WorldWideScience

Sample records for oligo mass profiling

  1. Oligo-Alginate with Low Molecular Mass Improves Growth and Physiological Activity of Eucomis autumnalis under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have become increasingly popular as biostimulators of plant growth. One of them, oligo-alginate, is a molecule that regulates plant biological processes and may be used in horticultural practice as a plant growth regulator. Biostimulators are mainly used to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of salinity and oligo-alginate of various molecular masses on the growth and physiological activity of Eucomis autumnalis. The species is an ornamental and medicinal plant that has been used for a long time in the traditional medicine of South Africa. The bulbs of E. autumnalis were coated using depolymerized sodium alginate of molecular mass 32,000; 42,000, and 64,000 g mol−1. All of these oligo-alginates fractions stimulated plant growth, and the effect was the strongest for the fraction of 32,000 g mol−1. This fraction was then selected for the second stage of the study, when plants were exposed to salt stress evoked by the presence of 100 mM NaCl. We found that the oligo-alginate coating mitigated the negative effects of salinity. Plants treated with the oligomer and watered with NaCl showed smaller reduction in the weight of the above-ground parts and bulbs, pigment content and antioxidant activity as compared with those not treated with the oligo-alginate. The study demonstrated for the first time that low molecular mass oligo-alginate may be used as plant biostimulator that limits negative effects of salinity in E. autumnalis.

  2. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  3. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  4. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  5. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression from various tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yu Jin; Kim, Mi Sook; Jang, Won Il; Seo, Young Seok; Cho, Chul Koo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Paik, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression from various primary tumors. Between 2002 and 2013, 72 patients with liver oligo-recurrence (oligo-metastasis with a controlled primary tumor) and oligo-progression (contradictory progression of a few sites of disease despite an overall tumor burden response to therapy) underwent SBRT. Of these, 9 and 8 patients with uncontrollable distant metastases and patients immediate loss to follow-up, respectively, were excluded. The total planning target volume was used to select the SBRT dose (median, 48 Gy; range, 30 to 60 Gy, 3–4 fractions). Toxicity was evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. We evaluated 55 patients (77 lesions) treated with SBRT for liver metastases. All patients had controlled primary lesions, and 28 patients had stable lesions at another site (oligo-progression). The most common primary site was the colon (36 patients), followed by the stomach (6 patients) and other sites (13 patients). The 2-year local control and progression-free survival rates were 68% and 22%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 56% and 20%, respectively. The most common adverse events were grade 1–2 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting; no grade ≥3 toxicities were observed. Univariate analysis revealed that oligo-progression associated with poor survival. SBRT for liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression appears safe, with similar local control rates. For liver oligo-progression, criteria are needed to select patients in whom improved overall survival can be expected through SBRT.

  6. Tritium depth profiling in carbon by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Pilz, W.; Sun, G.; Behrisch, R.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Bekris, N.; Penzhorn, R.-D.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium depth profiling measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry have been performed at the facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. In order to achieve a uniform erosion at the target surface inside a commercial Cs ion sputtering source and to avoid edge effects, the samples were mechanically scanned and the signals were recorded only during sputtering at the centre of the sputtered area. The sputtered negative ions were mass analysed by the injection magnet of the Tandetron. Hydrogen and deuterium profiles were measured with the Faraday cup between the injection magnet and the accelerator, while the tritium was counted after the accelerator with semiconductor detectors. Depth profiles have been measured for carbon samples which had been exposed to the plasma at the first wall of the Garching fusion experiment ASDEX-Upgrade and from the European fusion experiment JET, Culham, UK

  7. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of

  8. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profile analysis of silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, P.; Kopnarski, M.; Oechsner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Direct Bombardment Mode (DBM) of Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been applied for depth profile analysis of two different multilayer systems containing metal silicides. Due to the extremely high depth resolution obtained with low energy SNMS structural details down to only a few atomic distances are detected. Stoichiometric information on internal oxides and implanted material is supplied by the high quantificability of SNMS. (Author)

  9. THE MASS PROFILE OF THE GALAXY TO 80 kpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Star Survey presents the currently largest sample of radial velocity measurements of halo stars out to 80 kpc. We apply spherical Jeans modeling to these data in order to derive the mass profile of the Galaxy. We restrict the analysis to distances larger than 25 kpc from the Galactic center, where the density profile of halo stars is well approximated by a single power law with logarithmic slope between -3.5 and -4.5. With this restriction, we also avoid the complication of modeling a flattened Galactic disk. In the range 25 kpc c (80 kpc) lies between 175 and 231 km s -1 , with the most likely value of 193 km s -1 . Compared with the value at the solar location, the Galactic circular velocity declines by less than 20% over an order of magnitude in radius. Such a flat profile requires a massive and extended dark matter halo. The mass enclosed within 80 kpc is 6.9 +3.0 -1.2 x 10 11 M sun . Our sample of radial velocities is large enough that the biggest uncertainty in the mass is not statistical but systematic, dominated by the density slope and anisotropy of the tracer population. Further progress requires modeling observed data sets within realistic simulations of galaxy formation.

  10. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. M.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Arimoto, Nobuo; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ v < 5 km s –1 ), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  11. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000, Strasbourg (France); Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Casey, Caitlin M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ {sub v} < 5 km s{sup –1}), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  12. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were...

  13. OligoRAP - an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.B.T.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely sequenced,

  14. Oligo(naphthylene–ethynylene) Molecular Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Jacob Roland; Ning, Yanxiao; Shen, Cai

    2013-01-01

    of palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions between naphthyl halides and acetylenes. The triazene functionality was used as a protected iodine precursor to allow linear extension of the molecular rods during the synthe-ses. The carboxylic acid groups in the target molecules were protected as esters during......Molecular rods designed for surface chirality studies have been synthesized in high yields. The molecules are composed of oligo(naphthylene–ethynylene) skeletons and functionalized at their two termini with carboxylic acids and hydrophobic groups. The molecular skeletons were constructed by means...

  15. Instantaneous chemical profiles of banknotes by ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Livia S; Haddad, Renato; Sarabia Neto, Ramon C; Cosso, Ricardo G; Maia, Denison R J; Maldaner, Adriano O; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Sanvido, Gustavo B; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G; Ifa, Demian R; Dill, Allison; Cooks, R Graham; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-10-01

    Using two desorption/ionization techniques (DESI and EASI) and Brazilian real, US$ dollar, and euro bills as proof-of-principle techniques and samples, direct analysis by ambient mass spectrometry is shown to function as an instantaneous, reproducible, and non-destructive method for chemical analysis of banknotes. Characteristic chemical profiles were observed for the authentic bills and for the counterfeit bills made using different printing processes (inkjet, laserjet, phaser and off-set printers). Detection of real-world counterfeit bills and identification of the counterfeiting method has also been demonstrated. Chemically selective 2D imaging of banknotes has also been used to confirm counterfeiting. The nature of some key diagnostic ions has also been investigated via high accuracy FTMS measurements. The general applicability of ambient MS analysis for anti-counterfeiting strategies particularly via the use of "invisible ink" markers is discussed.

  16. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Krishna Tarafder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls’ high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls’ high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%, headache (73%, chest pain (69%, body ache (63%, nausea (69%, and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%. Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes.

  17. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Binoy Krishna; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Islam, Md. Tanvir; Mahmud, Sheikh Abdullah Al; Sarker, Md. Humayun Kabir; Faruq, Imtiaz; Miah, Md. Titu; Arafat, S. M. Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls' high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls' high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%), headache (73%), chest pain (69%), body ache (63%), nausea (69%), and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%). Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes. PMID:27294104

  18. T-oligo as an anticancer agent in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdyla, Luke; Stone, Amanda L. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States); Sethakorn, Nan [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Uppada, Srijayaprakash B.; Devito, Joseph T. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States); Bissonnette, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Puri, Neelu, E-mail: neelupur@uic.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • T-oligo induces cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation in CRC. • Treatment with T-oligo downregulates telomere-associated proteins. • T-oligo combined with an EGFR-TKI additively inhibits cellular proliferation. • T-oligo has potential as an effective therapeutic agent for CRC. - Abstract: In the United States, there will be an estimated 96,830 new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and 50,310 deaths in 2014. CRC is often detected at late stages of the disease, at which point there is no effective chemotherapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective novel therapies that have minimal effects on normal cells. T-oligo, an oligonucleotide homologous to the 3′-telomere overhang, induces potent DNA damage responses in multiple malignant cell types, however, its efficacy in CRC has not been studied. This is the first investigation demonstrating T-oligo-induced anticancer effects in two CRC cell lines, HT-29 and LoVo, which are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies. In this investigation, we show that T-oligo may mediate its DNA damage responses through the p53/p73 pathway, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis or senescence. Additionally, upregulation of downstream DNA damage response proteins, including E2F1, p53 or p73, was observed. In LoVo cells, T-oligo induced senescence, decreased clonogenicity, and increased expression of senescence associated proteins p21, p27, and p53. In addition, downregulation of POT1 and TRF2, two components of the shelterin protein complex which protects telomeric ends, was observed. Moreover, we studied the antiproliferative effects of T-oligo in combination with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib, which resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation. Collectively, these data provide evidence that T-oligo alone, or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapies, has potential as an anti-cancer agent in CRC.

  19. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  20. Probe design for expression arrays using OligoWiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Since all measurements from a DNA microarray is dependant on the probes used, a good choice of probes is of vital importa nce when designing custom micro-arrays. This chapter describes how to de sign expression arrays using the “ OligoWiz ” software suite. The general desired features of good...... probes and the issues which probe design must address are introduced and a conceptual (rather than mathematical) description of how OligoWiz scores the quality of th e potential probes is presented. This is followed by a detailed step-by-step guide to designing expression arrays with OligoWiz....

  1. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  2. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumasa Hitoshi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. Results Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. Conclusion Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross

  3. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  4. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  5. Preparation of graphite intercalation compounds containing oligo and polyethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyang; Lerner, Michael M.

    2016-02-01

    Layered host-polymer nanocomposites comprising polymeric guests between inorganic sheets have been prepared with many inorganic hosts, but there is limited evidence for the incorporation of polymeric guests into graphite. Here we report for the first time the preparation, and structural and compositional characterization of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) containing polyether bilayers. The new GICs are obtained by either (1) reductive intercalation of graphite with an alkali metal in the presence of an oligo or polyether and an electrocatalyst, or (2) co-intercalate exchange of an amine for an oligo or polyether in a donor-type GIC. Structural characterization of products using powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analyses supports the formation of well-ordered, first-stage GICs containing alkali metal cations and oligo or polyether bilayers between reduced graphene sheets.Layered host-polymer nanocomposites comprising polymeric guests between inorganic sheets have been prepared with many inorganic hosts, but there is limited evidence for the incorporation of polymeric guests into graphite. Here we report for the first time the preparation, and structural and compositional characterization of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) containing polyether bilayers. The new GICs are obtained by either (1) reductive intercalation of graphite with an alkali metal in the presence of an oligo or polyether and an electrocatalyst, or (2) co-intercalate exchange of an amine for an oligo or polyether in a donor-type GIC. Structural characterization of products using powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analyses supports the formation of well-ordered, first-stage GICs containing alkali metal cations and oligo or polyether bilayers between reduced graphene sheets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Domain size, additional Raman spectra info, compositional calculation, and packing fractions. See DOI: 10.1039/c5

  6. Classification of terverticillate Penicillia by electrospray mass spectrometric profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    429 isolates of 58 species belonging to Penicillium subgenus Penicillium are classified from direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (diMS) analysis of crude extracts by automated data processing. The study shows that about 70% of the species can be classified correctly into species using...

  7. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling as diagnostic tool in oncology: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis has been heralded as a novel tool for identifying new and specific biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and monitoring of various disease states. Recent years have brought a number of proteomics profiling technologies. Although proteomics profiling has resulted in the detection of disease-associated differences and modification of proteins, current proteomics technologies display certain limitations that are hampering the introduction of these new technologies into clinical laboratory diagnostics and routine applications. In this review, we summarize current advances in mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery. The promises and challenges of this new technology are discussed with particular emphasis on diagnostic perspectives of mass-spectrometry based proteomics profiling for malignant diseases.

  8. Competitive intramolecular hydrogen bonding in oligo(ethylene oxide) substituted quadruple hydrogen bonded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de T.F.A.; Nieuwenhuizen, M.M.L.; Sijbesma, R.P.; Meijer, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    A series of oligo(ethylene oxide) (oligoEO) substituted 2-ureido-pyrimidinones (UPy), differing in the number of ethylene oxide units and the length of the aliphatic spacer connecting the oligoEO side chain with the UPy group, have been prepared. It was found that variation in these structural

  9. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We simulate neutralino dark matter (χDM) haloes from their initial collapse, at ˜ earth mass, up to a few percent solar. Our results confirm that the density profiles of the first haloes are described by a ˜r-1.5 power law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average ˜r-1, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. Using non-cosmological controlled simulations, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by major mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile. This transformation is more significant for shallower initial profiles and for a higher number of merging systems. Depending on the merger details, the resulting profiles can be shallower or steeper than NFW in their inner regions. Interestingly, mergers have a much weaker effect when the profile is given by a broken power law with an inner slope of -1 (such as NFW or Hernquist profiles). This offers an explanation for the emergence of NFW-like profiles: after their initial collapse, r-1.5 χDM haloes suffer copious major mergers, which progressively shallows the profile. Once an NFW-like profile is established, subsequent merging does not change the profile anymore. This suggests that halo profiles are not universal but rather a combination of (1) the physics of the formation of the microhaloes and (2) their early merger history - both set by the properties of the dark matter particle - as well as (3) the resilience of NFW-like profiles to perturbations.

