.; Trott, C.

    2014-01-01

    Concerted effort is currently ongoing to open up the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) ($z\\sim$15-6) for studies with IR and radio telescopes. Whereas IR detections have been made of sources (Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters, quasars and drop-outs) in this redshift regime in relatively small fields of view, no

  11. The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionisation with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Pritchard, J.; Mellema, G.; Aguirre, J.; Ahn, K.; Barkana, R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bernardi, G.; Bonaldi, A.; Briggs, F.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Chang, T. C.; Chapman, E.; Chen, X.; Ciardi, B.; Dayal, P.; Ferrara, A.; Fialkov, A.; Fiore, F.; Ichiki, K.; Illiev, I. T.; Inoue, S.; Jelic, V.; Jones, M.; Lazio, J.; Maio, U.; Majumdar, S.; Mack, K. J.; Mesinger, A.; Morales, M. F.; Parsons, A.; Pen, U. L.; Santos, M.; Schneider, R.; Semelin, B.; de Souza, R. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Vedantham, H.; Wagg, J.; Webster, R.; Wyithe, S.; Datta, K. K.; Trott, C.

    2015-01-01

    Concerted effort is currently ongoing to open up the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) ($z\\sim$15-6) for studies with IR and radio telescopes. Whereas IR detections have been made of sources (Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters, quasars and drop-outs) in this redshift regime in relatively small fields of view, no

  12. Tracing the Eocene-Oligocene transition: A case study from North Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvaček, Z.; Teodoridis, V.; Mach, K.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Dvořák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-66 ISSN 1214-1119 Keywords : boundary * climate * Early Oligocene * fauna * flora * Late Eocene * vegetation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  13. Oligocene sea water temperatures offshore Wilkes Land (Antarctica) indicate warm and stable glacial-interglacial variation and show no 'late Oligocene warming'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Julian; Bijl, Peter; Peterse, Francien; Schouten, Stefan; Salabarnada, Ariadna; Bohaty, Steven; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    At present, warming of the waters below the Antarctic ice shelves is a major contributor to the instability of the Antarctic cryosphere. In order to get insight into future melt behavior of the Antarctic ice sheet, it is important to look at past warm periods that can serve as an analogue for the future. The Oligocene ( 34-23 Ma) is a period within the range of CO2 concentrations predicted by the latest IPCC report for the coming century and is characterized by a very dynamic Antarctic ice sheet, as suggested by benthic δ18O records from ice-distal sites. We suspect that, like today, environmental changes in the Southern Ocean are in part responsible for this dynamicity. To gain more insight into this, we have reconstructed sea water temperatures (SWT) based on Thaumarchaeotal lipids (TEX86) for the Oligocene record obtained from the ice-proximal Site U1356 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), offshore Wilkes Land. Part of our record shows a strong coupling between the lithology and SWT, which we attribute to glacial-interglacial variation. Our data shows that both glacial and interglacial temperatures are relatively warm throughout the Oligocene: 14°C and 18°C respectively, which is consistent with previously published estimates based on UK'37 and clumped isotopes for the early Oligocene. Our SST records show only a minor decline between 30 and 24 Ma, and thus show no evidence for a 'late Oligocene warming' as was suggested based on benthic δ18O records from low latitudes. Instead, the discrepancy between our SST trend and the δ18O trend suggests that the late-Oligocene benthic δ18O decrease is likely related to a decline in ice volume. After 24 Ma, however, glacial-interglacial temperature variation appears to increase. In particular, some large temperature drops occur, one of which can be related to the Mi-1 event and a major expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet.

  14. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  15. A search for changing look quasars in second epoch imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph; Myers, Adam; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has compiled a catalog of over half a million confirmed quasars. During that period approximately ten percent of these objects have been spectroscopically observed in two or more epochs over baselines of ten or more years. This led recently to the discovery of the largest change in luminosity ever before observed in a quasar. The dimming emission was a reflection of very significant changes in continuum and broad line properties, the source had effectively transitioned from a Type I quasar to a Type II AGN. Since then several more "changing look" quasars have been discovered in multi-epoch SDSS spectroscopy. Among them are objects with rising and falling luminosities, appearing and disappearing broad lines. The origin of this behavior is still very uncertain, currently favored is the scenario in which an accreting black hole is simply starved of fuel. Other plausible scenarios include flaring due to stellar tidal disruption close to the black hole or large changes in accretion flow, which can occur during transitions between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion regimes. Monitoring of larger numbers of changing look quasars will help to elucidate these ideas.In this poster, we report on the progress of a pilot study in which we hope to learn how to select changing look quasars in multi-epoch imaging. This will allow us to take advantage of the entire SDSS quasar catalog rather than just the ten percent of objects with multi-epoch spectroscopy. Comparing archival SDSS and more recent Legacy Survey imaging over ten-year baselines we select objects whose photometry is consistent with the large changes in luminosity expected in changing look quasars. We aim to build up a catalog of both transitioned and transitioning objects for future monitoring.

  16. Epoch-based Entropy for Early Screening of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, N; Dreyfus, G; Vialatte, F B

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel entropy measure, termed epoch-based entropy. This measure quantifies disorder of EEG signals both at the time level and spatial level, using local density estimation by a Hidden Markov Model on inter-channel stationary epochs. The investigation is led on a multi-centric EEG database recorded from patients at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched healthy subjects. We investigate the classification performances of this method, its robustness to noise, and its sensitivity to sampling frequency and to variations of hyperparameters. The measure is compared to two alternative complexity measures, Shannon's entropy and correlation dimension. The classification accuracies for the discrimination of AD patients from healthy subjects were estimated using a linear classifier designed on a development dataset, and subsequently tested on an independent test set. Epoch-based entropy reached a classification accuracy of 83% on the test dataset (specificity = 83.3%, sensitivity = 82.3%), outperforming the two other complexity measures. Furthermore, it was shown to be more stable to hyperparameter variations, and less sensitive to noise and sampling frequency disturbances than the other two complexity measures.

  17. Arctic Dinoflagellate Migration Marks the Oligocene Glacial Maximum: Implications for the Rupelian-Chattian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Simaeys, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Pross, J.; Williams, G. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Various geochemical and biotic climate proxies, and notably deep-sea benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records indicate that the Eocene 'greenhouse' state of the Earth gradually evolved towards an earliest Oligocene 'icehouse' state, eventually triggering the abrupt appearance of large continental ice-sheets on Antarctic at ˜33.3 Ma (Oi-1 event). This, however, was only the first of two major glacial events in the Oligocene. Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records show a second positive excursion in the mid Oligocene, consistent with a significant ice-sheet expansion and/or cooling at 27.1 Ma (Oi-2b) coincident with magnetosubchron C9n. Here, we report on a mid Oligocene, globally synchronous, Arctic dinoflagellate migration event, calibrated against the upper half of C9n. A sudden appearance, and abundance increases of the Arctic taxon Svalbardella at lower-middle latitudes coincides with the so-called Oi-2b benthic δ 18O event, dated at ˜27.1 Ma. This phenomenon is taken to indicate significant high-latitude surface water cooling, concomitant Antarctic ice-sheet growth, and sea level lowering. The duration of the Svalbardella migrations, and the episode of profound cooling is estimated as ˜500 ka, and is here termed the Oligocene Glacial Maximum (OGM). Our records suggest a close link between the OGM, sea-level fall, and the classic Rupelian-Chattian boundary, magnetostratigraphically dating this boundary as ˜27.1 Ma.

  18. 'Anthropocene': An Ethical Crisis, Not a Geological Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The term 'anthropocene' has gained enormous popularity among scientists who believe we are in a global phase distinguished by the extensive and lasting impacts of social activities on Earth's sedimentary record and vital systems. Beyond its widespread informal use, a working group of the International Union of Geological Sciences seeks to formalize the term to name a new geological epoch, implying that the Holocene epoch has ended. I argue that the move to formalize the 'anthropocene' and to declare the demise of the Holocene is premature and ethically misguided, at best, and that the very name 'anthropocene' obscures rather than illuminates the serious moral and political/economic implications of the dire warnings evident in recent stratigraphic and ecological changes. If human-caused mass extinction and other ecological catastrophes are serious harms, ethical responses are required. Instead, the move to formalize the idea of an 'anthropocene' epoch treats dire ethical warnings as an opportunity to redefine the current dangerous situation as a new status quo. Have we met our responsibilities to protect Holocene Earth? This presentation will focus on the ethical implications of using the power and discourse of geology to demote Holocene ecological states from their role as the foundational benchmarks for guiding and assessing human relationships with nature and other species. Have geoscientists adequately consulted the biological, ecological and social sciences before declaring the end of the Holocene epoch? Upon what do we base environmental ethics if the Holocene is considered past history? I will also examine the ethical dimensions of naming the so-called 'anthropocene', asking: who is the presumed 'anthro' in the 'anthropocene'? Are the phenomena identified with the 'anthropocene' (nuclear fallout, mass species endangerment, ocean acidification, fossil fuel pollution, deforestation, mining) definitive accomplishments of the human species? Should the practices

  19. Mummified fossil woods of Fagaceae from the upper Oligocene of Guangxi, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luliang; Jin, Jianhua; Quan, Cheng; Oskolski, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    Three new fossil species, two attributed to the genus Castanopsis (C. nanningensis and C. guangxiensis) and one to the organ genus Lithocarpoxylon (L. nanningensis) are described on the basis of well-preserved mummified wood from the upper Oligocene of Yongning Formation in the Nanning Basin, Guangxi Province, South China. The two species of Castanopsis represent the most ancient reliable wood record of this genus in China and also southeastern Asia, which is the center of diversity of extant species. The fossil leaf records of Castanopsis indicated this genus has migrated to South China in the late Eocene. This fossil wood evidence confirms the presence and persistence of Castanopsis in this region in the late Oligocene. In the Yongning Formation, the presence of numerous Fagaceae woods with faint or absent growth ring boundaries (in C. nanningensis) occasionally associated with prominent ring-porous patterns, suggests that Guangxi (South China) had a seasonal (probably monsoonal) tropical climate during the late Oligocene.

  20. Primordial black hole formation during the QCD epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedamzik, K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the formation of horizon-size primordial black holes (PBH close-quote s) from pre-existing density fluctuations during cosmic phase transitions. It is pointed out that the formation of PBH close-quote s should be particularly efficient during the QCD epoch due to a substantial reduction of pressure forces during adiabatic collapse, or equivalently, a significant decrease in the effective speed of sound during the color-confinement transition. Our considerations imply that for generic initial density perturbation spectra PBH mass functions are expected to exhibit a pronounced peak on the QCD-horizon mass scale ∼1M circle-dot . This mass scale is roughly coincident with the estimated masses for compact objects recently observed in our galactic halo by the MACHO Collaboration. Black holes formed during the QCD epoch may offer an attractive explanation for the origin of halo dark matter evading possibly problematic nucleosynthesis and luminosity bounds on baryonic halo dark matter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  2. Paleomagnetism and 40Ar / 39Ar Geochronology of Yemeni Oligocene volcanics: Implications for timing and duration of Afro-Arabian traps and geometry of the Oligocene paleomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisager, Peter; Knight, Kim B.; Baker, Joel A.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid; Al-Kadasi, Mohamed; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Renne, Paul R.

    2005-09-01

    A combined paleomagnetic and 40Ar / 39Ar study was carried out along eight stratigraphically overlapping sections in the Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanic province in Yemen (73 sites). The composite section covers the entire volcanic stratigraphy in the sampling region and represents five polarity zones that are correlated to the geomagnetic polarity time scale based on 40Ar / 39Ar ages from this and previous studies. The resulting magnetostratigraphy is similar to that of the conjugate margin in Ethiopia. The earliest basaltic volcanism took place in a reverse polarity chron that appears to correspond to C11r, while the massive rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptions correlated to ash layers in Oligocene Indian Ocean sediment 2700 km away from the Afro-Arabian traps, appear to have taken place during magnetochron C11n. The youngest ignimbrite was emplaced during magnetochron C9n. Both 40Ar / 39Ar and paleomagnetic data suggest rapid Red Sea. By analyzing Afro-Arabian paleomagnetic data in conjunction with contemporaneous paleomagnetic poles available from different latitudes we argue that the Oligocene paleomagnetic field was dominated by the axial dipole with insignificant non-dipole field contributions.

  3. Late Globalization and Evolution, Episodes and Epochs of Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...... for further exploration of the late globalization phenomenon. To get to the empirical case study, we follow a macro-conceptual to a micro-empirical path. We discuss the multidisciplinary and multifaceted field of late globalization and employing the historic-analytic approach to study DTFI we draw out very...... specific, empirically derived, conceptual themes about the patterns of global interactions that characterized the evolutionary trajectory of DTFI. We return to a final macro-conceptual section on late globalization where the particular DTFI case study advances the knowledge register only slightly; and we...

  4. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A. [Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, Paris, 75005 (France); Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@phys.ens.fr, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  5. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.

    2013-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies

  6. A toadfish (Batrachoidiformes) from the Oligocene of the Eastern Carpathians (Piatra Neamt, Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Grădianu, I.; Georgescu, V.; Carnevale, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 241-248 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Batrachoidiformes * toadfish * Bituminous Marls Formation * Eastern Carpathians * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  7. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental records of the Oligocene-Miocene transition, central Jylland, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinska, K.K.; Dybkjær, K.; Schoon, P.L.; Beyer, C.; King, C.; Schouten, S.; Nielsen, O.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Oligocene/Miocene (O/M) transition was carried in two boreholes (Harre-1 and Horn-1) from the Danish land area in order to improve the understanding of the paleodimatological and environmental changes across the Mi-1, the earliest Miocene cooling event.

  8. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    The Eocene–Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event. PMID:25501388

  9. Triggers and consequences of glacial expansion across the Eocene - Oligocene Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The results described in this thesis provide a rather complex picture of climatic, environmental and biotic changes preceding and arising from the onset of Antarctic glaciation. This period is commonly known as the greenhouse to icehouse transition across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34-33

  10. Morphology of an Early Oligocene beaver Propalaeocastor irtyshensis and the status of the genus Propalaeocastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüzhou Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early to Late Oligocene Propalaeocastor is the earliest known beaver genus from Eurasia. Although many species of this genus have been described, these species are defined based on very fragmentary specimens. Propalaeocastor irtyshensis from the Early Oligocene Irtysh River Formation in northwestern Xinjiang, China is one of the earliest-known members of Propalaeocastor. This species is defined on a single maxillary fragment. We revise the diagnosis of P. irtyshensis and the genus Propalaeocastor, based on newly discovered specimens from the Irtysh River Formation. The dental morphology of P. irtyshensis is very similar to other early castorids. The caudal palatine foramen of P. irtyshensis is situated in the maxillary-palatine suture. This is a feature generally accept as diagnostic character for the castorids. On the other hand, P. irtyshensis has two upper premolars, a rudimentarily developed sciuromorph-like zygomatic plate, and a relatively large protrogomorph-like infraorbital foramen. Some previous researchers suggested that Propalaeocastor is a junior synonym of Steneofiber, while other took it as a valid genus. Our morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that Propalaeocastor differs from Steneofiber and is a valid genus. We also suggest that Agnotocastor aubekerovi, A. coloradensis, A. galushai, A. readingi, Oligotheriomys primus, and “Steneofiber aff. dehmi” should be referred to Propalaeocastor. Propalaeocastor is the earliest and most basal beaver. The origin place of Propalaeocastor and castorids is uncertain. The Early Oligocene radiation of castorids probably is propelled by the global climate change during the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

  11. The first Oligocene sea turtle (Pan-Cheloniidae record of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cadena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and occurrence of fossil sea turtles at the Pacific margin of South America is poorly known and restricted to Neogene (Miocene/Pliocene findings from the Pisco Formation, Peru. Here we report and describe the first record of Oligocene (late Oligocene, ∼24 Ma Pan-Cheloniidae sea turtle remains of South America. The fossil material corresponds to a single, isolated and well-preserved costal bone found at the Montañita/Olón locality, Santa Elena Province, Ecuador. Comparisons with other Oligocene and extant representatives allow us to confirm that belongs to a sea turtle characterized by: lack of lateral ossification, allowing the dorsal exposure of the distal end of ribs; dorsal surface of bone sculptured, changing from dense vermiculation at the vertebral scute region to anastomosing pattern of grooves at the most lateral portion of the costal. This fossil finding shows the high potential that the Ecuadorian Oligocene outcrops have in order to explore the evolution and paleobiogeography distribution of sea turtles by the time that the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans were connected via the Panama basin.

  12. Rupelian (middle Oligocene) fish otoliths from the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, P.A.M.; Hinsbergh, van V.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A large, interesting otolith fauna from the Middle Oligocene was found in the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk by sifting large quantities of clay and by collecting large loose specimens in the clay pit. Thirty-five species and one subspecies were indentified; nine species are new, viz.

  13. Notes on development of the Oligocene trachinid .i.Trachinus minutus./i. (Jonet, 1958)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 308, 1-3 (2017), s. 69-87 ISSN 0375-0442 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Teleostei * osteology * ontogeny * Oligocene * Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.615, year: 2016

  14. Upper Oligocene micromammals from Pareja, Loranca Basin, Prov. of Guadalajara, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.; Freudenthal, M.; Lacomba, J. I.; Alvarez, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Eight rodent species from the Upper Oligocene of Pareja are described. The Theridomyidae are represented by Issiodoromys minor and Archaeomys (A.) gervaisi and the Eomyidae by Eomys cf. molassicus. Four cricetid species are described: Heterocricetodon landroveri sp. nov., Eucricetodon margaritae sp.

  15. Effect of ocean gateways on the global ocean circulation in the late Oligocene and early Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von der Heydt, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245567526; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in the tectonic boundary conditions on global ocean circulation patterns. Using a fully coupled climate model in an idealized setup, we compare situations corresponding to the late Oligocene, the early Miocene, and present day. The model results show the

  16. Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kappelman; D. Tab Rasmussen; William J. Sanders; Mulugeta Feseha; Thomas Down; Peter Copeland; Jeff Crabaugh; John Fleagle; Michelle Glantz; Adam Gordon; Bonnie Jacobs; Murat Maga; Kathleen Muldoon; Aaron Pan; Lydia Pyne; Brian Richmond; Timothy Ryan; Erik R. Seiffert; Sevket San; Lawrence Todd; Michael C. Wiemann; Alisa Winkler

    2003-01-01

    Afro-Arabian mammalian communities underwent a marked transition near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at approximately 24 million years (Myr) ago. Although it is well documented that the endemic paenungulate taxa were replaced by migrants from the Northern Hemisphere, the timing and evolutionary dynamics of this transition have long been a mystery because faunas from...

  17. Hypsodont Myomiminae (Gliridae, Rodentia) from the Miocene and the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one localities from the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval and the Miocene of Spain have yielded nearly 4000 teeth of hypsodont Gliridae (Armantomys and Praearmantomys). The phylogeny and palaeoecology are discussed. Two new species of Armantomys (A. parsani sp. nov. from Ramblar 1 and A.

  18. Oligocene terrestrial strata of northwestern Ethiopia : a preliminary report on paleoenvironments and paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie F. Jacobs; Neil Tabor; Mulugeta Feseha; Aaron Pan; John Kappelman; Tab Rasmussen; William Sanders; Michael Wiemann; Jeff Crabaugh; Juan Leandro Garcia Massini

    2005-01-01

    The Paleogene record of Afro-Arabia is represented by few fossil localities, most of which are coastal. Here we report sedimentological and paleontological data from continental Oligocene strata in northwestern Ethiopia. These have produced abundant plant fossils and unique assemblages of vertebrates, thus filling a gap in what is known of Paleogene interior Afro-...

  19. Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminiferal isotopic record in the Bay of Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.G.; Curry, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic records of Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminifera from two Bay of Biscay Deep Sea Drilling Project sites are presented. The delta 18 O figures for benthic foraminifera are significantly higher than those previously reported from deeper North Atlantic sites, the differences arising it is believed from diagenetic alteration of the sediments in the deeper-buried sites. (U.K.)

  20. An antarctic stratigraphic record of stepwise ice growth through the eocene-oligocene transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, Sandra; Ciarletta, Daniel J.; Miriagos, Triantafilo E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bohaty, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Earth's current icehouse phase began ~34 m.y. ago with the onset of major Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Changes in ocean circulation and a decline in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were associated with stepwise cooling and ice growth at southern high latitudes. The

  1. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  2. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore

  3. Description of nighttime cough epochs in patients with stable COPD GOLD II-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick; Gross, Volker; Kroenig, Johannes; Weissflog, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Sohrabi, Keywan; Koehler, Ulrich

    Chronic cough is one of the main symptoms of COPD. Ambulatory objective monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants and characteristics of nighttime cough in COPD. Nighttime cough was monitored objectively by LEOSound lung sound monitor in patients with stable COPD II-IV. In 30 patients, with 10 patients in each stage group, nighttime cough was analyzed for epoch frequency, epoch severity (epoch length and coughs per epoch), and pattern (productive or nonproductive). Cough was found in all patients ranging from 1 to 294 events over the recording period. In 29 patients, cough epochs were monitored, ranging from 1 to 75 epochs. The highest amount of cough epochs was found in patients with COPD stage III. Active smokers had significantly more productive cough epochs (61%) than nonsmokers (24%). We found a high rate of nighttime cough epochs in patients with COPD, especially in those in stage III. Productive cough was predominantly found in patients with persistent smoking. LEOSound lung sound monitor offers a practical and valuable opportunity to evaluate cough objectively.

  4. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late

  5. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory

  6. The “Anthropocene” epoch: Scientific decision or political statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Stanley C.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2016-01-01

    The proposal for the “Anthropocene” epoch as a formal unit of the geologic time scale has received extensive attention in scientific and public media. However, most articles on the Anthropocene misrepresent the nature of the units of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, which is produced by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and serves as the basis for the geologic time scale. The stratigraphic record of the Anthropocene is minimal, especially with its recently proposed beginning in 1945; it is that of a human lifespan, and that definition relegates considerable anthropogenic change to a “pre-Anthropocene.” The utility of the Anthropocene requires careful consideration by its various potential users. Its concept is fundamentally different from the chronostratigraphic units that are established by ICS in that the documentation and study of the human impact on the Earth system are based more on direct human observation than on a stratigraphic record. The drive to officially recognize the Anthropocene may, in fact, be political rather than scientific.

  7. A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg

    2015-01-01

    Candidates for the modest galaxies that formed most of the stars in the early universe, at redshifts $z > 7$, have been found in large numbers with extremely deep restframe-UV imaging. But it has proved difficult for existing spectrographs to characterise them in the UV. The detailed properties...... of these galaxies could be measured from dust and cool gas emission at far-infrared wavelengths if the galaxies have become sufficiently enriched in dust and metals. So far, however, the most distant UV-selected galaxy detected in dust emission is only at $z = 3.25$, and recent results have cast doubt on whether...... dust and molecules can be found in typical galaxies at this early epoch. Here we report thermal dust emission from an archetypal early universe star-forming galaxy, A1689-zD1. We detect its stellar continuum in spectroscopy and determine its redshift to be $z = 7.5\\pm0.2$ from a spectroscopic detection...

  8. Epoch making NIRS studies seen through citation trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ippeita

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies through citation trends are investigated of literature concerning only the brain function measurement and its methodology together with NIRS principle, technological development, present state and future view. Investigation is conducted firstly for the survey of important author name of those concerned papers in Web of Science and Google Scholar with search words of NIRS, brain and optical topography as an option. Second, >100 papers of those authors citing any of them are picked up and their papers are ranked in accordance with Web of Science citation number, of which top-nineteen are presented here. Impact and epoch making papers are reviewed with explanations of: the establishment of measuring technology of cerebral blood flow change and subsequent brain function by NIRS; development with multi-channel detection; simultaneous measurement with other imaging modalities; examination of NIRS validity; spatial analysis of NIRS; and measurement of brain function. The highest times of citation are 1,238 of the paper by F. F. Jobsis in 'Science' (1977). It should be noted that 10 of top 19 papers are those by Japanese authors. However, review articles omitted in the present literature survey are mostly described by foreign authors: an effort to systemize the concerned fields might be required in this country. (K.T.)

  9. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  10. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  11. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Sarkar, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  12. Atlas Basemaps in Web 2.0 Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaniuk, V.; Dyshlyk, O.

    2016-06-01

    The authors have analyzed their experience of the production of various Electronic Atlases (EA) and Atlas Information Systems (AtIS) of so-called "classical type". These EA/AtIS have been implemented in the past decade in the Web 1.0 architecture (e.g., National Atlas of Ukraine, Atlas of radioactive contamination of Ukraine, and others). One of the main distinguishing features of these atlases was their static nature - the end user could not change the content of EA/AtIS. Base maps are very important element of any EA/AtIS. In classical type EA/AtIS they were static datasets, which consisted of two parts: the topographic data of a fixed scale and data of the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. It is important to note that the technique of topographic data production was based on the use of direct channels of topographic entity observation (such as aerial photography) for the selected scale. Changes in the information technology of the past half-decade are characterized by the advent of the "Web 2.0 epoch". Due to this, in cartography appeared such phenomena as, for example, "neo-cartography" and various mapping platforms like OpenStreetMap. These changes have forced developers of EA/AtIS to use new atlas basemaps. Our approach is described in the article. The phenomenon of neo-cartography and/or Web 2.0 cartography are analysed by authors using previously developed Conceptual framework of EA/AtIS. This framework logically explains the cartographic phenomena relations of three formations: Web 1.0, Web 1.0x1.0 and Web 2.0. Atlas basemaps of the Web 2.0 epoch are integrated information systems. We use several ways to integrate separate atlas basemaps into the information system - by building: weak integrated information system, structured system and meta-system. This integrated information system consists of several basemaps and falls under the definition of "big data". In real projects it is already used the basemaps of three strata: Conceptual

  13. Oligocene sharks from vicinity of Poljšica near Podnart, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poljšica and surroundings are known for numerous interesting fossil remains. Among the rarest fossil remains are vertebrates, and in the Poljšica Oligocene these consist exclusively of fish remains. In this contribution are considered six teeth of sharks, five belonging to species Carcharias cuspidatus (Agassiz, 1843, except a single problematic tooth that can be attributed most probably to genus Cosmopolitodus.

  14. Terrestrial cooling in Northern Europe during the Eocene–Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Michael T.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Grimes, Stephen T.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Hooker, Jerry J.; Bugler, Melanie; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical and modeling studies suggest that the transition from the “greenhouse” state of the Late Eocene to the “icehouse” conditions of the Oligocene 34–33.5 Ma was triggered by a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 that enabled the rapid buildup of a permanent ice sheet on the Antarctic continent. Marine records show that the drop in pCO2 during this interval was accompanied by a significant decline in high-latitude sea surface and deep ocean temperature and enhanced seasonality in middle and high latitudes. However, terrestrial records of this climate transition show heterogeneous responses to changing pCO2 and ocean temperatures, with some records showing a significant time lag in the temperature response to declining pCO2. We measured the Δ47 of aragonite shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus lentus from the Solent Group, Hampshire Basin, United Kingdom, to reconstruct terrestrial temperature and hydrologic change in the North Atlantic region during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Our data show a decrease in growing-season surface water temperatures (∼10 °C) during the Eocene–Oligocene transition, corresponding to an average decrease in mean annual air temperature of ∼4–6 °C from the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene. The magnitude of cooling is similar to observed decreases in North Atlantic sea surface temperature over this interval and occurs during major glacial expansion. This suggests a close linkage between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, Northern Hemisphere temperature, and expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets. PMID:23610424

  15. Terrestrial cooling in Northern Europe during the eocene-oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Michael T; Sheldon, Nathan D; Grimes, Stephen T; Collinson, Margaret E; Hooker, Jerry J; Bugler, Melanie; Lohmann, Kyger C

    2013-05-07

    Geochemical and modeling studies suggest that the transition from the "greenhouse" state of the Late Eocene to the "icehouse" conditions of the Oligocene 34-33.5 Ma was triggered by a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 that enabled the rapid buildup of a permanent ice sheet on the Antarctic continent. Marine records show that the drop in pCO2 during this interval was accompanied by a significant decline in high-latitude sea surface and deep ocean temperature and enhanced seasonality in middle and high latitudes. However, terrestrial records of this climate transition show heterogeneous responses to changing pCO2 and ocean temperatures, with some records showing a significant time lag in the temperature response to declining pCO2. We measured the Δ47 of aragonite shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus lentus from the Solent Group, Hampshire Basin, United Kingdom, to reconstruct terrestrial temperature and hydrologic change in the North Atlantic region during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Our data show a decrease in growing-season surface water temperatures (~10 °C) during the Eocene-Oligocene transition, corresponding to an average decrease in mean annual air temperature of ~4-6 °C from the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene. The magnitude of cooling is similar to observed decreases in North Atlantic sea surface temperature over this interval and occurs during major glacial expansion. This suggests a close linkage between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, Northern Hemisphere temperature, and expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  16. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  17. Hydrogen Epoch of Reinozation Array (HERA) Calibrated FFT Correlator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Jeffrey David; Parsons, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) project is an astronomical radio interferometer array with a redundant baseline configuration. Interferometer arrays are being used widely in radio astronomy because they have a variety of advantages over single antenna systems. For example, they produce images (visibilities) closely matching that of a large antenna (such as the Arecibo observatory), while both the hardware and maintenance costs are significantly lower. However, this method has some complications; one being the computational cost of correlating data from all of the antennas. A correlator is an electronic device that cross-correlates the data between the individual antennas; these are what radio astronomers call visibilities. HERA, being in its early stages, utilizes a traditional correlator system. The correlator cost scales as N2, where N is the number of antennas in the array. The purpose of a redundant baseline configuration array setup is for the use of a more efficient Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) correlator. FFT correlators scale as Nlog2N. The data acquired from this sort of setup, however, inherits geometric delay and uncalibrated antenna gains. This particular project simulates the process of calibrating signals from astronomical sources. Each signal “received” by an antenna in the simulation is given random antenna gain and geometric delay. The “linsolve” Python module was used to solve for the unknown variables in the simulation (complex gains and delays), which then gave a value for the true visibilities. This first version of the simulation only mimics a one dimensional redundant telescope array detecting a small amount of sources located in the volume above the antenna plane. Future versions, using GPUs, will handle a two dimensional redundant array of telescopes detecting a large amount of sources in the volume above the array.

  18. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    Infrared luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 10 46.6 erg s –1 for all 2 epoch when quasars first reached their maximum luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL ν (0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  19. Evidence for an intra-Oligocene compressive event in the Marseille-Aubagne basins (SE France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, M.; Nury, D.; Arihac, P.; Gartner, A.; Linnemann, U.; Pantaine, L.

    2016-10-01

    An Oligocene tectonic event has been suspected as the origin of thrusts and folds in several Oligocene troughs and basins of Provence, including the Marseille-Aubagne basins. Deformations are generally assumed to be to a post Oligocene extensional event. The Marseille-Aubagne basins are geographically and stratigraphically separated into three basins (Jarret, Prado and Aubagne) with each of them exhibiting their own sedimentary succession. However, each of the successions includes two main units: - The lower unit which includes several formations attributed to the Rupelian age. All of these sediments are strongly or slightly deformed depending on their location with respect to the main faults. - The upper unit which includes formations of mainly Chattian age. They are undeformed or slightly deformed. Geological sections across the southern Prado basin show a succession of anticlines and synclines. Additionally the thrusting of the Carpiagne massif over the Prado basin has been evidenced since 1952. These deformations are here related to a compressional event According to palaeontological data, the latest deformed strata are ascribed to the Late Rupelian, whereas the earliest undeformed strata are ascribed to the Latest Rupelian. This is in accordance with age determinations on detrital zircons extracted from the latest deformed sandstone, and from the youngest age of detrital zircons from the undeformed sandstone. Thus, the stratigraphic limit between the deformed and undeformed formations should be set around the Rupelian / Chattian limit (28.1 Ma) according to the latest chronostratigraphic chart. Finally, we discuss correlations with similar events occurring around the Mediterranean area. (Author)

  20. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Matthew J; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-02-24

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene - Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9-33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO 2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO 2 at the EOT.

  1. Hummingbird with modern feathering: an exceptionally well-preserved Oligocene fossil from southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine; Tourment, Nicolas; Carrier, Julie; Roux, Thierry; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    2008-02-01

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) today have an exclusively New World distribution, but their pre-Pleistocene fossil record comes from Europe only. In this study, we describe an exceptionally preserved fossil hummingbird from the early Oligocene of southeastern France. The specimen is articulated, with a completely preserved beak and feathering. Osteological characters allow to identify it as Eurotrochilus sp. This genus is a stem group representative of Trochilidae and was recently described from the early Oligocene of southern Germany. The new fossil reveals that these European Trochilidae were remarkably modern in size, skeletal proportions and the shape of the wing, tail and beak and hyoid bones. These features confirm the early acquisition of the abilities of hovering and nectarivory in hummingbirds, probably before the Oligocene. In several morphological characteristics, they resemble members of the ‘true hummingbirds’ (subfamily Trochilinae) and differ from hermits (Phaethornithinae). These features, which include a short and square tail and a moderately long, almost straight beak, appear to be primitive within the family Trochilidae.

  2. Identifying individual sleep apnea/hypoapnea epochs using smartphone-based pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Dekhordi, Parastoo; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2016-08-01

    Sleep apnea, characterized by frequent pauses in breathing during sleep, poses a serious threat to the healthy growth and development of children. Polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard for sleep apnea diagnosis, is resource intensive and confined to sleep laboratories, thus reducing its accessibility. Pulse oximetry alone, providing blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and blood volume changes in tissue (PPG), has the potential to identify children with sleep apnea. Thus, we aim to develop a tool for at-home sleep apnea screening that provides a detailed and automated 30 sec epoch-by-epoch sleep apnea analysis. We propose to extract features characterizing pulse oximetry (SpO2 and pulse rate variability [PRV], a surrogate measure of heart rate variability) to create a multivariate logistic regression model that identifies epochs containing apnea/hypoapnea events. Overnight pulse oximetry was collected using a smartphone-based pulse oximeter, simultaneously with standard PSG from 160 children at the British Columbia Children's hospital. The sleep technician manually scored all apnea/hypoapnea events during the PSG study. Based on these scores we labeled each epoch as containing or not containing apnea/hypoapnea. We randomly divided the subjects into training data (40%), used to develop the model applying the LASSO method, and testing data (60%), used to validate the model. The developed model was assessed epoch-by-epoch for each subject. The test dataset had a median area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%; the model provided a median accuracy of 74% sensitivity of 75%, and specificity of 73% when using a risk threshold similar to the percentage of apnea/hypopnea epochs. Thus, providing a detailed epoch-by-epoch analysis with at-home pulse oximetry alone is feasible with accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values above 73% However, the performance might decrease when analyzing subjects with a low number of apnea/hypoapnea events.

  3. Epochs of radioactivity in historical evolution of the earth with reference to evolution of biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neruchev, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Periodic epochs of intense contamination of the medium by uranium in the course of the Earth's evolution and the biogene mechanism of uranium accumulation in sediments during the lifetime are established. Global differentiation of the radioactivity epochs and essential effect of periodic radiation on the evolution of biosphere are shown. Radiational-mutational mechanism in shown to be extremely nonuniform during the evolution of the organic kingdom. It has been found that the intermittency in radioactive epochs is responsible for peculiarities in the stratigraphic distribution of sedimentary uranium, sapropelic shales, phosphorites, oil-producing rocks and other minerals

  4. Organic Chemostratigraphic Markers Characteristic of the (Informally Designated) Anthropocene Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the tremendous collective impact of humans on the environment in the industrial age, the proposed designation of the current time period as the Anthropocene Epoch has considerable merit. One of the signature activities during this time continues to be the intensive extraction, processing, and combustion of fossil fuels. While fossil fuels themselves are naturally-occurring, they are most often millions of years old and associated with deeply buried strata. They may be found at the surface, for example, as natural oil seeps or coal seam outcrops, but these are relatively rare occurrences. Fossil fuels and their myriad by- products become the source of distinctive organic chemostratigraphic marker compounds for the Anthropocene when they occur out of their original geological context, i.e., as widespread contaminants in sediments and soils. These persistent compounds have high long-term preservation potential, particularly when deposited under low oxygen conditions. Fossil fuels can occur as environmental contaminants in raw form (e.g., crude petroleum spilled during transport) or as manufactured products (e.g., diesel oil from a leaking storage facility, coal tar from a manufactured gas plant, plastic waste in a landfill, pesticides from petroleum feedstock in agricultural soils). Distinctive assemblages of hydrocarbon marker compounds including acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes can be readily detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of surface sediments and soils. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, are also characteristic of fossil fuels and are readily detectable as well. More widespread is the airfall deposition of fossil fuel combustion products from vehicular, domestic and industrial sources. These occur in higher concentrations in large urban centers, but are also detected in remote areas. Parent (nonmethylated) PAHs such as phenanthrene

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of the Oligocene sedimentary series of Saint-Agoulin; Etude mineralogique et geochimique de la serie sedimentaire oligocene de Saint-Agoulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohadjer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, direction des productions; Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Paris, 75 (France)

    1967-07-05

    The mineralogical investigation is based on determination of the amounts of quartz, clays, feldspars and on grain size analysis. A distinction was established between two lithological groups: the lower group with dominant silica the upper with dominant carbonates. Clays of the two groups are comparable with dominant illite, and accessory kaolinite and montmorillonite. The amounts of the elements Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, P, Ba, Sr, Rb, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, V, Be, B, Zr, U, were determined by several analytical methods: chemistry, X ray fluorescence, spectrography and fluorimetry. Correlations between the chemical elements and the mineralogical components were computed and plotted. Lastly the conditions of filling up of the basin are defined, taking into account the Oligocene climatic conditions. (author) [French] L'etude mineralogique est basee sur les dosages du quartz, de la calcite, des argiles, des feldspaths et sur les granulometries. On a distingue 2 familles lithologiques: l'une riche en quartz dans la partie inferieure, l'autre riche en carbonate dans la partie superieure. Les argiles des 2 familles sont comparables: illite predominante, kaolinite et montmorillonite accessoires. Les elements: Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, P, Ba, Sr, Rb, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, V, Be, B, Zr, U, ont ete doses par differentes methodes d'analyse: analyse chimique, fluorescence X, spectrographie et fluorimetrie. Une etude de correlation entre les elements chimiques et les constituants mineralogiques a ete realisee. Enfin, les conditions de remplissage du Bassin sont definies, en tenant compte du contexte climatique oligocene. (auteur)

  6. ATLAS BASEMAPS IN WEB 2.0 EPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chabaniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed their experience of the production of various Electronic Atlases (EA and Atlas Information Systems (AtIS of so-called "classical type". These EA/AtIS have been implemented in the past decade in the Web 1.0 architecture (e.g., National Atlas of Ukraine, Atlas of radioactive contamination of Ukraine, and others. One of the main distinguishing features of these atlases was their static nature - the end user could not change the content of EA/AtIS. Base maps are very important element of any EA/AtIS. In classical type EA/AtIS they were static datasets, which consisted of two parts: the topographic data of a fixed scale and data of the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. It is important to note that the technique of topographic data production was based on the use of direct channels of topographic entity observation (such as aerial photography for the selected scale. Changes in the information technology of the past half-decade are characterized by the advent of the “Web 2.0 epoch”. Due to this, in cartography appeared such phenomena as, for example, "neo-cartography" and various mapping platforms like OpenStreetMap. These changes have forced developers of EA/AtIS to use new atlas basemaps. Our approach is described in the article. The phenomenon of neo-cartography and/or Web 2.0 cartography are analysed by authors using previously developed Conceptual framework of EA/AtIS. This framework logically explains the cartographic phenomena relations of three formations: Web 1.0, Web 1.0x1.0 and Web 2.0. Atlas basemaps of the Web 2.0 epoch are integrated information systems. We use several ways to integrate separate atlas basemaps into the information system – by building: weak integrated information system, structured system and meta-system. This integrated information system consists of several basemaps and falls under the definition of "big data". In real projects it is already used the basemaps of three strata

  7. Oligocene Fluvio-Deltaic Depositional Environments Salin Sub-Basin, Central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, A.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    A recent increase in accessibility for research in Myanmar has allowed rapid advancements in the understanding of the geology of the country. Evolving depositional environments can be reconstructed in largely unstudied Oligocene deposits of the Salin sub-basin, of the Central Myanmar Basin. Data has been collected through a fieldwork campaign to target well-exposed sediments along the western margin of the basin. The studied outcrops span approximately one hundred kilometres from north to south, and a series of sedimentary logs, palaeocurrent data, 2D panel diagrams, and samples for petrographical analysis have been collected and interpreted. The Oligocene formations studied include the Shwezetaw, Paduang, and Okhmintaung, each of which show a broadly southwards-trending fluvio-deltaic environment of deposition. Towards the north, the lower Rupelian Shwezetaw Formation comprises thick fluviatile sandstones which grade southwards through macrotidal-dominated fluvio-deltaic interbedded siltstones and rare sandstones, into marine sandstones. Overlying this, the upper Rupelian Paduang Formation grades rapidly from rare fluvial sandstones towards the north of the basin into deltaic and marine interbedded sandstones and siltstones to the south. This formation is more marine in nature, suggesting a minor transgression throughout the lower Oligocene. By the time of deposition of the Okhmintaung Formation in the Chattian the observed deposits solely represent a tidally-influenced deltaic depositional environment, with very little temporal variation, suggesting a stable sea level. Despite the relatively unchanging depositional environment, the formations are approximately 4000 m thick, suggesting that sedimentation kept pace with relatively rapid subsidence. This current study, which will combine depositional environment reconstruction, provenance, and sediment routing analysis, will provide important insights into both the tectonic setting and the huge sediment accumulation

  8. Atmospheric and oceanic impacts of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A T; Farnsworth, A; Lunt, D J; Lear, C H; Markwick, P J

    2015-11-13

    The glaciation of Antarctica at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (approx. 34 million years ago) was a major shift in the Earth's climate system, but the mechanisms that caused the glaciation, and its effects, remain highly debated. A number of recent studies have used coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models to assess the climatic effects of Antarctic glacial inception, with often contrasting results. Here, using the HadCM3L model, we show that the global atmosphere and ocean response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to subtle variations in palaeogeography, using two reconstructions representing Eocene and Oligocene geological stages. The earlier stage (Eocene; Priabonian), which has a relatively constricted Tasman Seaway, shows a major increase in sea surface temperature over the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in response to the ice sheet. This response does not occur for the later stage (Oligocene; Rupelian), which has a more open Tasman Seaway. This difference in temperature response is attributed to reorganization of ocean currents between the stages. Following ice sheet expansion in the earlier stage, the large Ross Sea gyre circulation decreases in size. Stronger zonal flow through the Tasman Seaway allows salinities to increase in the Ross Sea, deep-water formation initiates and multiple feedbacks then occur amplifying the temperature response. This is potentially a model-dependent result, but it highlights the sensitive nature of model simulations to subtle variations in palaeogeography, and highlights the need for coupled ice sheet-climate simulations to properly represent and investigate feedback processes acting on these time scales. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene-Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-12-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene-Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene-Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene-late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO 3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale.

  10. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  11. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins.

  12. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins. PMID:29261688

  13. Bottom current deposition in the Antarctic Wilkes Land margin during the Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabarnada, Ariadna; Escutia, Carlota; Nelson, Hans C.; Evangelinos, Dimitris; López-Quirós, Adrián

    2017-04-01

    Sediment cores collected from the Antarctic Wilkes Land continental rise at IODP site 1356 provide evidence for bottom current sedimentation taking place since the early Oligocene (i.e., 33.6 Ma) (Escutia et al., 2011). Correlation between site 1356 sediments and the regional grid of multichannel seismic reflection profiles, complemented with bathymetric data, allow us to differentiate a variety of contourite deposits resulting from the interaction between bottom currents and seafloor paleomorphologies. Contourite deposits are identified based on the seismic signature, reflector configuration and geometry of the depositional bodies as elongated-mounded drifts, giant mounded drifts, confined drifts, infill drifts, plastered drifts, sediment waves, and moats. Based on the spatial and temporal distribution of these deposits, we differentiate three phases in contourite deposition in this margin: Phase 1) from 33.6-28 Ma sheeted drift morphologies dominate, related to high-energy deposits associated with fast flowing currents during the early Oligocene; Phase 2) At around 28 Ma, mounded drift morphologies and moat channels start forming. Continued intensification of contour currents results in larger contourite morphologies such as giant mounded drifts and moats forming around structural heights present in the Wilkes Land basin (e.g, the Adelie Rift Block). Phase 3) A shift in current configuration is recorded at around 15 Ma above regional unconformity WL-U5, which marks the Oligocene-Miocene Transition. This change is shown by a migration to the North of the drift crests and by a dominance of down-slope sedimentation processes that is indicated by mass transport deposits and channel levee formation. We interpret the evolution of the contourite deposits during the Oligocene in this margin to be driven by changes in the intensity of bottom current activity over time resulting from ice sheet growth, evolution of bottom morphology and related changes in paleoceanographic

  14. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  15. Brain network segregation and integration during an epoch-related working memory fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Peter; Schiffler, Björn C; Thompson, William Hedley

    2018-05-17

    The characterization of brain subnetwork segregation and integration has previously focused on changes that are detectable at the level of entire sessions or epochs of imaging data. In this study, we applied time-varying functional connectivity analysis together with temporal network theory to calculate point-by-point estimates in subnetwork segregation and integration during an epoch-based (2-back, 0-back, baseline) working memory fMRI experiment as well as during resting-state. This approach allowed us to follow task-related changes in subnetwork segregation and integration at a high temporal resolution. At a global level, the cognitively more taxing 2-back epochs elicited an overall stronger response of integration between subnetworks compared to the 0-back epochs. Moreover, the visual, sensorimotor and fronto-parietal subnetworks displayed characteristic and distinct temporal profiles of segregation and integration during the 0- and 2-back epochs. During the interspersed epochs of baseline, several subnetworks, including the visual, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and dorsal attention subnetworks showed pronounced increases in segregation. Using a drift diffusion model we show that the response time for the 2-back trials are correlated with integration for the fronto-parietal subnetwork and correlated with segregation for the visual subnetwork. Our results elucidate the fast-evolving events with regard to subnetwork integration and segregation that occur in an epoch-related task fMRI experiment. Our findings suggest that minute changes in subnetwork integration are of importance for task performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Faint Object Detection in Multi-Epoch Observations via Catalog Data Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Loredo, Thomas J. [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Astronomy in the time-domain era faces several new challenges. One of them is the efficient use of observations obtained at multiple epochs. The work presented here addresses faint object detection and describes an incremental strategy for separating real objects from artifacts in ongoing surveys. The idea is to produce low-threshold single-epoch catalogs and to accumulate information across epochs. This is in contrast to more conventional strategies based on co-added or stacked images. We adopt a Bayesian approach, addressing object detection by calculating the marginal likelihoods for hypotheses asserting that there is no object or one object in a small image patch containing at most one cataloged source at each epoch. The object-present hypothesis interprets the sources in a patch at different epochs as arising from a genuine object; the no-object hypothesis interprets candidate sources as spurious, arising from noise peaks. We study the detection probability for constant-flux objects in a Gaussian noise setting, comparing results based on single and stacked exposures to results based on a series of single-epoch catalog summaries. Our procedure amounts to generalized cross-matching: it is the product of a factor accounting for the matching of the estimated fluxes of the candidate sources and a factor accounting for the matching of their estimated directions. We find that probabilistic fusion of multi-epoch catalogs can detect sources with similar sensitivity and selectivity compared to stacking. The probabilistic cross-matching framework underlying our approach plays an important role in maintaining detection sensitivity and points toward generalizations that could accommodate variability and complex object structure.

  17. Faint Object Detection in Multi-Epoch Observations via Catalog Data Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.; Loredo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy in the time-domain era faces several new challenges. One of them is the efficient use of observations obtained at multiple epochs. The work presented here addresses faint object detection and describes an incremental strategy for separating real objects from artifacts in ongoing surveys. The idea is to produce low-threshold single-epoch catalogs and to accumulate information across epochs. This is in contrast to more conventional strategies based on co-added or stacked images. We adopt a Bayesian approach, addressing object detection by calculating the marginal likelihoods for hypotheses asserting that there is no object or one object in a small image patch containing at most one cataloged source at each epoch. The object-present hypothesis interprets the sources in a patch at different epochs as arising from a genuine object; the no-object hypothesis interprets candidate sources as spurious, arising from noise peaks. We study the detection probability for constant-flux objects in a Gaussian noise setting, comparing results based on single and stacked exposures to results based on a series of single-epoch catalog summaries. Our procedure amounts to generalized cross-matching: it is the product of a factor accounting for the matching of the estimated fluxes of the candidate sources and a factor accounting for the matching of their estimated directions. We find that probabilistic fusion of multi-epoch catalogs can detect sources with similar sensitivity and selectivity compared to stacking. The probabilistic cross-matching framework underlying our approach plays an important role in maintaining detection sensitivity and points toward generalizations that could accommodate variability and complex object structure.

  18. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  19. A tiny short-legged bird from the early Oligocene of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochenski Zbigniew M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an articulated partial leg of an Oligocene bird. It is one of the smallest avian fossils ever recorded. Its slender and exceptionally short tarsometatarsus, hallux as long as the tarsometatarsus and stout moderately curved claws agree with stem-group Apodidae (swifts, stem-group Trochilidae (hummingbirds, and stem-group Upupidae/Phoeniculidae (hoopoes/woodhoopoes. Unfortunately, due to the poor preservation of the specimen its more precise affinities remain unresolved. The specimen differs in many details from all other tiny Palaeogene birds and therefore most probably it represents a new taxon but it is too fragmentary to describe it. It is just the twelfth avian fossil from the Oligocene marine deposits of the Outer Carpathians and Central Palaeogene Basin — a huge area that covers south-eastern Poland, north-eastern Czech Republic and northern Slovakia — and therefore it adds to our very limited knowledge on the avifauna of that region. The remains of land birds from Jamna Dolna and other sites of the region can be attributed to the general sea level fall at that time, which led to limitation of the connection with the open ocean and resulted in many shallow shoals, temporary islands and exposed dry land areas along the coast.

  20. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  1. Lanternfisches (Myctophidae) with otoliths .i.in situ./i. from the Early Oligocene of the Eastern Paratethys (western Ukraine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Schwarzhans, W.; Kovalchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 2 (2017), s. 213-225 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Myctophidae * Oligophus moravicus * Eomyctophum sp. * otoliths in situ * Oligocene * diversity Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  2. Reducing Disparity in Radio-Isotopic and Astrochronology-Based Time Scales of the Late Eocene and Oligocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Kuiper, Klaudia F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258125772

    2017-01-01

    A significant discrepancy of up to 0.6 Myr exists between radio-isotopically calibrated and astronomically tuned time scales of the late Eocene-Oligocene. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy through the acquisition of “high-precision” 206Pb/238U dating of zircons from 11 volcanic ash

  3. Four new species of deep water agglutinated foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene of the Congo Fan (offshore Angola)

    OpenAIRE

    Kender, S.; Kaminski, M. A.; Jones, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Four new species of deep-water agglutinated benthic foraminifera are described from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Congo Fan, offshore Angola. Scherochorella congoensis n.sp., Paratrochamminoides goroyskiformis n.sp., Haplophragmoides nauticus n.sp. and Portatrochammina profunda n.sp. all occur in deep-sea turbiditic shales and sands from the distal section of the Congo Fan.

  4. A new mechanism for the two-step d18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, M.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The most marked step in the global climate transition from “Greenhouse” to “Icehouse” Earth occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary, 33.7 Ma. Evidence for climatic changes comes from many sources, including the marine benthic 18O record, showing an increase by 1.2– 1.5‰ at this time. This

  5. Revision of the family Propercarinidae (Perciformes, Stromateoidei) with description of a new species from the Oligocene of the Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Bannikov, A. F.; Grădianu, I.; Kania, I.; Krzemiński, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2014), s. 691-700 ISSN 1631-0683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Perciformes * Stromateoidei * Propercarinidae * Bony fish * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2014

  6. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source

  7. Long Wavelenth Subsidence of Western Europe during Late Eocene-Oligocene (38-23 Ma): Mantle Dynamic Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; Robin, Cécile; Bessin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Western Europe (France, southern Britain, southern Belgium, western Germany) is subsiding during Late Eocene to Oligocene (38-23 Ma) as suggested by the growth of numerous small sedimentary basins mainly filled by lacustrine deposits with some brackish to marine deposits. This large-scale subsidence is coeval with the early stage of the so-called Oligocene rifts (in fact Late Bartonian to Rupelian): Lower Rhinegraben, Bresse, Limagnes. The subsiding domain extends from Cornwall to the Rhine Graben including the Armorican Massif, the southern Paris Basin, the northern Aquitaine Basin, the French Central Massif, the Ardennes-Eifel… This subsidence occurred at a period of global sea level fall and then an eustatic component cannot explain (1) the accommodation space creation and (2) the marine floding with a paroxysm during Early Oligocene times (Armorican Massif, ?Ardennes, French Massif central). This marine flooding also indicate that the relief of the Hercynian basement was less elevated and smoother than today. Some of those small "basins" were interpreted as little rifts, but new mapping (e.g. Puy-en-Velay or Forez Plain in the French Massif central) or new geophysical data (e.g. Rennes Basin in the Armorican massif) suggest that no faults control those basins or that they result from post-depositional collapses. This long wavelength subsidence is at the scale of the mantle dynamic. Possible mantle mechanisms and the relationships with the "Oligocene" rifts and the North Sea inversion will be discussed.