  10. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    ) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix was made from each substrate by transferring the complete centroid mass spectrum from 200 to 700 amu as 501 variables to individual columns. No attempt was made to identify ions in the mass......A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA...

  11. Double Dynamic Supramolecular Polymers of Covalent Oligo-Dynamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, Gaël; Buhler, Eric; Candau, Sauveur Jean; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Double-dynamic polymers, incorporating both molecular and supramolecular dynamic features (“double dynamers”) have been generated, where these functions are present in a nonstoichiometric ratio in the main chain of the polymer. It has been achieved by (1) the formation of covalent oligo-dynamers in

  12. Probe Selection for DNA Microarrays using OligoWiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Juncker, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Nucleotide abundance measurements using DNA microarray technology are possible only if appropriate probes complementary to the target nucleotides can be identified. Here we present a protocol for selecting DNA probes for microarrays using the OligoWiz application. OligoWiz is a client-server appl......Nucleotide abundance measurements using DNA microarray technology are possible only if appropriate probes complementary to the target nucleotides can be identified. Here we present a protocol for selecting DNA probes for microarrays using the OligoWiz application. OligoWiz is a client......-server application that offers a detailed graphical interface and real-time user interaction on the client side, and massive computer power and a large collection of species databases (400, summer 2007) on the server side. Probes are selected according to five weighted scores: cross-hybridization, deltaT(m), folding...... computer skills and can be executed from any Internet-connected computer. The probe selection procedure for a standard microarray design targeting all yeast transcripts can be completed in 1 h....

  13. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  14. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) gene expression oligo microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenart, Stéphane; Ndong, Yves-Placide Assoumou; Duarte, Jorge; Rivière, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Lucau, Anca; Cariou, Emmanuelle; Neutelings, Godfrey; Gutierrez, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Guillot, Xavier; Tavernier, Reynald; Hawkins, Simon; Thomasset, Brigitte

    2010-10-21

    . All results suggest that our high-density flax oligo-microarray platform can be used as a very sensitive tool for analyzing gene expression in a large variety of tissues as well as in different cultivars. Moreover, this highly reliable platform can also be used for the quantification of mRNA transcriptional profiling in different flax tissues.

  15. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L. gene expression oligo microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Laurent

    2010-10-01

    as between two contrasted flax varieties. Conclusion All results suggest that our high-density flax oligo-microarray platform can be used as a very sensitive tool for analyzing gene expression in a large variety of tissues as well as in different cultivars. Moreover, this highly reliable platform can also be used for the quantification of mRNA transcriptional profiling in different flax tissues.

  16. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  17. OligoRAP – an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely

  18. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of breast cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has achieved attention as a promising technology in oncoproteomics. We performed a systematic review of published reports on protein profiling as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for original...... studies reporting discriminatory protein peaks for breast cancer as either protein identity or as m/ z values in the period from January 1995 to October 2006. To address the important aspect of reproducibility of mass spectrometry data across different clinical studies, we compared the published lists...... of potential discriminatory peaks with those peaks detected in an original MALDI MS protein profiling study performed by our own research group. A total of 20 protein/peptide profiling studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 3 reports included information on protein identity...

  19. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Amendola, L. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Umetsu, K. [5 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, P. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Mu\\' nchen (Germany); Caminha, G.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Frye, B. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mercurio, A., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de [Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  20. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  1. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  2. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M G; Brinkman, P; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Bos, L D; de Heer, K; Meijer, M; Janssen, H-G; de Cock, H; Wösten, H A B; Visser, C.E.; van Oers, M H J; Sterk, P J

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  4. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  5. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  6. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  7. Profiling Changes in Histone Post-translational Modifications by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Zhang, Zhaorui; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-11-11

    Top-down mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for charactering post-translational modifications on histones for understanding of gene control and expression. In this protocol, we describe a top-down workflow using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for fast global profiling of changes in histone proteoforms between a wild-type and a mutant of a fungal species. The proteoforms exhibiting different abundances can be subjected to further targeted studies by other mass spectrometric or biochemical assays. This method can be generally adapted for preliminary screening for changes in histone modifications between samples such as wild-type vs. mutant, and control vs. disease.

  8. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  9. A catalogue of masses, structural parameters and velocity dispersion profiles of 112 Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.; Hilker, M.

    2018-05-01

    We have determined masses, stellar mass functions and structural parameters of 112 Milky Way globular clusters by fitting a large set of N-body simulations to their velocity dispersion and surface density profiles. The velocity dispersion profiles were calculated based on a combination of more than 15,000 high-precision radial velocities which we derived from archival ESO/VLT and Keck spectra together with ˜20, 000 published radial velocities from the literature. Our fits also include the stellar mass functions of the globular clusters, which are available for 47 clusters in our sample, allowing us to self-consistently take the effects of mass segregation and ongoing cluster dissolution into account. We confirm the strong correlation between the global mass functions of globular clusters and their relaxation times recently found by Sollima & Baumgardt (2017). We also find a correlation of the escape velocity from the centre of a globular cluster and the fraction of first generation stars (FG) in the cluster recently derived for 57 globular clusters by Milone et al. (2017), but no correlation between the FG star fraction and the global mass function of a globular cluster. This could indicate that the ability of a globular cluster to keep the wind ejecta from the polluting star(s) is the crucial parameter determining the presence and fraction of second generation stars and not its later dynamical mass loss.

  10. Steroid Profiling by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for Adrenal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Matthew, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis. PMID:22170384

  11. microMS: A Python Platform for Image-Guided Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Troy J.; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Do, Thanh D.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2017-09-01

    Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) profiling provides a facile framework for analyzing samples ranging from single cells to tissue sections. The fundamental workflow utilizes a whole-slide microscopy image to select targets of interest, determine their spatial locations, and subsequently perform MS analysis at those locations. Improving upon prior reported methodology, a software package was developed for working with microscopy images. microMS, for microscopy-guided mass spectrometry, allows the user to select and profile diverse samples using a variety of target patterns and mass analyzers. Written in Python, the program provides an intuitive graphical user interface to simplify image-guided MS for novice users. The class hierarchy of instrument interactions permits integration of new MS systems while retaining the feature-rich image analysis framework. microMS is a versatile platform for performing targeted profiling experiments using a series of mass spectrometers. The flexibility in mass analyzers greatly simplifies serial analyses of the same targets by different instruments. The current capabilities of microMS are presented, and its application for off-line analysis of single cells on three distinct instruments is demonstrated. The software has been made freely available for research purposes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Mass profile and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Biviano, A.; Adami, C.; Limousin, M.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Mamon, G. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Gavazzi, R.; Cypriano, E. S.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Allam, S.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Cappi, A.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Johnston, D.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Kubo, J. M.; Márquez, I.; Marshall, P.; Martinet, N.; Maurogordato, S.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Schrabback, T.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are currently not very strong. Aims: We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies that is characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Methods: Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging as well as optical spectroscopy, collected with various instruments, which we complemented with archival data. We modeled the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters were constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intracluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. Results: We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods based on kinematics (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics, and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius, ≃1.3 Mpc and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly higher than, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is significantly lower than the kinematics and strong lensing estimates. Theoretical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology for the concentration-mass relation agree with our observational results, when taking into account the uncertainties in the observational and theoretical estimates. There appears to be a central deficit in the intracluster gas mass fraction compared with nearby clusters. Conclusions: Despite the relaxed appearance of this cluster, the determinations of its mass profile by different probes show substantial discrepancies, the origin of which remains to be determined. The extension of a dynamical analysis similar to that of other clusters of the DAFT/FADA survey with multiwavelength data of sufficient quality will allow shedding light on the possible systematics that affect the determination of mass

  13. Study on growth-promotion of paddy plants treated with oligo chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud; Norzita Yacob; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has been degraded to produced oligo chitosan with different molecular weight using gamma ray irradiation from a Co-60 source in solid state (powder form) and liquid state (aqueous solution). Study on growth promotion of paddy plants was done using oligo chitosan and conventional plant growth promoter as a comparison. Oligo chitosan was used with different molecular weight and different concentrations. Smaller molecular weight of oligo chitosan with smaller concentration showed better result than bigger molecular weight of oligo chitosan as a plant growth promoter. This study also showed that conventional growth promoter can be replaced with oligo chitosan as it is more effective as plant growth promoter as well as more environmental friendly. (author)

  14. Characterization of Omega-WINGS galaxy clusters. I. Stellar light and mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fasano, G.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Sciarratta, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters are the largest virialized structures in the observable Universe. Knowledge of their properties provides many useful astrophysical and cosmological information. Aims: Our aim is to derive the luminosity and stellar mass profiles of the nearby galaxy clusters of the Omega-WINGS survey and to study the main scaling relations valid for such systems. Methods: We merged data from the WINGS and Omega-WINGS databases, sorted the sources according to the distance from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and calculated the integrated luminosity profiles in the B and V bands, taking into account extinction, photometric and spatial completeness, K correction, and background contribution. Then, by exploiting the spectroscopic sample we derived the stellar mass profiles of the clusters. Results: We obtained the luminosity profiles of 46 galaxy clusters, reaching r200 in 30 cases, and the stellar mass profiles of 42 of our objects. We successfully fitted all the integrated luminosity growth profiles with one or two embedded Sérsic components, deriving the main clusters parameters. Finally, we checked the main scaling relation among the clusters parameters in comparison with those obtained for a selected sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the same clusters. Conclusions: We found that the nearby galaxy clusters are non-homologous structures such as ETGs and exhibit a color-magnitude (CM) red-sequence relation very similar to that observed for galaxies in clusters. These properties are not expected in the current cluster formation scenarios. In particular the existence of a CM relation for clusters, shown here for the first time, suggests that the baryonic structures grow and evolve in a similar way at all scales.

  15. Emission - line theoretical profiles for Wolf- Rayet stars with low-mass companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antokhin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    Profiles of the resonant line λ 765 A and the subordinate line λ 4058 of N4 have been calculated for a binary system medel consisting of the Wolf-Rayet star and the low-mass companion (possibly, a relativistic object) by means of Sobolev approximation. The equations of statistical equilibrium have been solved for the first 32 levels of N4. Two cases have been considered: 1) detached zone of N5 surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star and the companion; 2) common zone of N5. The criteria for detection of presence of a companion in line profile observations have been formulated

  16. Pulsed glow discharge mass spectrometry for molecular depth profiling of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.; Pereiro, R.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Bordel, N.; Pisonero, J.; Licciardello, A.; Tuccitto, N.; Tempez, A.; Chapon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays thin films of polymeric materials involve a wide range of industrial applications, so techniques capable of providing in-depth profile information are required. Most of the techniques available for this purpose are based on the use of energetic particle beams which interact with polymers producing undesirable physicochemical modifications. Radiofrequency pulsed glow discharge (rf-pulsed-GD) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) could afford the possibility of acquiring both elemental and molecular information creating minimal damage to surfaces and thereby obtaining depth profiles. This work will evaluate rf-GDs coupled to an orthogonal TOFMS for direct analysis of polymers. (author)

  17. Lensing Constraints on the Mass Profile Shape and the Splashback Radius of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    The lensing signal around galaxy clusters can, in principle, be used to test detailed predictions for their average mass profile from numerical simulations. However, the intrinsic shape of the profiles can be smeared out when a sample that spans a wide range of cluster masses is averaged in physical length units. This effect especially conceals rapid changes in gradient such as the steep drop associated with the splashback radius, a sharp edge corresponding to the outermost caustic in accreting halos. We optimize the extraction of such local features by scaling individual halo profiles to a number of spherical overdensity radii, and apply this method to 16 X-ray-selected, high-mass clusters targeted in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. By forward-modeling the weak- and strong-lensing data presented by Umetsu et al., we show that, regardless of the scaling overdensity, the projected ensemble density profile is remarkably well described by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) or Einasto profile out to R˜ 2.5 {h}-1 {Mpc}, beyond which the profiles flatten. We constrain the NFW concentration to {c}200{{c}}=3.66+/- 0.11 at {M}200{{c}}≃ 1.0× {10}15 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , consistent with and improved from previous work that used conventionally stacked lensing profiles, and in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Assuming the profile form of Diemer & Kravtsov and generic priors calibrated from numerical simulations, we place a lower limit on the splashback radius of the cluster halos, if it exists, of {R}{sp}3{{D}}/{r}200{{m}}> 0.89 ({R}{sp}3{{D}}> 1.83 {h}-1 {Mpc}) at 68% confidence. The corresponding density feature is most pronounced when the cluster profiles are scaled by {r}200{{m}}, and smeared out when scaled to higher overdensities. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Society of Japan.