  8. An Oligocene toadfish (Teleostei, Percomorpha) from Moravia, Czech Republic: The earliest skeletal record for the order Batrachoidiformes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Carnevale, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2017), s. 123-131 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Teleostei * Batrachoidiformes * Oligocene * Menilitic Formation * Paratethys Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2016

  9. Skeletal anatomy of the early morid fish .i.Eophycis./i. (Gadiformes, Moridae) from an Oligocene deposit in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2015), s. 625-635 ISSN 1631-0683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gadiformes * Moridae * Bony fish * anatomy * osteology * Oligocene * Paratethys Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2015

  10. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  11. Isotopic evidence of a rapid cooling and continuous sedimentation across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary of Wagapadhar and Waior, Kutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, S.; Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotope analysis of samples from two different Eocene Oligocene Boundary (EOB) sections of Wagapadhar and Waior of Kutch area and their correlation with DSDP sites indicate continuity of sedimentation at these sites. A rapid cooling of ∼ 6 degC across the EOB, synchronous with extinction of Eocene larger benthic foraminifera is also observed. (author)

  12. Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-05-11

    Osedax is a recently discovered group of siboglinid annelids that consume bones on the seafloor and whose evolutionary origins have been linked with Cretaceous marine reptiles or to the post-Cretaceous rise of whales. Here we present whale bones from early Oligocene bathyal sediments exposed in Washington State, which show traces similar to those made by Osedax today. The geologic age of these trace fossils ( approximately 30 million years) coincides with the first major radiation of whales, consistent with the hypothesis of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main food source, although older fossils should certainly be studied. Osedax has been destroying bones for most of the evolutionary history of whales and the possible significance of this "Osedax effect" in relation to the quality and quantity of their fossils is only now recognized.

  13. Arktocara yakataga, a new fossil odontocete (Mammalia, Cetacea from the Oligocene of Alaska and the antiquity of Platanistoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra T. Boersma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversification of crown cetacean lineages (i.e., crown Odontoceti and crown Mysticeti occurred throughout the Oligocene, but it remains an ongoing challenge to resolve the phylogenetic pattern of their origins, especially with respect to stem lineages. One extant monotypic lineage, Platanista gangetica (the Ganges and Indus river dolphin, is the sole surviving member of the broader group Platanistoidea, with many fossil relatives that range from Oligocene to Miocene in age. Curiously, the highly threatened Platanista is restricted today to freshwater river systems of South Asia, yet nearly all fossil platanistoids are known globally from marine rocks, suggesting a marine ancestry for this group. In recent years, studies on the phylogenetic relationships in Platanistoidea have reached a general consensus about the membership of different sub-clades and putative extinct groups, although the position of some platanistoid groups (e.g., Waipatiidae has been contested. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil platanistoid, Arktocara yakataga, gen. et sp. nov. from the Oligocene of Alaska, USA. The type and only known specimen was collected from the marine Poul Creek Formation, a unit known to include Oligocene strata, exposed in the Yakutat City and Borough of Southeast Alaska. In our phylogenetic analysis of stem and node-based Platanistoidea, Arktocara falls within the node-based sub-clade Allodelphinidae as the sister taxon to Allodelphis pratti. With a geochronologic age between ∼29–24 million years old, Arktocara is among the oldest crown Odontoceti, reinforcing the long-standing view that the diversification for crown lineages must have occurred no later than the early Oligocene.

  14. EARLY TO LATE OLIGOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOEVENTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (UMBRIA-MARCHE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIZIA MAIORANO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated by means of quantitative analyses in three Oligocene pelagic sections located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy. The studied sections mainly consist of marly limestones and marls belonging to the Scaglia Cinerea Formation, and include the interval between NP23 and NP25 representing a time interval of about 3.5 Ma. Biostratigraphic resolution is extremely low and only two standard bioevents are known, which are the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis and the LO of Sphenolithus distentus. The distribution patterns of poorly known or recently described calcareous nannofossils provided a valuable tool for improving the current biostratigraphic framework. The studied interval is characterized by significant changes in the calcareous nannofossil assemblages and by several extinction events. The last occurrence (LO and/or the last common occurrence (LCO here proposed are: the LO of Sphenolithus akropodus, the LO of Reticulofenestra circus, the LCO of Helicosphaera ethologa, the LCO of Helicosphaera compactathe LO of Discoaster tanii nodifer. The reversal in abundance between Sphenolithus predistentus and S. distentus provided an additional biostratigraphic constraint at the NP23-NP24 transition. In addition biometric criteria enabled the recognition of the first common occurrence (FCO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus > 12 mm as potential bioevent within NP24. The quantitative distribution of Sphenolithus distentus suggests to rely on the LCO of the species rather than on the LO, for the identification of NP24-NP25 boundary. The identified bioevents is a first step towards the improvement of the present Mediterranean biostratigraphic framework of the Oligocene geological record. A preliminary correlation of the bioevents to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale is presented.

  15. Oligocene stratigraphy across the Eocene and Miocene boundaries in the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Badamgarav, Demchig; Barsbold, Rinchen; Bayarmaa, Baatarjav; Erbajeva, Margarita; Göhlich, Ursula Bettina; Harzhauser, Mathias; Höck, Eva; Höck, Volker; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Khand, Yondon; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Maridet, Olivier; Neubauer, Thomas; Oliver, Adriana; Piller, Werner; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Ziegler, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic sediments of the Taatsiin Gol and TaatsiinTsagaan Nuur area are rich in fossils that provide unique evidence of mammal evolution in Mongolia. The strata are intercalated with basalt flows. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data of the basalts frame the time of sediment deposition and mammal evolution and enable a composite age chronology for the studied area. We investigated 20 geological sections and 6 fossil localities of Oligocene and early Miocene deposits from this region. Seventy fossil beds yielded more than 19,000 mammal fossils. This huge collection encompasses 175 mammal species: 50% Rodentia, 13% Eulipotyphla and Didelphomorphia, and 12% Lagomorpha. The remaining 25% of species are distributed among herbivorous and carnivorous large mammals. The representation of lower vertebrates and gastropods is comparatively poor. Several hundred SEM images illustrate the diversity of Marsupialia, Eulipotyphla, and Rodentia dentition and give insight into small mammal evolution in Mongolia during the Oligocene and early Miocene. This dataset, the radiometric ages of basalt I (∼31.5 Ma) and basalt II (∼27 Ma), and the magnetostratigraphic data provide ages of mammal assemblages and time ranges of the Mongolian biozones: letter zone A ranges from ∼33 to ∼31.5 Ma, letter zone B from ∼31.5 to ∼28 Ma, letter zone C from ∼28 to 25.6 Ma, letter zone C1 from 25.6 to 24 Ma, letter zone C1-D from 24 to ∼23 Ma, and letter zone D from ∼23 to ∼21 Ma.

  16. On the Recurrence of Enigmatic Nannoplankton Blooms in the Subtropical South Atlantic during the Early Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, L. V.; Kelly, D. C.; Meyers, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic cooling and expansion of Antarctic ice sheets was accompanied by a global reorganization in ocean circulation during the early Oligocene. Such a change in the ocean-climate system is expected to alter the pelagic ecosystem through elevated rates of extinction and increased biogeographic provincialism. A well documented, but poorly understood, example of this provincialism is the recurrence of unusual chalks composed of the nannofossil genus Braarudosphaera across the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean. Here we present preliminary findings from a study of the paleoceanographic conditions that fostered these Braarudosphaera "blooms" at Deep Sea Drilling Site 516 (Rio Grande Rise, southwestern Atlantic). Within the early Oligocene stratigraphy at this site, there are four chalky (recrystallized) layers in which braarudosphaerids compose ~70% of the nannofossil assemblages. Astronomical tuning was performed on conventional benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records encompassing the four layers to determine the timing of their recurrence. A strong astronomical rhythm is preserved with the blooms occurring during nodes in the theoretical obliquity solution. In addition, planktic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) records were generated for the study section using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and conventional gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The SIMS-based δ13C record for the thermocline-dwelling genus Catapsydrax registers substantial (~1.5‰) decreases during the blooms, signaling pulsed increases in the upwelling of 13C-depleted waters. By contrast, the IRMS-based δ13C record for this same genus show no appreciable change in hydrographic conditions during the blooms. We attribute the invariant nature of the IRMS-based δ13C record to the smoothing effects of diagenesis. These results demonstrate how marine plankton respond to changing oceanographic conditions driven by astronomical forcing of ice-sheet dynamics.

  17. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  18. The Square Kilometre Array Epoch of Reionisation and Cosmic Dawn Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Cathryn M.

    2018-05-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Epoch of Reionisation and Cosmic Dawn (EoR/CD) experiments aim to explore the growth of structure and production of ionising radiation in the first billion years of the Universe. Here I describe the experiments planned for the future low-frequency components of the Observatory, and work underway to define, design and execute these programs.

  19. Different habitats within a region contain evolutionary heritage from different epochs depending on the abiotic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartish, I.V.; Ozinga, W.A.; Bartish, M.I.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Hennekens, S.M.; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Biodiversity hot-spots are regions containing evolutionary heritage from ancient or recent geological epochs, i.e. evolutionary 'museums' or 'cradles', respectively. We hypothesize that: (1) there are also 'museums' and 'cradles' within regions - some species pools of particular habitat

  20. On the spin-temperature evolution during the epoch of reionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Rajat M.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    Simulations estimating the brightness temperature (delta T-b) of the redshifted 21 cm from the epoch of reionization (EoR) often assume that the spin temperature (T-s) is decoupled from the background cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and is much larger than it, i.e. T-s T-CMB. Although

  1. Detectability of the 21-cm CMB cross-correlation from the epoch of reionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem; Jelic, Vibor

    The 21-cm line fluctuations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are powerful probes of the epoch of reionization of the Universe. We study the potential of the cross-correlation between 21-cm line fluctuations and CMB anisotropy to obtain further constraints on the reionization history. We

  2. Importance of epoch length and registration time on accelerometer measurements in younger children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Svensson, J; El-Naaman, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epoch length on accumulation of minutes of physical activity per day over a spectrum of intensities, and the effect that selection of number of hours of acceptable registration required per day had on number of days that were considered accep...

  3. Episodes and Epochs in the Evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the emergence and evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry. We collected historical data on Danish Textile and Fashion Industry between 1945 and 2015. We employ radar...

  4. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows : The Low Frequency Array Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asad, Khan

    2017-01-01

    The farther we look in space, the earlier we see in time. By observing a radio signal of 21cm wavelength coming from the epoch of reionization, when the universe was less than a billion years old, we can understand how the first stars, galaxies and black holes formed. This signal has not been

  5. The Corporate University's Role in Managing an Epoch in Learning Organisation Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealtry, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set the scene for some radical epochal thinking about the approach and future strategic directions in the management of organisational learning, following the author's earlier editorial theme concerning the need for exploration and innovation in organisational learning management.…

  6. The effect of epoch length on estimated EEG functional connectivity and brain network organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschini, Matteo; Demuru, Matteo; Crobe, Alessandra; Marrosu, Francesco; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Graph theory and network science tools have revealed fundamental mechanisms of functional brain organization in resting-state M/EEG analysis. Nevertheless, it is still not clearly understood how several methodological aspects may bias the topology of the reconstructed functional networks. In this context, the literature shows inconsistency in the chosen length of the selected epochs, impeding a meaningful comparison between results from different studies. Approach. The aim of this study was to provide a network approach insensitive to the effects that epoch length has on functional connectivity and network reconstruction. Two different measures, the phase lag index (PLI) and the amplitude envelope correlation (AEC) were applied to EEG resting-state recordings for a group of 18 healthy volunteers using non-overlapping epochs with variable length (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 s). Weighted clustering coefficient (CCw), weighted characteristic path length (L w) and minimum spanning tree (MST) parameters were computed to evaluate the network topology. The analysis was performed on both scalp and source-space data. Main results. Results from scalp analysis show a decrease in both mean PLI and AEC values with an increase in epoch length, with a tendency to stabilize at a length of 12 s for PLI and 6 s for AEC. Moreover, CCw and L w show very similar behaviour, with metrics based on AEC more reliable in terms of stability. In general, MST parameters stabilize at short epoch lengths, particularly for MSTs based on PLI (1-6 s versus 4-8 s for AEC). At the source-level the results were even more reliable, with stability already at 1 s duration for PLI-based MSTs. Significance. The present work suggests that both PLI and AEC depend on epoch length and that this has an impact on the reconstructed network topology, particularly at the scalp-level. Source-level MST topology is less sensitive to differences in epoch length, therefore enabling the comparison of brain

  7. Designing Successful Next-Generation Instruments to Detect the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) team, Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team

    2018-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signifies a period of intense evolution of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM) in the early Universe caused by the first generations of stars and galaxies, wherein they turned the neutral IGM to be completely ionized by redshift ≥ 6. This important epoch is poorly explored to date. Measurement of redshifted 21 cm line from neutral Hydrogen during the EoR is promising to provide the most direct constraints of this epoch. Ongoing experiments to detect redshifted 21 cm power spectrum during reionization, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), appear to be severely affected by bright foregrounds and unaccounted instrumental systematics. For example, the spectral structure introduced by wide-field effects, aperture shapes and angular power patterns of the antennas, electrical and geometrical reflections in the antennas and electrical paths, and antenna position errors can be major limiting factors. These mimic the 21 cm signal and severely degrade the instrument performance. It is imperative for the next-generation of experiments to eliminate these systematics at their source via robust instrument design. I will discuss a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated antenna performance specifications and design strategies using the Precision Radio Interferometry Simulator (PRISim) -- a high-precision tool that I have developed for simulations of foregrounds and the instrument transfer function intended primarily for 21 cm EoR studies, but also broadly applicable to interferometer-based intensity mapping experiments. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), designed in-part based on this framework, is expected to detect the 21 cm signal with high significance. I will present this framework and the simulations, and their potential for designing upcoming radio instruments such as HERA and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  8. trash epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Unconventionally, the editorial of this issue begins with two epigraphs:trash1. foolish ideas or talk; nonsense;2. Chiefly US and Canadian useless or unwanted matter or objects;3. a literary or artistic production of poor quality;4. Chiefly US and Canadian a poor or worthless person or a group of such people.[Collins English Dictionary]You got to make good out of bad. That's all there is to make it with. Robert Penn Warren, “All the King’s Men”.But before talking about the topic of the issue, we should pay off the debt. The previous (double issue was completely devoted to Irkutsk’s jubilee. We will fill in the gaps and look back on the events of the past year missed by PB. There are a lot of them: the UIA Congress in Tokyo (5-7, the Zodchestvo Festival and the UAR Plenary Meeting in Moscow (16-29, the review competition of graduation works in Erevan (30–39 and Les Ateliers of Urban Planning and Development in Cergy-Pontoise (48–54.The New Year’s news blends into the topic of the issue. This year in Irkutsk discarded Christmas trees began to be recycled into fertilizer. In the Kemerovo region the old Christmas trees are used as food for cows. So the supercilious attitude toward trash is no longer relevant. In the future we shall eat it; actually, we are already eating it. Artists help us adjust to the idea that we will live in the global dump. Trash Muses inspired Zhenya Kraineva and Konstantin Lidin to a diptych about trash art (66–75.The first essential step in waste recycling is to change our view on waste. In people’s minds the dump is turned into a deposit of valuable resources. The detailed text by Andrei Ivanov (90–99 tells us about a slum district obtaining a new status and turning into a historical heritage.It is very urgent to convert trash into resources. On the Earth, mountains of garbage grow twice as fast as the population. 17% of homes in Sweden are heated with garbage. Japan processes 96% of waste, Germany 95%, Poland 16%, Russia only 5%. At this moment the territory of Russia has accumulated 100 billion tons of garbage – there is scarcely any deposit of such a large scale. Waste recycling plants are a vital task for today’s and tomorrow’s architecture (102–105.The architecture itself is no longer designed for centuries. The green standards contain such an essential item as engineering redesign for dismantled or demolished structures. Instead of the philosophical principle “my house is my fortress”, the impermanence is on the agenda today. A house, like a short-life packing or tomorrow’s garbage, is now under the statement of the problem.This issue returns to its regular sections. In the HERITAGE section there is an article by our American contributor Brian Spencer (124–129; and a debut of Fabio Todeschini, Professor from South Africa (130–136. In the LANDSCAPE section we start publishing a series of articles by Olga Smirnova (142–147, a Krasnoyarsk architect, poet and traveler…

  9. Astrochronology of a Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Magnetostratigraphy from the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, T. E.; Xuan, C.; Liebrand, D.; Lippert, P. C.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene Boundary is defined by the geomagnetic polarity reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r with an astronomically tuned age of 23 Ma. For late Oligocene to early Miocene reversals, only a few records (mainly from the equatorial Pacific and South Atlantic) integrate magneto- and cyclo-stratigraphy with astronomical tuning. Reversal ages acquired from these records show differences up to 100 kyr. We report new astronomically tuned ages for reversals between 21-26.5 Ma, based on integrated palaeomagnetic and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) data from rapidly accumulated drift sediments (mean sedimentation rate of 2.5 cm/kyr) at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1406 (northwest Atlantic). The natural remanence preserved in the sediments is relatively weak (especially at high demagnetisation steps) and prone to influence from measurement noise. We introduce an optimisation protocol to improve the estimation of component directions used to define the reversals. For each 1-cm interval measurement, the protocol searches for the combination of a fixed number of steps of demagnetisation data that minimises the maximum angular deviation, statistically excluding the noisy measurement steps. For the tuning, we use the logarithm of the calcium over potassium ratio ln(Ca/K) from XRF core scanning data, a proxy of carbonate content in the sediment. Spectral and wavelet analyses of the 140-m long ln(Ca/K) record highlight dominant obliquity (including the 178 and 1200 kyr modulation) and additional eccentricity forcing. Supported by preliminary stable isotope analysis on benthic foraminifera, we tuned ln(Ca/K) minima to obliquity minima and eccentricity maxima. The resulting age model yield new independent ages for all reversals between C6Ar/C6AAn to C8r/C9n. Our results are generally consistent (within an obliquity cycle) with the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 age model [Billups et al., 2004], but deviate up to 80 kyr relative to ODP Site 1218 [Pälike et al

  10. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Tethyan Seaway, Qom Formation, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghi Sadr, Fatemeh; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic climate transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions was associated with major paleogeographic changes in the Tethyan realm. The closure of the Tethyan Seaway and its Iranian gateways during the terminal Paleogene and early Neogene, between approximately 28 and 18 million years, influenced the latitudinal exchange of water masses and energy and is documented in sediment successions of the Qom formation in central Iran. Little is known on the spatial expression and the exact depositional histories of the Qom Formation on orbital time-scales, including a lack of quantitative sea-level reconstructions and studies on the impact of climatic and tectonic changes on marine ecosystems and sedimentation processes. The PhD project focuses on the investigation of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Iranian gateways based on late Oligocene to early Miocene foraminiferal faunas and carbonate facies from selected sediment sections of the Qom Basin. The Qom Formation was deposited in the Central Iranian back-arc basin during the Oligocene-Miocene. In this study foraminiferal faunas and carbonate microfacies were studied based on total 191 samples of two section of Qom Formation. One of them is Molkabad section, which is located northwest of Molkabad mountains, southeast of Garmsar. The section mainly consists of limestones, calcareous marls, marls, and gypsum-bearing marls with a total thickness of 760 meters. The Qom Formation at Molkabad section overlies Eocene rocks with an unconformity and consists of the following lithostratigraphic units (from the lower to upper part): Lithothamnium Limestone, Lower Marl Limestone, Bryozoa Limestone, and Upper Marl Group. The Molkabad fault separates the Qom Formation from the overlying Upper Red Formation. The other section is located at Navab anticline in Qom Formation .The section mainly consist of limestone, marl, and gypsum with a total thickness of 318 meters Navab

  11. NON-GENICULATE CORALLINE ALGAE (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE OF POLJŠICA PRI PODNARTU (NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKA GALE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing importance in sedimentology and palaeoecology, non-geniculate coralline algae remain virtually overlooked in Slovenia. Though these plants are present or even abundant in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic strata, they have never been studied in detail with notable exception of corallines from the Lower Oligocene beds in the area of Gornji Grad. Poljšica pri Podnartu is another locality where Lower Oligocene beds are exposed, considered as equivalent to the former. The studied profile consists of pebbly limestone, mudstone, sandstone and limestone. Limestones contain abundant non-geniculate coralline algae. Nine species from six genera of these corallines have been identified: Lithoporella melobesioides (Foslie Foslie, 1909, Neogoniolithon contii (Mastrorilli Quaranta et al., 2007, Spongites sp., Lithothamnion sp. 1, Lithothamnion sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 1, Mesophyllum sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 3 and Sporolithon sp. Some of these species are described from Slovenia for the first time. 

  12. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.

    2007-04-01

    New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and early Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first modern tropical selachian faunas, with modern taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively modern aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the early-middle Miocene.

  13. Faint galaxies - Bounds on the epoch of galaxy formation and the cosmological deceleration parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru; Peterson, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Models of galaxy luminosity evolution are used to interpret the observed color distributions, redshift distributions, and number counts of faint galaxies. It is found from the color distributions that the redshift corresponding to the epoch of galaxy formation must be greater than three, and that the number counts of faint galaxies, which are sensitive to the slope of the faint end of the luminosity function, are incompatible with q0 = 1/2 and indicate a smaller value. The models assume that the sequence of galaxy types is due to different star-formation rates, that the period of galaxy formation can be characterized by a single epoch, and that after formation, galaxies change in luminosity by star formation and stellar evolution, maintaining a constant comoving space density. 40 refs

  14. New data on Amynodontidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Eastern Europe: Phylogenetic and palaeobiogeographic implications around the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Jérémy; Becker, Damien; Codrea, Vlad; Costeur, Loïc; Fărcaş, Cristina; Solomon, Alexandru; Venczel, Marton; Maridet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Amynodontidae is a family of Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) known from the late Early Eocene to the latest Oligocene, in North America and Eurasia. European Amynodontidae are very rare, and all remains belong almost exclusively to a single post-Grande Coupure genus from the Oligocene, Cadurcotherium. The "Grande Coupure" defines an extinctions and dispersal-generated originations event in Europe that is nearly contemporaneous with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Perissodactyls are one of the major groups affected by this event: Palaeotheriidae went almost extinct during this crisis, whereas Rhinocerotidae appeared for the first time in Europe. Study of fossiliferous Eastern-European localities from this age is crucial for the understanding of this crisis. We report here three new localities of Amynodontidae in Eastern Europe. Two of them are dated from the Eocene (Morlaca, Romania; Dorog, Hungary), whereas the other is either Late Eocene or Early Oligocene (Dobârca, Romania). The skull from this latter locality belongs unexpectedly to the same individual as a previously described mandible attributed to "Cadurcodon" zimborensis. As a result, this specimen can be allocated to its proper locality, Dobârca, and is assigned to a new genus, Sellamynodon gen. nov. It is characterised by an extraordinary growth of the nuchal crest, a unique character among amynodontids. Along with this remarkable material from Dobârca, two specimens from another Romanian locality, Morlaca, have been recently discovered and are dated from the Late Eocene. They belong, as well as new material from Dorog (Middle Eocene, Hungary), to the genus Amynodontopsis, also found in North America. The new Hungarian material represents the earliest occurrence of Amynodontidae in Europe. New phylogenetic hypotheses of Rhinocerotoidea are proposed, including the new material presented here, and show that Amynodontidae may be closer to the polyphyletic family 'Hyracodontidae' than to

  15. Period, epoch, and prediction errors of ephemerides from continuous sets of timing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.

    2015-06-01

    Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of these time series is derived, σP = σT (12 / (N3-N))1 / 2, where σP is the period error, σT the timing error of a single measurement, and N the number of measurements. Compared to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, usual linear ephemeris were epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to an overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided by a correction for the duration of the time series. An alternative is the derivation of ephemerides whose reference epoch and epoch error are given for the centre of the time series. For long continuous or near-continuous time series whose acquisition is completed, such central epochs should be the preferred way for the quotation of linear ephemerides. While this work was motivated from the analysis of eclipse timing measures in space-based light curves, it should be applicable to any other problem with an uninterrupted sequence of discrete timings for which the determination of a zero point, of a constant period and of the associated errors is needed.

  16. EPOCH 0013 - the impact of elevated CO{sub 2} upon the response of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.J.; Jarvis, P.G. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management

    1994-12-31

    Apart from details on the EPOCH project, this paper includes information on the currently funded project under the Environment R & D programme (the likely impact of rising CO{sub 2} and temperature on European forests, 1993 & 1994) and the proposed extension of this is Environment R & D, phase II (predicting the response of European forests to global change, 1995 & 1996). Some suggestions for future work under Framework IV are also proposed. 30 refs., 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. THE TIME EVOLUTION OF HH 1 FROM FOUR EPOCHS OF HST IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Reipurth, B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, J., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We present an analysis of four epochs of Hα and [S ii] λλ 6716/6731 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of HH 1. For determining proper motions, we explore a new method based on the analysis of spatially degraded images obtained convolving the images with wavelet functions of chosen widths. With this procedure, we are able to generate maps of proper motion velocities along and across the outflow axis, as well as (angularly integrated) proper motion velocity distributions. From the four available epochs, we find the time evolution of the velocities, intensities, and spatial distribution of the line emission. We find that over the last two decades HH 1 shows a clear acceleration. Also, the Hα and [S ii] intensities first dropped and then recovered in the more recent (2014) images. Finally, we show a comparison between the two available HST epochs of [O iii] λ 5007 (1994 and 2014), in which we see a clear drop in the value of the [O iii]/Hα ratio.

  18. The Reel Deal: Interpreting HST Multi-Epoch Movies of YSO Jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Adam

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this proposal is to bring the theoretical interpretation of Young Stellar Object jets and their environments to a new level of realism. We propose to build on the results of a successful Cycle 16 observing proposal that has obtained 3rd epoch images of HH jets. We will use Adaptive Mesh Refinement MHD simulations {developed by our team} to carry forward a detailed program of modeling and interpretation of the time-dependent behavior revealed in the new, extended multi-epoch data set. Only with the third epoch observations can we explore forces: i.e. accelerations, decelerations and structural changes to develop an accurate understanding of physical processes occurring in hypersonic, magnetized jet flows. Our studies will allow us to characterize the jets and, therefore, make the crucial link with jet central engines. We note an innovative feature of our project is its link with laboratory astrophysical experiments of jets. Our analysis of the observations will be used to determine future laboratory experiments which will explore A?clumpyA? jet propagation issues.

  19. Clinical and Cost Comparison Evaluation of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Administration of EPOCH-Containing Regimens in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah S; Gandhi, Arpita S; Clemmons, Amber B; DeRemer, David L

    2017-08-01

    Etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (EPOCH)-containing regimens are frequently utilized in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, however, the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving inpatient versus outpatient EPOCH has not been described. Additionally, no comparisons have been made regarding financial implications of EPOCH administration in either setting. This study's primary objective was to compare hospital admissions for FN in patients receiving inpatient or outpatient EPOCH. A single-center, institutional review board-approved review was conducted for adults receiving EPOCH beginning January 2010. Clinical and financial data were collected through chart review and the institution's financial department. Descriptive statistics were utilized for analysis. A total of 25 patients received 86 cycles of an EPOCH-containing regimen (61 [70.9%] inpatient). Five (8.2%) inpatient cycles resulted in an admission for FN compared to 4 (16%) outpatient cycles. Prophylactic antifungal and antiviral agents were prescribed more often after inpatient cycles (>80%) compared to outpatient cycles (cost savings of approximately US$141 116 for both chemotherapy costs and hospital day avoidance. EPOCH-containing regimens can be safely administered in the outpatient setting, which may result in cost savings for healthcare institutions.

  20. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the "Upper Red" beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the "Upper Red" of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the "Upper Red" is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  1. Improving the repeatability of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) by introducing additional epochs at low contraction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Zhang, Yingchun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of (Motor Unit Number Index) MUNIX under repeatability conditions, specify the origin of variations and provide strategies for quality control. MUNIX calculations were performed on the bicep brachii muscles of eight healthy subjects. Negative effect of suboptimal electrode positions on MUNIX accuracy was eliminated by employing the high-density surface electromyography technique. MUNIX procedures that utilized a variety of surface interferential pattern (SIP) epoch recruitment strategies (including the original MUNIX procedure, two proposed improvement strategies and their combinations) were described. For each MUNIX procedure, ten thousands of different SIP pools were constructed by randomly recruiting necessary SIP epochs from a large SIP epoch pool (3 datasets, 9 independent electromyography recordings at different contraction levels per dataset and 10 SIP epochs per recording) and implemented for MUNIX calculation. The repeatability of each MUNIX procedure was assessed by summarizing the resulting MUNIX distribution and compared to investigate the effect of SIP epoch selection strategy on repeatability performance. SIP epochs selected at lower contraction levels have a stronger influence on the repeatability of MUNIX than those selected at higher contraction levels. MUNIX under repeatability conditions follows a normal distribution and the standard deviation can be significantly reduced by introducing more epochs near the MUNIX definition line. The MUNIX technique shows an inherent variation attributable to SIP epochs at low contraction levels. It is recommended that more epochs should be sampled at these low contraction levels to improve the repeatability. The present study thoroughly documented the inherent variation of MUNIX and the causes, and offered practical solutions to improve the repeatability of MUNIX. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  3. Sedimentologic development of a Late Oligocene Miocene forearc embayment, Valdivia Basin Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Tertiary sediments in the southeastern part of the Valdivia Basin commenced during the Late Oligocene with the rapid incision of rivers draining the Palaeo-Coastal Range. Alluvial fans developing along the steep valley flanks joined gravelly braided streams transporting bedload to the coast. Tectonic and eustatic stability lasting into the Early Miocene subsequently allowed lateral erosion of the valley flanks and the development of extensive fluvial and estuarine peat swamps. This stable period was interrupted briefly by a volcanic eruption at 23.5 Ma. Shortly after 23 Ma, rapid uplift caused by an acceleration in plate convergence resulted in renewed erosion of the landscape, as reflected in the deposition of coarse river gravels. Basin subsidence and marine transgression proceeding up the river valleys subsequently formed still, deep embayments, occasionally disturbed by debris flows and turbidity currents originating on the steep, wooded valley flanks. At the upper limits of the inlets, bayhead deltas, tidal flats and beaches existed. In some areas, fan deltas prograded into the embayments, as reflected in the interfingering relationship between conglomerates and marine mudrocks. In the deeper parts of the embayments, the frequency of debris flows and turbidity currents increased markedly during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. The landscape was eventually inundated by continued subsidence and marine transgression, which lasted until a possibly eustatic sea-level fall in the early Tortonian.

  4. Oligocene-Miocene burial and exhumation of the southernmost Gangdese mountains from sedimentary and thermochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yukui; Li, Yalin; Wang, Xiaonan; Qian, Xinyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhou, Aorigele; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The Kailas conglomerates crop out ubiquitously along the southernmost boundary of the Gangdese batholith. They unconformably overlie the Gangdese batholith and are displaced by the Great Counter thrust (GCT) fault, forming a fault contact with the Xigaze forearc basin, the associated subduction complex and the Tethyan Himalayan sequence. These strata furnish a record of uplift and paleoenvironmental change in the Indus-Yarlung suture zone during the Oligocene-Miocene. Our new and previously published low-temperature thermochronometric data from the Gangdese batholith and the Kailas conglomerates indicate a period of rapid exhumation beginning approximately 17-15 Ma centered on the southern margin of the Gangdese batholith, whereas regional uplift commenced significantly earlier during the deposition of the Kailas conglomerates, based on the presence of an abrupt facies transition from deep-water lacustrine deposits to red alluvial fan or fluvial deposits. The period of rapid exhumation probably lagged behind the initiation of faster uplift, while the related changes in the depositional environment were most likely recorded immediately in the basin stratigraphy. Subsequently, the Kailas conglomerates were buried in association with the development of the north-directed Great Counter thrust, while rapid exhumation was facilitated by efficient incision by the paleo-Yarlung river at approximately 17-15 Ma.

  5. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  6. The Oligocene-Miocene stratigraphic evolution of the Majella carbonate platform (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandano, Marco; Cornacchia, Irene; Raffi, Isabella; Tomassetti, Laura

    2016-03-01

    The stratigraphic architecture of the Bolognano Formation documents the evolution of the Majella carbonate platform in response to global and local changes that affected the Mediterranean area during the Oligocene-Miocene interval. The Bolognano Formation consists of a homoclinal ramp that developed in a warm, subtropical environment. Five different lithofacies associations have been identified: Lepidocyclina calcarenites, cherty marly limestones, bryozon calcarenites, hemipelagic marls and marly limestones, and Lithothamnion limestones. Each association corresponds to a single lithostratigraphic unit except for the Lepidocyclina calcarenites that form two distinct lithostratigraphic units (Lepidocyclina calcarenites 1 and 2). These six units reflect alternation of shallow-water carbonate production and drowning. Specifically, two of the three stages of shallow-water carbonate production regard the development of wide dune fields within the middle ramp, one stage dominated by red algae and a sea-grass carbonate factory, whereas the two drowning phases are represented by marly cherty limestones and calcareous marls. A new biostratigraphic framework for Bolognano Formation is presented, based on high-resolution analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages, which proved to be very useful for biostratigraphic constraints also in shallow-water settings. Using this approach, we have linked the first drowning phase, late Chattian-Aquitanian p.p. in age, to western Mediterranean volcanism and the Mi-1 event, and the second drowning phase, late Burdigalian-Serravallian in age, to the closure of the Indo-Pacific passage and the occurrence of the global Monterey event. These results permit a new deciphering, in terms of sequence stratigraphy, of the Bolognano Formation that is interpreted as a 2nd-order super-sequence that can be subdivided into 3 transgressive-regressive sequences.

  7. The evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Dumas, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that the Middle to Late Eocene has witnessed the waxing and waning of relatively small ephemeral ice sheets. These alternating episodes culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 - 33.5 Ma) during which a sudden and massive glaciation occurred over Antarctica. Data studies have demonstrated that this glacial event is constituted of two 50 kyr-long steps, the first of modest (10 - 30 m of equivalent sea level) and the second of major (50 - 90 m esl) glacial amplitude, and separated by 200 kyrs. Since a decade, modeling studies have put forward the primary role of CO2 in the initiation of this glaciation, in doing so marginalizing the original "gateway hypothesis". Here, we investigate the impacts of CO2 and orbital parameters on the evolution of the ice sheet during the 500 kyrs of the EO transition using a tri-dimensional interpolation method. The latter allows precise orbital variations, CO2 evolution and ice sheet feedbacks (including the albedo) to be accounted for. Our results show that orbital variations are instrumental in initiating the first step of the EO glaciation but that the primary driver of the major second step is the atmospheric pCO2 crossing a modelled glacial threshold of 900 ppm. Although model-dependant, this higher glacial threshold makes a stronger case for ephemeral Middle-Late Eocene ice sheets. In addition, sensitivity tests demonstrate that the small first step only exists if the absolute pCO2 value remains within 100 ppm higher than the glacial threshold during the first 250 kyrs of the transition. Thereby, the pCO2 sufficiently counterbalances the strong insolation minima occurring at 33.9 and 33.8 Ma but is low enough to allow the ice sheet to nucleate. Nevertheless, questions remain as to what may cause this pCO2 drop.

  8. Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-07-15

    A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

  9. Newton law corrections and instabilities in f(R) gravity with the effective cosmological constant epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider class of modified f(R) gravities with the effective cosmological constant epoch at the early and late universe. Such models pass most of solar system tests as well they satisfy to cosmological bounds. Despite their very attractive properties, it is shown that one realistic class of such models may lead to significant Newton law corrections at large cosmological scales. Nevertheless, these corrections are small at solar system as well as at the future universe. Another realistic model with acceptable Newton law regime shows the matter instability

  10. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun

    2013-04-12

    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).

  11. Superposed epoch analysis of pressure and magnetic field configuration changes in the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, L.M.; Moebius, E.; Baumjohann, W.; Nagai, T.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report on an analysis of pressure and magnetic configuration within the plasma sheet following the initiation of substorm events. They have constructed this time dependent picture by using an epoch analysis of data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. This analysis procedure can be used to construct a unified picture of events, provided they are reproducible, from a statistical analysis of a series of point measurements. The authors first determine the time dependent pressure changes in the plasma sheet. With some simplifying assumptions they then determine the z dependence of the pressure profiles, and from this distribution determine how field lines in the plasma sheet map to the neutral sheet

  12. Elucidating dark energy with future 21 cm observations at the epoch of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Oyama, Yoshihiko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), 193, Munjiro, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: oyamayo@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sekiguti@ibs.re.kr, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate how precisely we can determine the nature of dark energy such as the equation of state (EoS) and its time dependence by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations at the epoch of reionization (06.8∼< z ∼<1) such as Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and Omniscope in combination with those from cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae and direct measurement of the Hubble constant. We consider several parametrizations for the EoS and find that future 21 cm observations will be powerful in constraining models of dark energy, especially when its EoS varies at high redshifts.

  13. Cosmological constraints on variations of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegoni, E; Galli, S; Archidiacono, M; Calabrese, E; Melchiorri, A

    2013-01-01

    In this brief work we investigate any possible variation of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination. The recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies at arcminute angular scales performed by the ACT and SPT experiments are probing the damping regime of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations. We study the role of a mechanism that could affect the shape of the Cosmic Microwave Background angular fluctuations at those scales, namely a change in the recombination process through variations in the fine structure constant α

  14. Multi-epoch VLBA Imaging of 20 New TeV Blazars: Apparent Jet Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piner, B. Glenn; Edwards, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    We present 88 multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images (most at an observing frequency of 8 GHz) of 20 TeV blazars, all of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) class, that have not been previously studied at multiple epochs on the parsec scale. From these 20 sources, we analyze the apparent speeds of 43 jet components that are all detected at four or more epochs. As has been found for other TeV HBLs, the apparent speeds of these components are relatively slow. About two-thirds of the components have an apparent speed that is consistent (within 2σ) with no motion, and some of these components may be stationary patterns whose apparent speed does not relate to the underlying bulk flow speed. In addition, a superluminal tail to the apparent speed distribution of the TeV HBLs is detected for the first time, with eight components in seven sources having a 2σ lower limit on the apparent speed exceeding 1c. We combine the data from these 20 sources with an additional 18 sources from the literature to analyze the complete apparent speed distribution of all 38 TeV HBLs that have been studied with very long baseline interferometry at multiple epochs. The highest 2σ apparent speed lower limit considering all sources is 3.6c. This suggests that bulk Lorentz factors of up to about 4, but probably not much higher, exist in the parsec-scale radio-emitting regions of these sources, consistent with estimates obtained in the radio by other means such as brightness temperatures. This can be reconciled with the high Lorentz factors estimated from the high-energy data if the jet has velocity structures consisting of different emission regions with different Lorentz factors. In particular, we analyze the current apparent speed data for the TeV HBLs in the context of a model with a fast central spine and a slower outer layer.

  15. High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanci, L.; Lowrie, W.; Montanari, A.

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. [Italiano] La stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene ed il magnetismo delle rocce sono stati studiati in dettaglio per verificare la presenza di eventuali inversioni di polarita` brevi (short chrons) e variazioni delle intensita` del campo geomagnetico che possano essere messe in relazione con le anomalie oceaniche a bassa ampiezza e corto periodo.

  16. The optical variability of SDSS quasars from multi-epoch spectroscopy. I. Results from 60 quasars with ≥ six-epoch spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng, E-mail: hxguo@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-09-01

    In a sample of 60 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with at least six-epoch spectroscopy, we investigate the variability of emission lines and continuum luminosity at various aspects. A strong anti-correlation between the variability and continuum luminosity at 2500 Å is found for the sample, which is consistent with previous works. In individual sources, we find that half of the sample objects follow the trend of being bluer when brighter, while the remaining half follow the redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend. Although the mechanism for RWB is unclear, the effects of host galaxy contribution due to seeing variations cannot be completely ruled out. As expected from the photoionization model, the positive correlations between the broad emission line and continuum luminosity are found in most individual sources, as well as for the whole sample. We confirm the Baldwin effect in most individual objects and the whole sample, while a negative Baldwin effect is also found in several quasars, which can be at least partly (if not all) due to the host galaxy contamination. We find positive correlations between the broad emission line luminosity and line width in most individual quasars, as well as the whole sample, implying a line base that is more variable than the line core.

  17. A new archaic baleen whale Toipahautea waitaki (early Late Oligocene, New Zealand) and the origins of crown Mysticeti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2018-04-01

    A new genus and species of extinct baleen whale †Toipahautea waitaki (Late Oligocene, New Zealand) is based on a skull and associated bones, from the lower Kokoamu Greensand, about 27.5 Ma (local upper Whaingaroan Stage, early Chattian). The upper jaw includes a thin, elongate and apparently toothless maxilla, with evidence of arterial supply for baleen. Open sutures with the premaxilla suggest a flexible (kinetic) upper jaw. The blowhole is well forward. The mandible is bowed laterally and slightly dorsally; unlike the Eomysticetidae, there are no mandibular alveoli, and the coronoid process is tapered and curved laterally. Jaw structure is consistent with baleen-assisted gulp-feeding. The age of early Chattian makes †Toipahautea a very early, if not the oldest named, toothless and baleen-bearing mysticete, suggesting that the full transition from toothed to baleen-bearing probably occurred in the Early Oligocene. Late Oligocene mysticetes vary considerably in jaw form and kinesis, tooth form and function, and development of baleen, implying a wide range of raptorial, suctorial and filter-feeding behaviour. More study may elucidate the function of jaws, teeth and baleen in terms of opportunist/generalist feeding, as in modern gray whales, versus specialized feeding. We here propose that early mysticetes, when transitioned from toothed to baleen-bearing, were generalists and opportunists instead of specializing in any forms of feeding strategies. In addition, two different phylogenetic analyses placed †Toipahautea either in a polytomy including crown Mysticeti, or immediately basal to the crown, and above †Eomysticetidae in both cases. Because the †Toipahautea waitaki holotype is an immature individual, it may plot more basally in phylogeny than its true position.

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Sicilian Maghrebian Chain inferred from stratigraphic and petrographic evidences of Lower Cretaceous and Oligocene flysch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Diego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a Lower Cretaceous flysch group, cropping out from the Gibraltar Arc to the Balkans with a very similar structural setting and sedimentary provenance always linked to the dismantling of internal areas, suggests the existence of only one sedimentary basin (Alpine Tethys s.s., subdivided into many other minor oceanic areas. The Maghrebian Basin, mainly developed on thinned continental crust, was probably located in the westernmost sector of the Alpine Tethys. Cretaceous re-organization of the plates triggered one (or more tectonic phases, well recorded in almost all the sectors of the Alpine Tethys. However, the Maghrebian Basin seems to have been deformed by Late- or post-Cretaceous tectonics, connected with a “meso-Alpine” phase (pre-Oligocene, already hypothesized since the beginning of the nineties. Field geological evidence and recent biostratigraphic data also support this important meso- Alpine tectonic phase in the Sicilian segment of the Maghrebian Chain, indicated by the deformations of a Lower Cretaceous flysch sealed by Lower Oligocene turbidite deposits. This tectonic development is emphasized here because it was probably connected with the onset of rifting in the southern paleomargin of the European plate, the detaching of the so-called AlKaPeCa block (Auct.; i.e. Alboran + Kabylian + Calabria and Peloritani terranes and its fragmentation into several microplates. The subsequent early Oligocene drifting of these microplates led to the progressive closure of the Maghrebian Basin and the opening of new back-arc oceanic basins, strongly controlled by extensional processes, in the western Mediterranean (i.e. Gulf of Lion, Valencia Trough, Provençal Basin and Alboran Sea.

  19. The composition and evolution of an Oligocene regolith on top of the Sesia–Lanzo Zone (Western Alps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapferer, Notburga; Mercolli, Ivan; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    An Oligocene paleosurface (regolith) lies on top of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Sesia–Lanzo Zone near Biella, NW Italy. Only the saprock, the lowermost part in a regolith profile, is preserved. No evidence for any paleosoil can be observed. Field observations indicate that the rego...... with this sequence of subaerial rocks being very close to the intrusion depth of the Valle del Cervo Pluton at the time of its emplacement (4–7 km; Zanoni et al., in Rend Online SGI Note Brevi 1: 199–202, 2008; Zanoni et al., in Int Geol Rev 52: 1244–1267, 2010 and references therein)....

  20. Variability of the planktonic foraminifera community across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, Fuente Caldera Section, Baetic Ranges (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda-Lisarri, A.

    2013-12-01

    During the Eocene/Oligocene transition, in a massive extinction event that took place about 33.7 million years ago, the current high resolution study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively the community structure of the planktonic foraminifera that were preserved in the hemipelagic sediments of the Tethys Sea. The sampled section of the Fuente Caldera column, located in the Baetic mountain ranges, spans a register of 396,551.7 years. Based in the identification of 27 species, that belong to 13 genera and 2 families of foraminifera, there have been found three biozones of Gonzalvo Zonation (Gonzalvo, 2002) in the studied stratigraphic interval: Turborotalia cocoaensis and Cribrohantkenina lazzarii Biozones (Rupelian), and Paragloborotalia increbescens (Priabonian). The planktonic foraminifera associations variability patterns are defined by paleoecologic indexes (diversity index, high and low latitude species index and planktonic and benthic foraminifera index), by geochemical proxies: δ18O and δ13C and by 'Q' Mode Factor Analysis. They prove that the deposition environment is outer platform and also, they suggest that the studied area in the Tethys Sea underwent many thermal pulses, during which some species extinct or appear. In the first extinction event the species Turborotalia cocoaensis and Turborotalia cunialensis became extinct. In the second one, Hantkenina alabamensis, Hantkenina brevispina, Cribrohantkenina lazzarii and Pseudohastigerina micra became extinct while a succession occured; Globigerina officinalis, Globoturborotalita anguliofficinalis and Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata appeared. The cooling event that finished in the Lower Oligocene was the biggest of these pulses, which was extremely abrupt and corresponds to the Oi-1 event that was described by Miller (Miller, 1991). All this evidences that the planktonic foraminifera extinction in the Upper Eocene was a gradual and fast event, what is supported by the Factor Analysis application. Key

  1. Schubert and Beethoven - Adorno’s early antipods of the music in bougeois epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors are reconstructing the dichotomies which the young Theodor Adorno was trying to detect in the music of the bourgeois epoch and personify in two antipodes - Franz Schubert and Ludwig van Beethoven. Although already a devotee of Arnold Schönberg and the 20th century music avantgardism, Adorno was, in his works prior to his exile from Germany (1934, intensively dealing with Schubert and his opposition towards Beethoven. While Beethoven was a bold and progressive revolutionary, fascinated by the “practical reason” and the mission to rise up and reach the stars, Schubert wanted none of it (almost anticipating the failure of the whole revolutionary project. Instead, he was looking backwards, to primordial nature and the possibility of man to participate in its mythic cycles of death and regeneration. The lack of synthesis between this two opposing tendencies in the music of early bourgeois epoch lead to the “negative dialectics” of Schönberg and 20th century music avantgardism and to the final separation of Beethovenian musical progress and Schubertian musical mimesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177019: Identiteti srpske muzike u svetskom kulturnom kontekstu, i br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri

  2. Superposed epoch analysis of O+ auroral outflow during sawtooth events and substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Lund, E. J.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Sawtooth events are repeated injection of energetic particles at geosynchronous orbit. Studies have shown that 94% of sawtooth events occurred during magnetic storm times. The main factor that causes a sawtooth event is still an open question. Simulations have suggested that heavy ions like O+ may play a role in triggering the injections. One of the sources of the O+ in the Earth's magnetosphere is the nightside aurora. O+ ions coming from the nightside auroral region have direct access to the near-earth magnetotail. A model (Brambles et al. 2013) for interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven sawtooth events found that nightside O+ outflow caused the subsequent teeth of the sawtooth event through a feedback mechanism. This work is a superposed epoch analysis to test whether the observed auroral outflow supports this model. Using FAST spacecraft data from 1997-2007, we examine the auroral O+ outflow as a function of time relative to an injection onset. Then we determine whether the profile of outflow flux of O+ during sawtooth events is different from the outflow observed during isolated substorms. The auroral region boundaries are estimated using the method of (Andersson et al. 2004). Subsequently the O+ outflow flux inside these boundaries are calculated and binned as a function of superposed epoch time for substorms and sawtooth "teeth". In this way, we will determine if sawtooth events do in fact have greater O+ outflow, and if that outflow is predominantly from the nightside, as suggested by the model results.

  3. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. I. BEAM PATTERN MEASUREMENTS AND SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron [MIT Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Kohn, Saul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd; Jacobs, Daniel C. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer aiming to detect the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations from neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EOR). Drawing on lessons from the Murchison Widefield Array and the Precision Array for Probing the EOR, HERA is a hexagonal array of large (14 m diameter) dishes with suspended dipole feeds. The dish not only determines overall sensitivity, but also affects the observed frequency structure of foregrounds in the interferometer. This is the first of a series of four papers characterizing the frequency and angular response of the dish with simulations and measurements. In this paper, we focus on the angular response (i.e., power pattern), which sets the relative weighting between sky regions of high and low delay and thus apparent source frequency structure. We measure the angular response at 137 MHz using the ORBCOMM beam mapping system of Neben et al. We measure a collecting area of 93 m{sup 2} in the optimal dish/feed configuration, implying that HERA-320 should detect the EOR power spectrum at z ∼ 9 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12.7 using a foreground avoidance approach with a single season of observations and 74.3 using a foreground subtraction approach. Finally, we study the impact of these beam measurements on the distribution of foregrounds in Fourier space.

  4. The epoch of cosmic heating by early sources of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marius B.; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Feng, Yu; Kakiichi, Koki; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2018-05-01

    Observations of the 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen indicate that an epoch of heating (EoH) might have preceded the later epoch of reionization. Here we study the effects on the ionization state and the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the EoH induced by different assumptions on ionizing sources in the high-redshift Universe: (i) stars; (ii) X-ray binaries (XRBs); (iii) thermal bremsstrahlung of the hot interstellar medium (ISM); and (iv) accreting nuclear black holes (BHs). To this aim, we post-process outputs from the (100 h-1 comoving Mpc)3 hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II with the cosmological 3D radiative transfer code CRASH, which follows the propagation of ultraviolet and X-ray photons, computing the thermal and ionization state of hydrogen and helium through the EoH. We find that stars determine the fully ionized morphology of the IGM, while the spectrally hard XRBs pave way for efficient subsequent heating and ionization by the spectrally softer ISM. With the seeding prescription in MassiveBlack-II, BHs do not contribute significantly to either ionization or heating. With only stars, most of the IGM remains in a cold state (with a median T = 11 K at z = 10), however, the presence of more energetic sources raises the temperature of regions around the brightest and more clustered sources above that of the cosmic microwave background, opening the possibility to observing the 21 cm signal in emission.

  5. Coordinating supplier-retailer using multiple common replenishment epochs with retailers’ choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwen Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Provide a coordination strategy using multiple common replenishment epochs (MCRE for a single-supplier multi-retailer supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The demand of a product occurs only with a group of heterogeneous and independent retailers with constant rates, whereas all their order requests are fulfilled by the supplier. The supplier decides a set of MCREs with general price and extra bonus to entice the retailers to join any one of the MCREs, or to let them remain with their original order time epochs. A retailer is willing to participate in a CRE as long as the retailer’s cost increase is within its tolerance. This paper provide a mixed integer programming to determine the MCRE strategies in order to minimize the total costs of the supplier. Findings: The results illustrate that MCRE model provided in the paper can generate a better replenishment coordination scheme than single CRE models. Practical implications: Replenishment coordination is one of the most important mechanisms to improve the efficiency in supply chains, e.g., chain convenience stores in the modern retail industry. Originality/value: This is a follow-up research on Joint Economic Lot Size (JELS models with a focus on multiple retailers with their replenishment coordination.

  6. Identification enhancement of auditory evoked potentials in EEG by epoch concatenation and temporal decorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Fernandez, H; Orglmeister, R; Trahms, L; Sander, T H

    2012-12-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are brain responses following an external stimulus, e.g., a sound or an image. They are used in fundamental cognitive research and neurological and psychiatric clinical research. ERPs are weaker than spontaneous brain activity and therefore it is difficult or even impossible to identify an ERP in the brain activity following an individual stimulus. For this reason, a blind source separation method relying on statistical information is proposed for the isolation of ERP after auditory stimulation. In this paper it is suggested to integrate epoch concatenation into the popular temporal decorrelation algorithm SOBI/TDSEP relying on time shifted correlations. With the proposed epoch concatenation temporal decorrelation (ecTD) algorithm a component representing the auditory evoked potential (AEP) is found in electroencephalographic data from an auditory stimulation experiment lasting 3min. The ecTD result is compared with the averaged AEP and it is superior to the result from the SOBI/TDSEP algorithm. Furthermore the ecTD processing leads to significant increases in the signal-to-noise ratio (shape SNR) of the AEP and reduces the computation time by 50% if compared to the SOBI/TDSEP calculation. It can be concluded that data concatenation in combination with temporal decorrelation is useful for isolating and improving the properties of an AEP especially in a short duration stimulation experiment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. I. BEAM PATTERN MEASUREMENTS AND SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Bradley, Richard F.; DeBoer, David R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S.; Aguirre, James E.; Kohn, Saul A.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer aiming to detect the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations from neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EOR). Drawing on lessons from the Murchison Widefield Array and the Precision Array for Probing the EOR, HERA is a hexagonal array of large (14 m diameter) dishes with suspended dipole feeds. The dish not only determines overall sensitivity, but also affects the observed frequency structure of foregrounds in the interferometer. This is the first of a series of four papers characterizing the frequency and angular response of the dish with simulations and measurements. In this paper, we focus on the angular response (i.e., power pattern), which sets the relative weighting between sky regions of high and low delay and thus apparent source frequency structure. We measure the angular response at 137 MHz using the ORBCOMM beam mapping system of Neben et al. We measure a collecting area of 93 m 2 in the optimal dish/feed configuration, implying that HERA-320 should detect the EOR power spectrum at z ∼ 9 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12.7 using a foreground avoidance approach with a single season of observations and 74.3 using a foreground subtraction approach. Finally, we study the impact of these beam measurements on the distribution of foregrounds in Fourier space.

  8. A fast pulse phase estimation method for X-ray pulsar signals based on epoch folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Mengfan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available X-ray pulsar-based navigation (XPNAV is an attractive method for autonomous deep-space navigation in the future. The pulse phase estimation is a key task in XPNAV and its accuracy directly determines the navigation accuracy. State-of-the-art pulse phase estimation techniques either suffer from poor estimation accuracy, or involve the maximization of generally non-convex object function, thus resulting in a large computational cost. In this paper, a fast pulse phase estimation method based on epoch folding is presented. The statistical properties of the observed profile obtained through epoch folding are developed. Based on this, we recognize the joint probability distribution of the observed profile as the likelihood function and utilize a fast Fourier transform-based procedure to estimate the pulse phase. Computational complexity of the proposed estimator is analyzed as well. Experimental results show that the proposed estimator significantly outperforms the currently used cross-correlation (CC and nonlinear least squares (NLS estimators, while significantly reduces the computational complexity compared with NLS and maximum likelihood (ML estimators.

  9. OPENING THE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WINDOW: MEASUREMENTS OF FOREGROUND ISOLATION WITH PAPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki [Astronomy Department, U. California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, U. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U. Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, Dave [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E. [Department of Astronomy, U. Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jacobs, Daniel C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, Patricia J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present new observations with the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization with the aim of measuring the properties of foreground emission for 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments at 150 MHz. We focus on the footprint of the foregrounds in cosmological Fourier space to understand which modes of the 21 cm power spectrum will most likely be compromised by foreground emission. These observations confirm predictions that foregrounds can be isolated to a {sup w}edge{sup -}like region of two-dimensional (k , k{sub Parallel-To })-space, creating a window for cosmological studies at higher k{sub Parallel-To} values. We also find that the emission extends past the nominal edge of this wedge due to spectral structure in the foregrounds, with this feature most prominent on the shortest baselines. Finally, we filter the data to retain only this ''unsmooth'' emission and image its specific k{sub Parallel-To} modes. The resultant images show an excess of power at the lowest modes, but no emission can be clearly localized to any one region of the sky. This image is highly suggestive that the most problematic foregrounds for 21 cm EoR studies will not be easily identifiable bright sources, but rather an aggregate of fainter emission.

  10. Signals from the epoch of cosmological recombination (Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyaev, R. A.; Chluba, J.

    2009-07-01

    The physical ingredients to describe the epoch of cosmological recombination are amazingly simple and well-understood. This fact allows us to take into account a very large variety of physical processes, still finding potentially measurable consequences for the energy spectrum and temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In this contribution we provide a short historical overview in connection with the cosmological recombination epoch and its connection to the CMB. Also we highlight some of the detailed physics that were studied over the past few years in the context of the cosmological recombination of hydrogen and helium. The impact of these considerations is two-fold: The associated release of photons during this epoch leads to interesting and unique deviations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) energy spectrum from a perfect blackbody, which, in particular at decimeter wavelength and the Wien part of the CMB spectrum, may become observable in the near future. Despite the fact that the abundance of helium is rather small, it still contributes a sizeable amount of photons to the full recombination spectrum, leading to additional distinct spectral features. Observing the spectral distortions from the epochs of hydrogen and helium recombination, in principle would provide an additional way to determine some of the key parameters of the Universe (e.g. the specific entropy, the CMB monopole temperature and the pre-stellar abundance of helium). Also it permits us to confront our detailed understanding of the recombination process with direct observational evidence. In this contribution we illustrate how the theoretical spectral template of the cosmological recombination spectrum may be utilized for this purpose. We also show that because hydrogen and helium recombine at very different epochs it is possible to address questions related to the thermal history of our Universe. In particular the cosmological recombination radiation may

  11. Estimating bioerosion rate on fossil corals: a quantitative approach from Oligocene reefs (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Bioerosion of coral reefs, especially when related to the activity of macroborers, is considered to be one of the major processes influencing framework development in present-day reefs. Macroboring communities affecting both living and dead corals are widely distributed also in the fossil record and their role is supposed to be analogously important in determining flourishing vs demise of coral bioconstructions. Nevertheless, many aspects concerning environmental factors controlling the incidence of bioerosion, shifting in composition of macroboring communities and estimation of bioerosion rate in different contexts are still poorly documented and understood. This study presents an attempt to quantify bioerosion rate on reef limestones characteristic of some Oligocene outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy) and deposited under terrigenous sedimentation within prodelta and delta fan systems. Branching coral rubble-dominated facies have been recognized as prevailing in this context. Depositional patterns, textures, and the generally low incidence of taphonomic features, such as fragmentation and abrasion, suggest relatively quiet waters where coral remains were deposited almost in situ. Thus taphonomic signatures occurring on corals can be reliably used to reconstruct environmental parameters affecting these particular branching coral assemblages during their life and to compare them with those typical of classical clear-water reefs. Bioerosion is sparsely distributed within coral facies and consists of a limited suite of traces, mostly referred to clionid sponges and polychaete and sipunculid worms. The incidence of boring bivalves seems to be generally lower. Together with semi-quantitative analysis of bioerosion rate along vertical logs and horizontal levels, two quantitative methods have been assessed and compared. These consist in the elaboration of high resolution scanned thin sections through software for image analysis (Photoshop CS3) and point

  12. Early Oligocene plant diversity along the Upper Rhine Graben: The fossil flora of Rauenberg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovar-Eder Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroflora of Rauenberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is treated monographically. The plant-bearing sediments are marine, mainly well-bedded clay- to siltstones, the so-called Fischschiefer, which are part of the Bodenheim Formation. Based on nannoplankton they are dated to nannoplankton zone NP 23 (Rupelian, Lower Oligocene. The plant remains, mainly leaves and some fructifications, are preserved as compressions. The taxonomic assignment is based on gross morphology and cuticle characteristics. The flora yields marine algae and remains of the very diverse terrestrial flora. A total of 68 taxa, including three types of algae, one cycad, 12 conifers, and 49 dicots, among them 5 palms, are described. The following fossil species are described for the first time: Laurophyllum rauenbergense, Myrica obliquifolia, Distylium metzleri, ? Berchemia altorhenana, ? Ternstroemites maritiae, Trachelospermum kelleri, Oleinites altorhenana, O. rauenbergensis, Dicotylophyllum badense, D. oechsleri, D. vesiculaeferens, D. ziegleri, ? Viscophyllum hendriksiae, and Cladites vesiculaeferens. Dicotylophyllum vesiculaeferens and Cladites vesiculaeferens bear peculiar, complex cuticular structures presumably representing salt-secreting glands. Both taxa are interpreted to derive from one plant species of yet uncertain systematic affinity. The flora bears a high proportion of broad-leaved, presumably evergreen taxa, whereas the diversity of modern Arcto-Tertiary taxa (sensu Kvaček 1994 is rather low. Most abundant are Platanus neptuni, Daphnogene cinnamomifolia, and Tetraclinis salicornioides. On the family level, Lauraceae (10 species and Pinaceae (8 are most diverse, followed by Arecaceae (4-5, Cupressaceae, and Myricaceae (4 species each. Surprisingly, Fagaceae are documented solely by a single leaf of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis f. haselbachensis, and the record of Pentaphyllaceae remains ambiguous (? Ternstroemites maritiae. Sloanea olmediaefolia is recorded

  13. Oligocene-Miocene magnetic stratigraphy carried by biogenic magnetite at sites U1334 and U1335 (equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Ohneiser, C.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kesler, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractSediments from the equatorial Pacific Ocean, at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program sites U1334 and U1335, record reliable magnetic polarity stratigraphies back to ~26.5 Ma (late Oligocene) at sedimentation rates usually in the 5-20 m/Myr range. Putative polarity subchrons that do not appear in current polarity timescales occur within Chrons C5ACr, C5ADn, and C5Bn.1r at Site U1335; and within Chrons C6AAr.2r, C6Br, C7Ar, and C8n.1n at Site U1334. Subchron C5Dr.1n (~17.5 Ma) is recorded at both sites, supporting its apparent recording in the South Atlantic Ocean, and has an estimated duration of ~40 kyr. The Oligocene-Miocene calcareous oozes have magnetizations carried by submicron magnetite, as indicated by thermal demagnetization of magnetic remanences, the anhysteretic remanence to susceptibility ratio, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Transmission electron microscopy of magnetic separates indicates the presence of low-titanium iron oxide (magnetite) grains with size (50-100 nm) and shape similar to modern and fossil bacterial magnetite, supporting other evidence that biogenic submicron magnetite is the principal remanence carrier in these sediments. In the equatorial Pacific Ocean, low organic-carbon burial arrests microbial pore-water sulfate reduction, thereby aiding preservation of bacterial magnetite.

  14. The Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin, SW Iran: An assessment of highly-complex geological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-05-01

    North Africa and the Middle East possess rich geological heritage, but the latter is yet to be fully identified and described. The Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, which corresponds to the lower part of the Asmari Formation, has significant potential for geoconservation and geotourism. The types of the geological heritage, their value, and the possible geosites have been assessed. The studied deposits are interesting because of lithology (carbonate rocks), fossils (larger foraminifera, other microfossils, diverse marine invertebrates, fish microremains, and trace fossils), biostratigraphical developments, facies (homoclinal carbonate ramp) and signature of global events (glacioeustatic fluctuations), and outstanding hydrocarbon resources. The five main geological heritage types are sedimentary, palaeontological, stratigraphical, palaeogeographical, and economical, from which the palaeontological, palaeogeographical, and economical types are of global rank. The Khollar and Kavar sections in the Fars Province of Iran are recommended as geosites suitable for research, education, and tourism. The high complexity of the geological heritage linked to the Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin implies the phenomenon of geodiversity should be understood with regard to the relationships between types and their values.

  15. Diversification of rhacophorid frogs provides evidence for accelerated faunal exchange between India and Eurasia during the Oligocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Tang; Li, Yang; Klaus, Sebastian; Rao, Ding-Qi; Hillis, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-02-26

    The accretion of the Indian subcontinent to Eurasia triggered a massive faunal and floral exchange, with Gondwanan taxa entering into Asia and vice versa. The traditional view on the Indian-Asian collision assumes contact of the continental plates during the Early Eocene. Many biogeographic studies rely on this assumption. However, the exact mode and timing of this geological event is still under debate. Here we address, based on an extensive phylogenetic analysis of rhacophorid tree frogs, if there was already a Paleogene biogeographic link between Southeast Asia and India; in which direction faunal exchange occurred between India and Eurasia within the Rhacophoridae; and if the timing of the faunal exchange correlates with one of the recently suggested geological models. Rhacophorid tree frogs showed an early dispersal from India to Asia between 46 and 57 Ma, as reconstructed from the fossil record. During the Middle Eocene, however, faunal exchange ceased, followed by increase of rhacophorid dispersal events between Asia and the Indian subcontinent during the Oligocene that continued until the Middle Miocene. This corroborates recent geological models that argue for a much later final collision between the continental plates. We predict that the Oligocene faunal exchange between the Indian subcontinent and Asia, as shown here for rhacophorid frogs, also applies for other nonvolant organisms with an Indian-Asian distribution, and suggest that previous studies that deal with this faunal interchange should be carefully reinvestigated.

  16. Fission track ages on apatite of Bergell rocks from central Alps and Bergell boulders in Oligocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.A.; Miller, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Previous radiometric dating studies indicated that the Bergell region, in contrast to other regions of the Central Alps, experienced an early, rapid uplift, but with decreasing rate. Furthermore, there is also a geological record of the early uplift history of the Bergell granite by the existence of boulders which were derived from this granite and which occur in the Late Oligocene sediments of the Po plain. In this work the uplift history of the Bergell is studied in more detail by fission track dating of additional apatites from the Bergell region. Secondly, by determining apatite fission track ages the granitic boulders of the Po plain can be re-assigned to their original vertical position within the Bergell intrusive before erosion removed them in Late Oligocene time. A rather conservative estimate replaces them 6 km above the present morphology of the Bergell massif. Thus, the thickness of the Bergell granite must have been at least 8 km. Generally, fission track studies on boulders may become an important tool to study the vertical extent of mountain chains during the geological past. (Auth.)

  17. Acrostichum, a Pioneering Fern of Floodplain Areas from the Late Oligocene Sariñena Formation of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno-Domínguez

    Full Text Available Acrostichum is considered today an opportunistic fern in disturbed areas, which indicates the first stages of colonisation of such zones. However, in the fossil record, Acrostichum appears related to fluvio-lacustrine environments, freshwater marshes and mangrove deposits. We report here for first time fossil evidence of Acrostichum that reveals a pioneering behaviour of this fern in the colonisation of perturbed communities in Europe, which corroborates previous assumptions about the paleobiology of Acrostichum. Plant remains were collected from the Chattian (late Oligocene La Val fossil site (Estadilla, Huesca, northeastern Spain belonging to the Sariñena Formation, which mainly embraces crevasse splays, levees and floodplain deposits. Evidence shows that Acrostichum grew within the levee's vegetal community or close to/on the river banks as well as on floodplain areas and closer to/on the shores of ephemeral ponds. But most importantly, the observed co-existence of Equisetum and Acrostichum remains in the same beds indicates that such strata represent short-lived inundated terrains, e.g., floodplains where the water table was temporarily stagnant. Evidence shows wetland environments dominated by pioneering taxa, implying a pioneering role for Acrostichum during the late Oligocene in the Iberian Peninsula.

  18. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min’ interval to that of 10 min’, it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative

  19. Morphology and distribution of Oligocene and Miocene pockmarks in the Danish North Sea -implications for bottom current activity and fluid migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Katrine Juul; Huuse, Mads; Clausen, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    This study gives the first description of 33 mid-Oligocene and 646 late Miocene pockmarks mapped in the Danish part of the central North Sea. The pockmarks are all highly elongated, with average long- and short axes of 2.5 km and 700 m, and average internal depth of 30 m. The Miocene pockmarks...... the timing and location of the pockmarks. The pockmarks thus tell a story of thermogenic gas venting to the surface and paleo-current scour of the seabed in the eastern part of the central North Sea during the mid Oligocene and late Miocene....

  20. Paleobiogeography of scleractinian reef corals: Changing patterns during the Oligocene-Miocene climatic transition in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Christine; Bosellini, Francesca R.

    2012-02-01

    During the Oligocene-Miocene Greenhouse-to-Icehouse climatic transition, the biogeography of reef corals or zooxanthellate-like scleractinian corals was gradually changing from a pan-tropical Tethyan Province in the Eocene to three reef-coral Provinces of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean, Indo-Pacific and Mediterranean. Our REEFCORAL database encompasses updated and homogenized data on paleoenvironmental and systematics of scleractinian corals occurring in the Oligocene and Miocene outcrops from circum-Mediterranean regions, provided by most of relatively recently published data in the literature and by the study of published and unpublished collections of coral specimens from the same area, including the important collections housed at the MNHN (Paris) and our own collections. As there is no validated direct criterion for the identification of the coral-zooxanthellate symbiosis in the fossil record, and considering the difficulty to use the biogeochemical approaches in the context of this study, the subjectivity of the morphological criteria and the relative recent age of the fossil corals we are dealing with, a uniformitarian approach has been used for inferring the symbiotic status of scleractinian genera in REEFCORAL. Among the 158 genera included in our database, 93 can be considered as zooxanthellate and 10 have a doubtful zooxanthellate status. This relatively exhaustive database was used to reconstruct the temporal and spatial distribution of scleractinian corals in the Mediterranean during the Oligocene-Miocene time in order to discuss the interplaying effects of the global cooling at that time, the re-organization of the Tethyan realm resulting from the African, Arabian and Eurasian plate collision and the emergence of the Alpine chains, driving the gradual northward movement of the whole region outside the tropical/subtropical belt. It is shown that the structure of the Mediterranean z-coral Oligocene-Miocene paleobiodiversity was characterized by many

  1. Direct detection of projectile relics from the end of the lunar basin-forming epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Katherine H; Zolensky, Michael E; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R; Ross, D Kent; McKay, David S; Kring, David A

    2012-06-15

    The lunar surface, a key proxy for the early Earth, contains relics of asteroids and comets that have pummeled terrestrial planetary surfaces. Surviving fragments of projectiles in the lunar regolith provide a direct measure of the types and thus the sources of exogenous material delivered to the Earth-Moon system. In ancient [>3.4 billion years ago (Ga)] regolith breccias from the Apollo 16 landing site, we located mineral and lithologic relics of magnesian chondrules from chondritic impactors. These ancient impactor fragments are not nearly as diverse as those found in younger (3.4 Ga to today) regolith breccias and soils from the Moon or that presently fall as meteorites to Earth. This suggests that primitive chondritic asteroids, originating from a similar source region, were common Earth-Moon-crossing impactors during the latter stages of the basin-forming epoch.

  2. Analysis of Accuracy and Epoch on Back-propagation BFGS Quasi-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaban, Herlan; Zarlis, Muhammad; Sawaluddin

    2017-12-01

    Back-propagation is one of the learning algorithms on artificial neural networks that have been widely used to solve various problems, such as pattern recognition, prediction and classification. The Back-propagation architecture will affect the outcome of learning processed. BFGS Quasi-Newton is one of the functions that can be used to change the weight of back-propagation. This research tested some back-propagation architectures using classical back-propagation and back-propagation with BFGS. There are 7 architectures that have been tested on glass dataset with various numbers of neurons, 6 architectures with 1 hidden layer and 1 architecture with 2 hidden layers. BP with BFGS improves the convergence of the learning process. The average improvement convergence is 98.34%. BP with BFGS is more optimal on architectures with smaller number of neurons with decreased epoch number is 94.37% with the increase of accuracy about 0.5%.

  3. Modeling high-order synchronization epochs and transitions in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, David; Bahraminasab, Alireza; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2007-12-01

    We study a system consisting of two coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. This system is used as a model for the cardiorespiratory interaction in wakefulness and anaesthesia. We show that longrange correlated noise produces transitions between epochs with different n:m synchronisation ratios, as observed in the cardiovascular system. Also, we see that, the smaller the noise (specially the one acting on the slower oscillator), the bigger the synchronisation time, exactly as happens in anaesthesia compared with wakefulness. The dependence of the synchronisation time on the couplings, in the presence of noise, is studied; such dependence is softened by low-frequency noise. We show that the coupling from the slow oscillator to the fast one (respiration to heart) plays a more important role in synchronisation. Finally, we see that the isolines with same synchronisation time seem to be a linear combination of the two couplings.

  4. Evolution of the intergalactic medium - What happened during the epoch z = 3-10?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, S.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to model consistently the thermal and dynamic history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) from the era of reheating (z = 10-5) to the present, and to provide a unified explanation for the origin of ordinary galaxies, blue compact objects, and Lyman-alpha clouds. The evolution of the intergalactic gas is analyzed, treating the IGM as perfectly homogeneous at every epoch and taking into account radiative and Compton cooling, adiabatic cooling, shock heating, and heating produced by the diffuse UV flux. It is suggested that the IGM must have been heated to higher than a 10 to the 6th K by shock heasting caused either by explosions of pregalactic objects or expanding voids. The formation of intergalactic clouds by fragmentation of the resulting shells and the subsequent collapse of the shells to form galaxies are studied. An attempt is made to determine model parameters on the basis of an analysis of Lyman-alpha absorption lines.

  5. The faint-end of galaxy luminosity functions at the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, B.; Castellano, M.; Ferrara, A.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Amorín, R.; Grazian, A.; Mármol-Queralto, E.; Michałowski, M. J.; Mortlock, A.; Paris, D.; Parsa, S.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Di Criscienzo, M.

    2018-05-01

    During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ~ 6, MUVT >~-13.3 for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* <~ 47 km s-1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.

  6. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  7. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: History of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The atmospheric water cycle at the present epoch involves summertime sublimation of water from the north polar cap, transport of water through the atmosphere, and condensation on one or both winter CO2 caps. Exchange with the regolith is important seasonally, but the water content of the atmosphere appears to be controlled by the polar caps. The net annual transport through the atmosphere, integrated over long timescales, must be the driving force behind the long-term evolution of the polar caps; clearly, this feeds back into the evolution of the layered terrain. We have investigated the behavior of the seasonal water cycle and the net integrated behavior at the pole for the last 10 exp 7 years. Our model of the water cycle includes the solar input, CO2 condensation and sublimation, and summertime water sublimation through the seasonal cycles, and incorporates the long-term variations in the orbital elements describing the Martian orbit.

  8. The hydrogen epoch of reionization array dish III: measuring chromaticity of prototype element with reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nipanjana; Parsons, Aaron R.; DeBoer, David R.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hsyu, Gilbert; Leung, Tsz Kuk; Day, Cherie K.; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Aguirre, James E.; Alexander, Paul; Ali, Zaki S.; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; Dillon, Joshua S.; Fadana, Gcobisa; Fagnoni, Nicolas; Fritz, Randall; Furlanetto, Steve R.; Glendenning, Brian; Greig, Bradley; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Julius, Austin; Kariseb, MacCalvin; Kohn, Saul A.; Lebedeva, Anna; Lekalake, Telalo; Liu, Adrian; Loots, Anita; MacMahon, David; Malan, Lourence; Malgas, Cresshim; Maree, Matthys; Martinot, Zachary; Mathison, Nathan; Matsetela, Eunice; Mesinger, Andrei; Morales, Miguel F.; Neben, Abraham R.; Pieterse, Samantha; Pober, Jonathan C.; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Ringuette, Jon; Robnett, James; Rosie, Kathryn; Sell, Raddwine; Smith, Craig; Syce, Angelo; Tegmark, Max; Williams, Peter K. G.; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2018-04-01

    Spectral structures due to the instrument response is the current limiting factor for the experiments attempting to detect the redshifted 21 cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Recent advances in the delay spectrum methodology for measuring the redshifted 21 cm EoR power spectrum brought new attention to the impact of an antenna's frequency response on the viability of making this challenging measurement. The delay spectrum methodology provides a somewhat straightforward relationship between the time-domain response of an instrument that can be directly measured and the power spectrum modes accessible to a 21 cm EoR experiment. In this paper, we derive the explicit relationship between antenna reflection coefficient ( S 11) measurements made by a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and the extent of additional foreground contaminations in delay space. In the light of this mathematical framework, we examine the chromaticity of a prototype antenna element that will constitute the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) between 100 and 200 MHz. These reflectometry measurements exhibit additional structures relative to electromagnetic simulations, but we find that even without any further design improvement, such an antenna element will support measuring spatial k modes with line-of-sight components of k ∥ > 0.2 h Mpc- 1. We also find that when combined with the powerful inverse covariance weighting method used in optimal quadratic estimation of redshifted 21 cm power spectra the HERA prototype elements can successfully measure the power spectrum at spatial modes as low as k ∥ > 0.1 h Mpc- 1. This work represents a major step toward understanding the HERA antenna element and highlights a straightforward method for characterizing instrument response for future experiments designed to detect the 21 cm EoR power spectrum.

  9. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN BLACK HOLE MASSES DETERMINED FROM SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch (SE) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping (RM) databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of SE masses calculated from two commonly used line width measures by comparing these results to recent RM studies. We calculate masses by characterizing the broad Hβ emission line by both the full width at half maximum and the line dispersion, and demonstrate the importance of removing narrow emission-line components and host starlight. We find that the reliability of line width measurements rapidly decreases for S/N lower than ∼ 10-20 (per pixel), and that fitting the line profiles instead of direct measurement of the data does not mitigate this problem but can, in fact, introduce systematic errors. We also conclude that a full spectral decomposition to deblend the AGN and galaxy spectral features is unnecessary, except to judge the contribution of the host galaxy to the luminosity and to deblend any emission lines that may inhibit accurate line width measurements. Finally, we present an error budget which summarizes the minimum observable uncertainties as well as the amount of additional scatter and/or systematic offset that can be expected from the individual sources of error investigated. In particular, we find that the minimum observable uncertainty in SE mass estimates due to variability is ∼ 20 pixel -1 ) spectra.

  10. On the link between extreme floods and excess monsoon epochs in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Vishwas [University of Pune, Department of Geography, Pune (India)

    2012-09-15

    This paper provides a synoptic view of extreme monsoon floods on all the nine large rivers of South Asia and their association with the excess (above-normal) monsoon rainfall periods. Annual maximum flood series for 18 gauging stations spread over four countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal) and long-term monsoon rainfall data were analyzed to ascertain whether the extreme floods were clustered in time and whether they coincided with multi-decade excess monsoon rainfall epochs at the basin level. Simple techniques, such as the Cramer's t-test, regression and Mann-Kendall (MK) tests and Hurst method were used to evaluate the trends and patterns of the flood and rainfall series. MK test reveals absence of any long-term tendency in all the series. However, the Cramer's t test and Hurst-Mandelbrot rescaled range statistic provide evidence that both rainfall and flood time series are persistent. Using the Cramer's t-test the excess monsoon epochs for each basin were identified. The excess monsoon periods for different basins were found to be highly asynchronous with respect to duration as well as the beginning and end. Three main conclusions readily emerge from the analyses. Extreme floods (>90th percentile) in South Asia show a tendency to cluster in time. About three-fourth of the extreme floods have occurred during the excess monsoon periods between {proportional_to}1840 and 2000 AD, implying a noteworthy link between the two. The frequency of large floods was higher during the post-1940 period in general and during three decades (1940s, 1950s and 1980s) in particular. (orig.)

  11. Gravitationally neutral dark matter-dark antimatter universe crystal with epochs of decelerated and accelerated expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, I. A.; Trigger, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    A large-scale self-similar crystallized phase of finite gravitationally neutral universe (GNU)—huge GNU-ball—with spherical 2D-boundary immersed into an endless empty 3D- space is considered. The main principal assumptions of this universe model are: (1) existence of stable elementary particles-antiparticles with the opposite gravitational “charges” (M+gr and M -gr), which have the same positive inertial mass M in = |M ±gr | ≥ 0 and are equally presented in the universe during all universe evolution epochs; (2) the gravitational interaction between the masses of the opposite charges” is repulsive; (3) the unbroken baryon-antibaryon symmetry; (4) M+gr-M-gr “charges” symmetry, valid for two equally presented matter-antimatter GNU-components: (a) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (b) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM). The GNU-ball is weightless crystallized dust of equally presented, mutually repulsive (OM+DM) clusters and (OAM+DAM) anticlusters. Newtonian GNU-hydrodynamics gives the observable spatial flatness and ideal Hubble flow. The GNU in the obtained large-scale self-similar crystallized phase preserves absence of the cluster-anticluster collisions and simultaneously explains the observable large-scale universe phenomena: (1) the absence of the matter-antimatter clusters annihilation, (2) the self-similar Hubble flow stability and homogeneity, (3) flatness, (4) bubble and cosmic-net structures as 3D-2D-1D decrystallization phases with decelerative (a ≤ 0) and accelerative (a ≥ 0) expansion epochs, (5) the dark energy (DE) phenomena with Λ VACUUM = 0, (6) the DE and DM fine-tuning nature and predicts (7) evaporation into isolated huge M±gr superclusters without Big Rip.

  12. Gravitationally neutral dark matter–dark antimatter universe crystal with epochs of decelerated and accelerated expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I A; Trigger, S A

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale self-similar crystallized phase of finite gravitationally neutral universe (GNU)—huge GNU-ball—with spherical 2D-boundary immersed into an endless empty 3D- space is considered. The main principal assumptions of this universe model are: (1) existence of stable elementary particles-antiparticles with the opposite gravitational “charges” ( M + gr and M -gr ), which have the same positive inertial mass M in = | M ±gr | ≥ 0 and are equally presented in the universe during all universe evolution epochs; (2) the gravitational interaction between the masses of the opposite charges” is repulsive; (3) the unbroken baryon-antibaryon symmetry; (4) M +gr -M -gr “charges” symmetry, valid for two equally presented matter-antimatter GNU-components: (a) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (b) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM). The GNU-ball is weightless crystallized dust of equally presented, mutually repulsive (OM+DM) clusters and (OAM+DAM) anticlusters. Newtonian GNU-hydrodynamics gives the observable spatial flatness and ideal Hubble flow. The GNU in the obtained large-scale self-similar crystallized phase preserves absence of the cluster-anticluster collisions and simultaneously explains the observable large-scale universe phenomena: (1) the absence of the matter-antimatter clusters annihilation, (2) the self-similar Hubble flow stability and homogeneity, (3) flatness, (4) bubble and cosmic-net structures as 3D-2D-1D decrystallization phases with decelerative (a ≤ 0) and accelerative (a ≥ 0) expansion epochs, (5) the dark energy (DE) phenomena with Λ VACUUM = 0, (6) the DE and DM fine-tuning nature and predicts (7) evaporation into isolated huge M ±gr superclusters without Big Rip. (paper)

  13. Volcaniclastic and sedimentary deposits in Late Oligocene/Early Miocene Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, northern Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Polona

    2010-05-01

    Late Oligocene/Early Miocene volcanic activity in northern Slovenia is related to post-collisional accommodation of continental Apulian and oceanic European plates (von Blanckenburg and Davis, 1996). It occurred in one of small south-western marginal depressions of the Pannonian basin system, locally termed the Smrekovec Basin (Hanfland et al., 2004). Contemporaneous clastic sedimentation is evidenced by several hundred metres thick succession composed mainly of mudstone, siltstone and sand. Smrekovec Volcanic Complex (SVC) is an eroded and tectonically uplifted remain of a larger submarine stratovolcano edifice, built of lavas, shallow or subsurface intrusive bodies, and pyroclastic, hyaloclastic, syn-eruptively resedimented volcaniclastic and reworked volcaniclastic-sedimentary deposits (Kralj, 1996). The development of lithofacies of syn-eruptively resedimented deposits is controlled by the proximity to the ancient volcano summit and the volcano sloping. Moreover, close to the rising volcano edifice, distinct shallow-water environments with siliciclastic sedimentation developed. Syn-eruptively resedimented deposits are the most widespread and are related to volcaniclastic debris flows and volcaniclastic tubidity flows. Volcaniclastic debris flow deposits are subdivided into lithofacies Bx - polymict volcaniclastic breccia, and Bt - volcaniclastic tuff-breccia. Bx occurs as tabular, up to some ten metres thick bodies with abundant up to 5 dm large angular lava clasts and angular or rounded clasts of fine-grained tuff, and tuffaceous matrix. Bt forms basal, massive layers in fining-upward sequences. The main constituent is tuffaceous matrix; up to 1.5 dm large clasts of lavas and tuffs are subordinate. In a distance up to 2 km from the former volcano summit (proximal area), Bt predominates in the sequence lithofacies composition (~75 %), and attains a thickness of up to 4 m. At a distance of 2-4 km (distal area), a maximum Bt thickness rarely exceeds 5 dm, an

  14. Multi-proxy reconstructions of hydrologic change during the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North American Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Y.; Hren, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    The dramatic shift from a 'greenhouse' to an 'icehouse' world that occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, 34-33.5 Ma) is associated with changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, extinction events in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and the establishment of a continental-scale ice sheet on Antarctica. Terrestrial records of the EOT, however, show limited consensus regarding the intensity and impact of this transition, complicating our understanding of how terrestrial hydrology responds to climatic change of this magnitude. Stable isotopes of fossil bones and teeth from the White River Group (WRG) in Nebraska have been interpreted to show an 8 °C decrease in mean annual temperatures across the EOT, with an increase in seasonality, however these studies find no evidence for accompanying changes in aridity. Conversely, other studies have inferred increased aridity in the early Oligocene based on changes in the δ18O and δ13C values of mammalian tooth enamel sampled from the same location. Some of this ambiguity is likely to stem from the difficulty in separating the influence of factors such as temperature, water availability and atmospheric circulation patterns on the δ18O composition of ungulate tooth enamel. We present paired leaf wax biomarker and clay hydrogen isotope data from the WRG to produce a new multi-proxy record of hydrological change and accompanying ecosystem shifts through the EOT in the North American interior. Hydrogen isotopes of clay minerals show a negative shift of record a negative shift in excess of 50‰, in tandem with a positive change in average chain length. We infer an increase in aridity from these data, with an associated potential shift in vegetation cover towards more savannah-style plant species as the climate became drier during the transition into the Oligocene. These data provide new constraints on the impact of the EOT in North America, and highlight the potential role of increasing

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  16. Astronomical tunings of the Oligocene-Miocene transition from Pacific Ocean Site U1334 and implications for the carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Wilson, Douglas S.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, as well as independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two different astronomically tuned age models for the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT) from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 (equatorial Pacific Ocean) to assess the effect tuning has on astronomically calibrated ages and the geologic timescale. These alternative age models (roughly from ˜ 22 to ˜ 24 Ma) are based on different tunings between proxy records and eccentricity: the first age model is based on an aligning CaCO3 weight (wt%) to Earth's orbital eccentricity, and the second age model is based on a direct age calibration of benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to eccentricity. To independently test which tuned age model and associated tuning assumptions are in best agreement with independent ages based on tectonic plate-pair spreading rates, we assign the tuned ages to magnetostratigraphic reversals identified in deep-marine magnetic anomaly profiles. Subsequently, we compute tectonic plate-pair spreading rates based on the tuned ages. The resultant alternative spreading-rate histories indicate that the CaCO3 tuned age model is most consistent with a conservative assumption of constant, or linearly changing, spreading rates. The CaCO3 tuned age model thus provides robust ages and durations for polarity chrons C6Bn.1n-C7n.1r, which are not based on astronomical tuning in the latest iteration of the geologic timescale. Furthermore, it provides independent evidence that the relatively large (several 10 000 years) time lags documented in the benthic foraminiferal isotope records relative to orbital eccentricity constitute a real feature of the Oligocene-Miocene climate system and carbon cycle. The age constraints from Site U1334 thus indicate that the delayed responses of the

  17. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  18. Late oligocene and miocene faulting and sedimentation, and evolution of the southern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Greg H.; Seager, William R.; Kieling, John

    1994-08-01

    The distribution of nonmarine lithofacies, paleocurrents, and provenance data are used to define the evolution of late Oligocene and Miocene basins and complementary uplifts in the southern Rio Grande rift in the vicinity of Hatch, New Mexico, USA. The late Oligocene-middle Miocene Hayner Ranch Formation, which consists of a maximum of 1000 m of alluvial-fan, alluvial-flat, and lacustrine-carbonate lithofacies, was deposited in a narrow (12 km), northwest-trending, northeast-tilted half graben, whose footwall was the Caballo Mountains block. Stratigraphic separation on the border faults of the Caballo Mountains block was approximately 1615 m. An additional 854 m of stratigraphic separation along the Caballo Mountains border faults occurred during deposition of the middle-late Miocene Rincon Valley Formation, which is composed of up to 610 m of alluvial-fan, alluvial-flat, braided-fluvial, and gypsiferous playa lithofacies. Two new, north-trending fault blocks (Sierra de las Uvas and Dona Ana Mountains) and complementary west-northwest-tilted half graben also developed during Rincon Valley time, with approximately 549 m of stratigraphic separation along the border fault of the Sierra de las Uvas block. In latest Miocene and early Pliocene time, following deposition of the Rincon Valley Formation, movement continued along the border faults of the Caballo Mountains, Dona Ana Mountains, and Sierra de las Uvas blocks, and large parts of the Hayner Ranch and Rincon Valley basins were segmented into smaller fault blocks and basins by movement along new, largely north-trending faults. Analysis of the Hayner Ranch and Rincon Valley Formations, along with previous studies of the early Oligocene Bell Top Formation and late Pliocene-early Pleistocene Camp Rice Formation, indicate that the traditional two-stage model for development of the southern Rio Grande rift should be abandoned in favor of at least four episodes of block faulting beginning 35 Ma ago. With the exception of

  19. A partial braincase and other skeletal remains of Oligocene angel sharks (Chondrichthyes, Squatiniformes) from northwest Belgium, with comments on squatinoid taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollen, F.H.; Bakel , van B.W.M.; Jagt, J.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed redescription of a chondrocranium from the basal Boom Clay Formation (Rupelian, Upper Oligocene) at the SVK clay pit, Sint-Niklaas (province of Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium), previously assigned to the sawshark Pristiophorus rupeliensis, is presented. The chondrocranium is re-identified as

  20. New records of the dolphin Albertocetus meffordorum (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae from the lower Oligocene of South Carolina: Encephalization, sensory anatomy, postcranial morphology, and ontogeny of early odontocetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available We report five new specimens of xenorophid dolphins from North and South Carolina. Four of the specimens represent the xenorophid Albertocetus meffordorum, previously only known from the holotype skull. The other is a fragmentary petrosal from the upper Oligocene Belgrade Formation that we refer to Echovenator sp, indicating at least two xenorophids from that unit. Two of the Albertocetus meffordorum specimens are from the lower Oligocene Ashley Formation: 1 a partial skeleton with neurocranium, fragmentary mandible, ribs, vertebrae, and chevrons, and 2 an isolated braincase. The partial vertebral column indicates that Albertocetus retained the ancestral morphology and locomotory capabilities of basilosaurid archaeocetes, toothed mysticetes, and physeteroids, and caudal vertebrae that are as wide as tall suggest that the caudal peduncle, which occurs in all extant Cetacea, was either wide or lacking. CT data from the isolated braincase were used to generate a digital endocast of the cranial cavity. The estimated EQ of this specimen is relatively high for an Oligocene odontocete, and other aspects of the brain, such as its anteroposterior length and relative size of the temporal lobe, are intermediate in morphology between those of extant cetaceans and terrestrial artiodactyls. Ethmoturbinals are also preserved, and are similar in morphology and number to those described for the Miocene odontocete Squalodon. These fossils extend the temporal range of Albertocetus meffordorum into the early Oligocene, its geographic range into South Carolina, and expand our paleobiological understanding of the Xenorophidae.

  1. †.i.Gonostoma dracula./i. sp. nov. (Teleostei, Gonostomatidae) from the Oligocene deposits of the Central Paratethys (Romania): earliest occurrence of the modern bristlemouths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grădianu, I.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Gregorová, R.; Harold, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2017), s. 323-336 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Stomiiformes * Gonostomatidae * †Gonostoma dracula sp. nov. * Paratethys * Oligocene * Romania Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2016

  2. First record of the family Moronidae (Perciformes) in the Menilitic Formation of the Litenčice locality (Oligocene, Rupelian; Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, R.; Micklich, N.; Přikryl, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 1 (2016), s. 79-86 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Perciformes * Moronidae * scales * Lower Oligocene * Litenčice Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  3. LOFAR insights into the epoch of reionization from the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm emission and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find

  4. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  5. Reasons for the outbreak of microphytoplankton productivity in the late Oligocene Turtas Lake-Sea, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, O. B.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2017-06-01

    Palynological (dinocysts) and geochemical data were compared for the first time for Paleogene sediments of borehole no. 8 (settlement of Russkaya Polyana, Omsk oblast). The layers with a concentrated amount of dinocysts of the genus Pseudokomewuia (20.5% of the palynocomplex) are characterized by higher contents of Fe, P, Ti, Nb, Ta, and W. The microphytoplankton bloom (an analog of the present-day red tides) in the late Oligocene Turtas Lake-Sea was probably caused by a greater contribution of nutrient substances from the continent during the transgression of this basin. Comparative analysis of the geochemical features of marine and continental Paleogene sediments from borehole no. 8 showed that the Turtas basin was either freshwater or had brackish water.

  6. Climatically induced floristic changes across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the northern high latitudes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Sweet, A.R.; Cameron, A.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Global temperature decline associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition resulted in extinctions of plants and animals in both marine and nonmarine environments. The extensive stratigraphic exposures, well-preserved palynological assemblages, and interbedded coal seams of the nonmarine Amphitheatre Formation, Burwash Basin, Yukon Territory, provide a comprehensive record of this transition. The formation spans a paleoclimatically significant interval otherwise poorly represented in high-latitude deposits of the northwestern Cordiller. Palynological data constrained by the chronologic and stratigraphic framework established for the Amphitheatre Formation indicate that the global temperature decline resulted in a shift from warm temperate, angiosperm-dominated to cooler temperate, gymnosperm-dominated (mainly coniferous) forest types. Petrographic compositional changes in the coals document the same plant community changes. The floristic data also indicate that, at high latitudes, there may have been a change to a wetter and less seasonal climate during the overall global cooling trend.

  7. Uranium and diagenesis in evaporitic lacustrine mudstone of the Oligocene White River Group, Dawes County, Nebraska. Bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Oligocene White River Group consists of the Chadron and the overlying Brule Formations in northwestern Nebraska. The Chadron Formation consists of alluvial and colluvial vitric mudstone beds, but in addition contains white persistent layers (purplish-white layers) that probably resulted from soil formation on vitric parent material. West of the current study area a basal sandstone facies of the Chadron is host rock for the Crow Butte uranium deposit. The Brule, which consists mostly of pedogenically altered alluvial and fluvial vitric mudstone deposits, contains a uraniferous lacustrine facies northwest of Chadron, Nebraska. Detrital minerals in rocks of the White River Group include quartz, feldspar, volcanic glass, smectite, and illite. Chemical precipitate minerals in the lacustrine facies are calcite, dolomite, and gypsum. Authigenic minerals include calcite, dolomite, gypsum, smectite, opal, chalcedony, together with oxidized uranium minerals

  8. K-Ar Geochronology and isotopic composition of the late oligocene- early miocene Ancud volcanic complex, Chiloe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz B, Jorge; Duhart O, Paul; Farmer, G. Lang; Stern, Charles R

    2001-01-01

    The Ancud Volcanic Complex (Gally and Sanchez , 1960) forms a portion of the Mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt which outcrops in the area of northern Chiloe island. Main exposures occur at Ancud, Punta Polocue, Punihuil, Pumillahue, Tetas de Teguaco and Bahia Cocotue. The Ancud Volcanic Complex consists of basaltic to basaltic andesites lava flows and volcanic necks and rhyolitic pyroclastic flows and vitric domes. Previous studies indicate a Late Oligocene-Early Miocene age (Garcia et al., 1988; Stern and Vergara, 1992; Munoz et al., 2000). The Ancud Volcanic Complex covers and intrudes Palaeozoic-Triassic metamorphic rocks and is partially covered by an early to middle Miocene marine sedimentary sequence known as Lacui Formation (Valenzuela, 1982) and by Pleistocene glacial deposits (Heusser, 1990). At Punihuil locality, lava flows are interbedded with the lower part of the marine sedimentary sequence, which includes significant amounts of redeposited pyroclastic components. Locally, the presence of hyaloclastic breccias suggests interaction of magma with marine water (au)

  9. The Earliest Colubroid-Dominated Snake Fauna from Africa: Perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of Southwestern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Jacob A.; Stevens, Nancy J.; O’Connor, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The extant snake fauna has its roots in faunal upheaval occurring across the Paleogene - Neogene transition. On northern continents, this turnover is well established by the late early Miocene. However, this transition is poorly documented on southern landmasses, particularly on continental Africa, where no late Paleogene terrestrial snake assemblages are documented south of the equator. Here we describe a newly discovered snake fauna from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of Tanzania. The fauna is small but diverse with eight identifiable morphotypes, comprised of three booids and five colubroids. This fauna includes Rukwanyoka holmani gen. et sp. nov., the oldest boid known from mainland Africa. It also provides the oldest fossil evidence for the African colubroid clade Elapidae. Colubroids dominate the fauna, comprising more than 75% of the recovered material. This is likely tied to local aridification and/or seasonality and mirrors the pattern of overturn in later snake faunas inhabiting the emerging grassland environments of Europe and North America. The early emergence of colubroid dominance in the Rukwa Rift Basin relative to northern continents suggests that the pattern of overturn that resulted in extant faunas happened in a more complex fashion on continental Africa than was previously realized, with African colubroids becoming at least locally important in the late Paleogene, either ahead of or as a consequence of the invasion of colubrids. The early occurrence of elapid snakes in the latest Oligocene of Africa suggests the clade rapidly spread from Asia to Africa, or arose in Africa, before invading Europe. PMID:24646522

  10. The earliest colubroid-dominated snake fauna from Africa: perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of southwestern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A McCartney

    Full Text Available The extant snake fauna has its roots in faunal upheaval occurring across the Paleogene-Neogene transition. On northern continents, this turnover is well established by the late early Miocene. However, this transition is poorly documented on southern landmasses, particularly on continental Africa, where no late Paleogene terrestrial snake assemblages are documented south of the equator. Here we describe a newly discovered snake fauna from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of Tanzania. The fauna is small but diverse with eight identifiable morphotypes, comprised of three booids and five colubroids. This fauna includes Rukwanyoka holmani gen. et sp. nov., the oldest boid known from mainland Africa. It also provides the oldest fossil evidence for the African colubroid clade Elapidae. Colubroids dominate the fauna, comprising more than 75% of the recovered material. This is likely tied to local aridification and/or seasonality and mirrors the pattern of overturn in later snake faunas inhabiting the emerging grassland environments of Europe and North America. The early emergence of colubroid dominance in the Rukwa Rift Basin relative to northern continents suggests that the pattern of overturn that resulted in extant faunas happened in a more complex fashion on continental Africa than was previously realized, with African colubroids becoming at least locally important in the late Paleogene, either ahead of or as a consequence of the invasion of colubrids. The early occurrence of elapid snakes in the latest Oligocene of Africa suggests the clade rapidly spread from Asia to Africa, or arose in Africa, before invading Europe.

  11. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    2018-03-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source rocks. The North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) was a major gateway of the Paratethys Sea to the open ocean during the Eocene, but the age of closure of this gateway is still uncertain. The Ammer section in southern Germany documents the shallowing of this connection and subsequent disappearance of marine environments in the NAFB, as reflected in its sedimentary succession of turbidites to marls (Deutenhausen to Tonmergel beds), via coastal sediments (Baustein beds) to continental conglomerates (Weißach beds). Here, we apply organic geochemistry and date the lithological transitions in the Ammer section using integrated stratigraphy, including magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Nannoplankton and dinocyst results can be reconciled when dinoflagellate species Wetzeliella symmetrica is of late Eocene age. Our magnetostratigraphy then records C13r-C13n-C12r and allows calculation of sediment accumulation rates and estimation of ages of lithological transitions. We show that the shallowing from turbiditic slope deposits (Deutenhausen beds) to shelf sediments (Tonmergel beds) coincides with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at 33.9 Ma. The transition to continental sediments is dated at ca. 33.15 Ma, significantly older than suggested by previous studies. We conclude that the transition from marine to continental sediments drastically reduced the marine connection through the western part of the NAFB and influenced the oxygen conditions of the Paratethys Sea.

  12. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: RECALIBRATING SINGLE-EPOCH VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A., E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the calibration and uncertainties of black hole (BH) mass estimates based on the single-epoch (SE) method, using homogeneous and high-quality multi-epoch spectra obtained by the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project for nine local Seyfert 1 galaxies with BH masses <10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. By decomposing the spectra into their AGNs and stellar components, we study the variability of the SE H{beta} line width (full width at half-maximum intensity, FWHM{sub H{beta}} or dispersion, {sigma}{sub H{beta}}) and of the AGN continuum luminosity at 5100 A (L{sub 5100}). From the distribution of the 'virial products' ({proportional_to} FWHM{sub H{beta}}{sup 2} L{sup 0.5}{sub 5100} or {sigma}{sub H{beta}}{sup 2} L{sup 0.5}{sub 5100}) measured from SE spectra, we estimate the uncertainty due to the combined variability as {approx}0.05 dex (12%). This is subdominant with respect to the total uncertainty in SE mass estimates, which is dominated by uncertainties in the size-luminosity relation and virial coefficient, and is estimated to be {approx}0.46 dex (factor of {approx}3). By comparing the H{beta} line profile of the SE, mean, and root-mean-square (rms) spectra, we find that the H{beta} line is broader in the mean (and SE) spectra than in the rms spectra by {approx}0.1 dex (25%) for our sample with FWHM{sub H{beta}} <3000 km s{sup -1}. This result is at variance with larger mass BHs where the difference is typically found to be much less than 0.1 dex. To correct for this systematic difference of the H{beta} line profile, we introduce a line-width dependent virial factor, resulting in a recalibration of SE BH mass estimators for low-mass AGNs.

  13. A FLUX SCALE FOR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, Dave H. E. [Radio Astronomy Lab., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-20

    We present a catalog of spectral measurements covering a 100-200 MHz band for 32 sources, derived from observations with a 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa. For transit telescopes such as PAPER, calibration of the primary beam is a difficult endeavor and errors in this calibration are a major source of error in the determination of source spectra. In order to decrease our reliance on an accurate beam calibration, we focus on calibrating sources in a narrow declination range from –46° to –40°. Since sources at similar declinations follow nearly identical paths through the primary beam, this restriction greatly reduces errors associated with beam calibration, yielding a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of derived source spectra. Extrapolating from higher frequency catalogs, we derive the flux scale using a Monte Carlo fit across multiple sources that includes uncertainty from both catalog and measurement errors. Fitting spectral models to catalog data and these new PAPER measurements, we derive new flux models for Pictor A and 31 other sources at nearby declinations; 90% are found to confirm and refine a power-law model for flux density. Of particular importance is the new Pictor A flux model, which is accurate to 1.4% and shows that between 100 MHz and 2 GHz, in contrast with previous models, the spectrum of Pictor A is consistent with a single power law given by a flux at 150 MHz of 382 ± 5.4 Jy and a spectral index of –0.76 ± 0.01. This accuracy represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements in this band and is limited by the uncertainty in the catalog measurements used to estimate the absolute flux scale. The simplicity and improved accuracy of Pictor A's spectrum make it an excellent calibrator in a band important for experiments seeking to measure 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization.

  14. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - II. Primary beam model and direction-dependent calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; Ghosh, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brentjens, M. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Iliev, I. T.; Mevius, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C 295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of ≤10 per cent on the predicted levels of leakage of ˜1 per cent within the field of view, I.e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to 10-3 of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam model would ensure that the leakage is well below the expected EoR signal in almost the whole instrumental k-space of the cylindrical power spectrum. We have also shown here that direction-dependent calibration can remove instrumentally polarized compact sources, given an unpolarized sky model, very close to the local noise level.