  18. Gravitational lens recovery with GLASS: measuring the mass profile and shape of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jonathan P.; Read, Justin I.; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-12-01

    We use a new non-parametric gravitational modelling tool - GLASS - to determine what quality of data (strong lensing, stellar kinematics, and/or stellar masses) are required to measure the circularly averaged mass profile of a lens and its shape. GLASS uses an underconstrained adaptive grid of mass pixels to model the lens, searching through thousands of models to marginalize over model uncertainties. Our key findings are as follows: (i) for pure lens data, multiple sources with wide redshift separation give the strongest constraints as this breaks the well-known mass-sheet or steepness degeneracy; (ii) a single quad with time delays also performs well, giving a good recovery of both the mass profile and its shape; (iii) stellar masses - for lenses where the stars dominate the central potential - can also break the steepness degeneracy, giving a recovery for doubles almost as good as having a quad with time-delay data, or multiple source redshifts; (iv) stellar kinematics provide a robust measure of the mass at the half-light radius of the stars r1/2 that can also break the steepness degeneracy if the Einstein radius rE ≠ r1/2; and (v) if rE ˜ r1/2, then stellar kinematic data can be used to probe the stellar velocity anisotropy β - an interesting quantity in its own right. Where information on the mass distribution from lensing and/or other probes becomes redundant, this opens up the possibility of using strong lensing to constrain cosmological models.

  19. Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.

  20. Mass flow and velocity profiles in Neurospora hyphae: partial plug flow dominates intra-hyphal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadeh, Aryan; Lew, Roger R

    2013-11-01

    Movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of Neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. The vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in N. crassa. Profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal Hagen-Poiseuille model of flow at low Reynolds number. Instead, the profiles were flat, consistent with a model of partial plug flow due to the high concentration of organelles in the flowing cytosol. The intra-hyphal pressure gradients were manipulated by localized external osmotic treatments to demonstrate the dependence of velocity (and direction) on pressure gradients within the hyphae. The data support the concept that mass transport, driven by pressure gradients, dominates intra-hyphal transport. The transport occurs by partial plug flow due to the organelles in the cytosol.

  1. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-04-27

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  2. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  3. Profiling of plasma metabolites in canine oral melanoma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Baba, Yuta; Tamai, Reo; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Komori, Masayuki; Mori, Takashi; Takenaka, Shigeo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in the oral cavity of dog. The tumor has a poor prognosis, and methods for diagnosis and prediction of prognosis after treatment are required. Here, we examined metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for development of a discriminant model for evaluation of prognosis. Metabolite profiles were evaluated in healthy and melanoma plasma samples using orthogonal projection to latent structure using discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Cases that were predicted to be healthy using the OPLS discriminant model had no advanced lesions after radiation therapy. These results indicate that metabolite profiling may be useful in diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of canine malignant melanoma.

  4. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  5. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, Karen M.; McNichol, Jesse; McGinn, Patrick J.; O' Leary, Stephen J.B.; Melanson, Jeremy E. [Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Biofuels from photosynthetic microalgae are quickly gaining interest as a viable carbon-neutral energy source. Typically, characterization of algal feedstock involves breaking down triacylglycerols (TAG) and other intact lipids, followed by derivatization of the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, knowledge of the intact lipid profile could offer significant advantages for discovery stage biofuel research such as the selection of an algal strain or the optimization of growth and extraction conditions. Herein, lipid extracts from microalgae were directly analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) using a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Phospholipids, glycolipids, and TAGs were analyzed in the same chromatographic run, using a combination of accurate mass and diagnostic fragment ions for identification. Using this approach, greater than 100 unique TAGs were identified over the six algal strains studied and TAG profiles were obtained to assess their potential for biofuel applications. Under the growth conditions employed, Botryococcus braunii and Scenedesmus obliquus yielded the most comprehensive TAG profile with a high abundance of TAGs containing oleic acid. (orig.)

  6. Compression dynamics of quasi-spherical wire arrays with different linear mass profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the implosion of quasi-spherical wire (or metalized fiber) arrays are presented. The goal of the experiments was to achieve synchronous three-dimensional compression of the plasma produced in different regions of a quasi-spherical array into its geometrical center. To search for optimal synchronization conditions, quasi-spherical arrays with different initial profiles of the linear mass were used. The following dependences of the linear mass on the poloidal angle were used: m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"1θ and m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"2θ. The compression dynamics of such arrays was compared with that of quasi-spherical arrays without linear mass profiling, m_l(θ) = const. To verify the experimental data, the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasma compression in quasi-spherical arrays was studied using various diagnostics. The experiments on three-dimensional implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made it possible to study how the frozen-in magnetic field of the discharge current penetrates into the array. By measuring the magnetic field in the plasma of a quasi-spherical array, information is obtained on the processes of plasma production and formation of plasma flows from the wire/fiber regions with and without an additionally deposited mass. It is found that penetration of the magnetic flux depends on the initial linear mass profile m_l(θ) of the quasi-spherical array. From space-resolved spectral measurements and frame imaging of plasma X-ray emission, information is obtained on the dimensions and shape of the X-ray source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical array. The intensity of this source is estimated and compared with that of the Z-pinch formed during the implosion of a cylindrical array.

  7. Ion implantation artifacts observed in depth profiling boron in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.; Simons, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison study of depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) was recently conducted. The specimens were portions of 5 cm diameter single crystal silicon slices in which B-10 had been implanted at various fluences and energies. NDP measurements were made on a 13 mm diameter area at the center of the wafers. SIMS measurements were taken from a 60 μm diameter area approximately 16 mm from the center of the wafer. One observation that emerged from this work was an apparent discrepancy between the profiles of B-10 measured by DNP and SIMS. The peaks of the SIMS profiles were typically deeper than those of NDP by as much as 30 nm, which is 10% of the projected range for a 70 keV implant. Moreover, the profiles could not be made to coincide by either a constant shift or a proportional change of one depth scale with respect to the other. The lateral inhomogeneity of boron that these experiments have demonstrated arises from the variable contribution of ion channeling during implantation

  8. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo; Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele; Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range ∼3000 Å to 2.5 μm. At z ≈ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV λ1549, C III] λ1909, Mg II λ2800, and Hα and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (∼<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with Hα line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within ∼0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to Hα. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  9. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  10. OligoG CF-5/20 normalizes cystic fibrosis mucus by chelating calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Recktenwald, Christian V; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Meiss, Lauren N; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Philip D; Dessen, Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the guluronate (G) rich alginate OligoG CF-5/20 (OligoG) could detach cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus by calcium chelation, which is also required for normal mucin unfolding. Since bicarbonate secretion is impaired in CF, leading to insufficient mucin unfolding and thereby attached mucus, and since bicarbonate has the ability to bind calcium, we hypothesized that the calcium chelating property of OligoG would lead to detachment of CF mucus. Indeed, OligoG could compete with the N-terminus of the MUC2 mucin for calcium binding as shown by microscale thermophoresis. Further, effects on mucus thickness and attachment induced by OligoG and other alginate fractions of different length and composition were evaluated in explants of CF mouse ileum mounted in horizontal Ussing-type chambers. OligoG at 1.5% caused effective detachment of CF mucus and the most potent alginate fraction tested, the poly-G fraction of about 12 residues, had similar potency compared to OligoG whereas mannuronate-rich (M) polymers had minimal effect. In conclusion, OligoG binds calcium with appropriate affinity without any overt harmful effect on the tissue and can be exploited for treating mucus stagnation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Novel Insights of Oligometastases and Oligo-Recurrence and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Niibe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligometastases and oligo-recurrence are among the most important notions of metastatic and recurrent cancer. The concept of oligometastases is related to the notion that cancer patients with 1–5 metastatic or recurrent lesions that could be treated by local therapy achieve long-term survival or cure, while the concept of oligo-recurrence is related to the notion that cancer patients with 1–5 metastatic or recurrent lesions that could be treated by local therapy have controlled primary lesions. Achievement of long-term survival or cure in patients with oligometastases and oligo-recurrence is cancer and organ specific. These facts rely on the seed and soil theory and multiple steps of cancer progression. Oligo-recurrence is considered to have a better prognosis than oligometastases. In patients with oligometastases and oligo-recurrence, the oligometastases and oligo-recurrence are sometimes cured with only local therapy, which is an example of the abscopal effect, previously described in relation to cure of lesions outside of the field of radiation therapy without systemic therapy. Oligometastases and oligo-recurrence can now be cured by less invasive local treatment methods combined with systemic therapy. The mechanisms of oligometastases and oligo-recurrence, as well as novel insights into these important concepts, are presented in this paper.

  12. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  13. Efficient Serial and Parallel Algorithms for Selection of Unique Oligos in EST Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Montero, Manrique; Shalaby, Nabil; Sheppard, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining unique oligos from an EST database is a problem of great importance in bioinformatics, particularly in the discovery of new genes and the mapping of the human genome. Many algorithms have been developed to find unique oligos, many of which are much less time consuming than the traditional brute force approach. An algorithm was presented by Zheng et al. (2004) which finds the solution of the unique oligos search problem efficiently. We implement this algorithm as well as several new algorithms based on some theorems included in this paper. We demonstrate how, with these new algorithms, we can obtain unique oligos much faster than with previous ones. We parallelize these new algorithms to further improve the time of finding unique oligos. All algorithms are run on ESTs obtained from a Barley EST database.

  14. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is a balanced therapy for fibromyalgia with nutritional and symptomatic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Ana Paula; Moreira, Cátia; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Saraiva, Fernando; Guerreiro, Catarina Sousa

    2017-06-05

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease producing widespread pain, associated to a major comorbidity -irritable bowel syndrome. Low FODMAPS diet (low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet) has been effective in controlling irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Overweight is an aggravating factor for fibromyalgia. We studied effects of low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets on fibromyalgia symptoms and weight status. A longitudinal study was performed on 38 fibromyalgia patients using a four-week, repeated assessment as follow: M1 = first assessments/presentation of individual low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet; M2 = second assessments/reintroduction of FODMAPs; M3 = final assessments/nutritional counselling. The assessment instruments applied were: Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ); Severity Score System (IBS-SSS); visual analogic scale (VAS). Body mass-index/composition and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Daily macro-micronutrients and FODMAP intake were quantified at each moment of the study. The studied cohort was 37% overweight, 34% obese (average body mass-index 27.4 ± 4.6; excess fat mass 39.4 ± 7%). Weight, body mass-index and waist circumference decreased significantly (p body composition was observed. All fibromyalgiasymptoms, including somatic pain, declined significantly post-LFD (p fibromyalgia [Fibromyalgia survey questionnaire: M1 = 21.8; M2 = 16.9; M3 = 17.0 (p < 0.01)]. The intake of essential nutrients (fiber, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D) showed no significant difference. The significant reduction in FODMAP intake (M1 = 24.4 g; M2 = 2.6g; p < 0.01) reflected the "Diet adherence" (85%). "Satisfaction with improvement of symptoms" (76%), showed correlating with "diet adherence" (r = 0.65; p < 0.01). Results are highly encouraging, showing low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets as a nutritionally balanced approach, contributing to weight loss

  15. Characterisation of the volatile profiles of infant formulas by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Floris, V.; Fayoux, S.

    2006-01-01

    The volatile profiles of 13 infant formulas were evaluated by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS). The infant formulas varied in brand (Aptamil, Cow & Gate, SMA), type (for different infant target groups) and physical form

  16. Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.E; Hadziioannou, G; Lang, P.; Garnier, F.; Wittmann, J.C.

    Communication: Highly oriented thin films of oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s, oligoPPVs, provide information about the structure of polyPPV and structure-property relationships. It is shown that deposition of a substituted oligoPPV onto highly preoriented PTFE substrates leads to highly oriented thin

  17. Temperature-controlled depth profiling in polymeric materials using cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Christine M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States)]. E-mail: christine.mahoney@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Gillen, Greg [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Xu Chang [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Batteas, James D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) employing an SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion source was used to depth profile through poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) thin films at a series of temperatures from -125 deg. C to 150 deg. C. It was found that for PMMA, reduced temperature analysis produced depth profiles with increased secondary ion stability and reduced interfacial widths as compared to analysis at ambient temperature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that this improvement in interfacial width may be related to a decrease in sputter-induced topography. Depth profiling at higher temperatures was typically correlated with increased sputter rates. However, the improvements in interfacial widths and overall secondary ion stability were not as prevalent as was observed at low temperature. For PLA, improvements in signal intensities were observed at low temperatures, yet there was no significant change in secondary ion stability, interface widths or sputter rates. High temperatures yielded a significant decrease in secondary ion stability of the resulting profiles. PS films showed rapid degradation of characteristic secondary ion signals under all temperatures examined.

  18. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  19. Evaporation rates and surface profiles on heterogeneous surfaces with mass transfer and surface reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Schmidt, L D

    1979-01-01

    Simple models incorporating surface reaction and diffusion of volatile products through a boundary layer are developed to calculate effective rates of evaporation and local surface profiles on surfaces having active and inactive regions. The coupling between surface heterogeneities with respect to a particular reaction and external mass transfer may provide a mechanism for the surface rearrangement and metal loss encountered in several catalytic systems of practical interest. Calculated transport rates for the volatilization of platinum in oxidizing environments and the rearrangement of this metal during the ammonia oxidation reaction agree well with published experimental data.

  20. Application of Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to metabolic profiling and metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-02-01

    Metabolomics, as an essential part of genomics studies, intends holistic understanding of metabolic networks through simultaneous analysis of a myriad of both known and unknown metabolites occurring in living organisms. The initial stage of metabolomics was designed for the reproducible analyses of known metabolites based on their comparison to available authentic compounds. Such metabolomics platforms were mostly based on mass spectrometry (MS) technologies enabled by a combination of different ionization methods together with a variety of separation steps including LC, GC, and CE. Among these, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance MS (FT-ICR/MS) is distinguished from other MS technologies by its ultrahigh resolution power in mass to charge ratio (m/z). The potential of FT-ICR/MS as a distinctive metabolomics tool has been demonstrated in nontargeted metabolic profiling and functional characterization of novel genes. Here, we discuss both the advantages and difficulties encountered in the FT-ICR/MS metabolomics studies.