  15. Upper Limits on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization Power Spectrum from One Night with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A. H.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Asad, K. M. B.; Hatef, M.; Jelić, V.; Mevius, M.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Vedantham, H.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brouw, W. N.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Kakiichi, K.; Majumdar, S.; Mellema, G.; Silva, M. B.; Schaye, J.; Vrbanec, D.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first limits on the Epoch of Reionization 21 cm H I power spectra, in the redshift range z = 7.9-10.6, using the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) High-Band Antenna (HBA). In total, 13.0 hr of data were used from observations centered on the North Celestial Pole. After subtraction of the sky model and the noise bias, we detect a non-zero {{{Δ }}}{{I}}2={(56+/- 13{mK})}2 (1-σ) excess variance and a best 2-σ upper limit of {{{Δ }}}212< {(79.6{mK})}2 at k = 0.053 h cMpc-1 in the range z = 9.6-10.6. The excess variance decreases when optimizing the smoothness of the direction- and frequency-dependent gain calibration, and with increasing the completeness of the sky model. It is likely caused by (I) residual side-lobe noise on calibration baselines, (II) leverage due to nonlinear effects, (III) noise and ionosphere-induced gain errors, or a combination thereof. Further analyses of the excess variance will be discussed in forthcoming publications.

  16. Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Using the OMNI data for period 1976-2000, we investigate the temporal profiles of 20 plasma and field parameters in the disturbed large-scale types of solar wind (SW): corotating interaction regions (CIR), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) (both magnetic cloud (MC) and Ejecta), and Sheath as well as the interplanetary shock (IS). To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: rescaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide. As the analyzed SW types can interact with each other and change parameters as a result of such interaction, we investigate separately eights sequences of SW types: (1) CIR, (2) IS/CIR, (3) Ejecta, (4) Sheath/Ejecta, (5) IS/Sheath/Ejecta, (6) MC, (7) Sheath/MC, and (8) IS/Sheath/MC. The main conclusion is that the behavior of parameters in Sheath and in CIR are very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both the high-speed stream (HSS) and the fast ICME play a role of pistons which push the plasma located ahead them. The increase of speed in HSS and ICME leads at first to formation of compression regions (CIR and Sheath, respectively) and then to IS. The occurrence of compression regions and IS increases the probability of growth of magnetospheric activity.

  17. An Improved Statistical Point-source Foreground Model for the Epoch of Reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, S. G.; Trott, C. M.; Jordan, C. H. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia)

    2017-08-10

    We present a sophisticated statistical point-source foreground model for low-frequency radio Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiments using the 21 cm neutral hydrogen emission line. Motivated by our understanding of the low-frequency radio sky, we enhance the realism of two model components compared with existing models: the source count distributions as a function of flux density and spatial position (source clustering), extending current formalisms for the foreground covariance of 2D power-spectral modes in 21 cm EoR experiments. The former we generalize to an arbitrarily broken power law, and the latter to an arbitrary isotropically correlated field. This paper presents expressions for the modified covariance under these extensions, and shows that for a more realistic source spatial distribution, extra covariance arises in the EoR window that was previously unaccounted for. Failure to include this contribution can yield bias in the final power-spectrum and under-estimate uncertainties, potentially leading to a false detection of signal. The extent of this effect is uncertain, owing to ignorance of physical model parameters, but we show that it is dependent on the relative abundance of faint sources, to the effect that our extension will become more important for future deep surveys. Finally, we show that under some parameter choices, ignoring source clustering can lead to false detections on large scales, due to both the induced bias and an artificial reduction in the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  18. Diverse properties of interstellar medium embedding gamma-ray bursts at the epoch of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Renyue; Kimm, Taysun

    2014-01-01

    Analysis is performed on ultra-high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to quantify, for the first time, the physical environment of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the epoch of reionization. We find that, on parsec scales, 13% of GRBs remain in high-density (≥10 4 cm –3 ) low-temperature star-forming regions, whereas 87% of GRBs occur in low-density (∼10 –2.5 cm –3 ) high-temperature regions heated by supernovae. More importantly, the spectral properties of GRB afterglows, such as the neutral hydrogen column density, total hydrogen column density, dust column density, gas temperature, and metallicity of intervening absorbers, vary strongly from sight line to sight line. Although our model explains extant limited observationally inferred values with respect to circumburst density, metallicity, column density, and dust properties, a substantially larger sample of high-z GRB afterglows would be required to facilitate a statistically solid test of the model. Our findings indicate that any attempt to infer the physical properties (such as metallicity) of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy based on a very small number (usually one) of sight lines would be precarious. Utilizing high-z GRBs to probe the ISM and intergalactic medium should be undertaken properly, taking into consideration the physical diversities of the ISM.

  19. An Improved Statistical Point-source Foreground Model for the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Trott, C. M.; Jordan, C. H.

    2017-08-01

    We present a sophisticated statistical point-source foreground model for low-frequency radio Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiments using the 21 cm neutral hydrogen emission line. Motivated by our understanding of the low-frequency radio sky, we enhance the realism of two model components compared with existing models: the source count distributions as a function of flux density and spatial position (source clustering), extending current formalisms for the foreground covariance of 2D power-spectral modes in 21 cm EoR experiments. The former we generalize to an arbitrarily broken power law, and the latter to an arbitrary isotropically correlated field. This paper presents expressions for the modified covariance under these extensions, and shows that for a more realistic source spatial distribution, extra covariance arises in the EoR window that was previously unaccounted for. Failure to include this contribution can yield bias in the final power-spectrum and under-estimate uncertainties, potentially leading to a false detection of signal. The extent of this effect is uncertain, owing to ignorance of physical model parameters, but we show that it is dependent on the relative abundance of faint sources, to the effect that our extension will become more important for future deep surveys. Finally, we show that under some parameter choices, ignoring source clustering can lead to false detections on large scales, due to both the induced bias and an artificial reduction in the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  20. Study of redshifted H I from the epoch of reionization with drift scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sourabh; Sethi, Shiv K.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N. Udaya; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Deshpande, Avinash A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Bernardi, Gianni [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ85281 (United States); Briggs, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Cappallo, Roger J.; Corey, Brian E.; Goeke, Robert F. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, David [Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Kasper, Justin C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, Bryna J. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hewitt, Jacqueline N. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie [Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, David L., E-mail: sourabh@rri.res.in, E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); and others

    2014-09-20

    Detection of the epoch of reionization (EoR) in the redshifted 21 cm line is a challenging task. Here, we formulate the detection of the EoR signal using the drift scan strategy. This method potentially has better instrumental stability compared to the case where a single patch of sky is tracked. We demonstrate that the correlation time between measured visibilities could extend up to 1-2 hr for an interferometer array such as the Murchison Widefield Array, which has a wide primary beam. We estimate the EoR power based on a cross-correlation of visibilities over time and show that the drift scan strategy is capable of detecting the EoR signal with a signal to noise that is comparable/better compared to the tracking case. We also estimate the visibility correlation for a set of bright point sources and argue that the statistical inhomogeneity of bright point sources might allow their separation from the EoR signal.

  1. A New Method for Single-Epoch Ambiguity Resolution with Indoor Pseudolite Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Jinling; Qiu, Weining

    2017-04-21

    Ambiguity resolution (AR) is crucial for high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. Due to the existing characteristics of the pseudolite positioning system, such as the geometry structure of the stationary pseudolite which is consistently invariant, the indoor signal is easy to interrupt and the first order linear truncation error cannot be ignored, and a new AR method based on the idea of the ambiguity function method (AFM) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a single-epoch and nonlinear method that is especially well-suited for indoor pseudolite positioning. Considering the very low computational efficiency of conventional AFM, we adopt an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to search for the best solution in the coordinate domain, and variances of a least squares adjustment is conducted to ensure the reliability of the solving ambiguity. Several experiments, including static and kinematic tests, are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed AR method. Numerical results show that the IPSO significantly improved the computational efficiency of AFM and has a more elaborate search ability compared to the conventional grid searching method. For the indoor pseudolite system, which had an initial approximate coordinate precision better than 0.2 m, the AFM exhibited good performances in both static and kinematic tests. With the corrected ambiguity gained from our proposed method, indoor pseudolite positioning can achieve centimeter-level precision using a low-cost single-frequency software receiver.

  2. Methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité García Díaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the neocolonial republic emerges in Sancti Spiritus a very significative magazine of artistic, literary and scientific sketch: Hero, founded by Jacinto Gomer Fernández-Morera and Anastacio Fernández-Morera del Castillo, it first appeared on December 20th 1907. This issue constitutes a vivid reflect of the commercial, literary, cultural, scientific and historic panorama and above all, of the life of the middle and high class in Sancti Spiritus at the beginning of the XX century. The need to divulge the advantage the texts of Hero constitute for the high school and university students, also to humanistic profile graduates and others, such as investigators, evidenced the need to carry out an investigation that pursued such purposes. That’s why the methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine (1907-1908 takes place, composed by 38 publications, departing from the fundamental theorizations about the jotted issue of the presentation of the methodological proposal on behalf of updating these publication texts for its potential readers.

  3. Self-shielding of hydrogen in the IGM during the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardin, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Girish; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate self-shielding of intergalactic hydrogen against ionizing radiation in radiative transfer simulations of cosmic reionization carefully calibrated with Lyα forest data. While self-shielded regions manifest as Lyman-limit systems in the post-reionization Universe, here we focus on their evolution during reionization (redshifts z = 6-10). At these redshifts, the spatial distribution of hydrogen-ionizing radiation is highly inhomogeneous, and some regions of the Universe are still neutral. After masking the neutral regions and ionizing sources in the simulation, we find that the hydrogen photoionization rate depends on the local hydrogen density in a manner very similar to that in the post-reionization Universe. The characteristic physical hydrogen density above which self-shielding becomes important at these redshifts is about nH ˜ 3 × 10-3 cm-3, or ˜20 times the mean hydrogen density, reflecting the fact that during reionization photoionization rates are typically low enough that the filaments in the cosmic web are often self-shielded. The value of the typical self-shielding density decreases by a factor of 3 between redshifts z = 3 and 10, and follows the evolution of the average photoionization rate in ionized regions in a simple fashion. We provide a simple parameterization of the photoionization rate as a function of density in self-shielded regions during the epoch of reionization.

  4. Superposed epoch analysis applied to large-amplitude travelling convection vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for large-amplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs. The restriction to large amplitudes (>100 nT was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients 'geoeffective', which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period.Key words. Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric Physics (current system

  5. IslandFAST: A Semi-numerical Tool for Simulating the Late Epoch of Reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yue, Bin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We present the algorithm and main results of our semi-numerical simulation, islandFAST, which was developed from 21cmFAST and designed for the late stage of reionization. The islandFAST simulation predicts the evolution and size distribution of the large-scale underdense neutral regions (neutral islands), and we find that the late Epoch of Reionization proceeds very fast, showing a characteristic scale of the neutral islands at each redshift. Using islandFAST, we compare the impact of two types of absorption systems, i.e., the large-scale underdense neutral islands versus small-scale overdense absorbers, in regulating the reionization process. The neutral islands dominate the morphology of the ionization field, while the small-scale absorbers dominate the mean-free path of ionizing photons, and also delay and prolong the reionization process. With our semi-numerical simulation, the evolution of the ionizing background can be derived self-consistently given a model for the small absorbers. The hydrogen ionization rate of the ionizing background is reduced by an order of magnitude in the presence of dense absorbers.

  6. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghangho Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS. Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.

  7. ARECIBO MULTI-EPOCH H I ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS AGAINST PULSARS: TINY-SCALE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanimirovic, S.; Weisberg, J. M.; Pei, Z.; Tuttle, K.; Green, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from multi-epoch neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption observations of six bright pulsars with the Arecibo telescope. Moving through the interstellar medium (ISM) with transverse velocities of 10-150 AU yr -1 , these pulsars have swept across 1-200 AU over the course of our experiment, allowing us to probe the existence and properties of the tiny-scale atomic structure (TSAS) in the cold neutral medium (CNM). While most of the observed pulsars show no significant change in their H I absorption spectra, we have identified at least two clear TSAS-induced opacity variations in the direction of B1929+10. These observations require strong spatial inhomogeneities in either the TSAS clouds' physical properties themselves or else in the clouds' galactic distribution. While TSAS is occasionally detected on spatial scales down to 10 AU, it is too rare to be characterized by a spectrum of turbulent CNM fluctuations on scales of 10 1 -10 3 AU, as previously suggested by some work. In the direction of B1929+10, an apparent correlation between TSAS and interstellar clouds inside the warm Local Bubble (LB) indicates that TSAS may be tracing the fragmentation of the LB wall via hydrodynamic instabilities. While similar fragmentation events occur frequently throughout the ISM, the warm medium surrounding these cold cloudlets induces a natural selection effect wherein small TSAS clouds evaporate quickly and are rare, while large clouds survive longer and become a general property of the ISM.

  8. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  9. The mean free path of hydrogen ionizing photons during the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop

    2018-05-01

    We use the Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations to study the mean free path (MFP) for hydrogen ionizing photons during the epoch of reionization. We directly measure the MFP by averaging the distance 1 Ry photons travel before reaching an optical depth of unity along random lines-of-sight. During reionization the free paths tend to end in neutral gas with densities near the cosmic mean, while after reionization the end points tend to be overdense but highly ionized. Despite the increasing importance of discrete, over-dense systems, the cumulative contribution of systems with NHI ≲ 1016.5 cm-2 suffices to drive the MFP at z ≈ 6, while at earlier times higher column densities are more important. After reionization the typical size of HI systems is close to the local Jeans length, but during reionization it is much larger. The mean free path for photons originating close to galaxies, {MFP_{gal}}, is much smaller than the cosmic MFP. After reionization this enhancement can remain significant up to starting distances of ˜1 comoving Mpc. During reionization, however, {MFP_{gal}} for distances ˜102 - 103 comoving kpc typically exceeds the cosmic MFP. These findings have important consequences for models that interpret the intergalactic MFP as the distance escaped ionizing photons can travel from galaxies before being absorbed and may cause them to under-estimate the required escape fraction from galaxies, and/or the required emissivity of ionizing photons after reionization.

  10. New Finds of Painted Ceramics of the Epoch of the Abkhazian Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armarchuk Ekaterina A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The painted polished red-clay ceramic items of the 8th-10th centuries, found on the Anakopia and other sites of Northern Abkhazia and the adjoining district of the city of Sochi are considered in the article. These are small and medium sized single-handled narrow-necked jugs. The painting is made in dark brown paint. The ornament consists mainly of straight and wavy lines; hatching in the form of oblique grids, braids and patterns of specks occur. Taking into account the new finds made during the 2007-2008 excavations of the necropolis on the Sakharnaya Golovka Mountain and of the church near Veseloye village, the analysis of painted polished ware of the Abkhazian Kingdom epoch makes it possible to determine its territorial and chronological distribution limits. The area of this pottery covers the Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Mzymta river to New Athos. Based on the results of the 1950-1980s excavations, it has been dated to the 8th-10th centuries; however, the new materials allow restricting the interval to the 9th-10th centuries. The differences in the vessels manufacturing technology indicate the presence of at least two production centers. The small painted burnished jars discovered in Christian graves suggest that they had been used to store incense or chrism.

  11. FIVE NEW TRANSIT EPOCHS OF THE EXOPLANET OGLE-TR-111b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P.; Lopez-Morales, M.; DIaz, R. F.; Chambers, J.; Minniti, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report five new transit epochs of the extrasolar planet OGLE-TR-111b, observed in the v-HIGH and Bessell I bands with the FORS1 and FORS2 at the ESO Very Large Telescope between 2008 April and May. The new transits have been combined with all previously published transit data for this planet to provide a new transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of its orbit. We find no TTVs with amplitudes larger than 1.5 minutes over a four-year observation time baseline, in agreement with the recent result by Adams et al. Dynamical simulations fully exclude the presence of additional planets in the system with masses greater than 1.3, 0.4, and 0.5 M + at the 3:2, 1:2, and 2:1 resonances, respectively. We also place an upper limit of about 30 M + on the mass of potential second planets in the region between the 3:2 and 1:2 mean-motion resonances.

  12. The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3D Simulations Meet Multi-epoch Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-10

    High-resolution observations of young stellar object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper, we report results of 3D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions, which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a “frothy” emission structure that arises from the presence of the Nonlinear Thin Shell Instability along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non-equilibrium cooling method to produce synthetic emission maps in H α and [S ii]. These are directly compared to multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope observations of Herbig–Haro jets. We find excellent agreement between features seen in the simulations and the observations in terms of both proper motion and morphologies. Thus we conclude that YSO jets may be dominated by heterogeneous structures and that interactions between these structures and the shocks they produce can account for many details of YSO jet evolution.

  13. Luminescence in Primordial Helium Lines at the Pre-recombination Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovich, V. K.; Grachev, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of luminescent subordinate He I lines by the absorption of radiation from a source in lines of the main He I series in an expanding Universe is considered. A burst of radiation in continuum is assumed to occur at some instant of time corresponding to redshift z 0. This radiation is partially absorbed at different z < z 0 in lines of the main He I series (different pumping channels) and then is partially converted into radiation in subordinate lines. If ν ik is the laboratory transition frequency of some subordinate line emerging at some z, then at the present epoch its frequency will be ν = ν ik /(1 + z). The quantum yield, i.e., the number of photons emitted in the subordinate line per initial excited atom, has been calculated for different z (and, consequently, for different ν). Several pumping channels have been considered. We show that the luminescent lines can be both emission and absorption ones; the same line can be an emission one for one of the pumping channels and an absorption one for another. For example, the 1s2s-1s2p (1S-1P*) line is an emission one for the 1s2-1s2p pumping and an absorption one for the 1s2-1s3p pumping. We show that in the frequency range 30-80 GHz the total quantum yield for the first and second of the above channels can reach +50 and -50%, respectively.

  14. Simultaneously constraining the astrophysics of reionisation and the epoch of heating with 21CMMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    We extend our MCMC sampler of 3D EoR simulations, 21CMMC, to perform parameter estimation directly on light-cones of the cosmic 21cm signal. This brings theoretical analysis one step closer to matching the expected 21-cm signal from next generation interferometers like HERA and the SKA. Using the light-cone version of 21CMMC, we quantify biases in the recovered astrophysical parameters obtained from the 21cm power spectrum when using the co-eval approximation to fit a mock 3D light-cone observation. While ignoring the light-cone effect does not bias the parameters under most assumptions, it can still underestimate their uncertainties. However, significant biases (~few - 10 σ) are possible if all of the following conditions are met: (i) foreground removal is very efficient, allowing large physical scales (k ~ 0.1 Mpc-1) to be used in the analysis; (ii) theoretical modelling is accurate to ~10 per cent in the power spectrum amplitude; and (iii) the 21cm signal evolves rapidly (i.e. the epochs of reionisation and heating overlap significantly

  15. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The Martian polar caps and layered terrain presumably evolves by the deposition and removal of small amounts of water and dust each year, the current cap attributes therefore represent the incremental transport during a single year as integrated over long periods of time. The role was studied of condensation and sublimation of water ice in this process by examining the seasonal water cycle during the last 10(exp 7) yr. In the model, axial obliquity, eccentricity, and L sub s of perihelion vary according to dynamical models. At each epoch, the seasonal variations in temperature are calculated at the two poles, keeping track of the seasonal CO2 cap and the summertime sublimation of water vapor into the atmosphere; net exchange of water between the two caps is calculated based on the difference in the summertime sublimation between the two caps (or on the sublimation from one cap if the other is covered with CO2 frost all year). Results from the model can help to explain (1) the apparent inconsistency between the timescales inferred for layer formation and the much older crater retention age of the cap and (2) the difference in sizes of the two residual caps, with the south being smaller than the north.

  16. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon

    2015-01-01

    A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299

  17. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Jorge A; Haydel, K Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan; Haskell, William L; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). 268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p algorithms (all p algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  18. Petrology of Oligocene Ghaleh Yaghmesh granitoids in the west of Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Fazeli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The generation and evolution of granitic magmas has been a hot debated subject among petrologists. The diversity of their origin has led different authors to propose that these rocks are not simple in their origin and might be generated in more ways than one. In the past several decades, many petrologists used a variety characteristics to subdivide the granitoid rocks. Such proposals have of course been forward by Chappell and White (1974 for the granitoids of Eastern Australia. They divided these granitoids into two distinct types (I-and S-type granitic rocks, which they interpreted as being derived from igneous and sedimentary source rocks, respectively. The Ghaleh Yaghmesh plutonic massif is located in the most western part of Yazd and it forms a part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt. The belt is response to subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath central Iran (Alavi, 1994. During Cretaceous-Late Tertiary, numerous granitoid bodies were exposed in this belt, many of which have been studied by a number of workers (e.g. Sepahi and Malvandi, 2008; Honarmand et al., 2013; Kananian et al., 2014. The massif composed of diorite, quartzdiorite, tonalite, granodiorite and granite (Oligocene intruded into the Eocene volcanic and pyroclastic rocks including rhyolite, rhyodacite, andesitic, rhyodacitic and rhyolitic tuff. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the petrography, and whole rock geochemistry of the Ghaleh Yaghmish granitoids as well as discussing their petrogenetic and tectonic significance in the light of the regional geological framework of the study area. Materials and methods After field studies and sampling, fifty thin sections were prepared for petrographic study. Twenty-one fresh samples were selected for XRF chemical analysis performed at the Southern Methodist University (Dallas - USA. Thin polished sections of granodiorite rocks were prepared for composition determining and structure formula

  19. Was the Sun especially active at the end of the late glacial epoch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Liliya

    In their pioneering work, the geophysicists A. Brekke and A. Egeland (1983) collected beliefs of different peoples, associated with northern lights. Our analyses of this collection show that these beliefs are mainly related to the mythological idea of ``abnormal'' deads (dead, childless old maids in Finnish beliefs; killed people; spirits dangerous to children). We find similar motifs in Slavic fairy tales about the ``Thrice-Nine Land,'' regarded as the other world in folkloric studies (in the Land where mobile and agitated warlike girls live, whose Head Girl is characterized by the words ``white snow, pretty light, the prettiest in the World,'' but whose name ``Mariya Morevna'' refers to the word ``mort''; where a river flows with its banks covered by human bones; where the witch Baba-Yaga dwells, being extremely dangerous for children). Moreover, it can be noted that similar narrative fabulous myths deal with the concept of auroral oval northern lights, since some specific features of the natural auroral forms are mentioned there, with their particular spatial orientations (to the North or West). This resembles the manner in which Ancient Greek myths describe the real properties of the heavenly phenomena in a mythological language. It is interesting that myths on the high-latitude northern lights spread even to the South of Europe (and, might be, to India and Iran). This fact can be understood in view of the following. It has been established that, during the late glacial epoch, the environmental and cultural conditions were similar over the area from Pyrenean to the Ural Mountains; the pattern of hunters' settlements outlined the glacial sheet from the outside. Relics of the hunters' beliefs can now be found in Arctic, where the environment and lifestyle remain nearly unchanged. The ethnographer Yu.B. Simchenko (1976) has reconstructed the most archaic Arctic myths. According to them, the World of dead is associated with the world of ice governed by the ``Ice

  20. Imprints of quasar duty cycle on the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Florian; Eames, Evan; Hottier, Clément; Semelin, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    Quasars contribute to the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) primarily through their ionizing UV and X-ray emission. However, their radio continuum and Lyman-band emission also regulates the 21-cm signal in their direct environment, potentially leaving the imprint of their duty cycle. We develop a model for the radio and UV luminosity functions of quasars from the EoR, and constrain it using recent observations. Our model is consistent with the recent discovery of the quasar J1342+0928 at redshift ˜7.5, and also predicts only a few quasars suitable for 21-cm forest observations (˜10 mJy) in the sky. We exhibit a new effect on the 21-cm signal observed against the CMB: a radio-loud quasar can leave the imprint of its duty cycle on the 21-cm tomography. We apply this effect in a cosmological simulation and conclude that the effect of typical radio-loud quasars is most likely negligible in an SKA field of view. For a ˜10mJy quasar the effect is stronger though hardly observable at SKA resolution. Then we study the contribution of the lyman band (Ly-α to Ly-β) emission of quasars to the Wouthuisen-Field coupling. The collective effect of quasars on the 21-cm power spectrum is larger than the thermal noise at low k, though featureless. However, a distinctive pattern around the brightest quasars in an SKA field of view may be observable in the tomography, encoding the duration of their duty cycle. This pattern has a high signal-to-noise ratio for the brightest quasar in a typical SKA shallow survey.

  1. Chimenea and other tools: Automated imaging of multi-epoch radio-synthesis data with CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, T. D.; Anderson, G. E.

    2015-11-01

    In preparing the way for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders, there is a pressing need to begin probing the transient sky in a fully robotic fashion using the current generation of radio telescopes. Effective exploitation of such surveys requires a largely automated data-reduction process. This paper introduces an end-to-end automated reduction pipeline, AMIsurvey, used for calibrating and imaging data from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array. AMIsurvey makes use of several component libraries which have been packaged separately for open-source release. The most scientifically significant of these is chimenea, which implements a telescope-agnostic algorithm for automated imaging of pre-calibrated multi-epoch radio-synthesis data, of the sort typically acquired for transient surveys or follow-up. The algorithm aims to improve upon standard imaging pipelines by utilizing iterative RMS-estimation and automated source-detection to avoid so called 'Clean-bias', and makes use of CASA subroutines for the underlying image-synthesis operations. At a lower level, AMIsurvey relies upon two libraries, drive-ami and drive-casa, built to allow use of mature radio-astronomy software packages from within Python scripts. While targeted at automated imaging, the drive-casa interface can also be used to automate interaction with any of the CASA subroutines from a generic Python process. Additionally, these packages may be of wider technical interest beyond radio-astronomy, since they demonstrate use of the Python library pexpect to emulate terminal interaction with an external process. This approach allows for rapid development of a Python interface to any legacy or externally-maintained pipeline which accepts command-line input, without requiring alterations to the original code.

  2. New probe of magnetic fields in the prereionization epoch. I. Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Oklopčić, Antonija; Gluscevic, Vera; Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a method of measuring extremely weak magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium prior to and during the epoch of cosmic reionization. The method utilizes the Larmor precession of spin-polarized neutral hydrogen in the triplet state of the hyperfine transition. This precession leads to a systematic change in the brightness temperature fluctuations of the 21-cm line from the high-redshift universe, and thus the statistics of these fluctuations encode information about the magnetic field the atoms are immersed in. The method is most suited to probing fields that are coherent on large scales; in this paper, we consider a homogenous magnetic field over the scale of the 21-cm fluctuations. Due to the long lifetime of the triplet state of the 21-cm transition, this technique is naturally sensitive to extremely weak field strengths, of order 10-19 G at a reference redshift of ˜20 (or 10-21 G if scaled to the present day). Therefore, this might open up the possibility of probing primordial magnetic fields just prior to reionization. If the magnetic fields are much stronger, it is still possible to use this method to infer their direction, and place a lower limit on their strength. In this paper (Paper I in a series on this effect), we perform detailed calculations of the microphysics behind this effect, and take into account all the processes that affect the hyperfine transition, including radiative decays, collisions, and optical pumping by Lyman-α photons. We conclude with an analytic formula for the brightness temperature of linear-regime fluctuations in the presence of a magnetic field, and discuss its limiting behavior for weak and strong fields.

  3. Analysing the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization with artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Hayato; Semelin, Benoit

    2017-07-01

    The 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization should be observed within the next decade. While a simple statistical detection is expected with Square Kilometre Array (SKA) pathfinders, the SKA will hopefully produce a full 3D mapping of the signal. To extract from the observed data constraints on the parameters describing the underlying astrophysical processes, inversion methods must be developed. For example, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method has been successfully applied. Here, we test another possible inversion method: artificial neural networks (ANNs). We produce a training set that consists of 70 individual samples. Each sample is made of the 21 cm power spectrum at different redshifts produced with the 21cmFast code plus the value of three parameters used in the seminumerical simulations that describe astrophysical processes. Using this set, we train the network to minimize the error between the parameter values it produces as an output and the true values. We explore the impact of the architecture of the network on the quality of the training. Then we test the trained network on the new set of 54 test samples with different values of the parameters. We find that the quality of the parameter reconstruction depends on the sensitivity of the power spectrum to the different parameters at a given redshift, that including thermal noise and sample variance decreases the quality of the reconstruction and that using the power spectrum at several redshifts as an input to the ANN improves the quality of the reconstruction. We conclude that ANNs are a viable inversion method whose main strength is that they require a sparse exploration of the parameter space and thus should be usable with full numerical simulations.

  4. MULTI-EPOCH OBSERVATIONS OF HD 69830: HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY AND LIMITS TO VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beichman, C. A.; Tanner, A. M.; Bryden, G.; Akeson, R. L.; Ciardi, D. R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boden, A. F. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, S. E.; Salyk, C. [University of Texas, Astronomy Department, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wyatt, M. C., E-mail: chas@pop.jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10

    The main-sequence solar-type star HD 69830 has an unusually large amount of dusty debris orbiting close to three planets found via the radial velocity technique. In order to explore the dynamical interaction between the dust and planets, we have performed multi-epoch photometry and spectroscopy of the system over several orbits of the outer dust. We find no evidence for changes in either the dust amount or its composition, with upper limits of 5%-7% (1{sigma} per spectral element) on the variability of the dust spectrum over 1 year, 3.3% (1{sigma}) on the broadband disk emission over 4 years, and 33% (1{sigma}) on the broadband disk emission over 24 years. Detailed modeling of the spectrum of the emitting dust indicates that the dust is located outside of the orbits of the three planets and has a composition similar to main-belt, C-type asteroids in our solar system. Additionally, we find no evidence for a wide variety of gas species associated with the dust. Our new higher signal-to-noise spectra do not confirm our previously claimed detection of H{sub 2}O ice leading to a firm conclusion that the debris can be associated with the break-up of one or more C-type asteroids formed in the dry, inner regions of the protoplanetary disk of the HD 69830 system. The modeling of the spectral energy distribution and high spatial resolution observations in the mid-infrared are consistent with a {approx}1 AU location for the emitting material.

  5. Multi-band, multi-epoch observations of the transiting warm Jupiter WASP-80b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Kawashima, Yui; Ikoma, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Kenji [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Narita, Norio; Nishiyama, Shogo; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Nagayama, Shogo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onitsuka, Masahiro; Baba, Haruka; Ryu, Tsuguru [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa; Onozato, Hiroki [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki; Kawauchi, Kiyoe [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hori, Yasunori [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: afukui@oao.nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); and others

    2014-08-01

    WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K/early-M dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c} bands) to near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and K{sub s} bands) wavelengths. We observe 5 primary transits, each in 3 or 4 different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with results from previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar abundance and thick cloud atmospheric models at a 1.7σ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in the optical region compared to the NIR region at the 2.9σ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having a discrepancy level of 1.0σ. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43 day long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation in the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.

  6. IMAGING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION: LIMITATIONS FROM FOREGROUND CONFUSION AND IMAGING ALGORITHMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, Harish; Udaya Shankar, N.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Tomography of redshifted 21 cm transition from neutral hydrogen using Fourier synthesis telescopes is a promising tool to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Limiting the confusion from Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds is critical to the success of these telescopes. The instrumental response or the point-spread function (PSF) of such telescopes is inherently three dimensional with frequency mapping to the line-of-sight (LOS) distance. EoR signals will necessarily have to be detected in data where continuum confusion persists; therefore, it is important that the PSF has acceptable frequency structure so that the residual foreground does not confuse the EoR signature. This paper aims to understand the three-dimensional PSF and foreground contamination in the same framework. We develop a formalism to estimate the foreground contamination along frequency, or equivalently LOS dimension, and establish a relationship between foreground contamination in the image plane and visibility weights on the Fourier plane. We identify two dominant sources of LOS foreground contamination—'PSF contamination' and 'gridding contamination'. We show that PSF contamination is localized in LOS wavenumber space, beyond which there potentially exists an 'EoR window' with negligible foreground contamination where we may focus our efforts to detect EoR. PSF contamination in this window may be substantially reduced by judicious choice of a frequency window function. Gridding and imaging algorithms create additional gridding contamination and we propose a new imaging algorithm using the Chirp Z Transform that significantly reduces this contamination. Finally, we demonstrate the analytical relationships and the merit of the new imaging algorithm for the case of imaging with the Murchison Widefield Array.

  7. Spectroscopic confirmation of an ultra-faint galaxy at the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Trenti, Michele; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Lemaux, Brian C.; He, Julie; Bernard, Stephanie R.; Abramson, Louis E.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Morishita, Takahiro; Pentericci, Laura; Schrabback, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Within one billion years of the Big Bang, intergalactic hydrogen was ionized by sources emitting ultraviolet and higher energy photons. This was the final phenomenon to globally affect all the baryons (visible matter) in the Universe. It is referred to as cosmic reionization and is an integral component of cosmology. It is broadly expected that intrinsically faint galaxies were the primary ionizing sources due to their abundance in this epoch1,2. However, at the highest redshifts (z > 7.5 lookback time 13.1 Gyr), all galaxies with spectroscopic confirmations to date are intrinsically bright and, therefore, not necessarily representative of the general population3. Here, we report the unequivocal spectroscopic detection of a low luminosity galaxy at z > 7.5. We detected the Lyman-α emission line at ˜10,504 Å in two separate observations with MOSFIRE4 on the Keck I Telescope and independently with the Hubble Space Telescope's slitless grism spectrograph, implying a source redshift of z = 7.640 ± 0.001. The galaxy is gravitationally magnified by the massive galaxy cluster MACS J1423.8+2404 (z = 0.545), with an estimated intrinsic luminosity of MAB = -19.6 ± 0.2 mag and a stellar mass of M⊙=3.0-0.8+1.5×108 solar masses. Both are an order of magnitude lower than the four other Lyman-α emitters currently known at z > 7.5, making it probably the most distant representative source of reionization found to date.

  8. Epoch of reionization 21 cm forecasting from MCMC-constrained semi-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sultan; Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Santos, Mario G.

    2017-06-01

    The recent low value of Planck Collaboration XLVII integrated optical depth to Thomson scattering suggests that the reionization occurred fairly suddenly, disfavouring extended reionization scenarios. This will have a significant impact on the 21 cm power spectrum. Using a semi-numerical framework, we improve our model from instantaneous to include time-integrated ionization and recombination effects, and find that this leads to more sudden reionization. It also yields larger H II bubbles that lead to an order of magnitude more 21 cm power on large scales, while suppressing the small-scale ionization power. Local fluctuations in the neutral hydrogen density play the dominant role in boosting the 21 cm power spectrum on large scales, while recombinations are subdominant. We use a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to constrain our model to observations of the star formation rate functions at z = 6, 7, 8 from Bouwens et al., the Planck Collaboration XLVII optical depth measurements and the Becker & Bolton ionizing emissivity data at z ˜ 5. We then use this constrained model to perform 21 cm forecasting for Low Frequency Array, Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and Square Kilometre Array in order to determine how well such data can characterize the sources driving reionization. We find that the Mock 21 cm power spectrum alone can somewhat constrain the halo mass dependence of ionizing sources, the photon escape fraction and ionizing amplitude, but combining the Mock 21 cm data with other current observations enables us to separately constrain all these parameters. Our framework illustrates how the future 21 cm data can play a key role in understanding the sources and topology of reionization as observations improve.

  9. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebes, H. A.; Abd Elaal, E. M.; Arafa, T.; Lethy, A.; El Emam, A.; Ghamry, E.; Odah, H.

    2017-06-01

    The present work is a compilation of two tasks within the frame of the project ;Geomagnetic Survey & Detailed Geomagnetic Measurements within the Egyptian Territory; funded by the ;Science and Technology Development Fund agency (STDF);. The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), has conducted a new extensive land geomagnetic survey that covers the whole Egyptian territory. The field measurements have been done at 3212 points along all the asphalted roads, defined tracks, and ill-defined tracks in Egypt; with total length of 11,586 km. In the present work, the measurements cover for the first time new areas as: the southern eastern borders of Egypt including Halayeb and Shlatin, the Quattara depresion in the western desert, and the new roads between Farafra and Baharia oasis. Also marine geomagnetic survey have been applied for the first time in Naser lake. Misallat and Abu-Simble geomagnetic observatories have been used to reduce the field data to the Epoch 2010. During the field measurements, whenever possible, the old stations occupied by the previous observers have been re-occupied to determine the secular variations at these points. The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF) and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF) 2010 is indicated.

  10. THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF SDSS QUASARS FROM MULTI-EPOCH SPECTROSCOPY. II. COLOR VARIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng, E-mail: hxguo@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the optical/ultraviolet (UV) color variations for a sample of 2169 quasars based on multi-epoch spectroscopy in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases seven (DR7) and nine (DR9). To correct the systematic difference between DR7 and DR9 due to the different instrumental setup, we produced a correction spectrum by using a sample of F-stars observed in both DR7 and DR9. The correction spectrum was then applied to quasars when comparing the spectra of DR7 with DR9. In each object, the color variation was explored by comparing the spectral index of the continuum power-law fit on the brightest spectrum with the faintest one, and also by the shape of their difference spectrum. In 1876 quasars with consistent color variations from two methods, we found that most sources (1755, ∼94%) show the bluer-when-brighter (BWB) trend, and the redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend is detected in only 121 objects (∼6%). The common BWB trend is supported by the composite spectrum constructed from bright spectra, which is bluer than that from faint spectra, and also by the blue composite difference spectrum. The correction spectrum is proven to be highly reliable by comparing the composite spectrum from corrected DR9 and original DR7 spectra. Assuming that the optical/UV variability is triggered by fluctuations, the RWB trend can likely be explained if the fluctuations occur first in the outer disk region, and the inner disk region has not yet fully responded when the fluctuations are being propagated inward. In contrast, the common BWB trend implies that the fluctuations likely more often happen first in the inner disk region.

  11. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, Miriam C.; Anthony, P.; Chapin, F. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S.; Frenzel, P.F.; Frolking, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch1,2,3,4. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon5, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47±10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean±standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears7

  12. Persistent near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Jörg; Contreras, Lineth; Bijl, Peter K; Greenwood, David R; Bohaty, Steven M; Schouten, Stefan; Bendle, James A; Röhl, Ursula; Tauxe, Lisa; Raine, J Ian; Huck, Claire E; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jamieson, Stewart S R; Stickley, Catherine E; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2012-08-02

    The warmest global climates of the past 65 million years occurred during the early Eocene epoch (about 55 to 48 million years ago), when the Equator-to-pole temperature gradients were much smaller than today and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were in excess of one thousand parts per million by volume. Recently the early Eocene has received considerable interest because it may provide insight into the response of Earth's climate and biosphere to the high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that are expected in the near future as a consequence of unabated anthropogenic carbon emissions. Climatic conditions of the early Eocene 'greenhouse world', however, are poorly constrained in critical regions, particularly Antarctica. Here we present a well-dated record of early Eocene climate on Antarctica from an ocean sediment core recovered off the Wilkes Land coast of East Antarctica. The information from biotic climate proxies (pollen and spores) and independent organic geochemical climate proxies (indices based on branched tetraether lipids) yields quantitative, seasonal temperature reconstructions for the early Eocene greenhouse world on Antarctica. We show that the climate in lowland settings along the Wilkes Land coast (at a palaeolatitude of about 70° south) supported the growth of highly diverse, near-tropical forests characterized by mesothermal to megathermal floral elements including palms and Bombacoideae. Notably, winters were extremely mild (warmer than 10 °C) and essentially frost-free despite polar darkness, which provides a critical new constraint for the validation of climate models and for understanding the response of high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems to increased carbon dioxide forcing.

  13. Sub-horizon evolution of cold dark matter perturbations through dark matter-dark energy equivalence epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, O.F.; Martins, D.L.A.; Casarini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. By neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component, we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for 0k = during the cosmic evolution up to a = 100

  14. High-resolution magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of Ethiopian traps-related products in Oligocene sediments from the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Yannick; Rochette, Pierre; Aubry, Marie Pierre; Michard, Annie

    2003-02-01

    Volcanic traps correspond typically to aerial emissions of more than 10 6 km 3 of magma over 1 Myr periods. The potential global impact of such emissions makes the precise correlation of traps with the global magnetobiochronologic timescale an important task. Our study is focused on the Ethiopian traps which correspond to the birth of the Afar hotspot at the triple junction between the Red Sea, Aden Gulf and East-African rift. The Ethiopian traps have a significant acidic component (about 10% of the traps by volume) which enables more efficient stratospheric aerosol diffusion than for the main basaltic eruptions. Furthermore, a magnetostratigraphy is well established for the traps: traps activity began in Chron C11r.2r and ended in Chron C11r.1r or C10r, with well clustered 40Ar/ 39Ar ages at 30±0.5 Ma. Four tephra layers, marked by prominent magnetic susceptibility peaks, occur in Oligocene sections of sites from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 115, drilled in the southern Indian Ocean near Madingley Rise, 2600 km away from the Ethiopian traps. In order to demonstrate that these tephra layers are related to the Ethiopian traps, a high-resolution study of sites 709 and 711 was undertaken, involving magnetostratigraphy and nannofossil stratigraphy, together with isotopic and geochemical characterization of the tephra. Geochemical analyses and isotope ratios of the glass shards indicate the same acid continental source for these tephras which is compatible with the Ethiopian signature. Moreover, Hole 711A provides a reliable magnetostratigraphy for the Oligocene (Chrons 13-9). The tephra layers occur in the interval spanning Chrons C11n.2n-C11n.1n which agrees with the positions of acidic layers in the traps. Calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy confirms the magnetostratigraphic interpretation, with the NP23/24 zonal boundary occurring within the interval containing the tephra layers. Hole 709B supports the results from Hole 711A. Thus, the Ethiopian traps can be

  15. Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Study of Oligocene-Holocene Sedimentary Rocks from Northern Dominican Republic: Evidence of Vertical Axis Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson Sanchez, M.; Kodama, K. P.; Pueyo, E. L.; Soto, R.; Garcia-Senz, J.; Escuder-Viruete, J.; Pastor-Galan, D.

    2017-12-01

    A paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study was conducted in the northern Dominican Republic to detect vertical axis rotations in an active left-lateral, strike slip fault zone. 191 samples from 21 sites were collected from a variety of lithologies including limestones, conglomerates, calcarenites and marls that ranged in age from the Oligocene to the Holocene. The rock magnetic portion of the study focused on the identification of magnetic minerals using coercivity, and Curie temperature (c vs temperature) measurement, modeling of IRM acquisition curves, and thermal demagnetization of IRMs (Lowrie, 19901). In the paleomagnetic portion of the study characteristic remanences (ChRMs) were isolated using thermal demagnetization (19 steps up to 680ºC) and alternating field (AF) demagnetization (17 steps up to 100 mT). In most cases the characteristic remanence is carried by magnetite, with peak unblocking temperatures of 575ºC. This interpretation was supported by c vs. T results that yielded Curie temperatures of 580˚C. In only a few cases (7 samples) higher unblocking temperatures suggested hematite as the magnetic carrier. The modeling of IRM acquisition curves, that shows two coercivity components, further supports the presence of magnetite. 75% of the IRM is carried by the low-coercivity component (100-300 mT, magnetite). 25% of the IRM is carried by the high-coercivity component (1.2-1.6T) characteristic of hematite. The IRM acquisition data was collected from 24 samples (3-4 from each of the lithologies sampled). IRMs were acquired in fields from 4mT to 1T in 23 steps. The paleomagnetic results show a grouping by tectonic blocks with one group having westerly ChRM declinations (268˚-295˚) and a second group having northerly ChRM declinations (357˚-035˚). In most cases, inclinations are intermediate ( 35˚), in agreement with the 24˚-31˚ expected inclinations for Dominican Republic in the period Oligocene to Holocene. The rotation of the tectonic blocks, as

  16. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  17. Did opening of the South China Sea impact development of the Asian Monsoon? Results from Oligocene microfossils, IODP Site U1435, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhanek, Denise K.; Su, Xin; Li, Qianyu; Gregory, Mitch; Warny, Sophie; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-04-01

    Development of the Asian Monsoon is linked to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic, with good evidence for a strong monsoon system by the late Oligocene to early Miocene (e.g., Guo et al., 2002; Clift et al., 2008). However, Licht et al. (2014) suggested the presence of an Asian Monsoon in the late Eocene. Recent scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean and surrounding marginal seas gives us the opportunity to test this hypothesis with newly recovered Paleogene sediment cores. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 to the South China Sea recovered a 30 m section of primarily lower Oligocene nannofossil-rich claystone at Site U1435, located near the northern continent/ocean boundary. A thick sandstone unit devoid of typical marine microfossils underlies the marine claystone. The sandstone is interpreted as a deltaic or restricted marine deposit and is dated to the Eocene based on the presence of organic-walled palynomorphs, suggesting that a hiatus of several million years likely separates the sandstone below from the Oligocene marine claystone. This hiatus is interpreted as the breakup unconformity, with paleodepths in the South China Sea increasing during the Oligocene. Thus, this claystone should record if opening of the South China Sea during the early Oligocene influenced development of the Asian Monsoon. Combined calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy indicates that the 30 m section is primarily early Oligocene in age (~33.5-30 Ma) and was deposited on the middle slope, with paleodepths >500 m. Stable oxygen isotopes from planktonic foraminifers become heavier up-hole, suggestive of cooling/deepening in the region, whereas carbon isotopes record variable conditions with no distinct maxima or minima. Calcareous nannoplankton primarily live in the upper 50 m of the ocean and are sensitive to sea-surface temperature and nutrient conditions, thus making them useful recorders of paleoceanographic

  18. The European ruminants during the "Microbunodon Event" (MP28, Latest Oligocene): impact of climate changes and faunal event on the ruminant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover "Microbunodon Event". This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. "Amphitragulus", Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food.

  19. The European Ruminants during the “Microbunodon Event” (MP28, Latest Oligocene): Impact of Climate Changes and Faunal Event on the Ruminant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover “Microbunodon Event”. This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. “Amphitragulus”, Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food. PMID:25692298

  20. Petrography and stable isotope geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment near sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Conan; Fan, Majie; Jesmok, Greg; Upadhyay, Deepshikha; Tripati, Aradhna

    2018-05-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the southern Texas Gulf Coastal Plains contain abundant continental carbonates that are useful for reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in a region near sea-level. Our field observations and thin section characterizations of the Oligocene and Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas identified three types of pedogenic carbonates, including rhizoliths, carbonate nodules, and platy horizons, and two types of groundwater carbonates, including carbonate-cemented beds and carbonate concretions, with distinctive macromorphologic and micromorphologic features. Based on preservations of authigenic microfabrics and variations of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, we suggest these carbonates experienced minimal diagenesis, and their stable isotopic compositions reflect paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in south Texas. Our Oligocene and Miocene carbonate clumped isotope temperatures (T(Δ47)) are 23-28 °C, slightly less than or comparable to the range of modern mean annual and mean warm season air temperature (21-27 °C) in the study area. These T(Δ47) values do not show any dependency on carbonate-type, or trends through time suggesting that groundwater carbonates were formed at shallow depths. These data could indicate that air temperature in south Texas was relatively stable since the early Oligocene. The reconstructed paleo-surface water δ18O values are similar to modern surface water which could indicate that meteoric water δ18O values also remained stable since the early Oligocene. Mean pedogenic carbonate δ13C values increased - 4.6‰ during the late Miocene, most likely reflecting an expansion of C4 grassland in south Texas. This study provides the first mid- and late Cenozoic continental records of paleoclimate and paleoecology in a low-latitude, near sea-level region.

  1. Ostracods biostratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene carbonate platform in the Northeastern Amazonia coast and its correlation with the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anna Andressa Evangelista; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Oligocene-Miocene ostracods biozones are proposed for the ∼65 m-thick platform carbonate succession exposed in the Northeastern Amazonia coast, Brazil. Previous biostratigraphic studies based on planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and palynomorphs are poorly age constrained and have hindered the correlation with other units of the Atlantic Equatorial margin. Tectonic stability of the Northeastern Amazonia coast during Neogene, associated with reduced riverine inflow and continuous sea level rise, allowed the establishment of lagoon/mangroves, tidal channel and shallow platform settings favoring massive proliferation of benthic ostracods. The recurrence of these depositional systems along of entire Oligocene-Miocene succession contributed mainly for the preservation of typical assemblages of lagoonal ostracods. Among thirty-two ostracods genera identified, the most of them are generally polyhalines associated with a mesohaline genus as Perissocytheridea. Rare ostracods genera typical of offshore zone indicate limited oceanic connection with lagoon. Additionally, the rare presence of Cyprideis indicates a relatively stable salinity degree suggesting change in the lagoon dynamic until estuarine conditions. The ostracods comprise more than 100 species, ranging from Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene with five index species correspondent to a single zone called the Cytherella stainforthi Zone that was subdivided in four sub-biozones: 1) Jugosocythereis pannosa, 2) Quadracythere brachypygaia, 3) Triebelina crumena and 4) Neocaudites macertus. This new zonation was calibrated with the Blow's and Wade's planktonic foraminifers zones (N.3 to N.7 zones corresponding to O6 to M4b of Wade) and with van den Bold's zonation in the Neogene Caribbean region. Ostracod assemblages described here provide an excellent biostragraphic framework for local, intrabasinal and regional correlation for the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Northeastern Amazonia coast and Caribbean regions

  2. Paleosoils and pedogenic calcretes formations in Fray Bentos (Oligocene - early miocene) Raigon (late pliocene and middle pleistocene) and Libertad (early - middle pleistocene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofalo, O.; Morras, H.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Fray Bentos formation is composed by loessic deposits based on paleosoils and pedogenic calcretes (Oligocene - early miocene). In this deposits are tubular and lamellar formations which would have been formed in arid climates.The fluvial origen of Raigon Formation, (late pliocene and middle pleistocene) presents a paleosoil roof which is generated under a subhumid climate.The Libertad Formation during the glacial intervals consisted of loess deposits

  3. NEW EUROPEAN RECORDS AND FIRST EVIDENCE OF EPIDERMAL STRUCTURES OF SLOANEA L. FROM THE ITALIAN OLIGOCENE – REVISED TYPE AND ORIGINAL MATERIAL OF PRINCIPI 1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILLA HABLY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Sloanea elliptica (Andreánszky Z. Kvaèek & Hably and S. peolai (Principi Hably, Tamás & Cioppi  with preserved organic structures were found during the study of Principi’s collection from the Oligocene flora of Santa Giustina. Fossil leaves of Sloanea elliptica have so far been recorded exclusively from the Palaeogene Basin of the Inner Carpathian Region, i.e. from the Lower Oligocene strata of Hungary and Slovenia, whereas S. peolai has been described from a single locality, Chiavon in Italy. Organic structure of S. peolai hitherto has not been recorded. The mass occurrence of Sloanea elliptica in the fossil assemblage of Santa Giustina indicates that its area was much more extensive than it was presumed. It was a characteristic element mainly of Oligocene floras, and even predominated them. This is the first record of the co-occurrence of two Sloanea species described on the basis of leaf remains. During the study 6 types and more than 30 illustrated specimens published in Principi's monograph were revised and identified as S. elliptica.    

  4. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Srivastava

    Full Text Available A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  5. Evidence for ephemeral middle Eocene to early Oligocene Greenland glacial ice and pan-Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna; Darby, Dennis

    2018-03-12

    Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with reduced CO 2 , with a potential threshold for glacial ice stability near ~500 p.p.m.v. The middle Eocene represents the Cenozoic onset of a dynamic cryosphere, with ice in both hemispheres during transient glacials and substantial regional climate heterogeneity. A more stable cryosphere developed at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, and is now threatened by anthropogenic emissions.

  6. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a

  7. Uppermost Cretaceous to middle Oligocene carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy of Southwest Pacific : holes 1121B and 1124C, ODP Leg 181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, K.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.; Shu, I-T.; Lin, Y.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of bulk sediments from ODP Leg 181, holes 1121B and 1124C, in the Southwest Pacific were measured. The isotopic signals are mainly contributed by calcareous nannofossils with minimal diagenetic alteration. A complete section of the late Paleogene age between 60.7 and 57.5 Ma was recovered from Hole 1121B. However, the Paleogene sedimentary sequence of Hole 1124C was truncated by three major hiatuses: late Paleocene to middle Eocene (59-42 Ma), middle Eocene to early Oligocene (40-33.5 Ma), and early Oligocene to middle Oligocene (31.3-27.5 Ma). The middle Eocene shows the most negative δ 18 O values (c. -0.8 permille) compared to the early Paleocene (c. -0.2 to -0.3 permille) and Oligocene (c. 0.6-0.9 permille). The δ 18 O pattern is consistent with previous understanding of the Paleogene paleoclimate: a warmth optimum in the early-middle Eocene followed by a major glaciation in the early Oligocene at c. 34 Ma. The hiatus of 33.5-40 Ma indicates that the Tasmanian Gateway had deepened enough by 33.5 Ma, allowing the breakthrough of cold, bottom water and consequently the formation of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). With the aid of independent biochronological and magnetochronological markers, the Paleocene carbon isotopic profiles were correlated with that of DSDP 577 in the North Pacific. Both sites record the early part of the Paleocene carbon isotopic maximum event, while only Hole 1124C extends back to the early Paleocene and latest Cretaceous. A short hiatus of 60.5-62.5 Ma age may exist. Although the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is not directly recorded, a significant cooling trend across the boundary is evident. The surface water became warmer after 64.5 Ma, and reached a stable warmth level during 64-59 Ma. A major cooling took place during c. 59-57 Ma in the late Paleocene. The temperature gradients between the two sites (ODP 1121 and 1124, paleolatitudes 64 degrees S versus 53 degrees S) are estimated to be c

  8. A Method for Exploring Program and Portfolio Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis: A Case Application to Carrier Strike Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    design for affordability by augmenting Epoch-Era Analysis with aspects of Modern Portfolio Theory . The method is demonstrated through the design of a...introduces a method to conduct portfolio design for affordability by augmenting Epoch-Era Analysis with aspects of Modern Portfolio Theory . The method...through the integration of elements of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) and the SoS design literature. The proposed method is demonstrated in a case study

  9. Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century, scientific book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch describes the recent geomagnetic field on Croatian territory. A review of research in the past decade as well as the original solutions makes the book a document of contribution to geodesy and geomagnetism in Croatia.The book’s introduction gives an overview of two centuries of history and the strategic, security, economic and scientific significance of knowing the geomagnetic field on the Croatian territory. All the activities related to the updating of the geomagnetic information, which took place in the last decade, signified a big step toward the countries where geomagnetic survey is a mature scientific and technical discipline, and a scientific contribution to understanding of the nature of the Earth's magnetism.The declination, inclination and total intensity maps (along with the normal annual changes for the epoch 2009.5 are given in the Appendix. The book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch (ISBN 978-953-293-521-9 is published by the State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia. Beside editor in chief, M. Brkić, the authors are: E. Vujić, D. Šugar, E. Jungwirth, D. Markovinović, M. Rezo, M. Pavasović, O. Bjelotomić, M. Šljivarić, M. Varga and V. Poslončec-Petrić. The book contains 48 pages and 3 maps, and is published in 200 copies. CIP record is available in digital catalogue of the National and University Library in Zagreb under number 861937.

  10. The phenomenon of literature images transformation into musical images and paradigmal images of corresponding epochs (philosophy of history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Masayev

    2014-01-01

    The author comes to the conclusion that the images of the M. A. Sholokhov’s novels «Quit Waves of Don» and «Newly­ploughed virgin soil» and short story «Destiny of the man» having become musical images of the I. I. Dzerzhinsky’s operas «Quit Waves of Don», «Newly­ploughed virgin soil», «Destiny of the man» and «Grigoriy Melekhov», turned into real paradigmal symbols of the epochs of the civil war, collectivization and the Great Patriotic War.

  11. Exhumation of the Cordillera de Domeyko: Implications for Andean retroarc evolution between the Late Cretaceous and the Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Cordilleran-type orogens, exhumation of the thrust belt records the kinematic history of the orogenic system. In the Central Andes, the widest and thickest part of this orogen, several authors have documented the exhumation of the thrust belt in the modern forearc (Chile) and retroarc region (Bolivia and Argentina) showing an overall eastward propagation of deformation since the late Eocene. However, the exhumation of earlier Andean retroarc tectonic events remains poorly documented. In the forearc, the Cordillera de Domeyko and Salar de Atacama basin exhibit multiple pieces of evidence for earlier Andean orogenesis. The goal of this study is to document the thermal record of Late Cretaceous to Eocene retroarc deformation. To this end, this study investigates the cooling history of the easternmost basement uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko. We couple this record with detrital thermochronology from cobbles in the Late Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary units from the Salar de Atacama basin which records the unroofing history of this uplift. We employed a multi-dating approach combining apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology to constrain the timing and amount of exhumation in the early Andean retroarc region. Our results show episodic cooling ca. 90-80, 65-60 and 45-40 Ma. This new data provides a thermochronologic record of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene deformation in the retroarc region as well as of the widely recognized Eocene deformation event. The cooling signal is interpreted to reflect exhumation controlled by uplift and erosion in the retroarc region. These exhumation events reflect episodes of internal deformation, crustal thickening, and roughly similar amounts of local erosion. Exhumation in this region decreased by the late Oligocene; by this time the orogenic front was established to the east, in the Eastern Cordillera.

  12. Geology and geochronology of the Tana Basin, Ethiopia: LIP volcanism, super eruptions and Eocene-Oligocene environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prave, A. R.; Bates, C. R.; Donaldson, C. H.; Toland, H.; Condon, D. J.; Mark, D.; Raub, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    New geological and geochronological data define four episodes of volcanism for the Lake Tana region in the northern Ethiopian portion of the Afro-Arabian Large Igneous Province (LIP): pre-31 Ma flood basalt that yielded a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 34.05 ± 0.54 / 0.56 Ma; thick and extensive felsic ignimbrites and rhyolites (minimum volume of 2- 3 ×103 km3) erupted between 31.108 ± 0.020 / 0.041 Ma and 30.844 ± 0.027 / 0.046 Ma (U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS zircon ages); mafic volcanism bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 28.90 ± 0.12 / 0.14 Ma and 23.75 ± 0.02 / 0.04 Ma; and localised scoraceous basalt with an 40Ar/39Ar age of 0.033 ± 0.005 / 0.005 Ma. The felsic volcanism was the product of super eruptions that created a 60-80 km diameter caldera marked by km-scale caldera-collapse fault blocks and a steep-sided basin filled with a minimum of 180 m of sediment and the present-day Lake Tana. These new data enable mapping, with a finer resolution than previously possible, Afro-Arabian LIP volcanism onto the timeline of the Eocene-Oligocene transition and show that neither the mafic nor silicic volcanism coincides directly with perturbations in the geochemical records that span that transition. Our results reinforce the view that it is not the development of a LIP alone but its rate of effusion that contributes to inducing global-scale environmental change.

  13. An integrated paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy study of the Oligocene flysch from the Dukla nappe, Outer Western Carpathians, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Dániel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dukla Nappe belongs to the Outer Western Carpathians, which suffered considerable shortening due to the convergence and collision of the European and African plates. In this paper we present new paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results from the Polish part of the Dukla Nappe, based on 102 individually oriented cores from nine geographically distributed localities. Susceptibility measurements and mineralogy investigations showed that paramagnetic minerals are important contributors to susceptibility anisotropy (AMS. The AMS fabrics are related to deposition/compression (foliation and weak tectonic deformation (lineation. The AARM fabric, that of the ferrimagnetic minerals, seems to be a less sensitive indicator of tectonic deformation than the AMS fabric. The inclination-only test points to the pre-folding age of the remanent magnetizations. Seven localities exhibit CCW rotation, a single one shows CW rotation. The CCW rotated paleomagnetic directions form two groups, one showing large, the other moderate CCW rotation. Previously published paleomagentic directions from the Slovak part of the same nappe exhibit smeared distribution between them. The declination of the overall-mean paleomagnetic direction for the Dukla nappe is similar to those observed in the neighbouring Magura and Silesian nappes, but it is of poorer quality. The AMS lineations at several localities are deviating more to the west from the present north than that of the local tectonic strikes. A possible explanation for this is that the AMS lineations were imprinted first, probably still in the Oligocene, while the sediments were soft (ductile deformation and the folding and tilting took place during the CCW rotation.

  14. Global Peak in Atmospheric Radiocarbon Provides a Potential Definition for the Onset of the Anthropocene Epoch in 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Chris S M; Palmer, Jonathan; Maslin, Mark A; Hogg, Alan; Fogwill, Christopher J; Southon, John; Fenwick, Pavla; Helle, Gerhard; Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Thomas, Zoë; Lipson, Mathew; Beaven, Brent; Jones, Richard T; Andrews, Oliver; Hua, Quan

    2018-02-19

    Anthropogenic activity is now recognised as having profoundly and permanently altered the Earth system, suggesting we have entered a human-dominated geological epoch, the 'Anthropocene'. To formally define the onset of the Anthropocene, a synchronous global signature within geological-forming materials is required. Here we report a series of precisely-dated tree-ring records from Campbell Island (Southern Ocean) that capture peak atmospheric radiocarbon ( 14 C) resulting from Northern Hemisphere-dominated thermonuclear bomb tests during the 1950s and 1960s. The only alien tree on the island, a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), allows us to seasonally-resolve Southern Hemisphere atmospheric 14 C, demonstrating the 'bomb peak' in this remote and pristine location occurred in the last-quarter of 1965 (October-December), coincident with the broader changes associated with the post-World War II 'Great Acceleration' in industrial capacity and consumption. Our findings provide a precisely-resolved potential Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) or 'golden spike', marking the onset of the Anthropocene Epoch.

  15. PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    2014-01-01

    The epoch of first star formation and the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at that time are not directly observable with current telescopes. The radiation from those early sources is now part of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and, as these sources ionize the gas around them, the IGM plasma would produce faint temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) effect. While these TSZ anisotropies are too faint to be detected, we show that the cross-correlation of maps of source-subtracted CIB fluctuations from Euclid, with suitably constructed microwave maps at different frequencies, can probe the physical state of the gas during reionization and test/constrain models of the early CIB sources. We identify the frequency-combined, CMB-subtracted microwave maps from space- and ground-based instruments to show that they can be cross-correlated with the forthcoming all-sky Euclid CIB maps to detect the cross-power at scales ∼5'-60' with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of up to S/N ∼ 4-8 depending on the contribution to the Thomson optical depth during those pre-reionization epochs (Δτ ≅ 0.05) and the temperature of the IGM (up to ∼10 4 K). Such a measurement would offer a new window to explore the emergence and physical properties of these first light sources

  16. Oligocene age of the classic Belén fruit and seed assemblage of north coastal Peru based on diatom biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Steven R.; Herrera, Fabiany; Fourtainer, Elisabeth; Barron, John A.; Martinez, Jean-Noël

    2012-01-01

    The Belén flora, in north coastal Peru, is the most diverse fruit and seed assemblage known from the Paleogene of South America. Almost no original paleobotanical work has been done on this assemblage since the pioneering treatments published by E.W. Berry, in the 1920’s and the precise age has not been settled. Nevertheless, the flora has been regarded as an important focal point in understanding the vegetational, orogenic and climatic history of northern South America, and in recent literature has been assumed to be early Eocene. In order to tighten the age assignment, which has varied from early Eocene to early Oligocene in the opinions of different authors, we revisited the Belén site, measured the stratigraphic section, and processed the fruit and seed-containing sediment for age-diagnostic microfossils. Although pollen and foraminifera were not recovered, the sediment is rich in diatoms. The diatom assemblage includes Lisitzinia ornata and Rocella vigilans among others, indicating a latest early Oligocene age (~30-28.5 Ma) for these deeper marine sediments that we infer to have been subsequently reworked into the Belén environment . This association leads us to consider the Belén flora, to be late Oligocene in age as is also consistent with its placement in the Mancora Formation. We also reevaluate the botanical identifications, based on the original museum specimens supplemented by more recently collected specimens. The Belén flora provides a window to extinct forests in South America before the rising of the Andes in western Peru.

  17. The onset of modern-like Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Evidence, causes, and possible implications for global cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Meir; Erez, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    A compilation of benthic δ18O from the whole Atlantic and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) shows two major jumps in the interbasinal gradient of δ18O (Δδ18O) during the Eocene and the Oligocene: one at ˜40 Ma and the second concomitant with the isotopic event of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ˜33.7 Ma ago. From previously published circulation models and proxies, we show that the first Δδ18O jump reflects the thermal isolation of Antarctica associated with the proto-Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The second marks the onset of interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell, similar to the modern Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The onset of AMOC-like circulation slightly preceded (100-300 kyr) the EOT, as we show by the high-resolution profiles of δ18O and δ13C previously published from DSDP/ODP sites in the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. These events coincide with the onset of antiestuarine circulation between the Nordic seas and the North Atlantic which started around the EOT and may be connected to the deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We suggest that while the shallow proto-ACC supplied the energy for deep ocean convection in the Southern Hemisphere, the onset of the interhemispheric northern circulation cell was due to the significant EOT intensification of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic driven by the Nordic antiestuarine circulation. This onset of the interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell could have prompted the EOT global cooling.Plain Language SummaryThe Eocene-Oligocene transition is the major abrupt climatic event during the Cenozoic, which marks the major step to the icehouse world. We show that this transition is a shift to a world with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and slightly preceded this transition. Thus, possibly was a major factor in this climatic shift.

  18. Astronomically forced paleoclimate change from middle Eocene to early Oligocene: continental conditions in central China compared with the global marine isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum ended with a long interval of global cooling that began in the early Middle Eocene and ended at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During this long-term cooling, a series of short-term warming reversals occurred in the marine realm. Here, we investigate corresponding continental climate conditions as revealed in the Qianjiang Formation of the Jianghan Basin in central China, which consists of more than 4000 m of saline lake sediments. The Qianjiang Formation includes, in its deepest sections, a halite-rich rhythmic sediment succession with dark mudstone, brownish-white siltstone and sandstone, and greyish-white halite. Alternating fresh water (humid/cool)—saline water (dry/hot) deposits reflect climate cycles driven by orbital forcing. High-resolution gamma ray (GR) logging from the basin center captures these pronounced lithological rhythms throughout the formation. Several halite-rich intervals are interpreted as short-term warming events within the middle Eocene to early Oligocene, and could be expressions of coeval warming events in the global marine oxygen isotope record, for example, the middle Eocene climate optimum (MECO) event around 41 Ma. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary is distinguished by a radical change from halite-rich to clastic sediments, indicating a dramatic climate change from warm to cool conditions. Power spectral analysis of the GR series indicates strong short (~100 kyr) eccentricity cycling during the warm/hot episodes. Amplitude modulation of the short eccentricity in the GR series occurs with a strong 405 kyr periodicity. This cycling is calibrated to the La2004 orbital eccentricity model. A climate reversal occurs at 36.5 Ma within the long-term marine cooling trend following MECO, which is reflected also in the Qianjiang GR series, with the latter indicating several brief warm/dry reversals within the trend. A ~2.6 Myr halite-rich warm interval occurs in the latest Eocene in the continental record; both

  19. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  20. A Study of the Dětaň Locality (Oligocene, Doupovské hory Mts. Volcanic Complex, Czech Republic): Collection of Field Data and Starting Points for Interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fejfar, O.; Ulrych, Jaromír; Žigová, Anna; Kadlecová, Eva; Cajz, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2003), s. 91-97 ISSN 1210-9606. [Hibsch 2002 Symposium. Teplá near Třebenice, Ústí nad Labem, Mariánské Lázně, 03.06.2002-08.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : volcanic lastic rocks * Oligocene * Doupovské hory Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume15/G15-091.pdf

  1. The Achkal Oligocene ring complex: Sr, Nd, Pb evidence for transition between tholeiitic and alkali cenozoic magmatism in Central Hoggar (South Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, M.; Dautria, J.M.; Briqueu, L.; Bosch, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Achkal Oligocene ring complex-cuts the Upper Eocene tholeiitic traps located on the top of the Hoggar swell. The plutonic rocks range from tholeiitic gabbros to alkali essexites, monzonites and syenites, whereas the volcanites are restricted to late per-alkaline rhyolites. The affinity change linked to the large isotopic heterogeneities (from EM1 to HIMU) suggests that the parental magmas are issued from two district mantle sources, first lithospheric then deeper. The Achkal has recorded the magmatic evolution of the Hoggar hot spot, between Eocene and Miocene. (authors)

  2. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  3. Oligocene to Holocene sediment drifts and bottom currents on the slope of Gabon continental margin (west Africa). Consequences for sedimentation and southeast Atlantic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séranne, Michel; Nzé Abeigne, César-Rostand

    1999-10-01

    Seismic reflection profiles on the slope of the south Gabon continental margin display furrows 2 km wide and some 200 m deep, that develop normal to the margin in 500-1500 m water depth. Furrows are characterised by an aggradation/progradation pattern which leads to margin-parallel, northwestward migration of their axes through time. These structures, previously interpreted as turbidity current channels, display the distinctive seismic image and internal organisation of sediment drifts, constructed by the activity of bottom currents. Sediment drifts were initiated above a major Oligocene unconformity, and they developed within a Oligocene to Present megasequence of general progradation of the margin, whilst they are markedly absent from the underlying Late Cretaceous-Eocene aggradation megasequence. The presence of upslope migrating sediment waves, and the northwest migration of the sediment drifts indicate deposition by bottom current flowing upslope, under the influence of the Coriolis force. Such landwards-directed bottom currents on the slope probably represent coastal upwelling, which has been active along the west Africa margin throughout the Neogene.

  4. A model and solving algorithm of combination planning for weapon equipment based on Epoch-era analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Focused on the circumstance that the equipment using demand in the short term and the development demand in the long term should be made overall plans and took into consideration in the weapons portfolio planning and the practical problem of the fuzziness in the definition of equipment capacity demand. The expression of demand is assumed to be an interval number or a discrete number. With the analysis method of epoch-era, a long planning cycle is broke into several short planning cycles with different demand value. The multi-stage stochastic programming model is built aimed at maximize long-term planning cycle demand under the constraint of budget, equipment development time and short planning cycle demand. The scenario tree is used to discretize the interval value of the demand, and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the problem. At last, a case is studied to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed mode.

  5. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  6. What next-generation 21 cm power spectrum measurements can teach us about the epoch of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Morales, Miguel F.; Liu, Adrian; McQuinn, Matthew; Parsons, Aaron R.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tegmark, Max; Aguirre, James E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Werthimer, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of experiments are currently working toward a measurement of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR). Whether or not these experiments deliver a detection of cosmological emission, their limited sensitivity will prevent them from providing detailed information about the astrophysics of reionization. In this work, we consider what types of measurements will be enabled by the next generation of larger 21 cm EoR telescopes. To calculate the type of constraints that will be possible with such arrays, we use simple models for the instrument, foreground emission, and the reionization history. We focus primarily on an instrument modeled after the ∼0.1 km 2 collecting area Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array concept design and parameterize the uncertainties with regard to foreground emission by considering different limits to the recently described 'wedge' footprint in k space. Uncertainties in the reionization history are accounted for using a series of simulations that vary the ionizing efficiency and minimum virial temperature of the galaxies responsible for reionization, as well as the mean free path of ionizing photons through the intergalactic medium. Given various combinations of models, we consider the significance of the possible power spectrum detections, the ability to trace the power spectrum evolution versus redshift, the detectability of salient power spectrum features, and the achievable level of quantitative constraints on astrophysical parameters. Ultimately, we find that 0.1 km 2 of collecting area is enough to ensure a very high significance (≳ 30σ) detection of the reionization power spectrum in even the most pessimistic scenarios. This sensitivity should allow for meaningful constraints on the reionization history and astrophysical parameters, especially if foreground subtraction techniques can be improved and successfully implemented.

  7. INTERFEROMETRIC MONITORING OF GAMMA-RAY BRIGHT AGNs. I. THE RESULTS OF SINGLE-EPOCH MULTIFREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Byun, Do-Young; Kang, Sincheol; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kino, Motoki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Jongho; Kim, Jae-Young; Trippe, Sascha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Miyazaki, Atsushi [Japan Space Forum, 3-2-1, Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Japan (Japan); Kim, Jeong-Sook, E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2211 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    We present results of single-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, which are part of a KVN key science program, Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs. We selected a total of 34 radio-loud AGNs of which 30 sources are gamma-ray bright AGNs with flux densities of >6 × 10{sup −10} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Single-epoch multifrequency VLBI observations of the target sources were conducted during a 24 hr session on 2013 November 19 and 20. All observed sources were detected and imaged at all frequency bands, with or without a frequency phase transfer technique, which enabled the imaging of 12 faint sources at 129 GHz, except for one source. Many of the target sources are resolved on milliarcsecond scales, yielding a core-jet structure, with the VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on a milliarcsecond scale. CLEAN flux densities of the target sources are 0.43–28 Jy, 0.32–21 Jy, 0.18–11 Jy, and 0.35–8.0 Jy in the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, respectively. Spectra of the target sources become steeper at higher frequency, with spectral index means of −0.40, −0.62, and −1.00 in the 22–43 GHz, 43–86 GHz and 86–129 GHz bands, respectively, implying that the target sources become optically thin at higher frequencies (e.g., 86–129 GHz).

  8. The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration - an Individual Patient Data Prospective Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simes John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD prospective meta-analysis (PMA. An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066

  9. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECTRAL STRUCTURE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS AND ITS SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Neben, Abraham R. [MIT Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Deboer, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bowman, Judd; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Venter, Mariet [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, SA (South Africa); Acedo, Eloy de Lera [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-10

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k {sub ∥} ≲ 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}, in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  10. Superposed epoch study of ICME sub-structures near Earth and their effects on Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the interplanetary manifestations of solar eruptions. The overtaken solar wind forms a sheath of compressed plasma at the front of ICMEs. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of ICMEs with specific properties (e.g. the presence of a flux rope). When ICMEs pass near Earth, ground observations indicate that the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) decreases. Aims: The main aims of this paper are to find common plasma and magnetic properties of different ICME sub-structures and which ICME properties affect the flux of GCRs near Earth. Methods: We used a superposed epoch method applied to a large set of ICMEs observed in situ by the spacecraft ACE, between 1998 and 2006. We also applied a superposed epoch analysis on GCRs time series observed with the McMurdo neutron monitors. Results: We find that slow MCs at 1 AU have on average more massive sheaths. We conclude that this is because they are more effectively slowed down by drag during their travel from the Sun. Slow MCs also have a more symmetric magnetic field and sheaths expanding similarly as their following MC, while in contrast, fast MCs have an asymmetric magnetic profile and a sheath in compression. In all types of MCs, we find that the proton density and the temperature and the magnetic fluctuations can diffuse within the front of the MC due to 3D reconnection. Finally, we derive a quantitative model that describes the decrease in cosmic rays as a function of the amount of magnetic fluctuations and field strength. Conclusions: The obtained typical profiles of sheath, MC and GCR properties corresponding to slow, middle, and fast ICMEs, can be used for forecasting or modelling these events, and to better understand the transport of energetic particles in ICMEs. They are also useful for improving future operative space weather activities.

  11. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECTRAL STRUCTURE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS AND ITS SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Neben, Abraham R.; Bradley, Richard; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia; Deboer, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S.; Aguirre, James; Bowman, Judd; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Venter, Mariet; Acedo, Eloy de Lera

    2016-01-01

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k ∥ ≲ 0.2 h Mpc -1 , in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  12. The Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary record in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Implications for climate and sea-level changes on the western Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P.; Wade, B.S.; Kontny, A.; ,

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary investigation of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville core from the Chesapeake Bay impact basin was conducted in order to document environmental changes and sequence stratigraphic setting. Planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy indicate that the Eyreville core includes an expanded upper Eocene (Biozones E15 to E16 and NP19/20 to NP21, respectively) and a condensed Oligocene-Miocene (NP24-NN1) sedimentary sequence. The Eocene-Oligocene contact corresponds to a =3-Ma-long hiatus. Eocene- Oligocene sedimentation is dominated by great diversity and varying amounts of detrital and authigenic minerals. Four sedimentary intervals are identified by lithology and mineral content: (1) A 30-m-thick, smectite- and illite-rich interval directly overlies the Exmore Formation, suggesting long-term reworking of impact debris within the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. (2) Subsequently, an increase in kaolinite content suggests erosion from soils developed during late Eocene warm and humid climate in agreement with data derived from other Atlantic sites. However, the kaolinite increase may also be explained by change to a predominant sediment input from outside the Chesapeake Bay impact structure caused by progradation of more proximal facies belts during the highstand systems tract of the late Eocene sequence E10.Spectral analysis based on gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility logs suggests infl uence of 1.2 Ma low-amplitude oscillation of the obliquity period during the late Eocene. (3) During the latest Eocene (Biozones NP21 and E16), several lithological contacts (clay to clayey silt) occur concomitant with a prominent change in the mineralogical composition with illite as a major component: This lithological change starts close to the Biozone NP19/20-NP21 boundary and may correspond to sequence boundary E10-E11 as observed in

  13. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  14. Errata. Notes on development of the Oligocene trachinid Trachinus minutus (Jonet, 1958). (Palaeontographica, Abteilung A: Palaozoologie - Stratigraphie (2017) 308:1 DOI: 10.1127/pala/308/2017/69)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 308, 4/6 (2017), s. 177-177 ISSN 0375-0442 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Erratum * Teleostei * osteology * ontogeny * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.615, year: 2016

  15. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  16. Physical and lithological properties Oligocene-Miocene formations of the Okhotsk-Kamchatka Basin (to 85-th Anniversary of Professor Yuri Konstantinovich Burlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Karnyushina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the prediction of physical and lithological properties of volcanogenic-sedimentary formations at different depths. For this purpose Oligocene-Miocene sediments from a number of wells within the Icha and Kolpakovsky depressions of Okhotsk-Kamchatka oil and gas basin have been studied. Relationship between temperature and fluid conditions of the katagenesis zone and the change in the rocks composition, their porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity were identified. Superposed phenomena and characteristics of the reservoir rocks transformations within the water-hydrocarbon contacts in the gas and gas condensate pools have been considered. The relationship between volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks physical and lithological properties and the formation of non-stationary geothermal regime has been shown. The article is devoted to the head of these investigations – Professor Yuri Konstantinovich Burlin (1931-2011. 12 Oktober this year, he would have turned his 85 years.

  17. Lower Oligocene non-geniculate coralline red algal (Corallinales, Rhodophyta assemblage from Poljšica pri Podnartu (Upper Carniola, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Gale

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds from Polj{ica pri Podnartu consist of marly limestone, mudstone, several layers of limestones and two layers of sandstones, and were deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp.Especially the limestones contain rich fossil fauna and non-geniculate coralline red algae. These were systematicallycollected from four horizons and researched in thin sections under an optical microscope. Genera Lithoporella,Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum and Spongites were recognized. Surface area for each genus was calculated and the differences in the coralline assemblages in the four horizons were analysed. Thecorallines originate from two source areas: sandy-muddy bottom of a shallow marine environment, and small coral bioherms with its encrusters.

  18. Revised Late Oligocene to Early Miocene magnetic stratigraphy recorded by drift sediments at Sites U1405 and U1406, IODP Expedition 342 (Newfoundland, NW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Tim; Xuan, Chuang; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The nannofossil oozes drilled at IODP Expedition 342 (Paleogene Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) Sites U1405 and U1406 provide an exceptional sedimentary archive of the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene due to high sedimentation rates (2-6 cm/kyr at U1406 and up to 20 cm/kyr at U1405) and their ideal location below the Deep Western Boundary Current. These drift sediment sequences provide a unique opportunity to study the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) and Mi1-event (a transient 1‰ positive oxygen isotope excursion) at an unprecedented resolution from a Northern Hemisphere perspective. The exact timing of the OMT and its rate of change require a reliable and high-resolution magnetic stratigraphic age control, as Chron C6Cn with its three subchrons roughly spans the Mi1 event and the reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r defines the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on 140 m of u-channel samples at U1405 and 190 m at U1406. The u-channel sample based magnetostratigraphy is in good agreement with that based on the shipboard data and reveal distinctive well-defined patterns of normal and reversed polarities, which can be correlated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale between C6Bn.2n and C9n (ca. 22.2 to 27 Ma) at U1406 and between C6Bn.2n and C6Cr (ca. 22.2 to 23.5 Ma) at U1405. Furthermore, putative cryptochrons in Chron C6Br and C7Ar, previously reported at Site U1334 (IODP Expedition 320), are observed in the u-channel magnetic stratigraphy for Sites U1405 and U1406. Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetisation (ARM) intensity variations are combined with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) generated elemental measurements to refine the shipboard splice of both U1405 and U1406. Latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene splice refinements are complicated by the presence of large-scale stratigraphic gaps (up to 25 m at U1405) unrelated to drilling disturbances. The depth and estimated age of these stratigraphic gaps vary from hole to hole, and do not appear

  19. Craniodental morphology and systematics of a new family of hystricognathous rodents (Gaudeamuridae from the late eocene and early oligocene of Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Sallam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gaudeamus is an enigmatic hystricognathous rodent that was, until recently, known solely from fragmentary material from early Oligocene sites in Egypt, Oman, and Libya. Gaudeamus' molars are similar to those of the extant cane rat Thryonomys, and multiple authorities have aligned Gaudeamus with Thryonomys to the exclusion of other living and extinct African hystricognaths; recent phylogenetic analyses have, however, also suggested affinities with South American caviomorphs or Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the oldest known remains of Gaudeamus, including largely complete but crushed crania and complete upper and lower dentitions. Unlike younger Gaudeamus species, the primitive species described here have relatively complex occlusal patterns, and retain a number of plesiomorphic features. Unconstrained parsimony analysis nests Gaudeamus and Hystrix within the South American caviomorph radiation, implying what we consider to be an implausible back-dispersal across the Atlantic Ocean to account for Gaudeamus' presence in the late Eocene of Africa. An analysis that was constrained to recover the biogeographically more plausible hypothesis of caviomorph monophyly does not place Gaudeamus as a stem caviomorph, but rather as a sister taxon of hystricids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We place Gaudeamus species in a new family, Gaudeamuridae, and consider it likely that the group originated, diversified, and then went extinct over a geologically brief period of time during the latest Eocene and early Oligocene in Afro-Arabia. Gaudeamurids are the only known crown hystricognaths from Afro-Arabia that are likely to be aligned with non-phiomorph members of that clade, and as such provide additional support for an Afro-Arabian origin of advanced stem and basal crown members of Hystricognathi.

  20. Tephrostratigraphy and Provenance From IODP Expedition 352, Izu-Bonin Arc: Tracing Tephra Sources and Volumes From the Oligocene to Recent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Robertson, A. H. F.; Avery, A.; Baxter, A. T.; Petronotis, K.; Wang, K.-L.

    2018-01-01

    Provenance studies of widely distributed tephras, integrated within a well-defined temporal framework, are important to deduce systematic changes in the source, scale, distribution, and changes in regional explosive volcanism. Here, we establish a robust tephrochronostratigraphy for a total of 157 marine tephra layers collected during IODP Expedition 352. We infer at least three major phases of highly explosive volcanism during Oligocene to Pleistocene time. Provenance analysis based on glass composition assigns 56 of the tephras to a Japan source, including correlations with 12 major and widespread tephra layers resulting from individual eruptions in Kyushu, Central Japan, and North Japan between 115 ka and 3.5 Ma. The remaining 101 tephras are assigned to four source regions along the Izu-Bonin arc. One, exclusively assigned to the Oligocene age, is proximal to the Bonin Ridge islands; two reflect eruptions within the volcanic front and back-arc of the central Izu-Bonin arc, and a fourth region corresponds to the Northern Izu-Bonin arc source. First-order volume estimates imply eruptive magnitudes ranging from 6.3 to 7.6 for Japan-related eruptions and between 5.5 and 6.5 for IBM eruptions. Our results suggest tephras between 30 and 22 Ma reflect a subtly different Izu-Bonin chemical signature compared to the recent arc. After a ˜9 Ma gap in eruption, tephra supply from the Izu-Bonin arc predominated from 15 to 5 Ma, and finally a subequal mixture of tephra sources from the (palaeo)Honshu and Izu-Bonin arcs occured within the last ˜5 Ma.

  1. Kinematics and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of the Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems, western Yunnan, China: Implications for early Oligocene tectonic extrusion of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping; Chen, Xinyue; Xu, Yigang

    2006-06-01

    The Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems (GLSS and CSSS) in western Yunnan, China, have similar tectonic significance to the Ailaoshan-Red River shear system (ASRRSS) during the Cenozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Tibetan syntaxis. To better understand their kinematics and the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of SE Asia, this paper presents new kinematic and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronological data for these shear systems. All the structural and microstructural evidence indicate that the GLSS is a dextral strike-slip shear system while the CSSS is a sinistral strike-slip shear system, and both were developed under amphibolite- to greenschist-grade conditions. The 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of synkinematic minerals revealed that the strike-slip shearing on the GLSS and CSSS at least began at ˜ 32 Ma, possibly coeval with the onset of other major shear systems in SE Asia. The late-stage shearing on the GLSS and CSSS is dated at ˜ 27-29 Ma by the biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, consistent with that of the Wang Chao shear zone (WCSZ), but ˜ 10 Ma earlier than that of the ASRRSS. The dextral Gaoligong shear zone within the GLSS may have separated the India plate from the Indochina Block during early Oligocene. Combined with other data in western Yunnan, we propose that the Baoshan/Southern Indochina Block escaped faster southeastward along the CSSS to the east and the GLSS to the west than the Northern Indochina Block along the ASRRSS, accompanying with the obliquely northward motion of the India plate during early Oligocene (28-36 Ma). During 28-17 Ma, the Northern Indochina Block was rotationally extruded along the ASRRSS relative to the South China Block as a result of continuously impinging of the India plate.

  2. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene compressional tectosedimentary episode and associated land-mammal faunas in the Andes of central Chile and adjacent Argentina (32 37°s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Thierry; Marshall, Larry G.; Rivano, Sergio; Godoy, Estanislao

    1994-01-01

    A reassessment of the geologic and land-mammal fossil evidence used in attribution of a tectosedimentary episode in the Andes between 32 and 37°S to the Middle Eocene "Incaic tectonic phase" of Peru indicates that the episode occurred during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene times(~ 27-20 Ma). From west to east, three structural domains are recognized for this time span in the study area: a volcanic arc (Chile); a thin-skinned, E-verging fold-thrust belt (Cordillera Principal, Chile-Argentina border strip); and a foreland basin (Argentina). Initiation of thrusting in the Cordillera Principal fold-thrust belt produced the coeval initiation of sedimentation in the foreland basin of adjacent Argentina. This onset of foreland deposition postdates strata bearing a Divisaderan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 35-30 Ma) and is marked at ~ 36°30'S by the base of the "Rodados Lustrosos" conglomerates, which are conformably overlain by sedimentary rocks containing a Deseadan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 29-21 Ma). Geologic relationships between the thick volcanic Abanico (Coya-Machalí) and Farellones formations also demonstrate that this tectosedimentary episode practically ended at ~ 20 Ma at least in the volcanic arc, and was therefore roughly coeval with the major tectonic crisis (~ 27-19 Ma) known in northwestern Andean Bolivia some 1500 km to the north. This strongly suggests that a long, outstanding tectonic upheaval affected at least an extended 12-37°S segment of the Andean margin of South America during Late Oligocene and Early Miocene times.

  3. High-resolution δ13C record of fossil wood and bulk organic matter from a deep Oligocene lacustrine succession, Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, M.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Fyhn, M. B. W.; Korte, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution stable isotope record based on bulk organic matter (δ13Corg) and fossil wood (δ13Cwood) originating from Oligocene deep lacustrine sediments cored on the Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam. The sediments are exceptionally well preserved. They are thus excellently suited for a detailed stratigraphical analysis of the stable isotope record and as proxy for environmental and climatic changes within this period. The sediments were deposited in rapid subsiding, narrow and elongated fault-bound graben (Fyhn and Phach, 2015) and are represented by deep pelagic lacustrine organic-rich mud interrupted by numerous density-flow deposits (Hovikoski et al., 2016). The density-flow deposits contain abundant fragments of fossil wood. Therefore it was possible to obtain 262 coalified wood fragments together with 1063 bulk organic samples throughout the span of the core. This allowed to establish a high resolution stable C isotope record (δ13Corg and δ13Cwood). In addition 2464 handheld XRF determinations were carried out to further characterize the depositional environment (Rizzi et al., 2017). The organic carbon isotope trend from the 500 m core succession provides insight into the palaeoenvironmental changes of the lake during the Oligocene. Both, global and local factors control the δ13C variations. The aim of the study is to obtain pure global δ13Corg and δ13Cwood signals that would allow comparison of the studied sediments with coeval syn-rift successions in the South China Sea region and other parts of the world. [1] Fyhn and Phach (2015) Tectonics, 34(2): 290-312. [2] Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007. [3] Rizzi et al. (2017) EGU General Assembly Abstract EGU 2017-17584.

  4. An Extremely Peramorphic Newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini) from the Latest Oligocene of Germany, and a New Phylogenetic Analysis of Extant and Extinct Salamandrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, David; Witzmann, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We describe an Oligocene newt specimen from western Germany that has gone practically unnoticed in the literature despite having been housed in the Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin) for a century. It is referable to the coeval Chelotriton, but is unusually peramorphic; for many characters it is more peramorphic than all other caudates or even all other lissamphibians. Most noticeable are the position of the jaw joints far caudal to the occiput, the honeycombed sculpture on the maxilla, and the possible presence of a septomaxilla (which would be unique among salamandrids). Referral to a species would require a revision of the genus, but the specimen likely does not belong to the type species. A phylogenetic analysis of nonmolecular characters of Salamandridae, far larger than all predecessors, confirms the referral to Chelotriton. It further loosely associates the Oligocene Archaeotriton and the Miocene Carpathotriton with the extant Lissotriton, though the former may alternatively lie outside Pleurodelinae altogether. The Miocene? I. randeckensis may not belong to the extant Ichthyosaura. The Miocene "Triturus" roehrsi is found neither with the extant Ommatotriton nor with Lissotriton, but inside an Asian/aquatic clade or, when geographic distribution is included as a character, as the sister-group to all other European molgins. The main cause for discrepancies between the results and the molecular consensus is not heterochrony, but adaptations to a life in mountain streams; this is the most likely reason why the Paleocene Koalliella from western Europe forms the sister-group to some or all of the most aquatic extant newts in different analyses. We would like to urge neontologists working on salamandrids to pay renewed attention to the skeleton, not limited to the skull, as a source of diagnostic and phylogenetically informative characters.

  5. An Extremely Peramorphic Newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini from the Latest Oligocene of Germany, and a New Phylogenetic Analysis of Extant and Extinct Salamandrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marjanović

    Full Text Available We describe an Oligocene newt specimen from western Germany that has gone practically unnoticed in the literature despite having been housed in the Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin for a century. It is referable to the coeval Chelotriton, but is unusually peramorphic; for many characters it is more peramorphic than all other caudates or even all other lissamphibians. Most noticeable are the position of the jaw joints far caudal to the occiput, the honeycombed sculpture on the maxilla, and the possible presence of a septomaxilla (which would be unique among salamandrids. Referral to a species would require a revision of the genus, but the specimen likely does not belong to the type species. A phylogenetic analysis of nonmolecular characters of Salamandridae, far larger than all predecessors, confirms the referral to Chelotriton. It further loosely associates the Oligocene Archaeotriton and the Miocene Carpathotriton with the extant Lissotriton, though the former may alternatively lie outside Pleurodelinae altogether. The Miocene? I. randeckensis may not belong to the extant Ichthyosaura. The Miocene "Triturus" roehrsi is found neither with the extant Ommatotriton nor with Lissotriton, but inside an Asian/aquatic clade or, when geographic distribution is included as a character, as the sister-group to all other European molgins. The main cause for discrepancies between the results and the molecular consensus is not heterochrony, but adaptations to a life in mountain streams; this is the most likely reason why the Paleocene Koalliella from western Europe forms the sister-group to some or all of the most aquatic extant newts in different analyses. We would like to urge neontologists working on salamandrids to pay renewed attention to the skeleton, not limited to the skull, as a source of diagnostic and phylogenetically informative characters.

  6. Extinction vs. Rapid Radiation: The Juxtaposed Evolutionary Histories of Coelotine Spiders Support the Eocene-Oligocene Orogenesis of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhe; Li, Shuqiang

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region. Based on eight genes (6.5 kb) and 2323 de novo DNA sequences, analyses suggest an Eocene South China origin for them. Most extant, widespread species belong to the southern (SCG) or northern (NCG) clades. The origin of coelotine spiders appears to associate with either the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or the hot period in early Eocene. Tibetan uplifting events influenced the current diversity patterns of coelotines. The origin of SCG lies outside of the Tibetan Plateau. Uplifting in the southeastern area of the plateau blocked dispersal since the Late Eocene. Continuous orogenesis appears to have created localized vicariant events, which drove rapid radiation in SCG. North-central Tibet is the likely location of origin for NCG and many lineages likely experienced extinction owing to uplifting since early Oligocene. Their evolutionary histories correspond with recent geological evidence that high-elevation orographical features existed in the Tibetan region as early as 40-35 Ma. Our discoveries may be the first empirical evidence that links the evolution of organisms to the Eocene-Oligocene uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau. [Tibet; biogeography; ecology; molecular clock; diversification.]. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic

  7. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-01-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  8. BEAM-FORMING ERRORS IN MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY PHASED ARRAY ANTENNAS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON EPOCH OF REIONIZATION SCIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Goeke, R.; Morgan, E. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), Cape Town 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Briggs, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Greenhill, L. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Mitchell, D. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); and others

    2016-03-20

    Accurate antenna beam models are critical for radio observations aiming to isolate the redshifted 21 cm spectral line emission from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EOR) and unlock the scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology. Past work has focused on characterizing mean antenna beam models using either satellite signals or astronomical sources as calibrators, but antenna-to-antenna variation due to imperfect instrumentation has remained unexplored. We characterize this variation for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) through laboratory measurements and simulations, finding typical deviations of the order of ±10%–20% near the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes. We consider the ramifications of these results for image- and power spectrum-based science. In particular, we simulate visibilities measured by a 100 m baseline and find that using an otherwise perfect foreground model, unmodeled beam-forming errors severely limit foreground subtraction accuracy within the region of Fourier space contaminated by foreground emission (the “wedge”). This region likely contains much of the cosmological signal, and accessing it will require measurement of per-antenna beam patterns. However, unmodeled beam-forming errors do not contaminate the Fourier space region expected to be free of foreground contamination (the “EOR window”), showing that foreground avoidance remains a viable strategy.

  9. PROBING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WITH THE Lyα FOREST AT z ∼ 4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue; McDonald, Patrick; Trac, Hy; Loeb, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The inhomogeneous cosmological reionization process leaves tangible imprints in the intergalactic medium (IGM) down to z ∼ 4-5. The Lyα forest flux power spectrum provides a potentially powerful probe of the epoch of reionization. With the existing Sloan Digital Sky Survey I/II quasar sample, we show that two cosmological reionization scenarios, one completing reionization at z = 6 and the other at z = 9, can be distinguished at ∼7σ level by utilizing Lyα forest absorption spectra at z = 3.9-4.1 in the absence of other physical processes that may also affect the Lyα flux power spectrum. The difference may not be distinguishable at such high significance after marginalization over other effects, but, in any case, one will need to consider this effect in order to correctly interpret the power spectrum in this redshift range. The redshift range z = 4-5 may provide the best window because there are still enough transmitted flux and quasars to measure precise statistics of the flux fluctuations, and the IGM still retains a significant amount of memory of reionization.

  10. Modeling the Radio Foreground for Detection of CMB Spectral Distortions from the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N Udaya [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chluba, Jens, E-mail: mayuris@rri.res.in [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Cosmic baryon evolution during the Cosmic Dawn and Reionization results in redshifted 21-cm spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These encode information about the nature and timing of first sources over redshifts 30–6 and appear at meter wavelengths as a tiny CMB distortion along with the Galactic and extragalactic radio sky, which is orders of magnitude brighter. Therefore, detection requires precise methods to model foregrounds. We present a method of foreground fitting using maximally smooth (MS) functions. We demonstrate the usefulness of MS functions over traditionally used polynomials to separate foregrounds from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signal. We also examine the level of spectral complexity in plausible foregrounds using GMOSS, a physically motivated model of the radio sky, and find that they are indeed smooth and can be modeled by MS functions to levels sufficient to discern the vanilla model of the EoR signal. We show that MS functions are loss resistant and robustly preserve EoR signal strength and turning points in the residuals. Finally, we demonstrate that in using a well-calibrated spectral radiometer and modeling foregrounds with MS functions, the global EoR signal can be detected with a Bayesian approach with 90% confidence in 10 minutes’ integration.

  11. Multi-epoch analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus in NGC 5506

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangyu; Guainazzi, Matteo; Ni, Qingling; Wang, Jingchun; Qian, Chenyang; Shi, Fangzheng; Wang, Yu; Bambi, Cosimo

    2018-05-01

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nearby narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy NGC 5506. For the first time, spectra taken by Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR - covering the 2000-2014 time span - are analyzed simultaneously, using state-of-the-art models to describe reprocessing of the primary continuum by optical thick matter in the AGN environment. The main goal of our study is determining the spin of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The nuclear X-ray spectrum is photoelectrically absorbed by matter with column density ≃ 3 × 1022 cm-2. A soft excess is present at energies lower than the photoelectric cut-off. Both photo-ionized and collisionally ionized components are required to fit it. This component is constant over the time-scales probed by our data. The spectrum at energies higher than 2 keV is variable. We propose that its evolution could be driven by flux-dependent changes in the geometry of the innermost regions of the accretion disk. The black hole spin in NGC ,5506 is constrained to be 0.93± _{ 0.04 }^{0.04} at 90% confidence level for one interesting parameter.

  12. Female fertility following dose-adjusted EPOCH-R chemotherapy in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharwan, Helen; Lai, Catherine; Grant, Cliona; Dunleavy, Kieron; Steinberg, Seth M; Shovlin, Margaret; Fojo, Tito; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2016-07-01

    We assessed fertility/gonadal function in premenopausal women treated with dose-adjusted EPOCH-Rituximab for untreated primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). Eligible patents were ≤ 50 years and premenopausal. Serial reproductive histories were obtained and hormonal assays were performed on serum samples before, at the end of treatment and 4-18 months later. Twenty-eight eligible women had a median age (range) of 31 (21-50) years and were followed a median of 7.3 years. Of 23 patients who completed a questionnaire, 19 (83%) were and four were not menstruating prior to chemotherapy. Amenorrhea developed in 12 patients during chemotherapy. At > 1-year follow-up, 14/19 (74%) patients were menstruating, all years old, and six (43%) of these patients delivered healthy children. Hormonal assays showed ovarian dysfunction during chemotherapy in all patients with varying recovery at 4-18 months after treatment. Fertility was preserved in most women with ovarian failure confined to patients > 40 years old.

  13. Assessing worst case scenarios in movement demands derived from global positioning systems during international rugby union matches: Rolling averages versus fixed length epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.; Shearer, David A.; Carter, Neil; Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Bennett, Mark; Eager, Robin; Cook, Christian J.; Farrell, John; Russell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5–40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position. Elite players from three different squads (n = 119) were monitored using 10 Hz GPS during 36 matches played in the 2014–2017 seasons. Players categorised broadly as forwards and backs, and then by positional sub-group (FR: front row, SR: second row, BR: back row, HB: half back, MF: midfield, B3: back three) were monitored during match-play for peak values of high-speed running (>5 m·s-1; HSR) and relative distance covered (m·min-1) over 60–300 s using two types of sample-epoch (ROLL, FIXED). Irrespective of the method used, as the epoch length increased, values for the intensity of running actions decreased (e.g., For the backs using the ROLL method, distance covered decreased from 177.4 ± 20.6 m·min-1 in the 60 s epoch to 107.5 ± 13.3 m·min-1 for the 300 s epoch). For the team as a whole, and irrespective of position, estimates of fixed effects indicated significant between-method differences across all time-points for both relative distance covered and HSR. Movement demands were underestimated consistently by FIXED versus ROLL with differences being most pronounced using 60 s epochs (95% CI HSR: -6.05 to -4.70 m·min-1, 95% CI distance: -18.45 to -16.43 m·min-1). For all HSR time epochs except one, all backs groups increased more (p < 0.01) from FIXED to ROLL than the forward groups. Linear mixed modelling of ROLL data highlighted that for HSR (except 60 s epoch), SR was the only group not

  14. Sun in the Epoch ``LOWERED'' Solar Activity: the Comparative Analysis of the Current 24 Solar Cycle and Past Authentic Low Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    A reliable series of the relative numbers of sunspots (14 solar cycles ‒ 165 years) it leads to the only scenario of solar activity cycles - to the alternation of epochs of “increased” (18 ‒ 22 cycles of solar activity) and “lowered” (12 ‒ 16 and 24 ‒ ...) solar activity with the periods of solar magnetic field reconstruction in solar zone of the sunspots formation (11, 12, 23) from one epoch to another. The regime of the produce of magnetic field significantly changes in these periods, providing to the subsequent 5 cycles the stable conditions of solar activity. Space solar research made it possible to sufficiently fully investigate characteristics and parameters of the solar cycles for the epoch of “increased” (20 ‒ 22 cycles) solar activity and period of the reconstruction (22 ‒ 23 cycles) to the epoch of “lowered” solar activity (24 ‒ ... cycles). In this scenario 24 solar cycle is the first solar cycle of the second epoch of “lowered” solar activity. Therefore his development and characteristics roughly must be described in the context of the low solar cycles development (12, 14, and 16). In the current solar cycle the sunspot-forming activity is lowered, the average areas of the sunspot groups correspond to values for epoch of “lowered “solar activity, average magnetic field in the umbra of sunspots was reduced approximately to 700 gauss, and for this time was observed only 4 very large sunspot groups (≥1500 mvh). Flare activity substantially was lowered: for the time of the current solar cycle development it was occurrence of M-class flares M - 368, class X - 32, from which only 2 solar flares of class X> 5. Solar proton events are observed predominantly small intensity; but only 5 from them were the intensity of ≥100 pfu (S2) and 4 - ≥1000 pfu (S3). The first five years of the 24 cycle evolution confirm this assumption and the possibility to give the qualitative forecast of his evolution and development of the

  15. The Epoch of Reionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The Universe's dark ages end with the formation of the first generation of galaxies. These objects start emitting ultraviolet radiation that carves out ionized regions around them. After a sufficient number of ionizing sources have formed, the ionized fraction of the gas in the Universe rapidly

  16. The Epoch Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenberg, Donald M.; Molenaar, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a program for high school students who are between their junior and senior years which provides an opportunity to take part in aviation courses at the University of North Dakota. Students take courses leading to a private pilot license, and earn college credit for their efforts. (JN)

  17. Recombination epoch revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons. 18 references

  18. Physicists epoch and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Feinberg, E L; Leonidov, A V

    2011-01-01

    The book is a collection of memoirs on famous Soviet physicists of the 20th century, such as Tamm, Vavilov, Sakharov, Landau and others. The narrative is situated within a remarkably well-described historical, cultural and social context. Of special interest are the chapters devoted to Soviet and German atomic projects.

  19. First Results from the Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) Survey: Cosmological Reionization at z ∼ 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Jiang, Chunyan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Junxian; Hu, Weida; Kong, Xu [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gonzalez, Alicia [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo; Galaz, Gaspar; Barrientos, L. Felipe [Institute of Astrophysics and Center for Astroengineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Zheng, XianZhong, E-mail: zhengzy@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-06-20

    We present the first results from the ongoing Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) project, which is the largest narrowband survey for z ∼ 7 galaxies to date. Using a specially built narrowband filter NB964 for the superb large-area Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the NOAO/CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope, LAGER has collected 34 hr NB964 narrowband imaging data in the 3 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field. We have identified 23 Ly α Emitter candidates at z = 6.9 in the central 2-deg{sup 2} region, where DECam and public COSMOS multi-band images exist. The resulting luminosity function (LF) can be described as a Schechter function modified by a significant excess at the bright end (four galaxies with L {sub Lyα∼} 10{sup 43.4±0.2} erg s{sup −1}). The number density at L {sub Ly} {sub α} ∼ 10{sup 43.4±0.2} erg s{sup −1} is little changed from z = 6.6, while at fainter L {sub Lyα} it is substantially reduced. Overall, we see a fourfold reduction in Ly α luminosity density from z = 5.7 to z = 6.9. Combined with a more modest evolution of the continuum UV luminosity density, this suggests a factor of ∼3 suppression of Ly α by radiative transfer through the z ∼ 7 intergalactic medium (IGM). It indicates an IGM neutral fraction of x {sub Hi} ∼ 0.4–0.6 (assuming Ly α velocity offsets of 100–200 km s{sup −1}). The changing shape of the Ly α LF between z ≲ 6.6 and z = 6.9 supports the hypothesis of ionized bubbles in a patchy reionization at z ∼ 7.