  1. Integrated multi-level quality control for proteomic profiling studies using mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Jennifer H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic profiling using mass spectrometry (MS is one of the most promising methods for the analysis of complex biological samples such as urine, serum and tissue for biomarker discovery. Such experiments are often conducted using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight and SELDI-TOF (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight MS. Using such profiling methods it is possible to identify changes in protein expression that differentiate disease states and individual proteins or patterns that may be useful as potential biomarkers. However, the incorporation of quality control (QC processes that allow the identification of low quality spectra reliably and hence allow the removal of such data before further analysis is often overlooked. In this paper we describe rigorous methods for the assessment of quality of spectral data. These procedures are presented in a user-friendly, web-based program. The data obtained post-QC is then examined using variance components analysis to quantify the amount of variance due to some of the factors in the experimental design. Results Using data from a SELDI profiling study of serum from patients with different levels of renal function, we show how the algorithms described in this paper may be used to detect systematic variability within and between sample replicates, pooled samples and SELDI chips and spots. Manual inspection of those spectral data that were identified as being of poor quality confirmed the efficacy of the algorithms. Variance components analysis demonstrated the relatively small amount of technical variance attributable to day of profile generation and experimental array. Conclusion Using the techniques described in this paper it is possible to reliably detect poor quality data within proteomic profiling experiments undertaken by MS. The removal of these spectra at the initial stages of the analysis substantially improves the

  2. Metabolomics by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: the combination of targeted and untargeted profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics is ideal for identifying and quantitating small molecular metabolites (metabolomics easily allows integrating targeted assays for absolute quantification of specific metabolites with untargeted metabolomics to discover novel compounds. Complemented by database annotations using large spectral libraries and validated, standardized standard operating procedures, GC-MS can identify and semi-quantify over 200 compounds per study in human body fluids (e.g., plasma, urine or stool) samples. Deconvolution software enables detection of more than 300 additional unidentified signals that can be annotated through accurate mass instruments with appropriate data processing workflows, similar to liquid chromatography-MS untargeted profiling (LC-MS). Hence, GC-MS is a mature technology that not only uses classic detectors (‘quadrupole’) but also target mass spectrometers (‘triple quadrupole’) and accurate mass instruments (‘quadrupole-time of flight’). This unit covers the following aspects of GC-MS-based metabolomics: (i) sample preparation from mammalian samples, (ii) acquisition of data, (iii) quality control, and (iv) data processing. PMID:27038389

  3. Observations of the Coronal Mass Ejection with a Complex Acceleration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Kirichenko, A. S.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    We study the coronal mass ejection (CME) with a complex acceleration profile. The event occurred on 2009 April 23. It had an impulsive acceleration phase, an impulsive deceleration phase, and a second impulsive acceleration phase. During its evolution, the CME showed signatures of different acceleration mechanisms: kink instability, prominence drainage, flare reconnection, and a CME–CME collision. The special feature of the observations is the usage of the TESIS EUV telescope. The instrument could image the solar corona in the Fe 171 Å line up to a distance of 2 {R}ȯ from the center of the Sun. This allows us to trace the CME up to the LASCO/C2 field of view without losing the CME from sight. The onset of the CME was caused by kink instability. The mass drainage occurred after the kink instability. The mass drainage played only an auxiliary role: it decreased the CME mass, which helped to accelerate the CME. The first impulsive acceleration phase was caused by the flare reconnection. We observed the two-ribbon flare and an increase of the soft X-ray flux during the first impulsive acceleration phase. The impulsive deceleration and the second impulsive acceleration phases were caused by the CME–CME collision. The studied event shows that CMEs are complex phenomena that cannot be explained with only one acceleration mechanism. We should seek a combination of different mechanisms that accelerate CMEs at different stages of their evolution.

  4. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  5. Serum protein profiling and proteomics in autistic spectrum disorder using magnetic bead-assisted mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurines, Regina; Dudley, Edward; Conner, Alexander C; Grassl, Julia; Jans, Thomas; Guderian, Frank; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Warnke, Andreas; Gerlach, Manfred; Thome, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    The pathophysiology of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood and there are no diagnostic or predictive biomarkers. Proteomic profiling has been used in the past for biomarker research in several non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders and could provide new insights, potentially presenting a useful tool for generating such biomarkers in autism. Serum protein pre-fractionation with C8-magnetic beads and protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) were used to identify possible differences in protein profiles in patients and controls. Serum was obtained from 16 patients (aged 8-18) and age-matched controls. Three peaks in the MALDI-ToF-MS significantly differentiated the ASD sample from the control group. Sub-grouping the ASD patients into children with and without comorbid Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD (ASD/ADHD+ patients, n = 9; ASD/ADHD- patients, n = 7), one peak distinguished the ASD/ADHD+ patients from controls and ASD/ADHD- patients. Our results suggest that altered protein levels in peripheral blood of patients with ASD might represent useful biomarkers for this devastating psychiatric disorder.

  6. Postmortem interval estimation: a novel approach utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based biochemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszynski, Richard H; Nishiumi, Shin; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    While the molecular mechanisms underlying postmortem change have been exhaustively investigated, the establishment of an objective and reliable means for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) remains an elusive feat. In the present study, we exploit low molecular weight metabolites to estimate postmortem interval in mice. After sacrifice, serum and muscle samples were procured from C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) at seven predetermined postmortem intervals (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h). After extraction and isolation, low molecular weight metabolites were measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and examined via semi-quantification studies. Then, PMI prediction models were generated for each of the 175 and 163 metabolites identified in muscle and serum, respectively, using a non-linear least squares curve fitting program. A PMI estimation panel for muscle and serum was then erected which consisted of 17 (9.7%) and 14 (8.5%) of the best PMI biomarkers identified in muscle and serum profiles demonstrating statistically significant correlations between metabolite quantity and PMI. Using a single-blinded assessment, we carried out validation studies on the PMI estimation panels. Mean ± standard deviation for accuracy of muscle and serum PMI prediction panels was -0.27 ± 2.88 and -0.89 ± 2.31 h, respectively. Ultimately, these studies elucidate the utility of metabolomic profiling in PMI estimation and pave the path toward biochemical profiling studies involving human samples.

  7. Improved EDELWEISS-III sensitivity for low-mass WIMPs using a profile likelihood approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehn, L. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armengaud, E.; Boissiere, T. de; Gros, M.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Arnaud, Q. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [Institut Neel, CNRS/UJF, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Giuliani, A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E.; Poda, D. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Eitel, K.; Kozlov, V.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Foerster, N.; Heuermann, G.; Scorza, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, Marcoussis (France); Kefelian, C. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Pari, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piro, M.C. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Schmidt, B. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We report on a dark matter search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) in the mass range m{sub χ} element of [4, 30] GeV/c{sup 2} with the EDELWEISS-III experiment. A 2D profile likelihood analysis is performed on data from eight selected detectors with the lowest energy thresholds leading to a combined fiducial exposure of 496 kg-days. External backgrounds from γ- and β-radiation, recoils from {sup 206}Pb and neutrons as well as detector intrinsic backgrounds were modelled from data outside the region of interest and constrained in the analysis. The basic data selection and most of the background models are the same as those used in a previously published analysis based on boosted decision trees (BDT) [1]. For the likelihood approach applied in the analysis presented here, a larger signal efficiency and a subtraction of the expected background lead to a higher sensitivity, especially for the lowest WIMP masses probed. No statistically significant signal was found and upper limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section can be set with a hypothesis test based on the profile likelihood test statistics. The 90 % C.L. exclusion limit set for WIMPs with m{sub χ} = 4 GeV/c{sup 2} is 1.6 x 10{sup -39} cm{sup 2}, which is an improvement of a factor of seven with respect to the BDT-based analysis. For WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c{sup 2} the exclusion limits found with both analyses are in good agreement. (orig.)

  8. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  9. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  10. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of candidate biomarker mass (m/z) ranges in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Amutha; Gopisetty, Gopal; Veluswami, Sridevi; Joyimallaya Subramanium, Malliga; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    To differentiate plasma from ovarian cancer and healthy individuals using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. MALDI-TOF was used to generate profiles of immuno-depleted plasma samples (89 cancers and 199 healthy individuals) that were fractionated using three types of magnetic beads (HIC8, WCX and IMAC-Cu). Differentially expressed mass ranges showing >1.5-2-fold change in expression from HIC8 (30), WCX (12) and IMAC-Cu (6) fractions were identified. Cross validation and recognition capability scores for the models indicated discrimination between the classes. Spectral profiles can differentiate plasma samples of ovarian cancer patients from healthy individuals.

  12. Violent mass shootings in Sweden from 1960 to 1995: profiles, patterns, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, O; Lidberg, L

    1998-03-01

    During the past few decades, violent mass shooting in Sweden has increased rapidly. In the 36 years between 1960 and 1995, fourteen such occasions were recorded, during which 32 people were killed and 57 were wounded. The 14 offenders were men between the ages of 17 and 61 years. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1979, five shootings were committed by five offenders, leaving 10 dead and 13 wounded; in the 16 years between 1980 and 1995, there were nine different shootings committed by nine offenders, with 22 dead and 44 wounded. Seven of the shootings were classified as mass shootings, six as spree shootings, and one as a serial shooting. In all but four of these cases, the firearms used were illegal weapons. The four legal firearms belonged to an unemployed young laborer, an officer, a former United Nations (U.N.) soldier, and a member of the Swedish military volunteer corps. Of those killed, 68.8% were strangers to the offender; among the wounded, the corresponding figure was 89.5%. Profiles of the offenders and of the victims were studied. The psychiatric diagnoses among the offenders and the measures taken to prevent the increase in mass shooting in Sweden are presented.

  13. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Oligo(L-cysteine) for Use as a Thermostable Bio-Based Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinan; Sato, Ryota; Li, Zhibo; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of thiol-unprotected L-cysteine ethyl ester (Cys-OEt) catalyzed by proteinase K in aqueous solution has been used to synthesize oligo(L-cysteine) (OligoCys) with a well-defined chemical structure and relatively large degree of polymerization (DP) up to 16-17 (average 8.8). By using a high concentration of Cys-OEt, 78.0% free thiol content was achieved. The thermal properties of OligoCys are stable, with no glass transition until 200 °C, and the decomposition temperature could be increased by oxidation. Chemoenzymatically synthesized OligoCys has great potential for use as a thermostable bio-based material with resistance to oxidation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  16. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Ruimin; Li, Ning; Chen, Yonglin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-20

    A novel analytical method for neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to a charged aerosol detector. The effects of column type, additives, pH and column temperature on retention and separation were evaluated. Additionally, the method could distinguish potential impurities in samples, including chloride, sulfate and sodium, from sugars. The results of validation demonstrated that this method had good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9981), high precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 4.43%), and adequate accuracy (94.02-103.37% recovery) and sensitivity (detection limit: 15-40 ng). Finally, the monosaccharide compositions of the polysaccharide from Eclipta prostrasta L. and stachyose were successfully profiled through this method. This report represents the first time that all of these common monosaccharides could be well-separated and determined simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography without additional derivatization. This newly developed method is convenient, efficient and reliable for monosaccharide analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global mass spectrometry based metabolomics profiling of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore R Sana

    Full Text Available Malaria is a global infectious disease that threatens the lives of millions of people. Transcriptomics, proteomics and functional genomics studies, as well as sequencing of the Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens genomes, have shed new light on this host-parasite relationship. Recent advances in accurate mass measurement mass spectrometry, sophisticated data analysis software, and availability of biological pathway databases, have converged to facilitate our global, untargeted biochemical profiling study of in vitro P. falciparum-infected (IRBC and uninfected (NRBC erythrocytes. In order to expand the number of detectable metabolites, several key analytical steps in our workflows were optimized. Untargeted and targeted data mining resulted in detection of over one thousand features or chemical entities. Untargeted features were annotated via matching to the METLIN metabolite database. For targeted data mining, we queried the data using a compound database derived from a metabolic reconstruction of the P. falciparum genome. In total, over one hundred and fifty differential annotated metabolites were observed. To corroborate the representation of known biochemical pathways from our data, an inferential pathway analysis strategy was used to map annotated metabolites onto the BioCyc pathway collection. This hypothesis-generating approach resulted in over-representation of many metabolites onto several IRBC pathways, most prominently glycolysis. In addition, components of the "branched" TCA cycle, partial urea cycle, and nucleotide, amino acid, chorismate, sphingolipid and fatty acid metabolism were found to be altered in IRBCs. Interestingly, we detected and confirmed elevated levels for cyclic ADP ribose and phosphoribosyl AMP in IRBCs, a novel observation. These metabolites may play a role in regulating the release of intracellular Ca(2+ during P. falciparum infection. Our results support a strategy of global metabolite profiling by untargeted

  19. Non-targeted glycosidic profiling of international wines using neutral loss-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Serra, M; Larcher, R

    2018-07-06

    Many metabolites naturally occur as glycosides, since sugar moieties can be crucial for their biological activity and increase their water solubility. In the plant kingdom they may occur as glycosides or sugar esters, depending on precursor chemical structure, and in wine they have traditionally attracted attention due to their organoleptic properties, such as astringency and bitterness, and because they affect the colour and aroma of wines. A new approach directed at detailed description of glycosides in a large selection of monovarietal wines (8 samples each of Pinot Blanc, Muller Thurgau, Riesling, Traminer, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon) was developed by combining high performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical separation was performed on an Accucore™ Polar Premium LC column, while mass analysis was performed in negative ion mode with an non-targeted screening approach, using a Full MS/AIF/NL dd-MS 2 experiment at a resolving power of 140,000 FWHM. Over 280 glycoside-like compounds were detected, of which 133 (including low-molecular weight phenols, flavonoids and monoterpenols) were tentatively identified in the form of pentose (6), deoxyhexose (17), hexose (73), hexose-pentose (16), hexose-deoxyhexose (7), dihexose (5) and hexose ester (9) derivatives. It was not possible to univocally define the corresponding chemical structure for the remaining 149 glycosides. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed it was possible to well characterise the glycosylated profile of all red and Traminer wines, while the identified glycosides were almost entirely lacking in Pinot Blanc, Riesling and Muller Thurgau wines. Also Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p wines from each other according to their glycosylated profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: Potential as a Therapy to Oligometastasis and Oligo-Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The early results (e.g., patient survival) of RFA for the treatment of patients with NSCLC and pulmonary metastasis from various primary lesions including colorectal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and sarcoma appear encouraging and suggest the potential to offer long-term survival for the patients with oligo-recurrence or oligometastasis of lung cancer. The usefulness of RFA for oligo-recurrence or oligometastasis of lung cancer should be clarified by pro...