  20. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - III. Wide-field effects of narrow-field arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Pandey, V. N.; Gehlot, B. K.

    2018-05-01

    Leakage of polarized Galactic diffuse emission into total intensity can potentially mimic the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR), as both of them might have fluctuating spectral structure. Although we are sensitive to the EoR signal only in small fields of view, chromatic side-lobes from further away can contaminate the inner region. Here, we explore the effects of leakage into the `EoR window' of the cylindrically averaged power spectra (PS) within wide fields of view using both observation and simulation of the 3C196 and North Celestial Pole (NCP) fields, two observing fields of the LOFAR-EoR project. We present the polarization PS of two one-night observations of the two fields and find that the NCP field has higher fluctuations along frequency, and consequently exhibits more power at high-k∥ that could potentially leak to Stokes I. Subsequently, we simulate LOFAR observations of Galactic diffuse polarized emission based on a model to assess what fraction of polarized power leaks into Stokes I because of the primary beam. We find that the rms fractional leakage over the instrumental k-space is 0.35 {per cent} in the 3C196 field and 0.27 {per cent} in the NCP field, and it does not change significantly within the diameters of 15°, 9°, and 4°. Based on the observed PS and simulated fractional leakage, we show that a similar level of leakage into Stokes I is expected in the 3C196 and NCP fields, and the leakage can be considered to be a bias in the PS.

  1. Astronomical tuning of the end-Permian extinction and the Early Triassic Epoch of South China and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Ogg, James; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Hinnov, Linda; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zou, Zhuoyan

    2016-05-01

    The timing of the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent prolonged recovery during the Early Triassic Epoch can be established from astronomically controlled climate cycles recorded in continuous marine sedimentary sections. Astronomical-cycle tuning of spectral gamma-ray logs from biostratigraphically-constrained cyclic stratigraphy through marine sections at Meishan, Chaohu, Daxiakou and Guandao in South China yields an integrated time scale for the Early Triassic, which is consistent with scaling of magnetostratigraphy from climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Germanic Basin. The main marine mass extinction interval at Meishan is constrained to less than 40% of a 100-kyr (kilo-year) cycle (i.e., marine reptiles in the Mesozoic at Chaohu that are considered to represent a significant recovery of marine ecosystems did not appear until 4.7 myr (million years) after the end-Permian extinction. The durations of the Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian and Spathian substages, including the uncertainty in placement of widely used conodont biostratigraphic datums for their boundaries, are 1.4 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 myr, implying a total span for the Early Triassic of 5.1 ± 0.1 myr. Therefore, relative to an assigned 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary from the Meishan GSSP, the ages for these substage boundaries are 250.5 ± 0.1 Ma for base Dienerian, 249.9 ± 0.1 Ma for base Smithian (base of Olenekian stage), 248.2 ± 0.1 Ma for base Spathian, and 246.8 ± 0.1 Ma for the base of the Anisian Stage. This astronomical-calibrated timescale provides rates for the recurrent carbon isotope excursions and for trends in sedimentation accumulation through the Early Triassic of studied sections in South China.

  2. EVOLUTION IN THE H I GAS CONTENT OF GALAXY GROUPS: PRE-PROCESSING AND MASS ASSEMBLY IN THE CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Kelley M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Wilcots, Eric M., E-mail: hess@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (H I) content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent dark matter halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us, for the first time, to study the H I properties of over 740 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and ALFALFA surveys. We assigned ALFALFA H I detections a group membership based on an existing magnitude/volume-limited SDSS Data Release 7 group/cluster catalog. Additionally, we assigned group ''proximity' membership to H I detected objects whose optical counterpart falls below the limiting optical magnitude—thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We find that only 25% of the H I detected galaxies reside in groups or clusters, in contrast to approximately half of all optically detected galaxies. Further, we plot the relative positions of optical and H I detections in groups as a function of parent dark matter halo mass to reveal strong evidence that H I is being processed in galaxies as a result of the group environment: as optical membership increases, groups become increasingly deficient of H I rich galaxies at their center and the H I distribution of galaxies in the most massive groups starts to resemble the distribution observed in comparatively more extreme cluster environments. We find that the lowest H I mass objects lose their gas first as they are processed in the group environment, and it is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch, replenishing the neutral gas supply of groups. Finally, we compare our results to those of cosmological simulations and find that current models cannot simultaneously predict the H I selected halo occupation distribution for both low and high mass halos.

  3. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions Based on a Bank of Norm-Inequality-Constrained Epoch-State Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. R.; Markley, F. L.; Alfriend, K. T.; Wright, C.; Arcido, J.

    2011-01-01

    Sequential probability ratio tests explicitly allow decision makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models 1he null hypothesis 1ha1 the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming highly-elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  4. The selection of royal figures in the image of power during the Palaiologan epoch: Byzantium - Serbia - Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved presentations of the Byzantine basileis of the XIII, XIV and XV centuries show that the creators of the late Byzantine monarchical portraits adhered to certain traditional rules when selecting the personages from the ruling house, which they were to portray. Defining which figures were to be depicted in the portrayal of power depended to a large extent on the changing circumstances and events in the imperial house. However, at the same time this was also based on a significantly more profound conception that rested on principles that had evolved in the course of a long history. The understanding of who could personify power was refracted through the prism of ideology and reflected in carefully shaped iconographic matrices. The omission of the images of certain members of the ruler's house, just as much as their inclusion, carried a certain meaning, as did the hierarchical arrangement of those who were portrayed. Generally speaking, this depended on the degree of their kinship with the sovereign, their sex, titles or dignities, and the connection of the members of the dynasty with the emperor's particular marriage. Therefore, one can rather clearly distinguish certain constants, if not rules, according to which some figures were omitted and others included, and, the specific changes that occurred from the end of the Middle Byzantine period till the fall of the Empire. The development of a unique kind of feudalism played a particular role in the specific characteristics in determining who was to appear in the monarchical portraits of the Palaiologan epoch in Byzantium and the states in its neighbourhood. As the preserved portrait ensembles and known written testimonies indicate, we find the images of the rulers' daughters did not feature in presentations of the 'emperors of the Romans' from the Late Byzantine period. In the Palaiologan epoch, they did not participate in the governing of the state nor were they taken into

  5. The variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio during different cosmological epochs due to decay and annihilation of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavarygin, E O; Ivanchik, A V

    2015-01-01

    An influence of annihilation and decay of the dark matter particles on the baryon-to-photon ratio has been studied for different cosmological epochs. We consider the different parameter values of the dark matter particles such as mass, annihilation cross section, lifetime and so on. The obtained results are compared with the data which come from the Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculation and from the analysis of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It has been shown that the modern value of the dark matter density Ω CDM = 0.26 is enough to provide the variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio up to Δη/η ∼ 0.01÷1 for decay of the dark matter particles, but it also leads to an excess of the diffuse gamma ray background. We use the observational data on the diffuse gamma ray background in order to determine our constraints on the model of the dark matter particle decay and on the corresponding variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio: Δη/η ≲ 10 -5 . It has been shown that the variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio caused by the annihilation of the dark matter particles is negligible during the cosmological epochs from Big Bang nucleosynthesis to the present epoch. (paper)

  6. Clay mineral assemblages of terrestrial records (Xining Basin, China) during the Eocene-Oligocene climate Transition (EOT) and its environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Guo, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) between ~34.0 and 33.5 million years ago, where global climate cooled from 'greenhouse' to 'icehouse' at ~33.5 Ma ago, is one of the great events during Cenozoic climate deterioration. In contrast to the marine records of the EOT, significantly less research has focused on the continental climate change during this time, particularly in inner Asia. We present a comprehensive study of the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene succession with regular alternations of laterally continuous gypsum/gypsiferous layers and red mudstone beds in Tashan section of Xining Basin, which is located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Clay minerals, which were extracted from this succession, were analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by using X-ray differaction (XRD). Base on detailed magnetostratigraphic time control, clay mineral compositions of this succession (33.1-35.5 Ma) are compared with open ocean marine records and Northern Hemisphere continental records to understand the process and characteristics of Asian climate change before, during and after EOT. Our results indicate that illite is the dominant clay mineral with less chlorite and variable smectite. Multi-parameter evidence suggests that the source areas of detrital inputs in Tashan have not changed and climate is the main control for the composition of the clay fraction. The characteristics of clay mineral concentrations suggest warm and humid fluctuations with cold and dry conditions and intense of seasonality during ~35.5-34.0 Ma in inner Asian. This changed to cold and dry condition at ~34 Ma and remained so from ~34-33.1 Ma. The comparisons between continental and marine records indicate that the climate changes experienced in the Xining basin region are more consistent with Northern Hemisphere rather than open oceans records. This indicates that paleoclimate changes for inner Asian before, during and after EOT was not controlled by Antarctic ice growth

  7. Anatomy, feeding ecology, and ontogeny of a transitional baleen whale: a new genus and species of Eomysticetidae (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene history of cetacean evolution is now represented by the expansive fossil record of archaeocetes elucidating major morphofunctional shifts relating to the land to sea transition, but the change from archaeocetes to modern cetaceans is poorly established. New fossil material of the recently recognized family Eomysticetidae from the upper Oligocene Otekaike Limestone includes a new genus and species, Waharoa ruwhenua, represented by skulls and partial skeletons of an adult, juvenile, and a smaller juvenile. Ontogenetic status is confirmed by osteohistology of ribs. Waharoa ruwhenua is characterized by an elongate and narrow rostrum which retains vestigial alveoli and alveolar grooves. Palatal foramina and sulci are present only on the posterior half of the palate. The nasals are elongate, and the bony nares are positioned far anteriorly. Enormous temporal fossae are present adjacent to an elongate and narrow intertemporal region with a sharp sagittal crest. The earbones are characterized by retaining inner and outer posterior pedicles, lacking fused posterior processes, and retaining a separate accessory ossicle. Phylogenetic analysis supports inclusion of Waharoa ruwhenua within a monophyletic Eomysticetidae as the earliest diverging clade of toothless mysticetes. This eomysticetid clade also included Eomysticetus whitmorei, Micromysticetus rothauseni, Tohoraata raekohao, Tokarahia kauaeroa, Tokarahia lophocephalus, and Yamatocetus canaliculatus. Detailed study of ontogenetic change demonstrates postnatal elaboration of the sagittal and nuchal crests, elongation of the intertemporal region, inflation of the zygomatic processes, and an extreme proportional increase in rostral length. Tympanic bullae are nearly full sized during early postnatal ontogeny indicating precocial development of auditory structures, but do increase slightly in size. Positive allometry of the rostrum suggests an ontogenetic change in feeding ecology, from neonatal suckling to a more

  8. New evidence for Oligocene to Recent slip along the San Juan fault, a terrane-bounding structure within the Cascadia forearc of southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Morell, K. D.; Regalla, C.; Lynch, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Active forearc deformation in the southern Cascadia subduction zone is partially accommodated by faults in the upper crust in both Washington state and Oregon, but until recently, these types of active forearc faults have not been documented in the northern part of the Cascadia forearc on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Here we present new evidence for Quaternary slip on the San Juan fault that indicates that this terrane-bounding structure has been reactivated since its last documented slip in the Eocene. Field work targeted by newly acquired hi-resolution lidar topography reveals a deformed debris flow channel network developed within colluvium along the central portion of the San Juan fault, consistent with a surface-rupturing earthquake with 1-2 m of offset since deglaciation 13 ka. Near the western extent of the San Juan fault, marine sediments are in fault contact with mélange of the Pandora Peak Unit. These marine sediments are likely Oligocene or younger in age, given their similarity in facies and fossil assemblages to nearby outcrops of the Carmanah Group sediments, but new dating using strontium isotope stratigraphy will confirm this hypothesis. If these sediments are part of the Carmanah Group, they occur further east and at a higher elevation than previously documented. The presence of Oligocene or younger marine sediments, more than 400 meters above current sea level, requires a substantial amount of Neogene rock uplift that could have been accommodated by slip on the San Juan fault. A preliminary analysis of fault slickensides indicates a change in slip sense from left-lateral to normal along the strike of the fault. Until further mapping and analysis is completed, however, it remains unclear whether this kinematic change reflects spatial and/or temporal variability. These observations suggest that the San Juan fault is likely part of a network of active faults accommodating forearc strain on Vancouver Island. With the recent discovery of

  9. End-of-treatment and serial PET imaging in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R: A paradigm shift in clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Christopher; Advani, Ranjana; Roschewski, Mark; Walters, Kelsey M; Chen, Clara C; Baratto, Lucia; Ahlman, Mark A; Miljkovic, Milos D; Steinberg, Seth M; Lam, Jessica; Shovlin, Margaret; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2018-05-10

    Dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R obviates the need for radiotherapy in most patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. End-of-treatment PET, however, does not accurately identify patients at risk of treatment failure, thereby confounding clinical decision making. To define the role of PET in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R, we extended enrollment and follow-up on our published phase II trial and independent series. Ninety-three patients received dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R without radiotherapy. End-of-treatment PET was performed in 80 patients, of whom 57 received 144 serial scans. One nuclear medicine physician from each institution blindly reviewed all scans from their respective institution. End-of-treatment PET was negative (Deauville 1-3) in 55 (69%) patients with one treatment failure (8-year event-free and overall survival of 96.0% and 97.7%). Among 25 (31%) patients with a positive (Deauville 4-5) end-of-treatment PET, there were 5 (20%) treatment failures (8-year event-free and overall survival of 71.1% and 84.3%). Linear regression analysis of serial scans showed a significant decrease in SUVmax in positive end-of-treatment PET non-progressors compared to an increase in treatment failures. Among 6 treatment failures, the median end-of-treatment SUVmax was 15.4 (range, 1.9-21.3) and 4 achieved long-term remission with salvage therapy. Virtually all patients with a negative end-of-treatment PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R achieved durable remissions and should not receive radiotherapy. Among patients with a positive end-of-treatment PET, only 5/25 (20%) had treatment-failure. Serial PET imaging distinguished end-of-treatment PET positive patients without treatment failure, thereby reducing unnecessary radiotherapy by 80%, and should be considered in all patients with an initial positive PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R (NCT00001337). Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES FOR 280,000 AGNs FROM THE SDSS BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY AND SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie, 4 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 Å, derived from the broadband extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching these sources to their counterparts from the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find very high correlations between our luminosities and DR7Q spectra-based luminosities with minute mean offsets (∼0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, and 0.12 dex, respectively, across a luminosity range of 2.5 dex. We then estimate the black hole (BH) masses of the AGNs using the broad line region radius–disk luminosity relations and the FWHM of the Mg ii and C iv emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,033 virial BH mass estimates (132,451 for Mg ii, 213,071 for C iv, and 62,489 for both) along with the estimates of the bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio for 0.1 <  z  < 5.5 and for roughly a quarter of the sky covered by SDSS. The BH mass estimates from Mg ii turned out to be closely matched to the ones from DR7Q with a dispersion of differences of 0.34 dex across a BH mass range of ∼2 dex. We uncovered a bias in the derived C iv FWHMs from DR12Q as compared to DR7Q, which we correct empirically. The C iv BH mass estimates should be used with caution because the C iv line is known to cause problems in the estimation of BH mass from single-epoch spectra. Finally, after the FWHM correction, the AGN BH mass estimates from C iv closely match the DR7Q ones (with a dispersion of 0.28 dex), and more importantly the Mg ii and C iv BH masses agree internally with a mean offset of 0.07 dex and a dispersion of 0.39 dex.

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE IONOSPHERE ON GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE GLOBAL EPOCH OF REIONIZATION SIGNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Tremblay, Steven E.; Tingay, Steven J.; Waterson, Mark; Tickner, Jonathan; Emrich, David; Schlagenhaufer, Franz; Kenney, David; Padhi, Shantanu, E-mail: marcin.sokolowski@curtin.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, G.P.O Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    The redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H i), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (∼50–200 MHz), is a promising probe of the physical conditions of the intergalactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The sky-averaged H i signal is expected to be extremely weak (∼100 mK) in comparison to the Galactic foreground emission (∼10{sup 4} K). Moreover, the sky-averaged spectra measured by ground-based instruments are affected by chromatic propagation effects (∼tens of kelvin) originating in the ionosphere. We analyze data collected with the upgraded Broadband Instrument for Global Hydrogen Reionization Signal system deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory to assess the significance of ionospheric effects on the detection of the global EoR signal. The ionospheric effects identified in these data are, particularly during nighttime, dominated by absorption and emission. We measure some properties of the ionosphere, such as the electron temperature (T{sub e} ≈ 470 K at nighttime), magnitude, and variability of optical depth (τ{sub 100} {sub MHz} ≈ 0.01 and δτ ≈ 0.005 at nighttime). According to the results of a statistical test applied on a large data sample, very long integrations (∼100 hr collected over approximately 2 months) lead to increased signal-to-noise ratio even in the presence of ionospheric variability. This is further supported by the structure of the power spectrum of the sky temperature fluctuations, which has flicker noise characteristics at frequencies ≳10{sup −5} Hz, but becomes flat below ≈10{sup −5} Hz. Hence, we conclude that the stochastic error introduced by the chromatic ionospheric effects tends to zero in an average. Therefore, the ionospheric effects and fluctuations are not fundamental impediments preventing ground-based instruments from integrating down to the precision required by global EoR experiments, provided that the ionospheric contribution is

  12. Galaxy formation in the reionization epoch as hinted by Wide Field Camera 3 observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Ryan, Russell E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    towards z ∼ 6. In this scenario, the majority of the stellar mass that the universe assembled through the reionization epoch seems still undetected by current observations at z ∼ 6. (research papers)

  13. Cones, Seeds, and Foliage of Tetraclinis Salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Western North America: A Geographic Extension of the European Tertiary Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvacek; Manchester; Schorn

    2000-03-01

    The cupressaceous genus Tetraclinis is recognized from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America on the basis of co-occurring seed cones, seeds, and foliage branches. Morphological and anatomical comparisons with the two previously recognized European Tertiary species indicate that the North American specimens are morphologically inseparable from Tetraclinis salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek. The North American taxon is treated as a new variety, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. praedecurrens (Knowlton) comb. et stat. nov., and is distinguished from the European representatives, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. salicornioides, by slight anatomical differences in the leaf epidermis. Although cones and seeds of the fossil species are closely similar to those of extant Tetraclinis articulata, the foliage is more "spreading," composed of flattened segments with fused facial and lateral leaves that are apparently adaptive for a more mesic climate. The recognition of T. salicornioides in western North America along with the absence of Tetraclinis in the fossil and recent flora of eastern Asia provide evidence for communication of the species across the North Atlantic during the early or middle Tertiary.

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcová Katarína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys. Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains.

  15. The taphonomy of a remarkable leaf bed assemblage from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, David K.; Zetter, Reinhard; Vavra, Norbert [Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lee, Daphne E. [Department of Geology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bannister, Jennifer M. [Department of Botany, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Jordan, Gregory J. [School of Plant Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Mildenhall, Dallas C. [GNS Science, PO Box 30-368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2010-08-01

    A diverse assemblage of fossil leaves showing cellular detail is reported from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand. The leaf-remains include at least five conifers, such as the genera Agathis, Dacrycarpus, Phyllocladus and Dacrydium, as well as a number of angiosperms including Gymnostoma, Nothofagus Subgenus Brassospora, Phormium, Proteaceae, Sapindaceae and Ericaceae. A parallel palynological study has identified a number of the same elements. The leaf layers represent litter horizons laid down in pools on the surface of a subtropical ombrotrophic forest mire that formed on an extensive low-lying coastal plain. Highly acidic water ponded in tree-fall depressions prevented microbial decay of the foliage. Taxa represented by both leaves and pollen are considered to have been components of the autochthonous swamp forest. Some other pollen grains are thought to represent local elements, based on the pollination biology of their nearest living relatives. Other taxa whose extant representatives are wind-pollinated may have grown further away. (author)

  16. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae) associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Manuel; Escudero, Marcial; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Minaya, Miguel Ángel; Catalán, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding ( ndhF , matk ) and three non-coding ( trnH-psbA , trnT-L and trnL-F ), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n  = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae.

  17. The geological position, sedimentary record and composition of the Tylicz Conglomerate (Late Eocene-Oligocene): stratigraphical and paleogeographical implications (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Barbara; Oszczypko, Nestor

    2010-02-01

    During the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the Magura Basin was supplied with clastic material from, non-existing today, source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin. The northern source area is traditionally connected with Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. The Upper Eocene-Oligocene pebbly mudstones of the Tylicz/Krynica facies zone contain exotic material derived from the south-Magura source area. The studied pebbles and clasts contain fragments of crystalline rocks, derived from a continental type of crust, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Paleogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Volcanites, rarely granitoides as well as schists, gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. The isotopic ages of "exotic" pebbles from the Tylicz section document a Variscan age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The composition of the Tylicz exotic conglomerates occupied the transitional position between the Jarmuta/Proč (Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene) and Strihovce (Eocene) exotic pebbles. The provenance of these rocks could be connected with Eocene exhumation of the SE sector of the Magura Basin basement. Another possibility can be explain by supply of siliciclastic material from a SE source area (Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units) and carbonate material from a S source area (ALCAPA Mega-Unit: Central Carpathian Block and Pieniny Klippen Belt).

  18. The taxonomic status, and isotopic evidence for paleoenvironments, of giant oysters from the Oligocene Te Kuiti Group, South Auckland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.S.; Burns, D.A.; Rodgers, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Close inspection of the morphologic characteristics of giant oysters from the Oligocene Te Kuiti Group indicates that they do not belong in any of the several genera so far assigned them in the literature, including the estuarine genus Crassostrea. They are most typical of the tribe Flemingostreini Stenzel, but without more extensive and specialist study it is premature to give them generic status, which might only perpetrate further taxonomic confusion. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of the oyster shells, as well as independent evidence, suggest that oysters in: (1) the Mangakotuku Siltstone formed in a protected, shallow marine embayment, open only to the north, having locally restricted circulation, but mainly normal to only slightly reduced salinites, the light carbon in shells being derived more from the reaction with seawater of locally produced CO 2 from decomposition of abundant organic debris in the bottom sediments than from widespread dilution of seawater by freshwater; (2) the Whaingaroa Siltstone formed in open, shallow shelf waters of normal marine salinity; and (3) the prominent oyster beds in the Orahiri Limestone developed in a fully marine, tideswept strait, in water depths of 25-50 m and bottom temperatures of possibly c. 14 0 C. (auths)

  19. An ecological response to the Eocene/Oligocene transition revealed by the δ13CTOC record, Lanzhou Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuli; Zhao, Yan; Fang, Xiaomin; Meng, Qingquan

    2018-06-01

    The Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) transition, corresponds to an abrupt global cooling, thought to have been one of the greatest temperature changes in the mid-Cenozoic Earth's history. Sparse studies have successfully reconstructed the terrestrial ecological response to this temperature change. Here, we report results from the study of organic carbon isotopes (δ13CTOC), together with n-alkanes biomarker analysis, in the Yongdeng Section, Lanzhou Basin, Northwest China, and discuss changes in δ13CTOC and their mechanisms. The results show that between 35.3 Ma and 31.0 Ma, δ13CTOC ranged from -26.72‰ to -21.27‰. The main change occurred at 33.4 Ma, when δ13CTOC became heavier by 3‰. At this time the long-chain n-alkane members (C27, C29 and C31) were dominant, suggesting the most likely sources of organic matter were terrestrial plants. Combining these results with existing measurements of plant δ13CTOC and sporopollen data in adjacent areas, we infer that this change at 33.4 Ma might have been caused by an increase in gymnosperm content especially coniferous trees adapted to cold climates, which have a heavier δ13CTOC than that of the angiosperms, this would have been a response to the global cooling characteristic of this period.

  20. Assembling the Infrared Extragalactic Background Light with CIBER-2: Probing Inter-Halo Light and the Epoch of Reionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James

    We propose to carry out a program of observations with the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER-2). CIBER-2 is a near-infrared sounding rocket experiment designed to measure spatial fluctuations in the extragalactic background light. CIBER-2 scientifically follows on the detection of fluctuations with the CIBER-1 imaging instrument, and will use measurement techniques developed and successfully demonstrated by CIBER-1. With high-sensitivity, multi-band imaging measurements, CIBER-2 will elucidate the history of interhalo light (IHL) production and carry out a deep search for extragalactic background fluctuations associated with the epoch of reionization (EOR). CIBER-1 has made high-quality detections of large-scale fluctuations over 4 sounding rocket flights. CIBER-1 measured the amplitude and spatial power spectrum of fluctuations, and observed an electromagnetic spectrum that is close to Rayleigh-Jeans, but with a statistically significant turnover at 1.1 um. The fluctuations cross-correlate with Spitzer images and are significantly bluer than the spectrum of the integrated background derived from galaxy counts. We interpret the CIBER-1 fluctuations as arising from IHL, low-mass stars tidally stripped from their parent galaxies during galaxy mergers. The first generation of stars and their remnants are likely responsible for the for the reionization of the intergalactic medium, observed to be ionized out to the most distant quasars at a redshift of 6. The total luminosity produced by first stars is uncertain, but a lower limit can be placed assuming a minimal number of photons to produce and sustain reionization. This 'minimal' extragalactic background component associated with reionization is detectable in fluctuations at the design sensitivity of CIBER-2. The CIBER-2 instrument is optimized for sensitivity to surface brightness in a short sounding rocket flight. The instrument consists of a 28 cm wide-field telescope operating in 6 spectral bands

  1. Relative Contribution of the Hydrogen 2 s Two-Photon Decay and Lyman- α Escape Channels during the Epoch of Cosmological Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of the ratio in number of recombinations due to 2 s two photon escape and due to the escape of Lyman- α photons from the resonance during the epoch of cosmological recombination, within the width of the last scattering surface and near its boundaries. We discuss how this ratio evolves in time, and how it defines the profile of the Lyman- α line in the spectrum of CMB. One of the key reasons for explaining its time dependence is the strong overpopulation of the 2 p level relative to the 2 s level at redshifts z ≲ 750.

  2. Evolution and relationships between volcanism and tectonics in the central-eastern part of the Oligocene Borovitsa caldera (Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Damien; Yanev, Yotzo; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Chorowicz, Jean

    2008-04-01

    The nested Borovitsa caldera emplaced during the collision-related Paleogene volcanism in the Eastern Rhodopes. The pre-caldera succession consists in Priabonian to Early Oligocene sediments and lavas (absarokites, shoshonites, latites). The caldera filling corresponds to an acid volcanism Early Oligocene in age. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the caldera can be divided into six main stages. (1) Ignimbritic units (more than 1.5 km thick) with a trachydacitic to trachytic composition deposited. The K-Ar method yields an age of 34-33.5 Ma. The volcanic products are either strongly or not welded in the western and eastern parts of the caldera, respectively. (2) An initial Murga caldera, 7-10 km in diameter, collapsed. This event was accompanied by the intrusion of a circular body consisting of lenses-bearing rocks of trachyrhyodacitic to rhyolitic composition within the border faults. (3) The emission of pyroclastic rocks continued and a large sub-volcanic body (33 Ma) of trachydacitic to trachyrhyolitic composition intruded in the western part of the circular body. (4) The Borovitsa caldera (15 km × 34 km) collapsed. Rhyolitic and trachydacitic dykes dated at 32.5 Ma intruded along its border faults. (5) High-Si trachyrhyolitic-perlitic domes intruded in the eastern part of the Borovitsa caldera at 30-32 Ma and the Dushka caldera collapsed within the Borovitsa structure. (6) Dykes of various compositions (from shoshonite to rhyolite) and trachydacitic to rhyolitic sub-volcanic stocks finally intruded within the caldera and along its rims at 27.5-29.5 Ma. Observations on radar and optical satellite imagery allowed both a new mapping of the structural pattern in the Borovitsa caldera and the understanding of the relationships between faulting and volcanism in this area. Horse-tail features accommodating the right-lateral throw component at the termination of NW-SE and N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults are superimposed upon the Murga caldera and the eastern part

  3. Geologic Reconnaissance of the Antelope-Ashwood Area, North-Central Oregon: With Emphasis on the John Day Formation of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Dallas L.

    1964-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geology of an area of about 750 square miles in Jefferson, Wasco, Crook, and Wheeler Counties, Oregon. About 16,000 feet of strata that range in age from pre-Tertiary to Quaternary are exposed. These include the following units: pre-Tertiary slate, graywacke, conglomerate, and meta-andesite; Clarno Formation of Eocene age - lava flows, volcanic breccia, tuff, and tuffaceous mudstone, chiefly of andesitic composition; John Day Formation of late Oligocene and early Miocene age - pyroclastic rocks, flows, and domes, chiefly of rhyolitic composition; Columbia River Basalt of middle Miocene age - thick, columnar jointed flows of very fine grained dense dark-gray basalt; Dalles Formation of Pliocene age - bedded tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate; basalt of Pliocene or Pleistocene age - lava flows of porous-textured olivine basalt; and Quaternary loess, landslide debris, and alluvium. Unconformities separate pre-Tertiary rocks and Clarno Formation, Clarno and John Day Formations, John Day Formation and Columbia River Basalt, and Columbia River Basalt and Dalles Formation. The John Day Formation, the only unit studied in detail, consists of about 4,000 feet of tuff, lapilli tuff, strongly to weakly welded rhyolite ash flows, and less abundant trachyandesite flows and rhyolite flows and domes. The formation was divided into nine mappable members in part of the area, primarily on the basis of distinctive ledge-forming welded ash-flow sheets. Most of the sheets are composed of stony rhyolite containing abundant lithophysae and sparse phenocrysts. One sheet contains 10 to 20 percent phenocrysts, mostly cryptoperthitic soda sanidine, but including less abundant quartz, myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and sanidine, and oligoclase. The rhyolitic ash flows and lava flows were extruded from nearby vents, in contrast to some of the interbedded air-fall tuff and lapilli tuff of dacitic and andesitic composition that may have been

  4. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paige K; Moore, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  5. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. - architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava-Podhale basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, Dušan; Fuksi, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe-system scale. This

  6. Weighing the Oligocene extensional event in the Salar de Atacama Basin by analysis of depth-converted sections and geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunan, S. A.; Maksymowicz, A.; Martínez, F.; Becerra, J.; Rubilar, J. F.; Arriagada, C.; Peña Gomez, M. A.; Gómez, I.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple studies of industry seismic lines across the Salar de Atacama Basin, in the Central Andes of northern Chile (22°-24°S), have led to opposite interpretations regarding its internal architecture, particularly for the Cenozoic successions. These differences can be attributed to the yet uncertain stratigraphy of the 5425 m-deep Toconao-1 well, its relation to outcrops around the El Bordo Escarpment, the tie between the well and the seismic lines, and the lack of a depth conversion of these lines. An analysis of these data allows for the proper location in the depth domain of the most important reflectors found in line Z-1G010, which intersects the borehole. The vertical seismic profile and the density log show that the most significant change in lithological properties occurs at ca. 1 s TWT (1580 m), at the transition from mainly evaporitic deposits to more clastic units, presumably belonging to the Loma Amarilla Formation. This modification in velocity and density can be seen in the seismic line as a major west-dipping surface, dubbed the San Pedro Reflector (SPR). The use of 3D software and the depth conversion allow following the SPR along most of the basin. The surface shows an east-to-west, south-to-north increase in depth, reaching a maximum close to 8 km. The geometry of the surface closely follows the trend of the El Bordo Escarpment. Based on paleomagnetic data, recent mapping and geochronology data, the reflector is estimated to have formed during the Oligocene. Additional extensional features confirm its origin due to small-scale collapse of the Cordillera de Domeyko after the Eocene Incaic Event, after which the deformation front migrated eastwards, thus explaining the presence of extension and compression along the margin at the same time. This change in stress state also affected other parts of the range, such as the Calama Basin.

  7. A new species of Trachytherus (Notoungulata: Mesotheriidae) from the late Oligocene (Deseadan) of Southern Peru and the middle latitude diversification of early diverging mesotheriids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Bruce J; Billet, Guillaume; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo

    2016-05-18

    Herein we describe a new species of early diverging mesotheriid notoungulate from the late Oligocene of Moquegua, Peru. This taxon, Trachytherus ramirezi sp. nov., is distinctive in terms of a few characteristics that appear plesiomorphic as compared to those of other described mesotheriids, even other species referred to Trachytherus. Such plesiomorphic traits include the absence of an upper diastema and a lack of heart-shaped incisive foramina, traits that are generally present in other mesotheriids. Our phylogenetic analysis of described early divergent mesotheriids indicates that T. ramirezi was the earliest to diverge. This analysis also confirms the paraphyletic nature of the "genus" Trachytherus.          Geographically, T. ramirezi clusters among T. alloxus, T. subandinus, and T. spegazzinianus, all of which are known from a discrete region in the middle latitudes of western South America that we refer to as the Bolivian Orocline Region (BOR). Our palaeobiogeographic reconstruction using maximum parsimony identifies the BOR as a possible ancestral area for the Mesotheriidae and as an important region for their diversification. For the more exclusive Mesotheriinae, the BOR was reconstructed as the ancestral area, an area from which some mesotheriines would have later dispersed to southern South America. Uncertainty concerning the ancestral area, for the Mesotheriidae-which could be BOR or southern South America area (or both)-is possibly due to the ignorance of the phylogenetic affinities for the undescribed mesotheriid remains reported from Tinguirirican localities. The present description of T. ramirezi therefore adds to the high taxonomic diversity of early mesotheriid species in the relatively small area of the BOR and emphasizes the likely role played by this topographically dynamic area on mesotheriid evolution during a significant time in the history of the clade.

  8. MULTI-EPOCH VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPACT WIND-COLLISION REGION IN THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM Cyg OB2 no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Araudo, Anabella T. [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J., E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present multi-epoch Very Long Base Array observations of the compact wind-collision region in the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system. These observations confirm the arc-shaped morphology of the emission reported earlier. The total flux as a function of time is roughly constant when the source is 'on', but falls below the detection limit as the wind-collision region approaches periastron in its orbit around the contact binary at the center of the system. In addition, at one of the 'on' epochs, the flux drops to about a fifth of its average value. We suggest that this apparent variation could result from the inhomogeneity of the wind that hides part of the flux rather than from an intrinsic variation. We measured a trigonometrical parallax, for the most compact radio emission of 0.61 {+-} 0.22 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.65 {sup +0.96} {sub -0.44} kpc, in agreement with recent trigonometrical parallaxes measured for objects in the Cygnus X complex. Using constraints on the total mass of the system and orbital parameters previously reported in the literature, we obtain two independent indirect measurements of the distance to the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system, both consistent with 1.3-1.4 kpc. Finally, we suggest that the companion star responsible for the wind interaction, yet undetected, is of spectral type between B0.5 and O8.

  9. Sensitivity of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and its build-out stages to one-point statistics from redshifted 21 cm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiwisit, Piyanat; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, Adam P.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    2018-03-01

    We present a baseline sensitivity analysis of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and its build-out stages to one-point statistics (variance, skewness, and kurtosis) of redshifted 21 cm intensity fluctuation from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) based on realistic mock observations. By developing a full-sky 21 cm light-cone model, taking into account the proper field of view and frequency bandwidth, utilizing a realistic measurement scheme, and assuming perfect foreground removal, we show that HERA will be able to recover statistics of the sky model with high sensitivity by averaging over measurements from multiple fields. All build-out stages will be able to detect variance, while skewness and kurtosis should be detectable for HERA128 and larger. We identify sample variance as the limiting constraint of the measurements at the end of reionization. The sensitivity can also be further improved by performing frequency windowing. In addition, we find that strong sample variance fluctuation in the kurtosis measured from an individual field of observation indicates the presence of outlying cold or hot regions in the underlying fluctuations, a feature that can potentially be used as an EoR bubble indicator.

  10. MULTI-EPOCH VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPACT WIND-COLLISION REGION IN THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM Cyg OB2 no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Araudo, Anabella T.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Very Long Base Array observations of the compact wind-collision region in the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system. These observations confirm the arc-shaped morphology of the emission reported earlier. The total flux as a function of time is roughly constant when the source is 'on', but falls below the detection limit as the wind-collision region approaches periastron in its orbit around the contact binary at the center of the system. In addition, at one of the 'on' epochs, the flux drops to about a fifth of its average value. We suggest that this apparent variation could result from the inhomogeneity of the wind that hides part of the flux rather than from an intrinsic variation. We measured a trigonometrical parallax, for the most compact radio emission of 0.61 ± 0.22 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.65 +0.96 –0.44 kpc, in agreement with recent trigonometrical parallaxes measured for objects in the Cygnus X complex. Using constraints on the total mass of the system and orbital parameters previously reported in the literature, we obtain two independent indirect measurements of the distance to the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system, both consistent with 1.3-1.4 kpc. Finally, we suggest that the companion star responsible for the wind interaction, yet undetected, is of spectral type between B0.5 and O8.

  11. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March – 21 April 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sun

    Full Text Available The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary shocks – Magnetosheric physics (storms and substorms

  12. Two-epoch cross-sectional case record review protocol comparing quality of care of hospital emergency admissions at weekends versus weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, Julian; Aldridge, Cassie P; Girling, Alan; Rudge, Gavin; Beet, Chris; Evans, Tim; Temple, R Mark; Roseveare, Chris; Clancy, Mike; Boyal, Amunpreet; Tarrant, Carolyn; Sutton, Elizabeth; Sun, Jianxia; Rees, Peter; Mannion, Russell; Chen, Yen-Fu; Watson, Samuel Ian; Lilford, Richard

    2017-12-22

    The mortality associated with weekend admission to hospital (the 'weekend effect') has for many years been attributed to deficiencies in quality of hospital care, often assumed to be due to suboptimal senior medical staffing at weekends. This protocol describes a case note review to determine whether there are differences in care quality for emergency admissions (EAs) to hospital at weekends compared with weekdays, and whether the difference has reduced over time as health policies have changed to promote 7-day services. Cross-sectional two-epoch case record review of 20 acute hospital Trusts in England. Anonymised case records of 4000 EAs to hospital, 2000 at weekends and 2000 on weekdays, covering two epochs (financial years 2012-2013 and 2016-2017). Admissions will be randomly selected across the whole of each epoch from Trust electronic patient records. Following training, structured implicit case reviews will be conducted by consultants or senior registrars (senior residents) in acute medical specialities (60 case records per reviewer), and limited to the first 7 days following hospital admission. The co-primary outcomes are the weekend:weekday admission ratio of errors per case record, and a global assessment of care quality on a Likert scale. Error rates will be analysed using mixed effects logistic regression models, and care quality using ordinal regression methods. Secondary outcomes include error typology, error-related adverse events and any correlation between error rates and staffing. The data will also be used to inform a parallel health economics analysis. The project has received ethics approval from the South West Wales Research Ethics Committee (REC): reference 13/WA/0372. Informed consent is not required for accessing anonymised patient case records from which patient identifiers had been removed. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications in high-quality journals and through local High-intensity Specialist-Led Acute

  13. Evolution characteristic of gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm in the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghong Yi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over years of oil and gas exploration in the Qaidam Basin, reservoirs have been discovered in many layers. In the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin, the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm is an important target for oil and gas exploration, and gypsum-salt rocks are the high-quality caprocks for the preservation of oil and gas reservoirs in this area. For predicting oil and gas exploration direction and target in the western Qaidam Basin and providing guidance for its oil and gas exploration deployment, its depositional characteristics and environment of gypsum-salt rocks in this area were investigated based on the core observation, thin section identification, and analysis of grain size, sensitivity parameter ratios (Sr/Cu, Fe/Mn, (Fe + Al/(Ca + Mg, V/(V + Ni and Pr/Ph, pyrite content and inclusions. The following characteristics are identified. First, gypsum-salt rocks are mainly distributed in the depocenter of the lake basin and their thickness decreases towards the margin of the basin. They are laterally transformed into carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. They are areally distributed in the shape of irregular ellipse. Second, gypsum-salt rocks are vertically developed mainly in the middle and upper parts of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm and they are interbedded with carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. Their single layer thickness changes greatly, and there are many layers with good continuity. Third, Sand Group III to Group I in the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm (inter-salt are of reductive water environment of semi-deep to deep lake facies due to their sedimentation in an arid and hot climate. It is concluded that gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm are distributed widely with great accumulative thickness in this area; and that they are originated from deep lake water by virtue of evaporation, concentration and crystallization in an arid and hot climate instead

  14. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. – architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava–Podhale basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starek Dušan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe

  15. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Oligocene Creede Formation fill the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed at about 26.9 Ma during the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of two cores (418 and 703 m long) that penetrated the lower half of the Creede Formation, in addition to paleomagnetic and isotopic dating studies of stratigraphically bracketing volcanic units, provide information on the age and the time span of sedimentation of the caldera fill. Normal polarity magnetization are found in Snowshoe Mountain Tuff beneath the moat sediments; in detrital-magnetite-bearing graded tuffs near the bottom of the moat fill; in an ash-fall deposit about 200 m stratigraphically about the top of core 2; and in postcaldera lava flows of the Fisher Dacite that overlie the Creede Formation. Normal polarity also characterizes detrital-magnetite-bearing tuff and sandstone unites within the caldera moat rocks that did not undergo severe sulfidic alteration. The combination of initially low magnitude of remanent magnetization and the destructive effects of subsequent diagenetic sulfidization on detrital iron oxides results in a poor paleomagnetic record for the fine-grained sedimentary rocks of the Creede Formation. these fine-grained rocks have either normal or revered polarity magnetizations that are carried by magnetite and/or maghemite. Many more apparent reversals are found that can be accommodated by any geomagnetic polarity time scale over the interval spanned by the ages of the bracketing extrusive rocks. Moreover, opposite polarity magnetization are found in specimens separated by only a few centimeters, without intervening hiatuses, and by specimens in several tuff beds, each of which represents a single depositional event. These polarity changes cannot, therefore, be attributed to detrital remanent magnetization. Many polarity changes are apparently related to chemical remanent magnetizations carried by

  16. THE INNER DISK STRUCTURE, DISK-PLANET INTERACTIONS, AND TEMPORAL EVOLUTION IN THE β PICTORIS SYSTEM: A TWO-EPOCH HST/STIS CORONAGRAPHIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Wyatt, Mark C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lagrange, Anne-Marie [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraphic images of the β Pic debris disk obtained at two epochs separated by 15 yr. The new images and the re-reduction of the 1997 data provide the most sensitive and detailed views of the disk at optical wavelengths as well as the yet smallest inner working angle optical coronagraphic image of the disk. Our observations characterize the large-scale and inner-disk asymmetries and we identify multiple breaks in the disk radial surface brightness profile. We study in detail the radial and vertical disk structure and show that the disk is warped. We explore the disk at the location of the β Pic b super-Jupiter and find that the disk surface brightness slope is continuous between 0.''5 and 2.''0, arguing for no change at the separations where β Pic b orbits. The two epoch images constrain the disk's surface brightness evolution on orbital and radiation pressure blow-out timescales. We place an upper limit of 3% on the disk surface brightness change between 3'' and 5'', including the locations of the disk warp, and the CO and dust clumps. We discuss the new observations in the context of high-resolution multi-wavelength images and divide the disk asymmetries in two groups: axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric. The axisymmetric structures (warp, large-scale butterfly, etc.) are consistent with disk structure models that include interactions of a planetesimal belt and a non-coplanar giant planet. The non-axisymmetric features, however, require a different explanation.

  17. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z ∼ 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L.; Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris; Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stéphane; Hoekstra, Henk; Sivanandam, Suresh; Foley, Ryan J.; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 200 (1 Mpc) of 0.042 +0.012 –0.010 +0.010 –0.008 SNuM (0.049 +0.016 –0.014 +0.005 –0.004 SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041 +0.015 –0.015 +0.005 –0.010 SNuM (0.041 +0.019 –0.015 +0.005 –0.004 SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z ∼ 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z f = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, Ψ(t)∝t s , we find s = –1.62 ± 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s ∼ –1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s ∼ –2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate ∼6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  18. The Galaxy mass function up to z =4 in the GOODS-MUSIC sample: into the epoch of formation of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Pentericci, L.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Cristiani, S.; Vanzella, E.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.

    2006-12-01

    Aims.The goal of this work is to measure the evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function and of the resulting Stellar Mass Density up to redshift ≃4, in order to study the assembly of massive galaxies in the high redshift Universe. Methods: .We have used the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, containing 3000 Ks-selected galaxies with multi-wavelength coverage extending from the U band to the Spitzer 8 μm band, of which 27% have spectroscopic redshifts and the remaining fraction have accurate photometric redshifts. On this sample we have applied a standard fitting procedure to measure stellar masses. We compute the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function and the resulting Stellar Mass Density up to redshift ≃4, taking into proper account the biases and incompleteness effects. Results: .Within the well known trend of global decline of the Stellar Mass Density with redshift, we show that the decline of the more massive galaxies may be described by an exponential timescale of ≃6 Gyr up to z≃ 1.5, and proceeds much faster thereafter, with an exponential timescale of ≃0.6 Gyr. We also show that there is some evidence for a differential evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function, with low mass galaxies evolving faster than more massive ones up to z≃ 1{-}1.5 and that the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function remains remarkably flat (i.e. with a slope close to the local one) up to z≃ 1{-}1.3. Conclusions: .The observed behaviour of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function is consistent with a scenario where about 50% of present-day massive galaxies formed at a vigorous rate in the epoch between redshift 4 and 1.5, followed by a milder evolution until the present-day epoch.

  19. Interpretation of an Epoch in the Novel "the Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya: Linguistic-Cultural Analysis of Verbal Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Ch. Safin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the verbal lexicon analysis based on the text of the novel "The Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya. The creative manner of the contemporary writer attracts the attention of researchers, her writings describe the emotional experiences of the heroes and also give a generalized image of time full of historical details and features. The language of her stories and short stories is characterized by a special style in the description of time realities. A verb in the text allows the author to express the events and the circumstances that characterize an action in its dynamics due to the fact that verbal categories reflect the real reality in our consciousness. The method of linguistic cultural analysis of verbal lexicon in the novel "The Big Green Tent" made it possible to single out exactly those language units that the writer carefully selects for the creation and interpretation of the era. A special emphasis in the study is made on the creation of an expressive-emotional style of narration using the stylistic capabilities of the Russian verb. The individual author's methods of narration expressiveness creation are singled out: synonymous series, euphemisms, colloquial lexicon, etc. The conducted study and a careful analysis of the selected factual material testifies that, recreating an epoch, the master of the word invariably uses that language arsenal that brightly and fully conveys the color of time. L. Ulitskaya is able to be not only an indifferent witness of the epoch, but also her tenacious observer and interpreter. The analyzed factual material and the main points of this research can be used in the courses on stylistics and linguistic culturology, and also as an illustrative material during the classes on the linguistic analysis of a literary text.

  20. New limits on 21 cm epoch of reionization from paper-32 consistent with an x-ray heated intergalactic medium at z = 7.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2014-01-01

    We present new constraints on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization (EoR) power spectrum derived from three months of observing with a 32 antenna, dual-polarization deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum approach to avoiding foregrounds, achieving over eight orders of magnitude of foreground suppression (in mK 2 ). Combining this approach with a procedure for removing off-diagonal covariances arising from instrumental systematics, we achieve a best 2σ upper limit of (41 mK) 2 for k = 0.27 h Mpc –1 at z = 7.7. This limit falls within an order of magnitude of the brighter predictions of the expected 21 cm EoR signal level. Using the upper limits set by these measurements, we generate new constraints on the brightness temperature of 21 cm emission in neutral regions for various reionization models. We show that for several ionization scenarios, our measurements are inconsistent with cold reionization. That is, heating of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) is necessary to remain consistent with the constraints we report. Hence, we have suggestive evidence that by z = 7.7, the H I has been warmed from its cold primordial state, probably by X-rays from high-mass X-ray binaries or miniquasars. The strength of this evidence depends on the ionization state of the IGM, which we are not yet able to constrain. This result is consistent with standard predictions for how reionization might have proceeded.

  1. New limits on 21 cm epoch of reionization from paper-32 consistent with an x-ray heated intergalactic medium at z = 7.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jacobs, Daniel C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, Pat [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-20

    We present new constraints on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization (EoR) power spectrum derived from three months of observing with a 32 antenna, dual-polarization deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum approach to avoiding foregrounds, achieving over eight orders of magnitude of foreground suppression (in mK{sup 2}). Combining this approach with a procedure for removing off-diagonal covariances arising from instrumental systematics, we achieve a best 2σ upper limit of (41 mK){sup 2} for k = 0.27 h Mpc{sup –1} at z = 7.7. This limit falls within an order of magnitude of the brighter predictions of the expected 21 cm EoR signal level. Using the upper limits set by these measurements, we generate new constraints on the brightness temperature of 21 cm emission in neutral regions for various reionization models. We show that for several ionization scenarios, our measurements are inconsistent with cold reionization. That is, heating of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) is necessary to remain consistent with the constraints we report. Hence, we have suggestive evidence that by z = 7.7, the H I has been warmed from its cold primordial state, probably by X-rays from high-mass X-ray binaries or miniquasars. The strength of this evidence depends on the ionization state of the IGM, which we are not yet able to constrain. This result is consistent with standard predictions for how reionization might have proceeded.

  2. (Lower Oligocene) of Manipur, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3. Tetrapod footprints. 3.1 Material. Two successive footprints of a trackway catalogued as MSM-1 and .... tory Museum Basel, Switzerland and an anony- mous reviewer are ... Associate Editor, Journal of Earth System Science with whose ...