  1. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  2. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  3. Amino acid profiles of young adults differ by sex, body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Vargas-Morales, J M; Méndez-García, A L; López-Barradas, A M; Granados-Portillo, O; Ordaz-Nava, G; Rocha-Viggiano, A K; Gutierrez-Leyte, C A; Medina-Cerda, E; Rosado, J L; Morales, J C; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Noriega, L G

    2018-04-01

    An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19.9 ± 2.4 years who were applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. The subjects underwent a physical examination and provided a clinical history and a blood sample for biochemical, hormonal and amino acid analyses. The women had higher levels of arginine, aspartate and serine and lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, urea and valine than the men. The obese subjects had higher levels of alanine, aspartate, cysteine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine and lower levels of glycine, ornithine and serine than the normal weight subjects. Subjects with IR (defined as HOMA > 2.5) had higher levels of arginine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, taurine and valine than the subjects without IR. Furthermore, we identified two main groups in the subjects with obesity and/or IR; one group was composed of amino acids that positively correlated with the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters, whereas the second group exhibited negative correlations. This study demonstrates that young adults with obesity or IR have altered amino acid profiles characterized by an increase in alanine, aspartate, proline and tyrosine and a decrease in glycine. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  4. Alkaloid profiling of the Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi by combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization,

  5. RESIDUAL GAS MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM AND BIAS IN HYDROSTATIC MEASUREMENTS OF MASS PROFILES OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    We present analysis of bulk and random gas motions in the intracluster medium using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations of 16 simulated clusters, including both very relaxed and unrelaxed systems and spanning a virial mass range of 5 x 10 13 - 2 x 10 15 h -1 M-odot. We investigate effects of the residual subsonic gas motions on the hydrostatic estimates of mass profiles and concentrations of galaxy clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the gas motions contribute up to ∼5%-15% of the total pressure support in relaxed clusters with contribution increasing with the cluster-centric radius. The fractional pressure support is higher in unrelaxed systems. This contribution would not be accounted for in hydrostatic estimates of the total mass profile and would lead to systematic underestimate of mass. We demonstrate that total mass can be recovered accurately if pressure due to gas motions measured in simulations is explicitly taken into account in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Given that the underestimate of mass is increasing at larger radii, where gas is less relaxed and contribution of gas motions to pressure is larger, the total density profile derived from hydrostatic analysis is more concentrated than the true profile. This may at least partially explain some high values of concentrations of clusters estimated from hydrostatic analysis of X-ray data.

  6. Mass Profile Decomposition of the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0416-2403: Insights on the Dark-matter Inner Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziatella, M.; Bonamigo, M.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Lombardi, M.; Munari, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution dissection of the two-dimensional total mass distribution in the core of the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1‑2403, at z = 0.396. We exploit HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) imaging, VLT/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectroscopy, and Chandra data to separate the stellar, hot gas, and dark-matter mass components in the inner 300 kpc of the cluster. We combine the recent results of our refined strong lensing analysis, which includes the contribution of the intracluster gas, with the modeling of the surface brightness and stellar mass distributions of 193 cluster members, of which 144 are spectroscopically confirmed. We find that, moving from 10 to 300 kpc from the cluster center, the stellar to total mass fraction decreases from 12% to 1% and the hot gas to total mass fraction increases from 3% to 9%, resulting in a baryon fraction of approximatively 10% at the outermost radius. We measure that the stellar component represents ∼30%, near the cluster center, and 15%, at larger clustercentric distances, of the total mass in the cluster substructures. We subtract the baryonic mass component from the total mass distribution and conclude that within 30 kpc (∼3 times the effective radius of the brightest cluster galaxy) from the cluster center the surface mass density profile of the total mass and global (cluster plus substructures) dark-matter are steeper and that of the diffuse (cluster) dark-matter is shallower than an NFW profile. Our current analysis does not point to a significant offset between the cluster stellar and dark-matter components. This detailed and robust reconstruction of the inner dark-matter distribution in a larger sample of galaxy clusters will set a new benchmark for different structure formation scenarios.

  7. Pattern Of Altered Lipid Profile In Patients With Subclinical And Clinical Hypothyroidism And Its Correlation With Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humerah, S.; Siddiqui, A.; Khan, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Result: Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). An assessment of correlation of lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Hypothyroidism causes alteration of lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population. (author)

  8. Proteomic profiling of human pleural effusion using two-dimensional nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Pleural effusion, an accumulation of pleural fluid, contains proteins originated from plasma filtrate and, especially when tissues are damaged, parenchyma interstitial spaces of lungs and/or other organs. This study details protein profiles in human pleural effusion from 43 lung adenocarcinoma patients by a two-dimensional nano-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) system. The experimental results revealed the identification of 1415 unique proteins from human pleural effusion. Among these 124 proteins identified with higher confidence levels, some proteins have not been reported in plasma and may represent proteins specifically present in pleural effusion. These proteins are valuable for mass identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in proteomics database and screening biomarker to further study in human lung adenocarcinoma. The significance of the use of proteomics analysis of human pleural fluid for the search of new lung cancer marker proteins, and for their simultaneous display and analysis in patients suffering from lung disorders has been examined.

  9. CLASH: PRECISE NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE MASS PROFILE OF THE GALAXY CLUSTER A2261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Donahue, Megan; Medezinski, Elinor; Zheng Wei; Lemze, Doron; Carrasco, Mauricio; Anguita, Timo; Infante, Leopoldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Rines, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Nonino, Mario; Molino, Alberto; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2012-01-01

    We precisely constrain the inner mass profile of A2261 (z = 0.225) for the first time and determine that this cluster is not 'overconcentrated' as found previously, implying a formation time in agreement with ΛCDM expectations. These results are based on multiple strong-lensing analyses of new 16-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble. Combining this with revised weak-lensing analyses of Subaru wide-field imaging with five-band Subaru + KPNO photometry, we place tight new constraints on the halo virial mass M vir = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10 15 M ☉ h –1 70 (within r vir ≈ 3 Mpc h –1 70 ) and concentration c vir = 6.2 ± 0.3 when assuming a spherical halo. This agrees broadly with average c(M, z) predictions from recent ΛCDM simulations, which span 5 ∼ 2500 ∼ 600 kpc. Agreement can be achieved by a halo elongated with a ∼2:1 axis ratio along our LOS. For this elongated halo model, we find M vir = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 15 M ☉ h –1 70 and c vir = 4.6 ± 0.2, placing rough lower limits on these values. The need for halo elongation can be partially obviated by non-thermal pressure support and, perhaps entirely, by systematic errors in the X-ray mass measurements. We estimate the effect of background structures based on MMT/Hectospec spectroscopic redshifts and find that these tend to lower M vir further by ∼7% and increase c vir by ∼5%.

  10. Normal Weight but Low Muscle Mass and Abdominally Obese: Implications for the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; van de Bool, Coby; van den Borst, Bram; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that low muscle mass affects physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that combined low muscle mass and abdominal obesity may also adversely influence the cardiometabolic risk profile in COPD, even in those with normal weight. The cardiometabolic risk profile and the responsiveness to 4 months high-intensity exercise training was assessed in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass stratified by abdominal obesity. This is a cross-sectional study including 81 clinically stable patients with COPD (age 62.5 ± 8.2 years; 50.6% males; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 55.1 ± 19.5 percentage predicted) with fat-free mass index risk profile. Triglycerides showed a significant decrease, while the HOMA-IR increased. Abdominal obesity is highly prevalent in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass who showed an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with patients without abdominal obesity. This cardiometabolic risk profile was not altered after 4 months of exercise training. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fye, Haddy K S; Mrosso, Paul; Bruce, Lesley; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Rwegasira, Gration L; Makani, Julie; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane 'ghost' fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT and MaxQuant platforms to assess their scope and diversity. The results obtained demonstrate a robust method for membrane enrichment enabling consistent MS based characterisation of > 900 RBC membrane proteins in single LC-MS/MS analyses. Non-detergent based membrane solubilisation methods using the tissue and supernatant fractions of isolated ghost membranes are shown to offer effective haemoglobin removal as well as diverse recovery including erythrocyte membrane proteins of high and low abundance. The methods described in this manuscript propose a medium to high throughput framework for membrane proteome profiling by LC-MS of potential applicability to larger clinical cohorts in a variety of disease contexts.

  12. Serum metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hu; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Zu-Li; Liu, Huan-Liang; Zeng, Yi-Ke; Shi, Xian-Ping; Lu, Bi-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis plays an important role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to non-invasively identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of human gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of gastric cancer and to identify biomarkers associated with morbidity. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the serum metabolites of 30 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 30 healthy controls. Diagnostic models for gastric cancer were constructed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Acquired metabolomic data were analyzed by the nonparametric Wilcoxon test to find serum metabolic biomarkers for gastric cancer. The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer and non-cancer cohorts while the model failed to discriminate different pathological stages (I-IV) of gastric cancer patients. A total of 44 endogenous metabolites such as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and steroids were detected, of which 18 differential metabolites were identified with significant differences. A total of 13 variables were obtained for their greatest contribution in the discriminating OPLS-DA model [variable importance in the projection (VIP) value >1.0], among which 11 metabolites were identified using both VIP values (VIP >1) and the Wilcoxon test. These metabolites potentially revealed perturbations of glycolysis and of amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol, and nucleotide metabolism of gastric cancer patients. These results suggest that gastric cancer serum metabolic profiling has great potential in detecting this disease and helping to understand its metabolic mechanisms

  13. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  14. Dansylation isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for parallel profiling of human urinary and fecal submetabolomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiaoling [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wang, Nan [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Chen, Deying [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Li, Yunong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Lu, Yingfeng [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Huan, Tao [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Xu, Wei [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Li, Lanjuan, E-mail: ljli@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Human urine and feces can be non-invasively collected for metabolomics-based disease biomarker discovery research. Because urinary and fecal metabolomes are thought to be different, analysis of both biospecimens may generate a more comprehensive metabolomic profile that can be better related to the health state of an individual. Herein we describe a method of using differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for parallel metabolomic profiling of urine and feces. Dansylation labeling was used to quantify the amine/phenol submetabolome changes among different samples based on {sup 12}C-labeling of individual samples and {sup 13}C-labeling of a pooled urine or pooled feces and subsequent analysis of the {sup 13}C-/{sup 12}C-labeled mixture by LC-MS. The pooled urine and pooled feces are further differentially labeled, mixed and then analyzed by LC-MS in order to relate the metabolite concentrations of the common metabolites found in both biospecimens. This method offers a means of direct comparison of urinary and fecal submetabolomes. We evaluated the analytical performance and demonstrated the utility of this method in the analysis of urine and feces collected daily from three healthy individuals for 7 days. On average, 2534 ± 113 (n = 126) peak pairs or metabolites could be detected from a urine sample, while 2507 ± 77 (n = 63) peak pairs were detected from a fecal sample. In total, 5372 unique peak pairs were detected from all the samples combined; 3089 and 3012 pairs were found in urine and feces, respectively. These results reveal that the urine and fecal metabolomes are very different, thereby justifying the consideration of using both biospecimens to increase the probability of finding specific biomarkers of diseases. Furthermore, the CIL LC-MS method described can be used to perform parallel quantitative analysis of urine and feces, resulting in more complete coverage of the human metabolome