  3. Petrogenetic processes, crystallization conditions and nature of the Lower-Oligocene calc-alkaline spessartitic lamprophyres from Kal-e-kafi area (East of Anarak, Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossain Nazari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lamprophyres are mesocratic to melanocratic igneous rocks, usually hypabyssal, with a panidiomorphic texture and abundant mafic phenocrysts of dark mica or amphibole (or both with or without pyroxene, with or without olivine, set in a matrix of the same minerals, and with alkali-feldspar restricted to the groundmass (Woolley et al., 1996. Lamprophyres are frequently associated with orogenic settings and a mantle modified by dehydration of subducted slab (Gibson et al., 1995. Small outcrops of lamprophyres with Paleozoic to Oligocene age are reported from the central parts of Iran (Torabi 2009 and 2010. The primary magmas of these lamprophyres were derived from decompression melting of the mantle induced by a tensional regime of continental crust (Torabi, 2010. Bayat and Torabi (2011 called the western part of the CEIM (Central-East Iranian Microcontinent (Anarak to Bayazeh a “Paleozoic lamprophyric province” and suggested that the lamprophyre magmas were formed by subduction of Paleo-Tethys oceanic crust from the Early to late Paleozoic which resulted in the mantle metasomatism and enrichment. Lamprophyric dykes and stocks of the Kal-e-kafi area (Central Iran, Northern part of Yazd Block cross-cut the Eocene volcanic rocks and other older rock units such as Cretaceous limestone. These lamprophyres are mainly composed of hornblende (magnesio-hastingsite, clinopyroxene (diopside and plagioclase (labradorite to bytownite as phenocryst, in a matrix of fine to medium grained of the same minerals and orthoclase, apatite, magnetite, chlorite and epidote. In this paper that is a report on the first study on the calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Central Iran, the petrography and mineral chemistry of calc-alkaline lamprophyric dykes of the Kal-e-kafi area are discussed. Materials and methods Chemical composition of minerals were conducted at Kanazawa University (Kanazawa, Japan using the wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalyzer

  4. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z {approx} 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stephane [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 < z < 0.15. Utilizing our real-time analysis pipeline, we spectroscopically confirmed twenty-three cluster SNe Ia, four of which were intracluster events. Using our deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam imaging, we measured total stellar luminosities in each of our galaxy clusters, and we performed detailed supernova (SN) detection efficiency simulations. Bringing these ingredients together, we measure an overall cluster SN Ia rate within R{sub 200} (1 Mpc) of 0.042{sup +0.012}{sub -0.010}{sup +0.010}{sub -0.008} SNuM (0.049{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041{sup +0.015}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.010} SNuM (0.041{sup +0.019}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z {approx} 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z{sub f} = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, {Psi}(t){proportional_to}t{sup s} , we find s = -1.62 {+-} 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s {approx} -1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s {approx} -2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate {approx}6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  5. Insights into the Early to Late Oligocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc Magmatic History from Volcanic Minerals and Glass within Volcaniclastic Sediments of IODP Site U1438 and DSDP Site 296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajpati, E.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a remnant of the early Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, separated by arc rifting and seafloor spreading. We examine and compare volcanic materials from two sites where the transition from IBM arc building to rifting is well sampled: DSDP Site 296 on the northern KPR crest, and recent IODP Site U1438 in the adjacent Amami-Sankaku basin to the west. The purpose of the study is to understand the origin and depositional regime of volcaniclastic sediments during the arc rifting stage. Site 1438 sedimentary Unit II and the upper part of Unit III (300 and 453 mbsf) correlate in time with sedimentary Units 1G and 2 of DSDP Site 296 (160 and 300 mbsf). The upper part of Site U1438 Unit III and Site 296 Unit 2 consist of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. These are overlain by late Oligocene nannofossil chalks with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers at Site 296 Unit 1G, and tuffaceous silt, sand, siltstone and sandstone at Site 1438 Unit II. The chemical composition of volcanic glass shards, pyroxenes with melt inclusions and amphiboles separated from volcaniclastic sediments were analyzed by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Glasses are found at Site 296 only, range from medium-K basalt to rhyolite and have trace element patterns typical of arc volcanics. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are found as detrital grains in sediments from both sites. Mg-numbers range from 58 to 94. Interestingly, the alumina content of pyroxene grain populations from both sites increase and then decrease with decreasing Mg-number. This probably reflects control of Al contents in magma and pyroxene by suppressed plagioclase saturation, which apparently was a consistent feature of KPR volcanoes. Melt-inclusions within the pyroxenes are typically small (30-50 microns) and have similar chemical compositions within one grain. The melt inclusions range from basalt to rhyolite with moderate alkali content. Amphibole is more prevalent in late Oligocene

  6. [Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 / A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Trace fossils on molluscs from the Molluscan Clay (Late Oligocene, Egerian) — a comparison between two localities (Wind Brickyard, Eger, and Nyárjas Hill, Novaj, NE Hungary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Årpád, Dàvid

    1992-01-01

    Trace fossils, found on shells of gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods from Molluscan Clay exposures (Oligocene, Egerian) at Eger (Wind brickyard) and Novaj (Nyárjas Hill) (NE Hungary), were studied. The relative abundance of different types of borings, traces of bioerosion and palaeopathological

  7. MULTI-EPOCH IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE SiO MASERS IN THE EXTENDED ATMOSPHERE OF THE MIRA VARIABLE TX CAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemball, Athol J.; Diamond, Philip J.; Gonidakis, Ioannis; Mitra, Modhurita; Yim, Kijeong; Pan, K.-C.; Chiang, H.-F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a time series of synoptic images of the linearly polarized v = 1, J = 1-0 SiO maser emission toward the Mira variable, TX Cam. These data comprise 43 individual epochs at an approximate biweekly sampling over an optical pulsation phase range of φ = 0.68 to φ = 1.82. The images have an angular resolution of ∼500 μas and were obtained using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), operating in the 43 GHz band in spectral-line, polarization mode. We have previously published the total intensity time series for this pulsation phase range; this paper serves to present the linearly polarized image sequence and an associated animation representing the evolution of the linear polarization morphology over time. We find a predominantly tangential polarization morphology, a high degree of persistence in linear polarization properties over individual component lifetimes, and stronger linear polarization in the inner projected shell than at larger projected shell radii. We present an initial polarization proper motion analysis examining the possible dynamical influence of magnetic fields in component motions in the extended atmospheres of late-type, evolved stars.

  8. Foreground and Sensitivity Analysis for Broadband (2D) 21 cm-Lyα and 21 cm-Hα Correlation Experiments Probing the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Stalder, Brian; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tonry, John L.

    2017-11-01

    A detection of the predicted anticorrelation between 21 cm and either Lyα or Hα from the epoch of reionization (EOR) would be a powerful probe of the first galaxies. While 3D intensity maps isolate foregrounds in low-{k}\\parallel modes, infrared surveys cannot yet match the field of view and redshift resolution of radio intensity mapping experiments. In contrast, 2D (I.e., broadband) infrared intensity maps can be measured with current experiments and are limited by foregrounds instead of photon or thermal noise. We show that 2D experiments can measure most of the 3D fluctuation power at klimit on residual foregrounds of the 21 cm-Lyα cross-power spectrum at z˜ 7 of {{{Δ }}}2text{kJy sr}}-1 {{mK}}) (95%) at {\\ell }˜ 800. We predict levels of foreground correlation and sample variance noise in future experiments, showing that higher-resolution surveys such as LOFAR, SKA-LOW, and the Dark Energy Survey can start to probe models of the 21 cm-Lyα EOR cross spectrum.

  9. The magnetic epoch-6 carbon shift: a change in the ocean's 13C/12C ratio 6.2 million years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, E.; Killingley, J.S.; Berger, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Tropical Indian Ocean planktonic and benthic foraminifera have 13 C/ 12 C ratios which change abruptly within Magnetic Epoch 6 about 6.2 million years ago. All species analyzed in the Late Miocene section of DSDP Site 238 show a shift towards lighter values of delta 13 C by about 0.8 per thousand. The oxygen isotope signal indicates that the pre-shift period is climatically quiet while the post-shift period has strong fluctuations. The authors suggest that the shift reflects a sudden increase in the rate of supply of organic carbon from coastal lowlands and from shelves exposed by regression, as well as a change in deep circulation patterns and ocean fertility. The event marks the transition of the ocean-atmosphere system from a quiet Early and Middle Neogene climate regime toward a Late Neogene regime characterized by climatic amplifying mechanisms (albedo feedback, bottom water production) located around the northern North Atlantic. The beginning of this regime may have been strongly influenced by the isolation of the Mediterranean basin. (Auth.)

  10. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  11. The extended epoch of galaxy formation: Age dating of 3600 galaxies with 2 < z < 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pforr, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Hathi, N. P.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we aim at improving constraints on the epoch of galaxy formation by measuring the ages of 3597 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We derive ages and other physical parameters from the simultaneous fitting with the GOSSIP+ software of observed UV rest-frame spectra and photometric data from the u band up to 4.5 μm using model spectra from composite stellar populations. We perform extensive simulations and conclude that at z ≥ 2 the joint analysis of spectroscopy and photometry, combined with restricted age possibilities when taking the age of the Universe into account, substantially reduces systematic uncertainties and degeneracies in the age derivation; we find that age measurements from this process are reliable. We find that galaxy ages range from very young with a few tens of million years to substantially evolved with ages up to 1.5 Gyr or more. This large age spread is similar for different age definitions including ages corresponding to the last major star formation event, stellar mass-weighted ages, and ages corresponding to the time since the formation of 25% of the stellar mass. We derive the formation redshift zf from the measured ages and find galaxies that may have started forming stars as early as zf 15. We produce the formation redshift function (FzF), the number of galaxies per unit volume formed at a redshift zf, and compare the FzF in increasing observed redshift bins finding a remarkably constant FzF. The FzF is parametrized with (1 + z)ζ, where ζ ≃ 0.58 ± 0.06, indicating a smooth increase of about 2 dex from the earliest redshifts, z 15, to the lowest redshifts of our sample at z 2. Remarkably, this observed increase in the number of forming galaxies is of the same order as the observed rise in the star formation rate density (SFRD). The ratio of the comoving SFRD with the FzF gives an average SFR per galaxy of 7-17M⊙/yr at z 4-6, in agreement with the

  12. Dynamics of Large-Scale Solar-Wind Streams Obtained by the Double Superposed Epoch Analysis: 2. Comparisons of CIRs vs. Sheaths and MCs vs. Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    This work is a continuation of our previous article (Yermolaev et al. in J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7094, 2015), which describes the average temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and field parameters in large-scale solar-wind (SW) streams: corotating interaction regions (CIRs), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs including both magnetic clouds (MCs) and ejecta), and sheaths as well as interplanetary shocks (ISs). As in the previous article, we use the data of the OMNI database, our catalog of large-scale solar-wind phenomena during 1976 - 2000 (Yermolaev et al. in Cosmic Res., 47, 2, 81, 2009) and the method of double superposed epoch analysis (Yermolaev et al. in Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177, 2010a). We rescale the duration of all types of structures in such a way that the beginnings and endings for all of them coincide. We present new detailed results comparing pair phenomena: 1) both types of compression regions ( i.e. CIRs vs. sheaths) and 2) both types of ICMEs (MCs vs. ejecta). The obtained data allow us to suggest that the formation of the two types of compression regions responds to the same physical mechanism, regardless of the type of piston (high-speed stream (HSS) or ICME); the differences are connected to the geometry ( i.e. the angle between the speed gradient in front of the piston and the satellite trajectory) and the jumps in speed at the edges of the compression regions. In our opinion, one of the possible reasons behind the observed differences in the parameters in MCs and ejecta is that when ejecta are observed, the satellite passes farther from the nose of the area of ICME than when MCs are observed.

  13. A 6% measurement of the Hubble parameter at z ∼0.45: direct evidence of the epoch of cosmic re-acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea; Citro, Annalisa; Pozzetti, Lucia; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Wilkinson, David; Tojeiro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Deriving the expansion history of the Universe is a major goal of modern cosmology. To date, the most accurate measurements have been obtained with Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), providing evidence for the existence of a transition epoch at which the expansion rate changes from decelerated to accelerated. However, these results have been obtained within the framework of specific cosmological models that must be implicitly or explicitly assumed in the measurement. It is therefore crucial to obtain measurements of the accelerated expansion of the Universe independently of assumptions on cosmological models. Here we exploit the unprecedented statistics provided by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, [1-3]) Data Release 9 to provide new constraints on the Hubble parameter H ( z ) using the cosmic chronometers approach. We extract a sample of more than 130000 of the most massive and passively evolving galaxies, obtaining five new cosmology-independent H ( z ) measurements in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.5, with an accuracy of ∼11–16% incorporating both statistical and systematic errors. Once combined, these measurements yield a 6% accuracy constraint of H ( z = 0.4293) = 91.8 ± 5.3 km/s/Mpc. The new data are crucial to provide the first cosmology-independent determination of the transition redshift at high statistical significance, measuring z t = 0.4 ± 0.1, and to significantly disfavor the null hypothesis of no transition between decelerated and accelerated expansion at 99.9% confidence level. This analysis highlights the wide potential of the cosmic chronometers approach: it permits to derive constraints on the expansion history of the Universe with results competitive with standard probes, and most importantly, being the estimates independent of the cosmological model, it can constrain cosmologies beyond—and including—the ΛCDM model.

  14. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR HE 2347-4342: PROBING THE EPOCH OF He II PATCHY REIONIZATION AT REDSHIFTS z = 2.4-2.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, J. Michael; France, Kevin; Danforth, Charles W.; Smith, Britton; Tumlinson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We report ultraviolet spectra of the high-redshift (z em ∼ 2.9) quasar, HE 2347 - 4342, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Spectra in the G130M (medium resolution, 1135-1440 A) and G140L (low resolution, 1030-2000 A) gratings exhibit patchy Gunn-Peterson absorption in the 303.78 A Lyα line of He II between z = 2.39-2.87 (G140L) and z = 2.74-2.90 (G130M). With COS, we obtain better spectral resolution, higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), and better determined backgrounds than previous studies, with sensitivity to abundance fractions x He I I ∼ 0.01 in filaments of the cosmic web. The He II optical depths from COS are higher than those with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and range from τ He I I ≤ 0.02 to τ He I I ≥ 5, with a slow recovery in mean optical depth to (τ He I I ) ≤ 2 at z abs ∼ z QSO and minimal 'proximity effect' of flux transmission at the He II edge. We propose a QSO systemic redshift z QSO = 2.904 ± 0.002, some Δz = 0.019 higher than that derived from O I λ1302 emission. Three long troughs (4-10 A or 25-60 Mpc comoving distance) of strong He II absorption between z = 2.75and2.90 are uncharacteristic of the intergalactic medium if He II reionized at z r ∼ 3. Contrary to recent indirect estimates (z r = 3.2 ± 0.2) from H I optical depths, the epoch of He II reionization may extend to z ∼< 2.7.

  15. An Extended ADOP for Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP, with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, Global Positioning System (GPS, and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1 ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2 when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3 in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4 ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW.

  16. SARAS 2: a spectral radiometer for probing cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through detection of the global 21-cm signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N. Udaya; Rao, Mayuri Sathyanarayana; Girish, B. S.; Raghunathan, A.; Somashekar, R.; Srivani, K. S.

    2018-04-01

    The global 21-cm signal from Cosmic Dawn (CD) and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), at redshifts z ˜ 6-30, probes the nature of first sources of radiation as well as physics of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM). Given that the signal is predicted to be extremely weak, of wide fractional bandwidth, and lies in a frequency range that is dominated by Galactic and Extragalactic foregrounds as well as Radio Frequency Interference, detection of the signal is a daunting task. Critical to the experiment is the manner in which the sky signal is represented through the instrument. It is of utmost importance to design a system whose spectral bandpass and additive spurious signals can be well calibrated and any calibration residual does not mimic the signal. Shaped Antenna measurement of the background RAdio Spectrum (SARAS) is an ongoing experiment that aims to detect the global 21-cm signal. Here we present the design philosophy of the SARAS 2 system and discuss its performance and limitations based on laboratory and field measurements. Laboratory tests with the antenna replaced with a variety of terminations, including a network model for the antenna impedance, show that the gain calibration and modeling of internal additive signals leave no residuals with Fourier amplitudes exceeding 2 mK, or residual Gaussians of 25 MHz width with amplitudes exceeding 2 mK. Thus, even accounting for reflection and radiation efficiency losses in the antenna, the SARAS 2 system is capable of detection of complex 21-cm profiles at the level predicted by currently favoured models for thermal baryon evolution.

  17. A 6% measurement of the Hubble parameter at z ∼0.45: direct evidence of the epoch of cosmic re-acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea; Citro, Annalisa [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, V.le Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy); Pozzetti, Lucia [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICREA and ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Wilkinson, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Tojeiro, Rita, E-mail: michele.moresco@unibo.it, E-mail: lucia.pozzetti@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: a.cimatti@unibo.it, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: claudia.maraston@port.ac.uk, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: daniel.thomas@port.ac.uk, E-mail: annalisa.citro@unibo.it, E-mail: rmftr@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wilkinson@port.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Saint Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    Deriving the expansion history of the Universe is a major goal of modern cosmology. To date, the most accurate measurements have been obtained with Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), providing evidence for the existence of a transition epoch at which the expansion rate changes from decelerated to accelerated. However, these results have been obtained within the framework of specific cosmological models that must be implicitly or explicitly assumed in the measurement. It is therefore crucial to obtain measurements of the accelerated expansion of the Universe independently of assumptions on cosmological models. Here we exploit the unprecedented statistics provided by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, [1-3]) Data Release 9 to provide new constraints on the Hubble parameter H ( z ) using the cosmic chronometers approach. We extract a sample of more than 130000 of the most massive and passively evolving galaxies, obtaining five new cosmology-independent H ( z ) measurements in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.5, with an accuracy of ∼11–16% incorporating both statistical and systematic errors. Once combined, these measurements yield a 6% accuracy constraint of H ( z = 0.4293) = 91.8 ± 5.3 km/s/Mpc. The new data are crucial to provide the first cosmology-independent determination of the transition redshift at high statistical significance, measuring z {sub t} = 0.4 ± 0.1, and to significantly disfavor the null hypothesis of no transition between decelerated and accelerated expansion at 99.9% confidence level. This analysis highlights the wide potential of the cosmic chronometers approach: it permits to derive constraints on the expansion history of the Universe with results competitive with standard probes, and most importantly, being the estimates independent of the cosmological model, it can constrain cosmologies beyond—and including—the ΛCDM model.

  18. A PRECISION MULTI-BAND TWO-EPOCH PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG OF 44 MILLION SOURCES IN THE NORTHERN SKY FROM A COMBINATION OF THE USNO-B AND SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, G. J.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    A key science driver for the next generation of wide-field optical and radio surveys is the exploration of the time variable sky. These surveys will have unprecedented sensitivity and areal coverage, but will be limited in their ability to detect variability on time scales longer than the lifetime of the surveys. We present a new precision, multi-epoch photometric catalog that spans 60 yr by combining the US Naval Observatory-B (USNO-B) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogs. We recalibrate the photometry of the original USNO-B catalog and create a catalog with two epochs of photometry in up to five different bands for 43,647,887 optical point sources that lie in the DR9 footprint of the northern sky. The recalibrated objects span a magnitude range 14 ≲ m ≲ 20 and are accurate to ≈0.1 mag. We minimize the presence of spurious objects and those with inaccurate magnitudes by identifying and removing several sources of systematic errors in the two originating catalogs, with a focus on spurious objects that exhibit large apparent magnitude variations. After accounting for these effects, we find ≈250,000 stars and quasars that show significant (≥4σ) changes in brightness between the USNO-B and SDSS DR9 epochs. We discuss the historical value of the catalog and its application to the study of long time scale, large amplitude variable stars and quasars

  19. THE TYPE II SUPERNOVA RATE IN z {approx} 0.1 GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. L.; Sand, D. J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, C. J.; Pritchet, C. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, D.; Just, D. W.; Herbert-Fort, S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, S. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, R. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present seven spectroscopically confirmed Type II cluster supernovae (SNe II) discovered in the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, a supernova survey targeting 57 low-redshift 0.05 < z < 0.15 galaxy clusters with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find the rate of Type II supernovae within R{sub 200} of z {approx} 0.1 galaxy clusters to be 0.026{sup +0.085}{sub -0.018}(stat){sup +0.003}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. Surprisingly, one SN II is in a red-sequence host galaxy that shows no clear evidence of recent star formation (SF). This is unambiguous evidence in support of ongoing, low-level SF in at least some cluster elliptical galaxies, and illustrates that galaxies that appear to be quiescent cannot be assumed to host only Type Ia SNe. Based on this single SN II we make the first measurement of the SN II rate in red-sequence galaxies, and find it to be 0.007{sup +0.014}{sub -0.007}(stat){sup +0.009}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. We also make the first derivation of cluster specific star formation rates (sSFR) from cluster SN II rates. We find that for all galaxy types the sSFR is 5.1{sup +15.8}{sub -3.1}(stat) {+-} 0.9(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}, and for red-sequence galaxies only it is 2.0{sup +4.2}{sub -0.9}(stat) {+-} 0.4(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}. These values agree with SFRs measured from infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and H{alpha} emission from optical spectroscopy. Additionally, we use the SFR derived from our SNII rate to show that although a small fraction of cluster Type Ia SNe may originate in the young stellar population and experience a short delay time, these results do not preclude the use of cluster SN Ia rates to derive the late-time delay time distribution for SNe Ia.

  20. Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars. II. A Sample of 19 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2006-07-01

    We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate-resolution spectra of a sample of 19 quasars at 5.745.7: the GP optical depth evolution changes from τeffGP~(1+z)4.3 to (1+z)>~11, and the average length of dark gaps with τ>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties along different lines of sight also increases rapidly, implying fluctuations by a factor of >~4 in the UV background at z>6, when the mean free path of UV photons is comparable to the correlation length of the star-forming galaxies that are thought to have caused reionization. The mean length of dark gaps shows the most dramatic increase at z~6, as well as the largest line-of-sight variations. We suggest using dark gap statistics as a powerful probe of the ionization state of the IGM at yet higher redshift. The sizes of H II regions around luminous quasars decrease rapidly toward higher redshift, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the IGM has increased by a factor of >~10 from z=5.7 to 6.4, consistent with the value derived from the GP optical depth. The mass-averaged neutral fraction is 1%-4% at z~6.2 based on the GP optical depth and H II region size measurements. The observations suggest that z~6 is the end of the overlapping stage of reionization and are inconsistent with a mostly neutral IGM at z~6, as indicated by the finite length of the dark absorption gaps. Based on observations obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, with the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and with the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m Mayall Telescope. This paper

  1. PRELIMINARY PALEOMAGNETIC RESULTS FROM OUTFLOW EOCENE-OLIGOCENE ASH FLOW TUFFS FROM THE WESTERN MARGIN OF THE SAN LUIS BASIN: IMPLICATION FOR THE KINEMATIC EVOLUTION OF THE RIO GRANDE RIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S. N.; Geissman, J. W.; Sussman, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Rio Grande rift (RGR), a late Cenozoic continental rift from central Colorado to southern New Mexico, hanging wall margins typically contain en echelon normal fault systems with intervening areas of typically complex structure, called relay zones. Relay zones transfer displacement through complex strain patterns and eventual linkage of faults and hold clues as to how fault zones initiate and grow. The western margin of the RGR at the latitude of the San Luis basin (SLB) exposes laterally continuous Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks, well-correlated by 40Ar/39Ar data, and well-preserved rift structures. Ash flow tuffs are usually excellent recorders of the instantaneous geomagnetic field and five ash flow tuffs (ca. 32.3 to 27.3 Ma; including the Saguache Creek, La Jara Canyon, Masonic Park, Fish Canyon, and Carpenter Ridge tuffs) have been sampled in spatial detail along west to east transects of the eastern San Juan volcanic field to the westernmost margin of the RGR at the SLB. Data obtained from our sampling approach will yield a comprehensive definition of relative vertical-axis rotations across the area and will be used to assess the timing of RGR fault linkages. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the Masonic Park tuff (ca. 28.2 Ma) suggest up to ~17° clockwise rotation between sample locations on the Colorado Plateau and locations to the east, nearest the western margin of the RGR. Preliminary data from the Fish Canyon tuff (ca. 27.8 Ma) show a ~12° clockwise rotation. The relative clockwise vertical-axis rotation of sampling sites in both ash flow tuffs nearest the RGR margin suggests that relay zone development with attending vertical-axis rotation played an important role in the opening of the northern RGR. Our data set is not sufficiently robust at present to test the hypothesis that rotation was taking place concurrently with eruption of these large-volume ash flow tuffs in the early Oligocene, but it is a possibility and if so, the RGR at the

  2. EVIDENCE FOR PopIII-LIKE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE MOST LUMINOUS Lyα EMITTERS AT THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION: SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, David; Santos, Sérgio [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, OAL, Tapada da Ajuda, PT1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Matthee, Jorryt; Röttgering, Huub J. A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Schaerer, Daniel, E-mail: sobral@iastro.pt [Observatoire de Genève, Département d’Astronomie, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2015-08-01

    Faint Lyα emitters become increasingly rarer toward the reionization epoch (z ∼ 6–7). However, observations from a very large (∼5 deg{sup 2}) Lyα narrow-band survey at z = 6.6 show that this is not the case for the most luminous emitters, capable of ionizing their own local bubbles. Here we present follow-up observations of the two most luminous Lyα candidates in the COSMOS field: “MASOSA” and “CR7.” We used X-SHOOTER, SINFONI, and FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope, and DEIMOS on Keck, to confirm both candidates beyond any doubt. We find redshifts of z = 6.541 and z = 6.604 for “MASOSA” and “CR7,” respectively. MASOSA has a strong detection in Lyα with a line width of 386 ± 30 km s{sup −1} (FWHM) and with very high EW{sub 0} (>200 Å), but undetected in the continuum, implying very low stellar mass and a likely young, metal-poor stellar population. “CR7,” with an observed Lyα luminosity of 10{sup 43.92±0.05} erg s{sup −1} is the most luminous Lyα emitter ever found at z > 6 and is spatially extended (∼16 kpc). “CR7” reveals a narrow Lyα line with 266 ± 15 km s{sup −1} FWHM, being detected in the near-infrared (NIR) (rest-frame UV; β = −2.3 ± 0.1) and in IRAC/Spitzer. We detect a narrow He ii 1640 Å emission line (6σ, FWHM = 130 ± 30 km s{sup −1}) in CR7 which can explain the clear excess seen in the J-band photometry (EW{sub 0} ∼ 80 Å). We find no other emission lines from the UV to the NIR in our X-SHOOTER spectra (He ii/O iii] 1663 Å > 3 and He ii/C iii] 1908 Å > 2.5). We conclude that CR7 is best explained by a combination of a PopIII-like population, which dominates the rest-frame UV and the nebular emission, and a more normal stellar population, which presumably dominates the mass. Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 observations show that the light is indeed spatially separated between a very blue component, coincident with Lyα and He ii emission, and two red components (∼5 kpc away), which

  3. The Evolution of the Faint End of the UV Luminosity Function during the Peak Epoch of Star Formation (1 < z < 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Freeman, William R.; Scarlata, Claudia; Robertson, Brant; Stark, Daniel P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Desai, Vandana

    2016-11-01

    We present a robust measurement of the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF) and its evolution during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation at 1\\lt z\\lt 3. We use our deep near-ultraviolet imaging from WFC3/UVIS on the Hubble Space Telescope and existing Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/WFC and WFC3/IR imaging of three lensing galaxy clusters, Abell 2744 and MACS J0717 from the Hubble Frontier Field survey and Abell 1689. Combining deep UV imaging and high magnification from strong gravitational lensing, we use photometric redshifts to identify 780 ultra-faint galaxies with {M}{UV}\\lt -12.5 AB mag at 1\\lt z\\lt 3. From these samples, we identified five new, faint, multiply imaged systems in A1689. We run a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the completeness correction and effective volume for each cluster using the latest published lensing models. We compute the rest-frame UV LF and find the best-fit faint-end slopes of α =-1.56+/- 0.04, α =-1.72+/- 0.04, and α =-1.94+/- 0.06 at 1.0\\lt z\\lt 1.6, 1.6\\lt z\\lt 2.2, and 2.2\\lt z\\lt 3.0, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the UV LF becomes steeper from z˜ 1.3 to z˜ 2.6 with no sign of a turnover down to {M}{UV}=-14 AB mag. We further derive the UV LFs using the Lyman break “dropout” selection and confirm the robustness of our conclusions against different selection methodologies. Because the sample sizes are so large and extend to such faint luminosities, the statistical uncertainties are quite small, and systematic uncertainties (due to the assumed size distribution, for example) likely dominate. If we restrict our analysis to galaxies and volumes above \\gt 50 % completeness in order to minimize these systematics, we still find that the faint-end slope is steep and getting steeper with redshift, though with slightly shallower (less negative) values (α =-1.55+/- 0.06, -1.69 ± 0.07, and -1.79 ± 0.08 for z˜ 1.3, 1.9, and 2.6, respectively). Finally, we conclude that the faint star

  4. Palaeogene to Early Miocene sedimentary history of the Sierra Espuña (Malaguide complex, internal zone of the Betic cordilleras, SE Spain. Evidence for extra-Malaguide (Sardinian? provenance of oligocene conglomerates: Palaeogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geel, T.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra Espuña is situated at the northern edge of the Internal Zone in the eastern Betic Cordilleras and is part of the unmetamorphosed Malaguide Complex. Palaeontological and sedimentological analysis of the Eocene to Aquitanian sediments on the northwest side of the Espuña yielded unexpected new information of importance for the reconstruction of the history of the Espuña itself and the Malaguides in general. The socalled Upper Eocene (Auversian rocks are of Early Oligocene (P20 age and contain supermature detritus derived from outside the Malaguide realm. The hundreds of meters thick limestone conglomerate formation of the Espuña is of Middle Oligocene (P21 age and represents a backstepping fan delta complex at the margin of a carbonate platform situated to the northeast of the Espuña. Analysis of the clasts suggests that this platform was a part of the north Sardinian block given the majority of fragments of Upper Jurassic sheltered inner platform (Clypeina-Trocholina limestones and dolomites. Contrary to former views (Paquet, 1966; Lonergan, 1993, the conglomerates cannot be considered to be the erosional products of Malaguide imbricated units. Therefore, one of the main arguments for early (Late Eocene to Oligocene thrusting and nappe emplacement in the Espuña area is not valido Other arguments for early kinematics are discussed, among others the allegedly continuous sedimentation from the Late Eocene until the Langhian northwest of the Espuña. Our data indicate the existence of a stratigraphic gap, comprising the middle Aquitanian to middle Burdigalian. A new model for the development of the Espuña within the Malaguide realm during the Palaeogene to Early Miocene is presented. Main thrusting and nappe emplacement is thought to have been taken place during the late Aquitanian. Finally, the recently proposed 2000 clockwise rotation of the Espuña as a coherent block during the Early to Middle Miocene (AlIerton el al., 1993 is

  5. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le Bassin parisien pendant l'Eocène et l'Oligocène, on dénombre vingt-deux discontinuités issues d'émersions correspondant aux périodes de bas-niveaux marins. La présence de fleuves est décelée dans les prismes de bordure de plate-forme et dans les prismes de haut niveau, remobilisant des stocks sableux anciens à partir des anticlinaux actifs et des bordures du bassin. Ainsi, indépendamment du volume disponible pour les sédiments, se succèdent des séquences dominées soit par des formations détritiques, soit par des formations carbonatées. La plate-forme parisienne a enregistré toutes les variations eustatiques connues, bien que les mouvements tectoniques syn-sédimentaires locaux puissent influencer fortement les conditions de sédimentation. Mieux encore, la plate-forme parisienne a subi des fluctuations marines d'ordre supérieur de très courte durée qui, si elles sont retrouvées dans d'autres domaines, pourront être attribuées à des phénomènes eustatiques. The Paris Basin (Map 1 is a classic example of a stable platform such as has been known throughout the World for a long time now. Aside from the Bartonian and Priabonian, all Eocene and Oligocene stages have been defined in the form of the following four international stratotypes : Sparnacian, Cuisian, Lutetian and Stampian. It should also be noted that the substages of the Bartonian (Auversian, marinesian and the Ludian, the equivalent of the Priabonian, are also Parisian. Even though gaps have recently been redefined (C. Pomerol, 1989, though the correlations between the different formations in the basin and those of the surrounding areas (D. Curry, 1967; et al. 1969, 1978; C. Pomerol, 1977; C. Cavelier, 1979; C. Cavelier and C. Pomerol, 1986 have now been determined, and though the worldwide eustatic sea level curve was partly plotted with the help of stratotype sections (B. U. Haq et al. , 1988, the Eocene and Oligocene sequence analysis of the paris Basin

  6. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  7. Tectonic/climatic control on sediment provenance in the Cape Roberts Project core record (southern Victoria Land, Antarctica): A pulsing late Oligocene/early Miocene signal from south revealed by detrital thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, V.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    , three peaks are detected reflecting different bedrock provenance areas. Two peaks older than 40 Ma (P2 and P3) are compatible with thermochronological data from TAM bedrock that underwent a stepwise denudation in Cretaceous times. A Peak younger than 40 Ma (P1) has been detected occasionally, recording the signal of a source area exhumed during late Oligocene /early Miocene with a constant denudation rate of 0.4 mm/yr (constant lag-time up-section), but absent in the onshore portion of the proximal TAM. Indeed, when compared with AFT data from ANDRILL cores, the relatively young P1 ages, suggest that part of sediments in the Cape Robert Rift basin have a provenance from source regions probably located far away in the south (i.e. Skelton-Byrd glaciers region) where bedrock experienced compatible thermal histories. This provenance would imply glacial systems with main flow patterns from south to the north, therefore orthogonal to the orientation of present-day drainage. We thus infer that the post-Eocene glacial and erosional history of the TAM front was significantly controlled by the N-S-trending transtensional regime that affected the western Ross Sea margin during transition from orthogonal to oblique rifting in the region. The appearance and disappearance of P1 along the drill-cored stratigraphic succession seems to be linked to the oscillation in the extent of the ice sheet.

  8. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  9. Epoch-based analysis of speech signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on speech production characteristics, but also helps in accurate analysis of speech. .... include time delay estimation, speech enhancement from single and multi- ...... log. (. E[k]. ∑K−1 l=0. E[l]. ) ,. (7) where K is the number of samples in the ...

  10. z~2: An Epoch of Disk Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raymond C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Heckman, Timothy M.; Trump, Jonathan; SIGMA, DEEP2

    2018-01-01

    At z = 0, the majority of massive star-forming galaxies contain thin, rotationally supported gas disks. It was once accepted that galaxies form thin disks early: collisional gas with high velocity dispersion should dissipate energy, conserve angular momentum, and develop strong rotational support in only a few galaxy crossing times (~few hundred Myr). However, this picture is complicated at high redshift, where the processes governing galaxy assembly tend to be violent and inhospitable to disk formation. We present results from our SIGMA survey of star-forming galaxy kinematics at z = 2. These results challenge the simple picture described above: galaxies at z = 2 are unlike local well-ordered disks. Their kinematics tend to be much more disordered, as quantified by their low ratios of rotational velocity to gas velocity dispersion (Vrot/σg): less than 35% of galaxies have Vrot/σg > 3. For comparison, nearly 100% of local star-forming galaxies meet this same threshold. We combine our high redshift sample with a similar low redshift sample from the DEEP2 survey. This combined sample covers a continuous redshift baseline over 0.1 < z < 2.5, spanning 10 Gyrs of cosmic time. Over this period, galaxies exhibit remarkably smooth kinematic evolution on average. All galaxies tend towards rotational support with time, and it is reached earlier in higher mass systems. This is due to both a significant decline in gas velocity dispersion and a mild rise in ordered rotational motions. These results indicate that z = 2 is a period of disk assembly, during which the strong rotational support present in today’s massive disk galaxies is only just beginning to emerge.

  11. Nature(andculture in the anthropocene epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Gajewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a New Understanding of nature and culture, which is being crystallized in the intellectual current defined by the name of post-humanities. The starting point for the analysis of work of art from the area of bioart – transgenic plant named Edunia, which is a part of a larger project Natural History of the Enigma. Edunia, which does not occur in nature but was created by the artist Eduardo Kac by means of specialists in the field of genetic engineering. A new form of life defined as plantimal shows a DNA expression of the artist included into decorative flowers of petunia. Rose petals of flowers are “interspersed” by dark red vessels the feature of which is the expression of Kac’s gene; this because the artist took care of that that his DNA was found just in the venation of the flower. In the article I present two interpretation paths of this work of bioart which, however, are not a sharp counterpoint to one another, but somewhat differently place accents between nature and culture in their mutual entanglements. One of these paths may be defined as an attempt at making others realise or reminding them about our evolutional species condition, while the other one as an attempt at treating nature as an important actor of the sociopolitical activities.

  12. FORMATION EPOCHS, STAR FORMATION HISTORIES, AND SIZES OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN CLUSTER AND FIELD ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 1.2: INSIGHTS FROM THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettura, Alessandro; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C.; Rosati, P.; Gobat, R.; Nonino, M.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Menci, N.; Strazzullo, V.; Mei, S.

    2010-01-01

    We derive stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive early-type galaxies in the z = 1.237 RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster and compare them with those measured in a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey South Field. Robust estimates of these parameters are obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with 8-9 band photometry in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, optical, and IR, thus sampling the entire relevant domain of emission of the different stellar populations. Additionally, we present new, deep U-band photometry of both fields, giving access to the critical far-ultraviolet rest frame, in order to empirically constrain the dependence of the most recent star formation processes on the environment. We also analyze the morphological properties of both samples to examine the dependence of their scaling relations on their mass and environment. We find that early-type galaxies, both in the cluster and in the field, show analogous optical morphologies, follow comparable mass versus size relation, have congruent average surface stellar mass densities, and lie on the same Kormendy relation. We also show that a fraction of early-type galaxies in the field employ longer timescales, τ, to assemble their mass than their cluster contemporaries. Hence, we conclude that while the formation epoch of early-type galaxies only depends on their mass, the environment does regulate the timescales of their SFHs. Our deep U-band imaging strongly supports this conclusion. We show that cluster galaxies are at least 0.5 mag fainter than their field contemporaries of similar mass and optical-to-infrared colors, implying that the last episode of star formation must have happened more recently in the field than in the cluster.

  13. Adubação foliar: I. Épocas de aplicação de fósforo na cultura da soja Leaf fertilization: I. Epochs of phosphorus application on soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Milanez de Rezende

    2005-12-01

    + R1 + R4 + R6 respectivamente.The search for new alternatives in order to increase soybeans productivity has been constant objective of researchers and farmers. The crop responses to phosphorus application in the soil are well defined, being this nutrient very important on its development and yield. The leaf fertilization on this crop appears as a new rationale option, mainly when the plant nutrient levels are low. So, this work aimed to study the effect of phosphorus leaf fertilization, applied at different plant stage, including: V5, R1, R4, V5 + R1, V5 + R4, R1 + R4, V5 + R1 + R4, V5 + R1 + R4 + R6 and test plot. The experiment was installed in a soybeans crop, Monarca cultivar, at Palmital Farm, Ijaci county, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using a totally randomized design, with 9 treatments and 3 replications. The chelate Quimifol P30 in liquid form with 30% of the nutrient soluble in CNA + water in the, with doses of 2 l. ha-1, was utilized as phosphorus source, using the applications performed with a constant pressure CO2-nebulizer. The different epochs of phosphorous application significantly altered the grains yield, proportioning significant increases, up to 16% for the V5, V5 + R1, V5 + R4, V5 + R1 + R4, V5 + R1 + R4 + R6 epochs, when compared to the test plot, clearly expressing the positive effect of these applications at V5 stage. The plant height, first legume insertion, and lodging index characteristics were not significantly altered by the different epochs evaluated. It was observed significant response for the nutrient leaf amounts only in the case of K and Zn indices, exclusively in the V5 + R4, and in the V5, V5 + R1 and V5 + R1 + R4 + R6 treatments, respectively.

  14. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riche P.

    2006-11-01

    .turbiditic sandstone formation that follows, straddling the Eocene- Oligocene boundary, is related to the beginning of rifting inside the CorsicaSardinia block and to the change of climate that occurred at that time. This formation, with a maximum observed thickness of 1200 m, is a fill-up sequence that onlaps the paleoslopes of the basin. The E-W extensional phase hardly continued during sandstone sedimentation, which is capped by an erosional surface with NE-SW submarine canyons. This surface is related to the sliding of olistostromes. This event is not dated. It started with the end of clastic sedimentation and was still affected by the E-W extension. This could confirm its occurrence before the Miocene compressional tectonic phase. The interpretation is backed up by comparisons among field observations, flume-tank sedimentation experiments and seismic data on offshore basins.

  15. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    d. F. L. L. L. P. P. Figure 2. Field photographs of the Andaman Flysch turbidites. ... sandstone bed and produce flame (F) structures; (e) A variety of sole marks at the base of an ...... Nicobar: The Neogene; Capital Publishing Company, New.

  16. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sehe area of western Kachchh considered their. Bed Nos. 4 and 5 as .... with very thin population. The Bermoti stream ...... Recent; Indo–Pacific. Subgenus: .... Type species: Cardium discors Lamarck' 1805; T. Eocene–Miocene; Europe–Asia ..... Shuto Tsugio 1971 Neogene Bivalves from Panay Island, the. Philippines.

  17. Paleo-environmental Reconstruction of Oligocene to Early Miocene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    province on the West African continental margin. It lies mainly in the ... basin are favorable for the generation, accumulation ... reconstruction as well as recognition of oil and gas deposits .... zone which covers from 1640ft to 11,100ft of the well.

  18. The tectonic stress field evolution of India since the Oligocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Müller, R.D.; Yatheesh, V.; Shuhail, M.

    reconstructed plate geometries following Seton et al. (2012). We reconstruct the plate boundary configuration and age-area distribution of ocean crust around Australia through time to obtain estimates for ridge push, slab pull and collisional forces acting... on the Indo-Australian Plate since the early Cretaceous, following the methodology outlined in Dyksterhuis et al. (2005a; 2005b). In the case of the Indo-Australian Plate the dominant plate driving forces are the ridge push, slab pull and collisional forces...

  19. Palynological zonation of oligocene to early miocene sediments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    573) which represents the base of P620 zone and top of P580 zone were undefined. P560 Zone was defined by the appearance of quantitative base Peregrinipollis nigericus at 7620ft and increase Retibrevitricolporites obodoensis at 11580ft.

  20. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    OpenAIRE

    Preciado Coronado, Jaime Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Herederas de propuestas disciplinarias originales, como la teoría de la dependencia –y sus posteriores críticas desde el marxismo-, o del pensamiento socioeconómico de la CEPAL, las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas toman distancia de enfoques anglo-euro-céntricos, para avanzar en una línea crítica del pensamiento y de las prácticas neocolonialistas. El desafío para el pensamiento es ser cosmopolita y simultáneamente latinoamericano. En este proceso, el pensamiento social latinoamericano est...

  1. Masses management in the epoch of the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zubarieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the nature and origins of the idea of the phenomenon of mass, the mass consciousness, determinants of social and political science and philosophical aspects. The influence of external factors on the installation of the masses in the context of socio­psychological, informational  and communicational  components is analyzed. The main characteristics of the consumer society: mass consumption of goods and the formation of an appropriate system of values and attitudes are identified. Outlined the difficulties faced by the researcher mass phenomenon. The theory of Jean Baudrillard about simulation in the media is observed. The views of scientific information and interdependence of meaning, the essential characteristics of the simulation are  investigated. Signs of mass properties: missing attribute, predicate, quality, references are demonstrated. The issue of media terrorism and its impact on the consciousness of the masses in the context of the information war between Russia and Ukraine is examined, the main kinds of informational terrorism and the threats to the informational safety, also the degree of their danger is valued.  The reaction of mass media on terrorism, including the emergence of ethnic conflicts, destructive phenomena in society (depression, disappointment in the state, etc. are shown. The recommendations for effective management of the masses in the era of consumer society, the ability to resist attempts to manipulate them through information flows are provided.

  2. New minimal SO(10) GUT: A theory for all epochs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [16,17] and are also reported in these proceedings in the contributions of Ila Garg and ..... maintaining realism in the fermion and GUT SSB sector and accounting for low- and .... a lily already well enamelled: as maintained by these authors.

  3. Virtual study as a main vector of new information epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Polovaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using technologies of virtual reality in studies caused appearance of virtual studying environment. In its content free, active and creative personality may realize its continuous self-actualization and self-development under conditions of organization and functioning of open study systems based on virtual reality technologies. Interactive self-studying dominates in the studying process having continuous connection in the system «teacher-student» and the organization of self-reliant work is aimed at development of creation, cognitive activity and system thinking skills. The important components are ensuring expediency of study with its priority in comparison with teaching, predominance of active study type, organization of self-reliant study, increase study motivation using means of complex presentation and manipulation of audiovisual information, increasing level of information emotional perception and formation of skills to realize different forms of self-reliant activity for information analysis. Virtual study environment is a typical for self-development of open-minded active person with 2 high self-rating, will and freedom of mind. In the virtual study environment prevles method of interactive self-education with constant cooperation of teaching subjects with study subjects under condition of constant reverse connections between them.

  4. Parameter Estimation And Hypothesis Testing In A Two Epoch Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also computed along with the least square solution and statistical testing were the minimum detectable Bias (MDB) and the Bias to Noise Ratio (BNR). All tests and adjustments were carried out using MOVE 3 software along with the LEICA SKI Pro 2.1. From the results of the tests, only observation to Rover station RF 8 ...

  5. Multigroup models of the convective epoch in core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swesty, F Douglas; Myra, Eric S

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae is a problem that has plagued nuclear astrophysicists since the first computational models of this phenomenon were carried out in the 1960s. Our current theories of this violent phenomenon center around multi-dimensional effects involving radiation-hydrodynamic flows of hot, dense matter and neutrinos. Modeling these multi-dimensional radiative flows presents a computational challenge that will continue to stress high-performance computing beyond the teraflops to the petaflop level. In this paper we describe a few of the scientific discoveries that we have made via terascale computational simulations of supernovae under the auspices of the SciDAC-funded Terascale Supernova Initiative

  6. Heavy metals in human bones in different historical epochs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, M J; Moreno, J M; Moreno-Clavel, J; Vergara, N; García-Sánchez, A; Guillamón, A; Portí, M; Moreno-Grau, S

    2005-09-15

    The concentration of the metals lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and iron was determined in bone remains belonging to 30 individuals buried in the Region of Cartagena dating from different historical periods and in eight persons who had died in recent times. The metals content with respect to lead, cadmium and copper was determined either by anodic stripping voltammetry or by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the concentrations present in the bone remains. In all cases, zinc and iron were quantified by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead concentrations found in the bone remains in our city are greater than those reported in the literature for other locations. This led to the consideration of the sources of these metals in our area, both the contribution from atmospheric aerosols as well as that from the soil in the area. Correlation analysis leads us to consider the presence of the studied metals in the analysed bone samples to be the consequence of analogous inputs, namely the inhalation of atmospheric aerosols and diverse contributions in the diet. The lowest values found in the studied bone remains correspond to the Neolithic period, with similar contents to present-day samples with respect to lead, copper, cadmium and iron. As regards the evolution over time of the concentrations of the metals under study, a clear increase in these is observed between the Neolithic period and the grouping made up of the Bronze Age, Roman domination and the Byzantine period. The trend lines used to classify the samples into 7 periods show that the maximum values of lead correspond to the Roman and Byzantine periods. For copper, this peak is found in the Byzantine Period and for iron, in the Islamic Period. Zinc shows an increasing tendency over the periods under study and cadmium is the only metal whose trend lines shows a decreasing slope.

  7. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien

    2018-03-01

    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  8. Understanding the epoch of cosmic reionization challenges and progress

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to summarize the current status and future outlook of the reionization field on both the theoretical and observational fronts. It brings together leading experts in many sub-disciplines, highlighting the measurements that are likely to drive the growing understanding of reionization and the cosmic dawn, and lays out a roadmap to interpreting the wealth of upcoming observations. The birth of the first stars and galaxies, and their impact on the diffuse matter perme­ating the early Universe, is one of the final frontiers in cosmology. Recently, measure­ments of the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), sourced only a few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang, provided robust insight into the overall physical content of our Universe. On the other end of the timeline, groundbreaking telescopes provide us a picture of the complexities of the galaxy-rich universe in which we now live. However, we know almost nothing about the astrophysics of the first billion years. ...

  9. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien

    2018-03-01

    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events—space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  10. New minimal SO(10) GUT: A theory for all epochs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Measurable or near measurable level of tensor perturbations – and thus large inflaton mass scale – may be accommodated within the NMSGUT by supersymmetric see-saw inflation based on an LHN flat direction inflaton if the Higgs component contains contributions from heavy Higgs components.

  11. THE EPOCH OF DISK SETTLING: z ∼ 1 TO NOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Devriendt, Julien; Dutton, Aaron A.; Metevier, A. J.; Noeske, Kai G.; Primack, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence from a sample of 544 galaxies from the DEEP2 Survey for evolution of the internal kinematics of blue galaxies with stellar masses ranging 8.0 * (M ☉ ) g ). It is unlike the typical pressure-supported velocity dispersion measured for early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. Because both seeing and the width of our spectral slits comprise a significant fraction of the galaxy sizes, σ g integrates over velocity gradients on large scales which can correspond to non-ordered gas kinematics. We compile measurements of galaxy kinematics from the literature over 1.2 < z < 3.8 and do not find any trends with redshift, likely for the most part, because these data sets are biased toward the most highly star-forming systems. In summary, over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, blue galaxies evolve from disordered to ordered systems as they settle to become the rotation-dominated disk galaxies observed in the universe today, with the most massive galaxies being the most evolved at any time.

  12. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  13. Towards constraints on the epoch of reionization: A phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matthew

    Based on observations of the early Universe, we know that shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was composed almost entirely of neutral hydrogen and neutral helium. However, observations of nearby quasars suggest that the gas between galaxies today is neutral to less than one part in 104 . Thus, it must be the case that some process occurred that stripped the electrons from almost all atoms in the intergalactic medium. Understanding the timing and nature of this process, dubbed ''reionization'', is one of the great outstanding problems in astrophysics and cosmology today. In this thesis, we develop several methods for utilizing existing and future measurements in order to make progress toward this end. We begin by proposing two novel approaches for searching for signatures of underlying neutral hydrogen in the Lyalpha and Lybeta forest of distant quasars. We show that, if the Universe is >5% neutral at z ~ 5.5, then damping-wing absorption from neutral hydrogen and absorption from primordial deuterium should leave observable imprints in the Lyalpha and Lybeta forest, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of neutral islands should qualitatively alter the size distribution of absorbed regions. We continue by discussing the ability for the intergalactic medium to retain a thermal memory of the reionization process at redshifts z ~ 5, which in turn affects the small-scale structure in the Lyalpha forest. Motivated by this, we model the temperature of the intergalactic medium after reionization and develop a temperature measurement technique that should be able to distinguish between scenarios where reionization ends at z ~ 6 and at z ~ 10. Lastly, we turn our attention to 21-cm observations during reionization. We demonstrate that, while precise mapping of 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen should be infeasible by first and second generation interferometers, it may be possible to make crude maps of the reionization process and identify individual ionized regions. This would provide us with direct confirmation that we are observing reionization and provide information regarding its timing and the nature of the ionizing sources.

  14. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The epoch of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratov, Alexander L. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Oleg Y. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Zemp, Marcel [Beijing, KITPC

    2013-07-19

    We investigate the transition from primordial Population III (Pop III) star formation to normal Pop II star formation in the first galaxies using new cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that while the first stars seed their host galaxies with metals, they cannot sustain significant outflows to enrich the intergalactic medium, even assuming a top-heavy initial mass function. This means that Pop III star formation could potentially continue until z 6 in different unenriched regions of the universe, before being ultimately shut off by cosmic reionization. Within an individual galaxy, the metal production and stellar feedback from Pop II stars overtake Pop III stars in 20-200 Myr, depending on galaxy mass.

  15. Influence of leachate on the Oligocene-Miocene clays of the İstanbul area, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOPRAK, SADIK; LAÇİN, DAVUT

    2018-01-01

    Oligo-Miocene clay outcrops on the European side (west and northwest part) of İstanbul were analysed. Formerly, a landfill and sanitary landfill were built on the clay. Mineral liners of the current and extending parts of the İstanbul landfill consist of these clays, since they include a considerable amount of smectite, illite, and kaolinite. With this feature, these clays are also an important candidate for the buffer material of repositories for nuclear wastes of newly planned nuclear power...

  16. Export of nutrient rich Northern Component Water preceded early Oligocene Antarctic glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxall, Helen K.; Huck, Claire E.; Huber, Matthew; Lear, Caroline H.; Legarda-Lisarri, Alba; O'Regan, Matt; Sliwinska, Kasia K.; van de Flierdt, Tina; de Boer, Agatha M.; Zachos, James C.; Backman, Jan

    2018-03-01

    The onset of the North Atlantic Deep Water formation is thought to have coincided with Antarctic ice-sheet growth about 34 million years ago (Ma). However, this timing is debated, in part due to questions over the geochemical signature of the ancient Northern Component Water (NCW) formed in the deep North Atlantic. Here we present detailed geochemical records from North Atlantic sediment cores located close to sites of deep-water formation. We find that prior to 36 Ma, the northwestern Atlantic was stratified, with nutrient-rich, low-salinity bottom waters. This restricted basin transitioned into a conduit for NCW that began flowing southwards approximately one million years before the initial Antarctic glaciation. The probable trigger was tectonic adjustments in subarctic seas that enabled an increased exchange across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. The increasing surface salinity and density strengthened the production of NCW. The late Eocene deep-water mass differed in its carbon isotopic signature from modern values as a result of the leakage of fossil carbon from the Arctic Ocean. Export of this nutrient-laden water provided a transient pulse of CO2 to the Earth system, which perhaps caused short-term warming, whereas the long-term effect of enhanced NCW formation was a greater northward heat transport that cooled Antarctica.

  17. Feeding habits of the Oligocene bristlemouth fish Scopeloides glarisianus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes: Gonostomatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Prokofiev, A. M.; Krzemiński, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2012), s. 377-386 ISSN 0016-6995 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Teleostei * Gonostomatidae * functional morphology * feeding habits * cannibalism * palaeoecology * Palaeogene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.052, year: 2012

  18. Direct evidence of cannibalism in the Oligocene cutlassfish Anenchelum glarisianum Blainville, 1818 (Perciformes: Trichiuridae) |

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Novosad, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2009), s. 569-572 ISSN 1214-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Trichiuridae * cannibalism * feeding habits * paleobiology * fish Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2009

  19. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  20. A Study of Mobile Robot Control using EEG Emotiv Epoch Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Yasin Timothius

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was using an EEG Emotiv Epoc+ sensor to recognize brain activity for controlling a mobile robot's movement. The study used Emotiv Control Panel software for EEG command identification. The commands will be interfaced inside Mind Your OSCs software and processing software which processed inside an Arduino Controller. The output of the Arduino is a movement command (ie. forward, backward, turn left, and turn right. The training methods of the system composed of three sets of thinking mode. First, thinking with doing facial expressions. Second, thinking with visual help. Third, thinking mentally without any help. In the first set, there are two configurations thinking with facial expression help as command of the mobile robot. Final results of the system are the second facial expressions configuration as the best facial expressions method with success rate 88.33 %. The second facial expression configuration has overall response time 1.60175 s faster than the first facial expressions configuration. In these two methods have dominant signals on the frontal lobe. The second facial expressions method have overall respond time 6.12 and 9.53 s faster than thinking with visual, and thinking without help respectively.

  1. Epidemiology of cardiomyopathy - A clinical and genetic study of dilated cardiomyopathy: The EPOCH-D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumi Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM is a genetic disorder where a heterogeneous group of cardiac-muscles are involved and is characterized by ventricular dilatation, impaired systolic function, reduced myocardial contractility with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF less than 40%. Our study aims to report the Demographic, Clinical and Genetic profile of Indian Dilated Cardiomyopathy patients. Methodology: All patients were recruited with prior written informed consent and are of Indian origin. Results: In a total of 80 DCM patients, the prevalence was higher among males. In males, mean age of onset was comparatively less than females. In this cohort, 40% had familial inheritance. Sixty two percent of DCM patients belong to NYHA functional class II with ejection fraction (EF ranging between 21-30% and, around one third of the patients had atrial fibrillation (AF. Genetic screening revealed a novel splice site mutation LMNA (c.639+ G>C and a rare variant MYH7 (c.2769 C>T in a patient and insilico analysis of both variants suggested functional changes that were considered pathogenic. We report 3% and 4% occurance of variants, each in LMNA and MYH7, where as reported frequencies of these genes are 6% LMNA and 4% MYH7. Conclusions: DCM is often familial and all possible candidate genes should be screened to identify mutations. Such type of exercise may help in the identification of mechanistic pathways. Next generation sequencing platforms may play an important role in this respect in future.

  2. The farthest known supernova: Support for an accelerating universeand a glimpse of the epoch of deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Adam G.; Nugent, Peter E.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tonry, John; Dickinson, Mark; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Budavari,Tamas; Casertano, Stefano; Evans, Aaron S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Livio,Mario; Sanders, David B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Spinrad, Hyron; Steidel,Charles C.; Stern, Daniel; Surace, Jason; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2001-04-01

    We present photometric observations of an apparent Type Iasupernova (SN Ia) at a redshift of approximately 1.7, the farthest SNobserved to date. The supernova, SN 1997, was discovered in a repeatobservation by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Hubble DeepField{North (HDF-N), and serendipitously monitored with NICMOS on HSTthroughout the Thompson et al. GTO campaign. The SN type can bedetermined from the host galaxy type: an evolved, red elliptical lackingenough recent star formation to provide a significant population ofcore-collapse supernovae. The classification is further supported bydiagnostics available from the observed colors and temporal behavior ofthe SN, both of which match a typical SN Ia. The photometric record ofthe SN includes a dozen flux measurements in the I, J, and H bandsspanning 35 days in the observed frame. The redshift derived from the SNphotometry, z = 1:7 plus or minus 0:1, is in excellent agreement with theredshift estimate of z = 1:65 plus or minus 0:15 derived from the U_300B_450 V_-606 I_814 J_110 J_125 H_160 H_165 K_s photometry of the galaxy.Optical and near-infrared spectra of the host provide a very tentativespectroscopic redshift of 1.755. Fits to observations of the SN provideconstraints for the redshift-distance relation of SNe Ia and a powerfultest of the current accelerating Universe hypothesis. The apparent SNbrightness is consistent with that expected in the decelerating phase ofthe preferred cosmological model, Omega_M approximately equal to 1/3;Omega_Lambda approximately equal to 2/3. It is inconsistent with greydust or simple luminosity evolution, candidate astrophysical effectswhich could mimic previous evidence for an accelerating Universe from SNeIa at z approximately equal to 0:5. We consider several sources ofpotential systematic error including gravitational lensing, supernovamisclassification, sample selection bias, and luminosity calibrationerrors. Currently, none of these effects alone appears likely tochallenge our conclusions. Additional SNe Ia at z>1 will be requiredto test more exotic alternatives to the accelerating Universe hypothesisand to probe the nature of dark energy.

  3. Multi-epoch intranight optical monitoring of eight radio-quiet BL Lac candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Gopal-Krishna; Stalin, C. S.; Chand, H.; Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.

    2017-10-01

    For a new sample of eight weak-line quasars (WLQs) we report a sensitive search in 20 intranight monitoring sessions, for blazar-like optical flux variations on hour-like and longer time-scale (day/month/year-like). The sample consists exclusively of the WLQs that are not radio-loud and either have been classified as 'radio-weak probable BL Lac candidates' and/or are known to have exhibited at least one episode of large, blazar-like optical variability. Whereas only a hint of intranight variability is seen for two of these WLQs, J104833.5+620305.0 (z = 0.219) and J133219.6+622715.9 (z = 3.15), statistically significant internight variability at a few per cent level is detected for three of the sources, including the radio-intermediate WLQ J133219.6+622715.9 (z = 3.15) and the well-known bona fide radio-quiet WLQs J121221.5+534128.0 (z = 3.10) and WLQ J153259.9-003944.1 (z = 4.62). In the rest frame, this variability is intraday and in the far-ultraviolet band. On the time-scale of a decade, we find for three of the WLQs large brightness changes, amounting to 1.655 ± 0.009, 0.163 ± 0.010 and 0.144 ± 0.018 mag, for J104833.5+620305.0, J123743.1+630144.9 and J232428.4+144324.4, respectively. Whereas the latter two are confirmed radio-quiet WLQs, the extragalactic nature of J104833.5+620305.0 remains to be well established, thanks to the absence of any feature(s) in its available optical spectra. This study forms a part of our ongoing campaign of intranight optical monitoring of radio-quiet WLQs, in order to improve the understanding of this enigmatic class of active galactic nuclei and to look among them for a possible tiny, elusive population of radio-quiet BL Lacs.

  4. On epochal mission of multicultural education in a perspective of globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shi-jian

    2006-01-01

    The development of modern societies accelerates the process of globalization,which in turn brings about a conspicuous diversity of cultures.Cultural difference and cultural diversity are characteristics of multiculturalism,which commits itself to the construction of favorable educational climates for multiple cultures.Such a progression has facilitated the development of education in a democratic and diverse way.Multicultural education develops rapidly and should undertake the new mission in the globalization era.In the perspective of globalization,multicultural education must aim at developing students' ability to adapt to a multicultural world.It should promote a combined growth of culture and world peace.

  5. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF AESTETICS IN POST-CLASSICAL EPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariia M. Skalska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological  convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight  the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in  modern age  of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century  as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.

  6. Crisis in geosciences in epoch of altimetry measurments and ways of its overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Scientific results by determination of increase of a global sea level, basing on altimetry measurements, are erroneous. Unfortunately, modern researches of global behavior of ocean in present period have resulted in a lot of paradoxes, to the inexplicable phenomena for today and to contradictions with the classical data of ground (coastal) observations. The basic contradiction consists that values of rate of increase of mean sea level, obtained with the help of satellite methods - methods of altimetry, in 2 - 3 times and more surpass classical determinations of this velocity by coastal methods with the help of measurements at tidal stations. Some authors actually resort to a juggling of the facts in the attempts to explain the found out contradictions (for example, with the help of selection of stations and regions of ocean with the increased values of rates). Thus rather big series of works has lost the scientific importance. The purpose of the report - to show, that conclusions about global increase of a level of the ocean, obtained with application of a method of satellite altimetry are rough - erroneous. "The global sea level rise estimate in the 20th century has been reported at 1.8 mm/yr [Church et al., 2004; Douglas, 2001], which is consistent with the IPCC TAR estimate of 1.5+/-0.5 mm/yr for the 20th Century [Church et al., 2001]. In contrast to the 1.8 mm/yr sea level rise estimate derived from tide gauges, sea level trend estimate from satellite altimetry since 1993 has increased to 3.1+/-0.4 mm/yr [Cazenave and Nerem, 2004]. Although the sea level rise during the TOPEX/POSEIDON period or the last decade is observed to rise almost 50% faster than the average rate over the last Century, visual inspection and fitting a quadratic to the time series confirms there is no significant increase in the rate [Church et al., 2004]." [2], p.7. The statement is rather eloquent. We shall notice only, that the marked difference in rates of MSLR not 50 %, and 100 % and more. I.e. with the help of application of altimetry technique of measurements of velocities has made more than 200 %, and actually if closely to look narrowly at the data on coastal measurements, all is especial in a southern hemisphere, and of 300 %. Is even more tremendous conclusions of similar researches look. There is no necessity to list about the similar conclusions made in numerous publications of last years by known authors on a problem of global change of mean sea level. Among themselves these conclusions will more - less be coordinated, being in too time strictly erroneous. The scientific works basing on the joint analysis of altimetry and coastal methods of measurements, are strictly erroneous. The big list of publications of well-known authors in which attempts of determination of rates of mean sea level increase have been made on the basis of the joint analysis of the data of coastal ground observations and satellite altimetry observations concerns to the list of erroneous works. It is natural, that erroneous results of the specified works in the most serious image have affected researches in the connected sciences about an atmosphere and ocean, climatology, hydrology and others. The crisis situation in the big area of sciences about the Earth is created, satellite achievements in which have actually lost the scientific importance. In the report the explanation of the created crisis situation is given, and the fundamental phenomena in global behavior of ocean obtain an explanation on the basis of geodynamic model developed by the author about trend, the forced swing and wanderings of the core of the Earth relatively to the viscous-elastic mantle [1]. Role of space geodesy. This important discipline of a modern science has serviced bad service for considered scientific problems. The matter is that it could not study and correctly prove conclusions about existence and character of secular drift of the centre of mass of the Earth which here has played the central role - "original Susanin's role" and has got the scientific world community in an impassable wood of mistakes. This fundamental and most important natural phenomenon was carefully camouflaged with numerous and erroneous discussions about a choice of those or other terrestrial systems of coordinates. About existence of secular trend of the center of mass and native phenomenon of the core drift to the North I repeatedly spoke and wrote in reports and publications of last 12-15 years. Another reasons of mistakes. Altimetry data reflect at least two comparable effects: an increase of mean see level of ocean and effects caused by secular drift of the centre of mass and as can not act in one pair with classical observations - they give falsification each other. For a popular explanation of mentioned altimetry-geodesy effect it is possible to present, that an orbit of the satellite which is determined relatively to the centre of mass, at a polar drift of the last to the north, as though rises or falls above a surface of the Earth depending on that - it flies by above a southern hemisphere or northern hemisphere [3] - [5]. An asymmetry in distribution of the ocean areas in relation to the specified hemispheres lead to additional (significant) effect of increase of sea level by averaging of altimetry measurements. Even if the sea level would not vary at all, altimeters would find out its secular global increase. And in relation to ocean in polar part of northern hemisphere they would find out effect of decrease of sea level. The similar situation takes place with known Arctic paradox in decreasing of sea level in polar zones. An attempt of some scientists "to put a horse and a quivering fallow deer to one harness", there were unsuccessful, and all scientific conclusions in sciences about the Earth of last 15 years anyhow basing on altimetry measurements, strictly speaking, are erroneous. "Have eyes, but do not see …". In unenviable position the scientists, trying by the natural reasons to explain a mistake in 100-150 % in value of rate of increase of an average global sea level, certainly, have got. To try to make it is possible, only having closed eyes on reality. A sympathy is caused with similar attempts. And how many they still that though somehow to rescue or even will be to smooth a situation with crisis, but it for the specified authors is unsolved problem. "Have ears, but do not hear …". Unfortunately some authors of the specified erroneous works have occupied a strange position and refuse to discuss even the fact of huge distinction in rates of global increase of a level of ocean on the coastal and satellite data, being limited to excuses of absolutely not scientific character. For example, having heard on EGU 2008 reports of known experts that in extensive regions around of India, Africa and in general in extensive regions of a southern hemisphere the rates of increase of sea level at many stations are given with values of velocities of 0.5 - 1.0 mm/yr, and even negative values, Dr. Don Chambers says in his report, that a mean sea level, not looking on anything, increases with velocity in 3 - 4 mm/yr. At least it is necessary will stop and to think - in what the reason of similar divergences? The strong illustration to told is obtained in work [6]. In this work on the basis of coastal data of observations the velocities of trends of sea levels for all main regions of the Earth (12 regions), including for last 20 years covering "altimetry period" have been determined. "Altimetry velocity" of increase of a global level does not explain any of these values, and on the average surpasses them twice. In application altimetry in sciences about ocean the author has specified the reason of the specified crisis in brief notes [3] - [5]. Suggested mechanism and geodynamic model [1] offered by the author specifies a unique possible output from crisis in geosciences. References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity, Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk, Vyp. 9, М., VINITI, 45-97. In Russian. [2] Kuo Chung-Yen (2006) determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise. Report N 471. Geodetic Science and Surveging. Department of geological sciences. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210. [3] Barkin, Yu.V. (2007) About some mechanisms of the mean global sea level rise. EGU General Assembly (Vienna, Austria, 15-20 April 2007). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Volume 9, 2007, abstract # EGU07-A-07151. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Global increase of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors. "Geology of seas and oceans: Materials of XVII International scientific conference (scool) on mariner geology". V. IV. M.: GEOS. 2007. p. 18-20. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Mechanisms of increase of mean sea level and solution of "attribution problem". "Geology of seas and oceans: Materials of XVII International scientific conference (scool) on mariner geology". V. IV. M.: GEOS. 2007. p. 21-23. [6] Jevreeva S., Grinsted A., Moore J.C., Holgate S. (2006) Nonlinear trends and multiyear cycles in sea level records. Journal Geophysical Research, v. 111, C09012, doi: 10.1029/2005JC0032 29, 2006.

  7. Intensity Mapping of the [CII] Fine Structure Line during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, A.; Silva, M.; Santos, M. G.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-01-01

    The atomic CII fine-structure line is one of the brightest lines in a typical star-forming galaxy spectrum with a luminosity 0.1% to 1% of the bolometric luminosity. It is otentially a reliable tracer of the dense gas distribution at high edshifts and could provide an additional probe to the era of reionization. By taking into account of the spontaneous, stimulated and collisional emission of the CII line, we calculate the spin temperature and the mean intensity as a function of the redshift. When averaged over a cosmologically large volume, we find that the CII emission from ionized carbon in individual galaxies is larger than the signal generated by carbon in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Assuming that the CII luminosity is proportional to the carbon mass in dark matter halos, we also compute the power spectrum of the CII line intensity at various redshifts. In order to avoid the contamination from CO rotational lines at low redshift when targeting a CII survey at high redshifts, we propose the cross-correlation of CII and 21-cm line emission from high redshifts. To explore the detectability of the CII signal from reionization, we also evaluate the expected errors on the CII power spectrum and CII-21 cm cross power spectrum based on the design of the future milimeter surveys. We note that the CII-21 cm cross power spectrum contains interesting features that captures physics during reionization, including the ionized bubble sizes and the mean ionization fraction, which are challenging to measure from 21-cm data alone. We propose an instrumental concept for the reionization CII experiment targeting the frequency range of 200 to 300 GHz with 1, 3 and 10 meter apertures and a bolometric spectrometer array with 64 independent spectral pixels with about 20,000 bolometers.

  8. Clinical applications of nuclear cardiology studies in the reforms epoch of health systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, Fernando; Beretta, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The appropriate evaluation of the ischemic heart disease due to it seriousness and high prevalence, limited by the expenses that arise from the illness, constitutes a challenge in our times for the daily practice. At the present time, nuclear cardiology competes with several non invasive techniques in the evaluation of the perfusion and the myocardial viability, being this requested in function of the real necessity of each patient. The applications that nuclear cardiology offers for the study of the myocardial perfusion are multiple. Clinical situations are reviewed in this article, such as the coronary illness, states previous to the non cardiac surgery, states after cardiac catheterization, coronary angioplasty, revascularization surgery, and evaluation of patient under long term medical treatment. The study of the myocardial perfusion allows that the coronary illness can be classified according to a low, intermediate or high probability, providing a wide prognosis information in relation to the extension and severity of the ischemia. In this study there are also remarked practical limits as for the selection of patients in order to achieve that the studies of nuclear cardiology offer an appropriate evaluation of the well-known or suspected coronary illness. (The author)

  9. The redshifted HI 21 cm signal from the post-reionization epoch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    72

    tral HI gas are housed in the Damped Ly-α (DLA) systems. .... We use δT to denote the redshifted 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations ..... Two separate telescopes named SKA-low and SKA-mid operating at two ... considered in the 'Baseline Design Document' and 'SKA Level 1 Requirements ... We can see that the.

  10. Typhus in Mexico City during the epoch of the Mexican Revolution, 1913-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Molina del Villar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the impact of the 1915-1916 typhus epidemic in Mexico City, examining its origin and propagation and placing the epidemic in the context of the great social and political vulnerability that originated with the fall of Victoriano Huerta and the capture of the city by a variety of revolutionary forces. The article focuses on the demographic impact of the epidemic, connecting its repercussions with the unhealthy conditions then prevailing in the country's capital, which could largely be attributed to poverty and the interruption of many sanitary measures due to budgetary shortfalls, armed conflict and changes of government. The article draws on sources of information from the historical archives of the Health Secretariat and the Mexico City government, as well as contemporary press reports and the bulletins issued by the Superior Health Council. This article aims to contribute to the historiography of the period from the perspective of social and demographic history.

  11. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Gen; Kono, Reiko T; Katoh, Shigehiro; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas

    2007-08-23

    With the discovery of Ardipithecus, Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, our knowledge of hominid evolution before the emergence of Pliocene species of Australopithecus has significantly increased, extending the hominid fossil record back to at least 6 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the dearth of fossil hominoid remains in sub-Saharan Africa spanning the period 12-7 Myr ago, nothing is known of the actual timing and mode of divergence of the African ape and hominid lineages. Most genomic-based studies suggest a late divergence date-5-6 Myr ago and 6-8 Myr ago for the human-chimp and human-gorilla splits, respectively-and some palaeontological and molecular analyses hypothesize a Eurasian origin of the African ape and hominid clade. We report here the discovery and recognition of a new species of great ape, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, from the 10-10.5-Myr-old deposits of the Chorora Formation at the southern margin of the Afar rift. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first fossils of a large-bodied Miocene ape from the African continent north of Kenya. They exhibit a gorilla-sized dentition that combines distinct shearing crests with thick enamel on its 'functional' side cusps. Visualization of the enamel-dentine junction by micro-computed tomography reveals shearing crest features that partly resemble the modern gorilla condition. These features represent genetically based structural modifications probably associated with an initial adaptation to a comparatively fibrous diet. The relatively flat cuspal enamel-dentine junction and thick enamel, however, suggest a concurrent adaptation to hard and/or abrasive food items. The combined evidence suggests that Chororapithecus may be a basal member of the gorilla clade, and that the latter exhibited some amount of adaptive and phyletic diversity at around 10-11 Myr ago.

  12. Size and Shape of Chariklo from Multi-epoch Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, R.; Sicardy, B.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Ortiz, J.-L.; Desmars, J.; Bérard, D.; Lellouch, E.; Meza, E.; Kervella, P.; Snodgrass, C.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Assafin, M.; Morgado, B. E.; Colas, F.; De Witt, C.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Breytenbach, H.; Dauvergne, J.-L.; Schoenau, P.; Maquet, L.; Bath, K.-L.; Bode, H.-J.; Cool, A.; Lade, B.; Kerr, S.; Herald, D.

    2017-10-01

    We use data from five stellar occultations observed between 2013 and 2016 to constrain Chariklo’s size and shape, and the ring reflectivity. We consider four possible models for Chariklo (sphere, Maclaurin spheroid, triaxial ellipsoid, and Jacobi ellipsoid), and we use a Bayesian approach to estimate the corresponding parameters. The spherical model has a radius R = 129 ± 3 km. The Maclaurin model has equatorial and polar radii a=b={143}-6+3 {km} and c={96}-4+14 {km}, respectively, with density {970}-180+300 {kg} {{{m}}}-3. The ellipsoidal model has semiaxes a={148}-4+6 {km}, b={132}-5+6 {km}, and c={102}-8+10 {km}. Finally, the Jacobi model has semiaxes a = 157 ± 4 km, b = 139 ± 4 km, and c = 86 ± 1 km, and density {796}-4+2 {kg} {{{m}}}-3. Depending on the model, we obtain topographic features of 6-11 km, typical of Saturn icy satellites with similar size and density. We constrain Chariklo’s geometric albedo between 3.1% (sphere) and 4.9% (ellipsoid), while the ring I/F reflectivity is less constrained between 0.6% (Jacobi) and 8.9% (sphere). The ellipsoid model explains both the optical light curve and the long-term photometry variation of the system, giving a plausible value for the geometric albedo of the ring particles of 10%-15%. The derived mass of Chariklo of 6-8 × 1018 kg places the rings close to 3:1 resonance between the ring mean motion and Chariklo’s rotation period. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: age and duration of the olduvai normal polarity event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1971-01-01

    New data show that the Olduvai normal geomagnetic polarity event is represented in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, by rocks covering a time span of roughly from 0.1 to 0.2 my and is no older than 2.0 my. Hence the long normal polarity event of this age that is seen in deep-sea sediment cores and in magnetic profiles over oceanic ridges should be called the Olduvai event. The lava from which the Gilsa?? event was defined may have been erupted during the Olduvai event and, if so, the term Gilsa?? should now be abandoned. Many dated lavas that were originally assigned to the Olduvai event represent one or two much shorter normal polarity events that preceded the Olduvai event; these are herein named the Re??union normal polarity events. This revision brings the geomagnetic reversal time scale into conformity with the one implied by assumptions of uniform sedimentation rates on the ocean floor and uniform rates of sea-floor spreading. ?? 1971.

  14. Observing quasars and galaxies at high redshifts: Searching for the formation epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results are reviewed which demonstrate that finding the earliest quasars and galaxies in the universe will require infrared spectroscopy between 1 and 10 microns. Technical limitations on such observations from the Moon are summarized, which depend primarily on background emission from the telescope and the zodiacal dust. Detection of the most distant star forming galaxies will require exceptional background stability for which angular resolution better than about 1 arcsecond is not critical, so a large filled-aperture telescope of nominal image quality will be adequate. For quasars, detection improves with increasing angular resolution, so the best possible image quality is important, particularly to obtain diffraction limited performance shortward of 3 microns. A summary is given of what could be seen as a function of available telescope aperture

  15. Can we improve C IV-based single epoch black hole mass estimations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.

    2018-05-01

    In large optical surveys at high redshifts (z > 2), the C IV broad emission line is the most practical alternative to estimate the mass (MBH) of active super-massive black holes (SMBHs). However, mass determinations obtained with this line are known to be highly uncertain. In this work we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and 12 quasar catalogues to statistically test three alternative methods put forward in the literature to improve C IV-based MBH estimations. These methods are constructed from correlations between the ratio of the C IV line-width to the low ionization line-widths (Hα, Hβ and Mg II) and several other properties of rest-frame UV emission lines. Our analysis suggests that these correction methods are of limited applicability, mostly because all of them depend on correlations that are driven by the linewidth of the C IV profile itself and not by an interconnection between the linewidth of the C IV line with the linewidth of the low ionization lines. Our results show that optical C IV-based mass estimates at high redshift cannot be a proper replacement for estimates based on IR spectroscopy of low ionization lines like Hα, Hβ and Mg II.

  16. Destiny of concepts “Civilisation” and “Culture” in the epoch of Late Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P. Knekht

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we follow the appearance of the new sense of the concepts “civilization” and “culture” in the changing vocabulary of social-humanitarian knowledge. We pay attention to reforming and restructuring of the disciplinary field of social sciences, connected with significant civilization changes of the late capitalist society.

  17. Precision epoch of reionization studies with next-generation CMB experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Louis, Thibaut [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hložek, Renée; Hil, J. Colin [Department of Astrophysical Science, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Battaglia, Nick [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); De Bernardis, Francesco; Henderson, Shawn; Niemack, Michael D. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, 109 Clark Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 315 Allen Hall, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); McMahon, Jeff [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4041 South Africa (South Africa); Newburgh, Laura [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 Canada (Canada); Page, Lyman A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Partridge, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA, 19041 (United States); Sehgal, Neelima, E-mail: erminia.calabrese@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: rhlozek@astro.princeton.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    Future arcminute resolution polarization data from ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations can be used to estimate the contribution to the temperature power spectrum from the primary anisotropies and to uncover the signature of reionization near ℓ=1500 in the small angular-scale temperature measurements. Our projections are based on combining expected small-scale E-mode polarization measurements from Advanced ACTPol in the range 300<ℓ<3000 with simulated temperature data from the full Planck mission in the low and intermediate ℓ region, 2<ℓ<2000. We show that the six basic cosmological parameters determined from this combination of data will predict the underlying primordial temperature spectrum at high multipoles to better than 1% accuracy. Assuming an efficient cleaning from multi-frequency channels of most foregrounds in the temperature data, we investigate the sensitivity to the only residual secondary component, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) term. The CMB polarization is used to break degeneracies between primordial and secondary terms present in temperature and, in effect, to remove from the temperature data all but the residual kSZ term. We estimate a 15σ detection of the diffuse homogeneous kSZ signal from expected AdvACT temperature data at ℓ>1500, leading to a measurement of the amplitude of matter density fluctuations, σ{sub 8}, at 1% precision. Alternatively, by exploring the reionization signal encoded in the patchy kSZ measurements, we bound the time and duration of the reionization with σ(z{sub re})=1.1 and σ(Δz{sub re})=0.2. We find that these constraints degrade rapidly with large beam sizes, which highlights the importance of arcminute-scale resolution for future CMB surveys.

  18. The Cosmic Web around the Brightest Galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Keven; Trenti, Michele; Mutch, Simon J.

    2018-03-01

    The most luminous galaxies at high redshift are generally considered to be hosted in massive dark-matter halos of comparable number density, hence residing at the center of over-densities/protoclusters. We assess the validity of this assumption by investigating the clustering around the brightest galaxies populating the cosmic web at redshift z ∼ 8–9 through a combination of semi-analytic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations of mock Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 observations. The innovative aspect of our approach is the inclusion of a log-normal scatter parameter Σ in the galaxy luminosity versus halo mass relation, extending the conditional luminosity function framework extensively used at low redshift to high z. Our analysis shows that the larger the value of Σ, the less likely it is that the brightest source in a given volume is hosted in the most massive halo, and hence the weaker the overdensity of neighbors. We derive a minimum value of Σ as a function of redshift by considering stochasticity in the halo assembly times, which affects galaxy ages and star formation rates in our modeling. We show that Σmin(z) ∼ 0.15–0.3, with Σmin increasing with redshift as a consequence of shorter halo assembly periods at higher redshifts. Current observations (m AB ∼ 27) of the environment of spectroscopically confirmed bright sources at z > 7.5 do not show strong evidence of clustering and are consistent with our modeling predictions for Σ ≥ Σmin. Deeper future observations reaching m AB ∼ 28.2–29 would have the opportunity to clearly quantify the clustering strength and hence to constrain Σ, investigating the physical processes that drive star formation in the early universe.

  19. Marine drugs: A hidden wealth and a new epoch for cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Eram; Arora, Deepika; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Akhtar, Salman; Khan, Mohd Kalim Ahmad; Kamal, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arif, Jamal M

    2017-02-20

    Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in humans. Due to tedious efforts and investigation made in the field of marine drug discovery, there is now a scientific bridge between marine and pharmaceutical sciences. However, at present only few marine drugs have been paved towards anticancer management, yet many more to be established. Marine organisms are profuse manufacturer of structurally inimitable bioactive metabolites that have unusual mechanisms of action and diverse biosynthetic pathways. Some of the compounds derived from marine organisms have antioxidant property and anticancer activities, but they are largely unexplored. The present review is summarising various source of marine chemicals and their exploration of anticancerous potential. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy: epoch-making biological and chemical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lančok, Adriana; Volfová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 461-470 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015088 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : biological tissue * boron chemistry * Fe2+ and Fe3+ * Mössbauer spectrometry * vivianite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry ; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry ; Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  1. The Epoch of Disk Formation: z is Approximately l to Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Susan; Gardner, Jonathan; Weiner, Ben; Faber, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    We present data on galaxy kinematics, morphologies, and star-formation rates over 0.1 less than z less than 1.2 for approximately 500 blue galaxies. These data show how systems like our own Milky-Way have come into being. At redshifts around 1, about half the age of the Universe ago, Milky-Way mass galaxies were different beasts than today. They had a significant amount of disturbed motions, disturbed morphologies, shallower potential wells, higher specific star-formation rates, and likely higher gas fractions. Since redshift approximately 1, galaxies have decreased in disturbed motions, increased in rotation velocity and potential well depth, become more well-ordered morphologically, and decreased in specific star-formation rate. We find interrelationships between these measurements. Galaxy kinematics are correlated with morphology and specific star-formation rate such that galaxies with the fastest rotation velocities and the least amounts of disturbed motions have the most well-ordered morphologies and the lowest specific star-formation rates. The converse is true. Moreover, we find that the rate at which galaxies become more well-ordered kinematically (i.e., increased rotation velocity, decreased disturbed motions) and morphologically is directly proportional to their stellar mass.

  2. Different habitats within a region contain evolutionary heritage from different epochs depending on the abiotic environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartish, Igor V.; Ozinga, W.A.; Bartish, M. I.; Wamelink, G. W. W.; Hennekens, S.M.; Prinzing, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2016), s. 274-285 ISSN 1466-822X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : museums and cradles of diversity * palaeoecology * macroevolutionary ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.045, year: 2016

  3. Forerunners of the New Epoch in Lithic Chipped Industries of the Moravian Young Eneolithic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopacz, J.; Přichystal, A.; Šebela, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 105-118 ISSN 2453-8612 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Moravia and Czech Silesia * East part of the Czech Republic * Young Eneolithic * lithic chipped industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology https://fphil.uniba.sk/fileadmin/fif/katedry_pracoviska/karch/MusArch/1_1/105-118.pdf

  4. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Wagner, R. Mark; Evans, Aneurin; Krautter, Joachim; Schwarz, Greg J.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  5. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wagner, R. Mark [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Evans, Aneurin [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Krautter, Joachim [Landessternwarte-Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet, Koenigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schwarz, Greg J. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 (United States); Starrfield, Sumner, E-mail: ahelton@sofia.usra.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  6. Modelling of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies and ionized bubbles at the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Understanding {Ly{α }} emitting galaxies (LAEs) can be a key to reveal cosmic reionization and galaxy formation in the early Universe. Based on halo merger trees and {Ly{α }} radiation transfer calculations, we model redshift evolution of LAEs and their observational properties at z ≥ 6. We consider ionized bubbles associated with individual LAEs and IGM transmission of {Ly{α }} photons. We find that {Ly{α }} luminosity tightly correlates with halo mass and stellar mass, while the relation with star formation rate has a large dispersion. Comparing our models with the observed luminosity function by Konno et al., we suggest that LAEs at z ˜ 7 have galactic wind of V_out ≳ 100 km s^{-1} and HI column density of N_HI ≳ 10^{20} cm^{-2}. Number density of bright LAEs rapidly decreases as redshift increases, due to both lower star formation rate and smaller HII bubbles. Our model predicts future wide deep surveys with next generation telescopes, such as JWST, E-ELT and TMT, can detect LAEs at z ˜ 10 with a number density of n_LAE ˜ a few × 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3} for the flux sensitivity of 10^{-18} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}. When giant HII bubbles are formed by clustering LAEs, the number density of observable LAEs can increase by a factor of few. By combining these surveys with future 21-cm observations, it could be possible to detect both LAEs with L_{Lyα }≳ 10^{42} erg s^{-1} and their associated giant HII bubbles with the size ≳ 250 kpc at z ˜ 10.

  7. Equatorial Oscillation and Planetary Wave Activity in Saturn's Stratosphere Through the Cassini Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Spiga, A.; Flasar, F. M.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Gorius, N.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra acquired by Cassini/Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in limb-viewing geometry in 2015 are used to derive 2-D latitude-pressure temperature and thermal wind maps. These maps are used to study the vertical structure and evolution of Saturn's equatorial oscillation (SEO), a dynamical phenomenon presenting similarities with the Earth's quasi-biennal oscillation (QBO) and semi-annual oscillation (SAO). We report that a new local wind maximum has appeared in 2015 in the upper stratosphere and derive the descent rates of other wind extrema through time. The phase of the oscillation observed in 2015, as compared to 2005 and 2010, remains consistent with a ˜15 year period. The SEO does not propagate downward at a regular rate but exhibits faster descent rate in the upper stratosphere, combined with a greater vertical wind shear, compared to the lower stratosphere. Within the framework of a QBO-type oscillation, we estimate the absorbed wave momentum flux in the stratosphere to be on the order of ˜7 × 10-6 N m-2. On Earth, interactions between vertically propagating waves (both planetary and mesoscale) and the mean zonal flow drive the QBO and SAO. To broaden our knowledge on waves potentially driving Saturn's equatorial oscillation, we searched for thermal signatures of planetary waves in the tropical stratosphere using CIRS nadir spectra. Temperature anomalies of amplitude 1-4 K and zonal wave numbers 1 to 9 are frequently observed, and an equatorial Rossby (n = 1) wave of zonal wave number 3 is tentatively identified in November 2009.

  8. Galaxy Properties and UV Escape Fractions during the Epoch of Reionization: Results from the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic reionization is thought to be primarily fueled by the first generations of galaxies. We examine their stellar and gaseous properties, focusing on the star formation rates and the escape of ionizing photons, as a function of halo mass, redshift, and environment using the full suite of the Renaissance Simulations with an eye to provide better inputs to global reionization simulations. This suite probes overdense, average, and underdense regions of the universe of several hundred comoving Mpc3, each yielding a sample of over 3000 halos in the mass range of 107-109.5 {M}⊙ at their final redshifts of 15, 12.5, and 8, respectively. In the process, we simulate the effects of radiative and supernova feedback from 5000 to 10,000 Population III stars in each simulation. We find that halos as small as 107 {M}⊙ are able to host bursty star formation due to metal-line cooling from earlier enrichment by massive Population III stars. Using our large sample, we find that the galaxy-halo occupation fraction drops from unity at virial masses above 108.5 {M}⊙ to ˜50% at 108 {M}⊙ and ˜10% at 107 {M}⊙ , quite independent of redshift and region. Their average ionizing escape fraction is ˜5% in the mass range of 108-109 {M}⊙ and increases with decreasing halo mass below this range, reaching 40%-60% at 107 {M}⊙ . Interestingly, we find that the escape fraction varies between 10%-20% in halos with virial masses of ˜3 × 109 {M}⊙ . Taken together, our results confirm the importance of the smallest galaxies as sources of ionizing radiation contributing to the reionization of the universe.

  9. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V., E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov, E-mail: avusmanov@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion.

  10. Decreasing Asian summer monsoon intensity after 1860 AD in the global warming epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai [Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Hong, Yetang; Hong, Bin [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Guiyang (China)

    2012-10-15

    The trend of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) intensity and its nature during the past 100 and 200 years still remain unclear. In this study we reconstructed the ISM intensity during the past 270 years from tree ring {delta}{sup 18}O at Hongyuan, eastern edge of the Tibet Plateau. The monsoon failures inferred from {delta}{sup 18}O{sub tree} {sub ring} correlate well with those recorded in ice cores, speleothem, and historical literature sources. 22.6, 59.0, and 110.9-years frequency components in the Hongyuan {delta}{sup 18}O{sub tree} {sub ring} series, which may be the responses to solar activities, synchronize well with those recorded in other ISM indices. A notable feature of the reconstructed ISM intensity is the gradually decreasing trend from about 1860 to the present, which is inversely related to the increasing temperature trend contemporaneously. Such ''decreasing ISM intensity-increasing temperature'' tendency can also be supported by ice core records and meteorological records over a wide geographic extension. The decrease in sea surface temperature gradient between tropical and north Indian Ocean, and the decrease in land-sea thermal contrast between tropical Indian Ocean and ''Indian sub-continent-western Himalaya'' are possibly responsible for the observed decreasing ISM trend. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear science and technology at epoch of scientific and technical revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out at the great revolutionizing influence of practical application of the nuclear energy with development of scientific and technical progress. Nowadays atomic energy being directed on the peaceful application of it is acquiring in the life of society significance which is difficult to overestimate. Completely new branch of industry has been created which is as to technology, culture of production and precision is concerned, exceeding all which had been created by mankind. Now it is difficult to manage without atomic energy in every branch of industry, in agriculture, medicine and scientific researches. History and modern state are stated of the development of main directions of nuclear science and technology, in particular: in the field of charged particles physics; nuclear physics; production of transuranium elements. Particular place is occupied by the works on creation of new energy sources, in particular, using controlled thermonuclear reactions and energy of fission. One of the forms of utilization of plasma processes is creation of MHD - generators. Structure has been shown of development of nuclear energetics in the CMEA member-states. Main types of power reactors have been listed and their characteristics have been given. Perspectives of nuclear ships building is given, as well as perspectives of applications of radioisotopes and radiations in different fields of science and technology, in particular, in different branches of industry and in nuclear medicine. The role of CMEA is stated in organizing and co-ordination of efforts of the countries of socialism in the field of development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy [ru

  12. Crisis Magazine: first epoch (1973-1976). Historical and cultural revisionism

    OpenAIRE

    Ponza, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo, que parte de describir las características de la revista Crisis como proyecto editorial, se demuestra que si bien la publicación efectuó intervenciones públicas que expresaban una ética de compromiso solidario con un proyecto político y la obligación moral de criticar y de impugnar un orden de dominación capitalista del cual toda América Latina debía emanciparse, no desplegó una estrategia explícita, ni compacta ni homogénea, sino que reveló una trama colectiva interior y de...

  13. Can the reionization epoch be detected as a global signature in the cosmic background?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaver, PA; Windhorst, RA; Madau, P; de Bruyn, AG

    The reionization of the Universe is expected to have left a signal in the form of a sharp step in the spectrum of the sky. If reicnization took place at 5 less than or similar to z(ion) less than or similar to 20, a feature should be present in the radio sky at 70 less than or similar to v less than

  14. SARAS 2 Constraints on Global 21 cm Signals from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Girish, B. S.; Raghunathan, A.; Somashekar, R.; Srivani, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    Spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background over the 40–200 MHz band are imprinted by neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium prior to the end of reionization. This signal, produced in the redshift range z = 6–34 at the rest-frame wavelength of 21 cm, has not been detected yet; and a poor understanding of high-redshift astrophysics results in a large uncertainty in the expected spectrum. The SARAS 2 radiometer was purposely designed to detect the sky-averaged 21 cm signal. The instrument, deployed at the Timbaktu Collective (Southern India) in 2017 April–June, collected 63 hr of science data, which were examined for the presence of the cosmological 21 cm signal. In our previous work, the first-light data from the SARAS 2 radiometer were analyzed with Bayesian likelihood-ratio tests using 264 plausible astrophysical scenarios. In this paper we reexamine the data using an improved analysis based on the frequentist approach and forward-modeling. We show that SARAS 2 data reject 20 models, out of which 15 are rejected at a significance >5σ. All the rejected models share the scenario of inefficient heating of the primordial gas by the first population of X-ray sources, along with rapid reionization. Joint Astronomy Program, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  15. Western Audiovisual Stereotypes of Russian Image: the Ideological Confrontation Epoch (1946-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of the Western audiovisual stereotypes of Russian image from the period of ideological confrontation (1946-1991: ideological and social trends, classification of the contents’ models and genres. The content analysis of the western media texts of the period of the “cold war” (1946-1991 allows to present their main plot diagrams as follows: Soviet spies penetrate into the territory of the USA/Western country to commit diversion and/or to worm out military secrets; the USSR prepares a covert attack on the territory of the USA/Western world, creating secret bases with nuclear weapons; the inhuman Soviet totalitarian regime oppresses its own people or the people of any other country; Nonconformity leaves/attempts to leave the USSR where, in their opinion, democracy and individual freedom are being oppressed; common western people explain to Soviet military/civilian visitors who were mislead by propaganda that the USA/Western country is the stronghold of friendship and world-wide prosperity and peace; obstacles connected with the ideological confrontation between the USSR and the Western world appear on the way of a loving couple.

  16. THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND INTENSITY AND ANISOTROPIES DURING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooray, Asantha; Gong Yan; Smidt, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Santos, Mario G. [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal)

    2012-09-01

    A fraction of the extragalactic near-infrared (near-IR) background light involves redshifted photons from the ultraviolet (UV) emission from galaxies present during reionization at redshifts above 6. The absolute intensity and the anisotropies of the near-IR background provide an observational probe of the first-light galaxies and their spatial distribution. We estimate the extragalactic background light intensity during reionization by accounting for the stellar and nebular emission from first-light galaxies. We require the UV photon density from these galaxies to generate a reionization history that is consistent with the optical depth to electron scattering from cosmic microwave background measurements. We also require the bright-end luminosity function (LF) of galaxies in our models to reproduce the measured Lyman-dropout LFs at redshifts of 6-8. The absolute intensity is about 0.1-0.4 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at the peak of its spectrum at {approx}1.1 {mu}m. We also discuss the anisotropy power spectrum of the near-IR background using a halo model to describe the galaxy distribution. We compare our predictions for the anisotropy power spectrum to existing measurements from deep near-IR imaging data from Spitzer/IRAC, Hubble/NICMOS, and AKARI. The predicted rms fluctuations at tens of arcminute angular scales are roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the existing measurements. While strong arguments have been made that the measured fluctuations do not have an origin involving faint low-redshift galaxies, we find that measurements in the literature are also incompatible with galaxies present during the era of reionization. The measured near-IR background anisotropies remain unexplained with an unknown origin.

  17. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Deebes

    2017-06-01

    The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF 2010 is indicated.

  18. BETA-ADRENOBLOCKERS IN XXI CENTURY: EPOCH END OR IMMORTALITY BEGINNING? A VIEW OF ORDINARY CARDIOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Malaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of β-blockers (BB for treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Results of the basic clinical trials with BB (LIFE, ASCOT, etc. are analyzed. The role of sympathetic system in different stages of cardiovascular continuum as well as forecast of BB clinical efficacy is surveyed. Author presents a review of data about selective β1-blocker, metoprolol succinate (Betalok ZОК, in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Epochs in the development of the Republic of Srpska: Establishment, Dayton and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes the key stages in the development of the Republic of Srpska, since its formation in 9 January 1992. In this context, it elaborates the process of genesis of the Republic of Srpska, its international verification by the Dayton Peace Agreement, post-conflict consolidation as a process of trial of the constitutional reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina that would redistribute responsibilities between the entity and state authorities. However, the paper points out that the Republic of Serbian unquestionable categories and that the current attempt by the U.S. and the EU for the amendment of the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina did not imply denial of two-entity structure of the state. In the future, how would you rate the author will attempt leading actors in world politics to redesign the institutional framework at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to strengthening its negotiating capacity to assume the obligations related to membership of the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

  20. Ultraviolet luminosity density of the universe during the epoch of reionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, Asantha; Gong, Yan; Ashby, Matthew; Dolch, Timothy; Ferguson, Henry; Finkelstein, Steven; Grogin, Norman; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton; Primack, Joel; Smidt, Joseph

    2015-09-08

    The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe. A multiwavelength study can be used to measure the integrated emission from first galaxies during reionization when the Universe was about 500 million years old. Here we report arcmin-scale spatial fluctuations in one of the deepest sky surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope in five wavebands between 0.6 and 1.6 μm. We model-fit the angular power spectra of intensity fluctuation measurements to find the ultraviolet luminosity density of galaxies at redshifts greater than 8 to be log ρ(UV) = 27.4(+0.2)(-1.2) ergs(-1) Hz(-1) Mpc(-3) (1σ). This level of integrated light emission allows for a significant surface density of fainter primeval galaxies that are below the point-source detection level in current surveys.

  1. A large area search for radio-loud quasars within the epoch of reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z ~ 6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5, and present broad-band SEDs of our most promi...

  2. A Search for Radio-loud Quasars within the Epoch of Reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z~6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5.

  3. Simulations of Galactic polarized synchrotron emission for Epoch of Reionization observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M.; Bernardi, G.; Santos, M. G.

    2018-06-01

    The detection of the redshifted cosmological 21 cm line signal requires the removal of the Galactic and extragalactic foreground emission, which is orders of magnitude brighter anywhere in the sky. Foreground cleaning methods currently used are efficient in removing spectrally smooth components. However, they struggle in the presence of not spectrally smooth contamination that is, therefore, potentially the most dangerous one. An example of this is the polarized synchrotron emission, which is Faraday rotated by the interstellar medium and leaks into total intensity due to instrumental imperfections. In this work we present new full-sky simulations of this polarized synchrotron emission in the 50 - 200 MHz range, obtained from the observed properties of diffuse polarized emission at low frequencies. The simulated polarized maps are made publicly available, aiming to provide more realistic templates to simulate the effect of instrumental leakage and the effectiveness of foreground separation techniques.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion

  5. The Mars water cycle at other epochs - Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model is presented of the integrated role of seasonal water cycle on the evolution of polar deposits on Mars over the last 10 million years. From the model, it is concluded that the only major difference between the polar caps which affects their long-term behavior is ultimately the difference in their elevations. Because of that difference, there is a preference for CO2 frost to stay longer on the northern polar cap. The average difference in sublimation at the caps results in a net south-to-north transport of water ice over long time scales. Superimposed on any long-term behavior is a transfer of water ice between the caps on the 10 exp 5 - 10 exp 6 yr time scales. The amount of water exchanged is small compared to the total ice content of the polar deposits.

  6. Seizure pattern-specific epileptic epoch detection in patients with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Long, X.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; van Dijk, J.P.

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) features are crucial for the seizure detection performance. Traditional algorithms are designed for a population with normal brain development. However, for patients with an intellectual disability the seizure detection performance is still largely unknown. In addition,

  7. Leo A : A late-blooming survivor of the epoch of reionization in the local group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Andrew A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Gallagher, John S.; Aparicio, Antonio; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Saha, Abhijit; Stetson, Peter B.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a major program to use isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies as near-field probes of cosmology, we have obtained deep images of the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. From these images we have constructed a color-magnitude

  8. Principles of evolution from the Planck epoch to complex multicellular life

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from a team of leading experts, this volume provides a comprehensive survey of recent achievements in our scientific understanding of evolution. The questions it asks concern the beginnings of the universe, the origin of life and the chances of its arising at all, the role of contingency, and the search for universal features in the plethora of evolutionary phenomena. Rather than oversimplified or premature answers, the chapters provide a clear picture of how these essential problems are being tackled, enabling the reader to understand current thinking and open questions.  The tools employed stem from a range of disciplines including mathematics, physics, biochemistry and cell biology. Self-organization as an overarching concept is demonstrated in the most diverse areas: from galaxy formation in the universe to spindle and aster formation in the cell. Chemical master equations, population dynamics, and evolutionary game theory are presented as suitable frameworks for understanding the univ...

  9. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

    2011-10-26

    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs.

  10. A new species of Adelpharctos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae from the late Oligocene of the “Phosphorites du Quercy” (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bonis, L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Adelpharctos was known until now through the species A. mirus by a unique mandible (p2-m2 from the old collections of the Quercy whose geological age was unknown. New material coming from the locality of Pech-du-Fraysse completes our knowledge of the genus particularly for the maxilla and upper teeth. Adelpharctos belongs to the sub-family Hemicyoninae in the family Ursidae. It differs from the middle Miocene hemicyonines which have more massive molars and from the group Cephalogale-Phoberogale by some morphological characters. It seems to be a branch coming from the ancestral stem group of the sub-family.El género Adelpharctos era solo conocido por una especie A. mirus representada por una única mandibular (p2-m2 procedente de las colecciones antiguas del Quercy, cuya edad geológica es desconocida. Nuevo material procedente de la localidad de Pech-du-Fraysse completa nuestro conocimiento sobre el género, en particular para el maxilar y la dentición superior. Adelpharctos pertenece a la subfamilia Hemicyoninae, familia Ursidae. El género difiere de los hemicioninos del Mioceno medio, que tienen dentición más robusta, y de los del grupo Cephalogae-Phoberogale por algunos caracteres morfológicos. Se interpreta como perteneciente a una línea procedente del grupo ancestral primitivo de la subfamilia Hemicyoninae.

  11. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the molecular and isotopic compositions of gases generated from different kerogen types (i.e., Types I/II, II, IIS and III) in Menilite Shales by sequential hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate gas generation from source rocks at pre-oil-cracking thermal maturities. Initially, rock samples were heated in the presence of liquid water at 330 ??C for 72 h to simulate early gas generation dominated by the overall reaction of kerogen decomposition to bitumen. Generated gas and oil were quantitatively collected at the completion of the experiments and the reactor with its rock and water was resealed and heated at 355 ??C for 72 h. This condition simulates late petroleum generation in which the dominant overall reaction is bitumen decomposition to oil. This final heating equates to a cumulative thermal maturity of 1.6% Rr, which represents pre-oil-cracking conditions. In addition to the generated gases from these two experiments being characterized individually, they are also summed to characterize a cumulative gas product. These results are compared with natural gases produced from sandstone reservoirs within or directly overlying the Menilite Shales. The experimentally generated gases show no molecular compositions that are distinct for the different kerogen types, but on a total organic carbon (TOC) basis, oil prone kerogens (i.e., Types I/II, II and IIS) generate more hydrocarbon gas than gas prone Type III kerogen. Although the proportionality of methane to ethane in the experimental gases is lower than that observed in the natural gases, the proportionality of ethane to propane and i-butane to n-butane are similar to those observed for the natural gases. ??13C values of the experimentally generated methane, ethane and propane show distinctions among the kerogen types. This distinction is related to the ??13C of the original kerogen, with 13C enriched kerogen generating more 13C enriched hydrocarbon gases than kerogen less enriched in 13C. The typically assumed linear trend for ??13C of methane, ethane and propane versus their reciprocal carbon number for a single sourced natural gas is not observed in the experimental gases. Instead, the so-called "dogleg" trend, exemplified by relatively 13C depleted methane and enriched propane as compared to ethane, is observed for all the kerogen types and at both experimental conditions. Three of the natural gases from the same thrust unit had similar "dogleg" trends indicative of Menilite source rocks with Type III kerogen. These natural gases also contained varying amounts of a microbial gas component that was approximated using the ????13C for methane and propane determined from the experiments. These approximations gave microbial methane components that ranged from 13-84%. The high input of microbial gas was reflected in the higher gas:oil ratios for Outer Carpathian production (115-1568 Nm3/t) compared with those determined from the experiments (65-302 Nm3/t). Two natural gas samples in the far western part of the study area had more linear trends that suggest a different organic facies of the Menilite Shales or a completely different source. This situation emphasizes the importance of conducting hydrous pyrolysis on samples representing the complete stratigraphic and lateral extent of potential source rocks in determining specific genetic gas correlations. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  13. Astronomical tunings of the Oligocene-Miocene transition from Pacific Ocean Site U1334 and implications for the carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Wilson, Douglas S.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2018-01-01

    Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, as well as independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two different astronomically tuned age models for the

  14. Geophysical research on structure of partly eroded maar volcanoes: Miocene Hnojnice and Oligocene Rychnov volcanoes (northern Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skácelová, Z.; Rapprich, V.; Valenta, Jan; Hartvich, Filip; Šrámek, J.; Radoň, M.; Gaždová, Renata; Nováková, Lucie; Kolínský, Petr; Pécskay, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 299-310 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : maar–diatreme volcano * ground magnetometry * ground gravity measurements Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2010 www.jgeosci.org/content/jgeosci.072_2010_4_skacelova.pdf

  15. A molecular organic geochemical study of black shales associated with diatomites from the Oligocene Meinilite Shale (Flysch Carpathians, SE Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.; Rospondek, M.; Zubrzycki, A.; Kolouba, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Black shales of the Menilite Formation, the source rock for oils in the Carpathian overthrust belt, display a large variability in their bulk and molecular geochemical parameters. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses indicate a variable contribution from different algae (particularly

  16. Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis inferred from stable isotope analysis of fossil tree rings from the Oligocene of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik L. Gulbranson; Bonnie F. Jacobs; William C. Hockaday; Michael C. Wiemann; Lauren A. Michel; Kaylee Richards; John W. Kappelman

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of reduced nitrogen (N) is essential for plant life, and plants have developed numerous strategies and symbioses with soil microorganisms to acquire this form of N. The evolutionary history of specific symbiotic relationships of plants with soil bacteria, however, lacks evidence from the fossil record confirming these mutualistic relationships. Here we...

  17. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-27

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  18. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such ch...