  15. Dansylation isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for parallel profiling of human urinary and fecal submetabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiaoling; Wang, Nan; Chen, Deying; Li, Yunong; Lu, Yingfeng; Huan, Tao; Xu, Wei; Li, Liang; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Human urine and feces can be non-invasively collected for metabolomics-based disease biomarker discovery research. Because urinary and fecal metabolomes are thought to be different, analysis of both biospecimens may generate a more comprehensive metabolomic profile that can be better related to the health state of an individual. Herein we describe a method of using differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for parallel metabolomic profiling of urine and feces. Dansylation labeling was used to quantify the amine/phenol submetabolome changes among different samples based on "1"2C-labeling of individual samples and "1"3C-labeling of a pooled urine or pooled feces and subsequent analysis of the "1"3C-/"1"2C-labeled mixture by LC-MS. The pooled urine and pooled feces are further differentially labeled, mixed and then analyzed by LC-MS in order to relate the metabolite concentrations of the common metabolites found in both biospecimens. This method offers a means of direct comparison of urinary and fecal submetabolomes. We evaluated the analytical performance and demonstrated the utility of this method in the analysis of urine and feces collected daily from three healthy individuals for 7 days. On average, 2534 ± 113 (n = 126) peak pairs or metabolites could be detected from a urine sample, while 2507 ± 77 (n = 63) peak pairs were detected from a fecal sample. In total, 5372 unique peak pairs were detected from all the samples combined; 3089 and 3012 pairs were found in urine and feces, respectively. These results reveal that the urine and fecal metabolomes are very different, thereby justifying the consideration of using both biospecimens to increase the probability of finding specific biomarkers of diseases. Furthermore, the CIL LC-MS method described can be used to perform parallel quantitative analysis of urine and feces, resulting in more complete coverage of the human metabolome. - Highlights: • A

  16. Analysis of chemical profiles of insect adhesion secretions by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Manuela [Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Gerhardt, Heike [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver [Institute of Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Albert, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.albert@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Lämmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Adhesion secretions of desert locust analyzed by GC–MS. • Insect secretions are composed of apolar and polar constituents. • Sampling simplified with contact SPME as compared to solvent sampling. • Thin-film SPME-GC–MS revealed complex alkane patterns for insect secretions. • Differences in tarsal (feet) secretions and samples from tibiae (upper legs) identified. - Abstract: This article reports on the chemical analysis of molecular profiles of tarsal secretions of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsskål, 1775) by gas chromatography hyphenated with quadrupol mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as well as {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy. Special focus of this study was to elaborate on sampling methods which enable selective microscale extraction of insect secretions in a spatially controlled manner, in particular tarsal adhesive secretions and secretions located on cuticle surfaces at the tibia. Various solvent sampling procedures and contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods were compared in terms of comprehensiveness and extraction efficiencies as measured by signal intensities in GC–MS. Solvent sampling with water as extraction solvent gave access to the elucidation of chemical profiles of polar compound classes such as amino acids and carbohydrates, but is extremely tedious. Contact SPME on the other hand can be regarded as a simplified and more elegant alternative, in particular for the lipophilic compound fraction. Many proteinogenic amino acids and ornithine as well as carbohydrate monomers arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose were detected in tarsal secretions after acid hydrolysis of aqueous extracts. Qualitatively similar but quantitatively significantly different molecular profiles were found for the lipid fraction which contained mainly n-alkanes and internally branched monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-alkanes in the C23–C49 range as well as long chain fatty acids and

  17. Analysis of chemical profiles of insect adhesion secretions by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Manuela; Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion secretions of desert locust analyzed by GC–MS. • Insect secretions are composed of apolar and polar constituents. • Sampling simplified with contact SPME as compared to solvent sampling. • Thin-film SPME-GC–MS revealed complex alkane patterns for insect secretions. • Differences in tarsal (feet) secretions and samples from tibiae (upper legs) identified. - Abstract: This article reports on the chemical analysis of molecular profiles of tarsal secretions of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsskål, 1775) by gas chromatography hyphenated with quadrupol mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as well as 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy. Special focus of this study was to elaborate on sampling methods which enable selective microscale extraction of insect secretions in a spatially controlled manner, in particular tarsal adhesive secretions and secretions located on cuticle surfaces at the tibia. Various solvent sampling procedures and contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods were compared in terms of comprehensiveness and extraction efficiencies as measured by signal intensities in GC–MS. Solvent sampling with water as extraction solvent gave access to the elucidation of chemical profiles of polar compound classes such as amino acids and carbohydrates, but is extremely tedious. Contact SPME on the other hand can be regarded as a simplified and more elegant alternative, in particular for the lipophilic compound fraction. Many proteinogenic amino acids and ornithine as well as carbohydrate monomers arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose were detected in tarsal secretions after acid hydrolysis of aqueous extracts. Qualitatively similar but quantitatively significantly different molecular profiles were found for the lipid fraction which contained mainly n-alkanes and internally branched monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-alkanes in the C23–C49 range as well as long chain fatty acids and aldehydes

  18. Targeted metabolite profile of food bioactive compounds by Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry: The 'FancyTiles' approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Ferracane, R.; Palermo, M.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new targeted metabolic profile approach using Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry was described. For each foodmatrix various classes of bioactive compounds and some specificmetabolites of interest were selected on the basis of the existing knowledge creating an easy-to-read

  19. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toda, Katsuki; Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Shiiba, Ayaka; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Yasuo; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamato, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd)

  20. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  1. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Ian D.; Somsen, Govert W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  2. Sensitivity of a Chemical Mass Balance model for PM2.5 to source profiles for differing styles of cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, K. L.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-04-01

    Use of a Chemical Mass Balance model is one of the two most commonly used approaches to estimating atmospheric concentrations of cooking aerosol. Such models require the input of chemical profiles for each of the main sources contributing to particulate matter mass and there is appreciable evidence from the literature that not only the mass emission but also the chemical composition of particulate matter varies according to the food being prepared and the style of cooking. In this study, aerosol has been sampled in the laboratory from four different styles of cooking, i.e. Indian, Chinese, Western and African cooking. The chemical profiles of molecular markers have been quantified and are used individually within a Chemical Mass Balance model applied to air samples collected in a multi-ethnic area of Birmingham, UK. The model results give a source contribution estimate for cooking aerosol which is consistent with other comparable UK studies, but also shows a very low sensitivity of the model to the cooking aerosol profile utilised. A survey of local restaurants suggested a wide range of cooking styles taking place which may explain why no one profile gives an appreciably better fit in the CMB model.

  3. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  4. Mass spectral analysis of urine proteomic profiles of dairy cows suffering from clinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Shu, Shi; Xia, Cheng; Wang, Pengxian; Sun, Yuhang; Xu, Chuchu; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is an important metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. The urine proteomics of ketosis has not been investigated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The aim is to determine differences between urine proteomic profiles of healthy cows and those with clinical ketosis, and facilitate studies of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms that lead to liver pathology in ketosis. We analyzed the urine samples of 20 cows with clinical ketosis (group 1) and 20 control cows (group 2) using SELDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-nine peptide peaks differed between both groups. Polypeptides corresponding to 26 of these differential peptide peaks were identified using the SWISS-PROT protein database. We found that the peaks of 11 distinct polypeptides from the urine samples of the ketosis group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group as based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among these were VGF (non-acronymic) protein, amyloid precursor protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, C1INH, apolipoprotein C-III, cystatin C, transthyretin, hepcidin, human neutrophil peptides, and osteopontin. These proteins may represent novel biomarkers of the metabolic changes that occur in dairy cows with ketosis. Our results will help to better understand the physiological changes and pathogenesis observed in cows with ketosis. The SELDI-TOF-MS can be used to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of ketosis and identify biomarkers of the disease.

  5. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  6. Metabolite profiling of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in Solea senegalensis bile using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Jaume; Pérez, Sandra; Eichhorn, Peter; Solé, Montserrat; Barceló, Damià

    2017-09-01

    The widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on exposed wildlife. Very little is currently known on exposure levels and clearance mechanisms of drugs in marine fish. Within this context, our research was focused on the identification of main metabolic reactions, generated metabolites, and caused effects after exposure of fish to carbamazepine (CBZ) and ibuprofen (IBU). To this end, juveniles of Solea senegalensis acclimated to two temperature regimes of 15 and 20 °C for 60 days received a single intraperitoneal dose of these drugs. A control group was administered the vehicle (sunflower oil). Bile samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry on a Q Exactive (Orbitrap) system, allowing to propose plausible identities for 11 metabolites of CBZ and 13 metabolites of IBU in fish bile. In case of CBZ metabolites originated from aromatic and benzylic hydroxylation, epoxidation, and ensuing O-glucuronidation, O-methylation of a catechol-like metabolite was also postulated. Ibuprofen, in turn, formed multiple hydroxyl metabolites, O-glucuronides, and (hydroxyl)-acyl glucuronides, in addition to several taurine conjugates. Enzymatic responses after drug exposures revealed a water temperature-dependent induction of microsomal carboxylesterases. The metabolite profiling in fish bile provides an important tool for pharmaceutical exposure assessment. Graphical abstract Studies of metabolism of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in fish.

  7. Serum protein profiling by solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry: A future diagnostics tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Madsen, Jonna S; Vach, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by MS is a promising method for early detection of disease. Important characteristics for serum protein profiling are preanalytical factors, analytical reproducibility and high throughput. Problems related to preanalytical factors can be overcome by using standardized and ...

  8. An integrated strategy for in vivo metabolite profiling using high-resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian; Zhang, Minli; Elmore, Charles S.; Vishwanathan, Karthick

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Profiling the metabolites of model compounds in rats using high resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques. •Demonstrating an integrated strategy in vivo metabolite profiling using data mining tools. •Unusual metabolites generated via thiazole-ring opening were characterized based on processed LC–MS.data. -- Abstract: An ongoing challenge of drug metabolite profiling is to detect and identify unknown or low-level metabolites in complex biological matrices. Here we present a generic strategy for metabolite detection using multiple accurate-mass-based data processing tools via the analysis of rat samples of two model drug candidates, AZD6280 and AZ12488024. First, the function of isotopic pattern recognition was proved to be highly effective in the detection of metabolites derived from [ 14 C]-AZD6280 that possesses a distinct isotopic pattern. The metabolites revealed using this approach were in excellent qualitative correlation to those observed in radiochromatograms. Second, the effectiveness of accurate mass based untargeted data mining tools such as background subtraction, mass defect filtering, or a data mining package (MZmine) used for metabolomic analysis in detection of metabolites of [ 14 C]-AZ12488024 in rat urine, feces, bile and plasma samples was examined and a total of 33 metabolites of AZ12488024 were detected. Among them, at least 16 metabolites were only detected by the aid of the data mining packages and not via radiochromatograms. New metabolic pathways such as S-oxidation and thiomethylation reactions occurring on the thiazole ring were proposed based on the processed data. The results of these experiments also demonstrated that accurate mass-based mass defect filtering (MDF) and data mining techniques used in metabolomics are complementary and can be valuable tools for delineating low-level metabolites in complex matrices. Furthermore, the application of distinct multiple data

  9. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  10. Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence characterization and structuring in the Sisseb El Alem-Kalaa Kebira regions (Northeastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houatmia, Faten; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2015-11-01

    The Sisseb El Alem-Enfidha basin is located in the northeastern Tunisia, It is borded by Nadhour - Saouaf syncline to the north, Kairouan plain to the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the east and Tunisian Atlassic "dorsale" to the west. Oligocene and Miocene deltaic deposits present the main potential deep aquifers in this basin with high porosity (25%-30%). The interpretation of twenty seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of twelve oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of Oligo-Miocene sandstones reservoirs and their distribution in raised structures and subsurface depressions. Miocene seismostratigraphy analysis from Ain Ghrab Formation (Langhian) to the Segui Formation (Quaternary) showed five third-order seismic sequence deposits and nine extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs limited by toplap and downlap surfaces unconformities, Oligocene deposits presented also five third- order seismic sequences with five extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs. The Depth and the thickness maps of these sequence reservoir packages exhibited the structuring of this basin in sub-basins characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thichness variations. Petroleum wells wire line logging correlation with clay volume calculation showed an heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs of Oligocene and Miocene formed by the arrangement of fourteen sandstone bodies being able to be good reservoirs, separated by impermeable clay packages and affected by faults. Reservoirs levels correspond mainly to the lower system tract (LST) of sequences. Intensive fracturing by deep seated faults bounding the different sub-basins play a great role for water surface recharge and inter-layer circulations between affected reservoirs. The total pore volume of the Oligo-Miocene reservoir sandy bodies in the study area, is estimated to about 4 × 1012 m3 and equivalent to 4

  11. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung metastases as oligo-recurrence: a single institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung metastases as oligo-recurrence. From May 2003 to June 2014, records for 66 patients with 76 oligo-recurrences in the lungs treated with SBRT were retrospectively reviewed. Oligo-recurrence primary sites and patient numbers were as follows: lungs, 31; colorectal, 13; head and neck, 10; esophagus, 3; uterus, 3; and others, 6. The median SBRT dose was 50 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy) administered in a median of 5 (range, 5-9) fractions. All patients received SBRT, with no acute toxicity. Surviving patients had a median follow-up time of 36.5 months. The 3-year rates of local control, overall survival and disease-free survival were 90.6%, 76.0% and 53.7%, respectively. Longer disease-free interval from initial treatment to SBRT, and non-colorectal cancer were both associated with favorable outcomes. Disease progression after SBRT occurred in 31 patients, most with distant metastases (n = 24) [among whom, 87.5% (n = 21) had new lung metastases]. Among these 21 patients, 12 were judged as having a second oligo-recurrence. Additional SBRT was performed for these 12 patients, and all 12 tumors were controlled without disease progression. Three patients (4.5%) developed Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No other late adverse events of Grade ≥2 were identified. Thus, SBRT for oligo-recurrence achieved acceptable tumor control, with additional SBRT also effective for selected patients with a second oligo-recurrence after primary SBRT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: Potential as a Therapy to Oligometastasis and Oligo-Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hiraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The early results (e.g., patient survival of RFA for the treatment of patients with NSCLC and pulmonary metastasis from various primary lesions including colorectal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and sarcoma appear encouraging and suggest the potential to offer long-term survival for the patients with oligo-recurrence or oligometastasis of lung cancer. The usefulness of RFA for oligo-recurrence or oligometastasis of lung cancer should be clarified by prospective studies in the future.

  13. The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for diagnosis of Chagas disease: a multi-cohort comparative evaluation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen De Winne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%-99.8% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%-99.1% for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%-74.2% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%-84.4% for the kDNA OligoC-Test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004 higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT.

  14. The Trypanosoma cruzi Satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi Kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for Diagnosis of Chagas Disease: A Multi-cohort Comparative Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winne, Koen; Büscher, Philippe; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Tavares, Suelene B. N.; Oliveira, Rodrigo A.; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Diosque, Patricio; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Gironès, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Perez-Molina, José A.; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Garcia, Lineth; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%–99.8%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%–99.1%) for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%–74.2%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%–84.4%) for the kDNA OligoC-Test. Conclusions/Significance Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004) higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT. PMID:24392177

  15. Combined experimental and statistical strategy for mass spectrometry based serum protein profiling for diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E

    2008-01-01

    it in a well-described breast cancer case-control study. A rigorous sample collection protocol ensured high quality specimen and reduced bias from preanalytical factors. Preoperative serum samples obtained from 48 breast cancer patients and 28 controls were used to generate MALDI MS protein profiles. A total...... and controls. A diagnostic rule based on these 72 mass values was constructed and exhibited a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of approximately 85% for the detection of breast cancer. With this method, it was possible to distinguish early stage cancers from controls without major loss of sensitivity...... and specificity. We conclude that optimized serum sample handling and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies in combination with statistical analysis provide a viable platform for serum protein profiling in cancer diagnosis....

  16. Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2010-04-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general.

  17. He, U, and Th Depth Profiling of Apatite and Zircon Using Laser Ablation Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry and SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.; Hervig, R.; Boyce, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional (U-Th)/He thermochronology utilizes single or multiple grain analyses of U- and Th-bearing minerals such as apatite and zircon and does not allow for assessment of spatial variation in concentration of He, U, or Th within individual crystals. As such, age calculation and interpretation require assumptions regarding 4He loss through alpha ejection, diffusive redistribution of 4He, and U and Th distribution as an initial condition for these processes. Although models have been developed to predict 4He diffusion parameters, correct for the effect of alpha ejection on calculated cooling ages, and account for the effect of U and Th zonation within apatite and zircon, measurements of 4He, U, and Th distribution have not been combined within a single crystal. We apply ArF excimer laser ablation, combined with noble gas mass spectrometry, to obtain depth profiles within apatite and zircon crystals in order to assess variations in 4He concentration with depth. Our initial results from pre-cut, pre-heated slabs of Durango apatite, each subjected to different T-t schedules, suggest a general agreement of 4He profiles with those predicted by theoretical diffusion models (Farley, 2000). Depth profiles through unpolished grains give reproducible alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite that deviate from alpha ejection profiles predicted for ideal, homogenous crystals. SIMS depth profiling utilizes an O2 primary beam capable of sputtering tens of microns and measuring sub-micron resolution variation in [U], [Th], and [Sm]. Preliminary results suggest that sufficient [U] and [Th] zonation is present in Durango apatite to influence the form of the 4He alpha ejection profile. Future work will assess the influence of measured [U] and [Th] zonation on previously measured 4He depth profiles. Farley, K.A., 2000. Helium diffusion from apatite; general behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite. J. Geophys. Res., B Solid Earth Planets 105 (2), 2903-2914.

  18. Instantaneous Characterization Of Vegetable Oils Via Tag And Ffa Profiles By Easy Ambient Sonic-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2015-01-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil an...

  19. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  20. Supramolecular organisation of oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) at the air-water interface and in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkheijm, P.; Fransen, M.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    Two novel chiral (bola)amphiphilic oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs) have been synthesised and fully characterised. Decoration of the hydrophobic OPV backbone with a hydrophilic tris[tetra(ethylene oxide)]benzene wedge on one side and a hydrophobic tris(alkoxy)benzene wedge on the other side,

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on the crosslinking properties of oligo-butadiene-base polyurethane elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid oligo-butadiene-base diol was cured by gammas when a diisocyanate and a triol were present. The NCO/OH ratio was at unity. Radiation brought about crosslink networks through urethane linkages and among polybutadiene segments. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  2. Molecular junctions based on SAMs of cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Zhongming; Li, Tao; Jennum, Karsten Stein

    2012-01-01

    Cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s (OPEs) with an extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety (OPE5-TTF and OPE3-TTF) and their simple analogues (OPE5-S and OPE3) without conjugated substituents were used to form high quality self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ultra-flat gold substrates...

  3. Combinatorial enzyme technology: Conversion of pectin to oligo species and its effect on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant cell wall polysaccharides, which consist of polymeric backbones with various types of substitution, were studied using the concept of combinatorial enzyme technology for conversion of agricultural fibers to functional products. Using citrus pectin as the starting substrate, an active oligo spe...

  4. The role of varicocele sclerotherapy in men with severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.I. Ghanem (Mazen); M.A. Safan (Manal A.); M.A.I. Ghanem (Mazen); G.R. Dohle (Gert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to verify the role of antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicoceles in infertile men with severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT). The 59 patients with severe OAT in this study underwent antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of

  5. Exopolysaccharide Gellan Gum and Derived Oligo-Gellan Enhance Growth and Antimicrobial Activity in Eucomis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the visible trends in the cultivation of plants, particularly of medicinal ones, is the increasing interest of researchers in polysaccharides and their derivatives that show biostimulatory properties and are also safe to use. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of gellan gum and its depolymerized form oligo-gellan, on growth and antimicrobial activity of two ornamental species Eucomis bicolor and Eucomis comosa used in natural medicine. The biopolymers were applied in the form of bulb coating prepared by using polyelectrolyte complexes. In both species investigated, gellan gum and oligo-gellan enhanced the fresh weight of leaves and bulbs, the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus, and the leaf content of basic macronutrients. In comparison with the control, the plants treated with oligo-gellan accumulated more biomass, were first to flower, and had the highest leaf content of potassium. The extracts from the bulbs treated with gellan gum and oligo-gellan showed higher effectiveness in reducing the count of Bacillus atrophaeus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus than those from the bulbs not treated with the polysaccharides. The research described here largely expands our current knowledge on the effects of gellan gum derivatives and has a huge practical potential in agriculture production.

  6. Direct visualization of efficient energy transfer in single oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.J.M.; Shklyarevskiy, I.O.; Pouderoijen, M.J.; Engelkamp, H.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Maan, J.C.; Meijer, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring self-assembled objects: Optical studies and scanning confocal microscopy have been used to monitor intermolecular energy transfer (ENT) in mixed vesicles of donor/acceptor oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)s (OPVs) in water (see picture) over time. This probing of the ongoing exchange process

  7. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  8. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  9. Evaluation on prebiotic properties of β-glucan and oligo-β-glucan from mushrooms by human fecal microbiota in fecal batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraphon Chaikliang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-glucan is dietary fiber, a structural polysaccharide, β-linked linear chains of D-glucose polymers with variable frequency of branches. β-glucan is isolated from different sources such as cell walls of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cereals (oat and barley and various species of mushrooms. Among 8 mushrooms in the study, Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae had the highest in β-glucan contents and the cheapest cost of mushroom per content of β-glucan, respectively. Even the function of β-glucan on immune modulation has been known however no report on interaction between β-glucan and human gut microbiota. Gut microbiota is thought to have health effects by interaction with non-digestible component particular fermentable dietary fiber. It is important to correlate the specific groups of the microbial communities associated with β-glucan fermentation and the consequential SCFA profiles. β-glucan from mushroom may has potential prebiotic function similar to those from commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan. Objective: To evaluate on prebiotic properties of soluble β-glucans and oligo-β-glucans from Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae by fecal fermentation in batch culture. Methods: In vitro fecal fermentation in anaerobic batch cultures under simulated conditions similar to human colon with human faecal samples from three donors were performed. Comparison on 3 β-glucans and 2 oligo-β-glucans have been studied. Sample was taken at 0 h, 24 h and 48 h to analyze the numbers of bacterial changes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA were analyzed by HPLC. The prebiotic index (PI was calculated according to the change of 5 specific bacterial genus within 48 h fermentation. Results: Soluble β-glucan from Auricularia auricula Judae increased numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus significantly (P<0.05. The PI of

  10. A Profile of Deans of Schools and Colleges of Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Dennis J.; Applegate, Edd

    2001-01-01

    Considers how many people hire persons whose backgrounds reflect their own training and experience. Looks at the backgrounds of those persons that hold the title of "dean" at ACEJMC(Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications)-accredited colleges and schools of journalism and mass communication. Provides a solid baseline…

  11. Anthropometry profiles of elite rugby players: quantifying changes in lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, G M; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Livingstone, S; Hooper, S L

    2006-03-01

    To demonstrate the utility of a practical measure of lean mass for monitoring changes in the body composition of athletes. Between 1999 and 2003 body mass and sum of seven skinfolds were recorded for 40 forwards and 32 backs from one Super 12 rugby union franchise. Players were assessed on 13 (7) occasions (mean (SD)) over 1.9 (1.3) years. Mixed modelling of log transformed variables provided a lean mass index (LMI) of the form mass/skinfolds(x), for monitoring changes in mass controlled for changes in skinfold thickness. Mean effects of phase of season and time in programme were modelled as percentage changes. Effects were standardised for interpretation of magnitudes. The exponent x was 0.13 for forwards and 0.14 for backs (90% confidence limits +/-0.03). The forwards had a small decrease in skinfolds (5.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) between preseason and competition phases, and a small increase (7.8%, 90% confidence limits +/-3.1%) during the club season. A small decrease in LMI (approximately 1.5%) occurred after one year in the programme for forwards and backs, whereas increases in skinfolds for forwards became substantial (4.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) after three years. Individual variation in body composition was small within a season (within subject SD: body mass, 1.6%; skinfolds, 6.8%; LMI, 1.1%) and somewhat greater for body mass (2.1%) and LMI (1.7%) between seasons. Despite a lack of substantial mean changes, there was substantial individual variation in lean mass within and between seasons. An index of lean mass based on body mass and skinfolds is a potentially useful tool for assessing body composition of athletes.

  12. Fatty Acid Profiling of Lipid A Isolated from Indigenous salmonella typhi strain by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbar, A.; Ali, A.; Tawab, A.; Haque, A.; Iqbal, M. [National Inst. for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    Typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. Lipopolysaccharides are one of the main virulence factors of S. Typhi. Hydrophobic lipid A anchors the lipopolysaccharides into the bacterial outer membrane and also serves as the epicenter of endotoxicity, which is linked to the presence of several fatty acid chains. Fatty acid profiling is, therefore, very important to understand the endotoxicity of these pathogenic bacteria. To profile lipid A with respect to its fatty acid constituents, a S. Typhi was isolated from blood culture of a typhoid patient from the Faisalabad region of Pakistan. After its complete identification using biochemical and molecular techniques, this bacterium was cultivated in a fermentor. The cell pellet obtained was subjected to hot phenol process to extract and purify lipopolysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides yielded lipid A, which was subjected to analyses using GC-MS after derivatization into their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified on the basis of their retention times, compared with standards as well as characteristic mass fragmentation patterns of their respective mass spectra. This fatty acid profiling revealed the occurrence of dodecanoic acid (C12:0), tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (3-OH C14:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) in the lipid A component of S. Typhi strain with the relative percentage abundances 8.5%, 12.5%, 55.9% and 23.1%, respectively. (author)

  13. Fatty Acid Profiling of Lipid A Isolated from Indigenous salmonella typhi strain by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, A.; Ali, A.; Tawab, A.; Haque, A.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. Lipopolysaccharides are one of the main virulence factors of S. Typhi. Hydrophobic lipid A anchors the lipopolysaccharides into the bacterial outer membrane and also serves as the epicenter of endotoxicity, which is linked to the presence of several fatty acid chains. Fatty acid profiling is, therefore, very important to understand the endotoxicity of these pathogenic bacteria. To profile lipid A with respect to its fatty acid constituents, a S. Typhi was isolated from blood culture of a typhoid patient from the Faisalabad region of Pakistan. After its complete identification using biochemical and molecular techniques, this bacterium was cultivated in a fermentor. The cell pellet obtained was subjected to hot phenol process to extract and purify lipopolysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides yielded lipid A, which was subjected to analyses using GC-MS after derivatization into their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified on the basis of their retention times, compared with standards as well as characteristic mass fragmentation patterns of their respective mass spectra. This fatty acid profiling revealed the occurrence of dodecanoic acid (C12:0), tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (3-OH C14:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) in the lipid A component of S. Typhi strain with the relative percentage abundances 8.5%, 12.5%, 55.9% and 23.1%, respectively. (author)

  14. Detection of lung cancer using plasma protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Zaridze, David G

    2010-01-01

    There are no satisfactory plasma biomarkers which are available for the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer, one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. The aim of this study is to explore the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) to plasma proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. The EDTA plasma samples have been pre-fractionated using magnetic bead kits functionalized with weak cation exchange coatings. We compiled MS protein profiles for 90 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and compared them with profiles from 187 healthy controls. The MALDI-ToF spectra were analyzed statistically using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Depending on the sample used, up to 441 peaks/spectrum could be detected in a mass range of 1000-20,000 Da; 33 of these proteins had statistically differential expression levels between SCC and control plasma (P 90%) in external validation test. These results suggest that plasma MALDI-ToF MS protein profiling can distinguish patients with SCC and also from healthy individuals with relatively high sensitivity and specificity and that MALDI- ToF MS is a potential tool for the screening of lung cancer.

  15. Profiling the metabolic signals involved in chemical communication between microbes using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulli, Nikolas M; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    The ability of microbes to secrete bioactive chemical signals into their environment has been known for over a century. However, it is only in the last decade that imaging mass spectrometry has provided us with the ability to directly visualize the spatial distributions of these microbial metabolites. This technology involves collecting mass spectra from multiple discrete locations across a biological sample, yielding chemical ‘maps’ that simultaneously reveal the distributions of hundreds of metabolites in two dimensions. Advances in microbial imaging mass spectrometry summarized here have included the identification of novel strain- or coculture-specific compounds, the visualization of biotransformation events (where one metabolite is converted into another by a neighboring microbe), and the implementation of a method to reconstruct the 3D subsurface distributions of metabolites, among others. Here we review the recent literature and discuss how imaging mass spectrometry has spurred novel insights regarding the chemical consequences of microbial interactions.

  16. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-10

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  17. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George

    2018-05-01

    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 µm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.

  19. Sub-keV secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling: comparison of sample rotation and oxygen flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.; Wee, A.T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Following the increasingly stringent requirements in the characterization of sub-micron IC devices, an understanding of the various factors affecting ultra shallow depth profiling in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become crucial. Achieving high depth resolution (of the order of 1 nm) is critical in the semiconductor industry today, and various methods have been developed to optimize depth resolution. In this paper, we will discuss ultra shallow SIMS depth profiling using B and Ge delta-doped Si samples using low energy 0.5 keV O 2 + primary beams. The relationship between depth resolution of the delta layers and surface topography measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is studied. The effect of oxygen flooding and sample rotation, used to suppress surface roughening is also investigated. Oxygen flooding was found to effectively suppress roughening and gives the best depth resolution for B, but sample rotation gives the best resolution for Ge. Possible mechanisms for this are discussed

  20. Profiling the triacylglyceride contents in bat integumentary lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Risch, Thomas S; Savary, Brett J

    2013-09-05

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals.

  1. The Means: Cytometry and Mass Spectrometry Converge in a Single Cell Deep Profiling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis-Garcia, Frances; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Ornatsky, Olga; Tanner, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a distinct flavor of mass spectrometry that has had little association with cell biology: it remains the state of the art for the determination of the atomic composition of materials. Unrelatedly, flow cytometry is the superior method for distinguishing the heterogeneity of cells through the determination of antigen signatures using tagged antibodies. Simply replacing fluorophore tags with stable isotopes of the heavy metals, and measuring these cell-by-cell with ICP-MS, dramatically increases the number of probes that can be simultaneously measured in cytometry and enables a transformative increase in the resolution of rare cell populations in complex biological samples. While this can be thought of as a novel incarnation of single-cell targeted proteomics, the metal-labeling reagents, ICP-MS of single cells, and accompanying informatics comprise a new field of technology termed Mass Cytometry. While the conception of mass cytometry is simple the embodiment to address the issues of multi-parameter flow cytometry has been far more challenging. There are many elements, and many more stable isotopes of those elements, that might be used as distinct reporter tags. Still, there are many approaches to conjugating metals to antibodies (or other affinity reagents) and work in this area along with developing new applications is ongoing. The mass resolution and linear (quantitative) dynamic range of ICP-MS allows those many stable isotopes to be measured simultaneously and without the spectral overlap issues that limit fluorescence assay. However, the adaptation of ICP-MS to allow high-speed simultaneous measurement with single cell distinction at high throughput required innovation of the cell introduction system, ion optics (sampling, transmission and beam-shaping), mass analysis, and signal handling and processing. An overview of “the nuts and bolts” of Mass Cytometry is presented.

  2. Modelling fat mass as a function of weekly physical activity profiles measured by Actigraph accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Nicole H; Faraway, Julian J; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R

    2012-01-01

    We show results on the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) using a new approach for modelling the relationship between health outcomes and physical activity assessed by accelerometers. The key feature of the model is that it uses the histogram of physical activity counts as a predictor function, rather than scalar summary measures such as average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Three models are fitted: (1a) A regression of fat mass at age 12 (N = 4164) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12; (1b) A regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2403) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12 and (1c) a regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2413) onto the accelerometer counts at age 14. All three models significantly improve on models including MVPA instead of the histogram and improve the goodness of fit of models (2a), (2b) and (2c) from R 2 = 0.267, 0.248 and 0.230 to R 2 = 0.292, 0.263 and 0.258 for models (1a), (1b) and (1c) respectively. The proportion of time spent in sedentary and very light activity (corresponding to slow walking and similar activities) has a positive contribution towards fat mass and time spent in moderate to vigorous activity has a negative contribution towards fat mass. (paper)

  3. Global mass spectrometry and transcriptomics array based drug profiling provides novel insight into glucosamine induced endoplasmic reticulum stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ribeiro, Helena; Voabil, Paula

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effects of glucosamine supplements, a popular and safe alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for decreasing pain, inflammation, and maintaining healthy joints. Numerous studies have reported an array of molecular effects after glucosamine treatment. We...... questioned whether the differences in the effects observed in previous studies were associated with the focus on a specific subproteome or with the use of specific cell lines or tissues. To address this question, global mass spectrometry- and transcription array-based glucosamine drug profiling was performed....... Further, we hypothesize that O-HexNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatment enhances protein trafficking....

  4. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  6. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC, that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  7. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an oligo-α-1,6-glucosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; Flórez, Ana Belén; Guadamuro, Lucía; Mayo, Baltasar

    2017-04-04

    Although encoded in the genome of many Lactobacillus spp. strains, α-glucosidases have received little attention compared to other glycosyl hydrolases. In this study, a putative oligosaccharide(oligo)-α-1,6-glucosidase-encoding gene (malL) was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum LL441. malL coded for 572 amino acid residues with a calculated total molecular mass of 66.31kDa. No predicted signal peptide was observed, suggesting this enzyme to be localized within the cytoplasm of the cell. Homology studies of the deduced amino acid sequence in the area of its active sites classified the enzyme as a member of the α-amylase (AmyAC) superfamily of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), family 13 (GH13), subfamily 31 (GH13_31). malL was cloned in Escherichia coli and the coded enzyme overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein (MalL His ). It was then purified and characterized. MalL His protein showed strong hydrolytic activity towards 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNP-α-Glu) but not to other pNP-α-d- or pNP-β-d-derivatives. When using pNP-α-Glu as a substrate, MalL His showed similar specific activities between pH5.0 and 6.0, and between 20 and 42°C (optimum 30°C). Among the natural carbohydrates assayed, MalL His showed specificity towards isomaltose (V max and K m values of 40.64μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 6.22mM) and much less to isomaltulose (V max and K m values of 168.86μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 244.52mM). However, under the conditions of the assay, the enzyme showed no transglycosylation activity. Characterization of the entire complement of glycosidases in L. plantarum might reveal how strains of this species could be used in new biotechnological applications or in the development of functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Authentication of organically and conventionally grown basils by gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry chemical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices were differentiated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and chemometric methods. The two-way GC/MS data sets were baseline-corrected and retention time-aligned prior to data processing. Two self-devised fuzzy clas...

  9. Cytokinin profiling in plant tissues using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Hauserová, Eva; Amakorová, Petra; Doležal, Karel; Strnad, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2008), s. 2214-2224 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) * Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) * Microextraction Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2008

  10. Fast profiling of anthocyanins in wine by desorption nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartmanová, L.; Ranc, V.; Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 25 (2010), s. 4223-4228 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Desorption nano-electrospray * Liquid chromatography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  11. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MALATYA OLIGO-MIOCENE SUCCESSION (EASTERN TAURIDS, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma GEDİK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene aged Muratlı and Petekkaya formations which crop out over wide regions around Akçadağ town, west of Malatya pro- vince in Eastern Taurids were revealed in this study. Systematical sampling was carried out in measured stratigraphical sections in four locations in order to perform stratigraphical and paleontological investigations. Benthic foraminifera taken from 182 hard rock samples were defined and three biozones were determined as; SBZ 21-22, belonging to Oligocene (Rupe- lian - Early Chattian, SBZ 23 (Late Chattian and SBZ 25 belonging to Lower Miocene in shallow marine deposits in the region. It was stated that the assemblage of planktic forami- nifer and nannoplankton which stratigraphically detected within Chattian - Burdigalian units in the succession most probably indicated Aquitanian age. Besides; Oligo-Miocene transition in the region was approved with this study based on biostratigraphical locations of benthic foraminiferal taxa.

  12. Exploring Redox States, Doping and Ordering of Electroactive Star-Shaped Oligo(aniline)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Benjamin M; Fey, Natalie; Marszalek, Tomasz; Pisula, Wojciech; Rannou, Patrice; Faul, Charl F J

    2016-11-14

    We have prepared a simple star-shaped oligo(aniline) (TDPB) and characterised it in detail by MALDI-TOF MS, UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy, time-dependent DFT, cyclic voltammetry and EPR spectroscopy. TDPB is part of an underdeveloped class of π-conjugated molecules with great potential for organic electronics, display and sensor applications. It is redox active and reacts with acids to form radical cations. Acid-doped TDPB shows behaviour similar to discotic liquid crystals, with X-ray scattering investigations revealing columnar self-assembled arrays. The combination of unpaired electrons and supramolecular stacking suggests that star-shaped oligo(aniline)s like TDPB have the potential to form conducting nanowires and organic magnetic materials. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Oligo-branched peptides for tumor targeting: from magic bullets to magic forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciani, Chiara; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2009-02-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells is the final goal of research and drug discovery for cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy. After the invention of hybridoma technology, the concept of magic bullet was introduced into the field of oncology, referring to selective killing of tumor cells, by specific antibodies. More recently, small molecules and peptides have also been proposed as selective targeting agents. We analyze the state of the art of tumor-selective agents that are presently available and tested in clinical settings. A novel approach based on 'armed' oligo-branched peptides as tumor targeting agents, is discussed and compared with existing tumor-selective therapies mediated by antibodies, small molecules or monomeric peptides. Oligo-branched peptides could be novel drugs that combine the advantages of antibodies and small molecules.

  14. Metabolite profiling and quantification of phytochemicals in potato extracts using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Esther Swee Lan; McGhie, Tony K; Heyes, Julian A; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    Potatoes contain a diverse range of phytochemicals which have been suggested to have health benefits. Metabolite profiling and quantification were conducted on plant extracts made from a white potato cultivar and 'Urenika', a purple potato cultivar traditionally consumed by New Zealand Maori. There is limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of Solanum tuberosum cultivar 'Urenika'. Using ultra-high- performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), a total of 31 compounds were identified and quantified in the potato extracts. The majority of the compounds were identified for the first time in 'Urenika'. These compounds include several types of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, and hydroxycinnamic amides (HCAA). Six classes of compounds, namely organic acids, amino acids, HCA, HCAA, flavonols and glycoalkaloids, were present in both extracts but quantities varied between the two extracts. The unknown plant metabolites in both potato extracts were assigned with molecular formulae and identified with high confidence. Quantification of the metabolites was achieved using a number of appropriate standards. High-resolution mass spectrometry data critical for accurate identification of unknown phytochemicals were achieved and could be added to potato or plant metabolomic database. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Independent component analysis for the extraction of reliable protein signal profiles from MALDI-TOF mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Petrucci, Francesca; Del Boccio, Piero; Pieragostino, Damiana; Di Nicola, Marta; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Federici, Giorgio; Sacchetta, Paolo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Urbani, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a signal processing technique that can be utilized to recover independent signals from a set of their linear mixtures. We propose ICA for the analysis of signals obtained from large proteomics investigations such as clinical multi-subject studies based on MALDI-TOF MS profiling. The method is validated on simulated and experimental data for demonstrating its capability of correctly extracting protein profiles from MALDI-TOF mass spectra. The comparison on peak detection with an open-source and two commercial methods shows its superior reliability in reducing the false discovery rate of protein peak masses. Moreover, the integration of ICA and statistical tests for detecting the differences in peak intensities between experimental groups allows to identify protein peaks that could be indicators of a diseased state. This data-driven approach demonstrates to be a promising tool for biomarker-discovery studies based on MALDI-TOF MS technology. The MATLAB implementation of the method described in the article and both simulated and experimental data are freely available at http://www.unich.it/proteomica/bioinf/.

  16. Peptidome profiling of human serum of uveal melanoma patients based on magnetic bead fractionation and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find new biomarkers for uveal melanoma (UM by analyzing the serum peptidome profile. METHODS: Proteomic spectra in patients with UM before and after operation were analyzed and compared with those of healthy controls. Magnetic affinity beads were used to capture serum peptides and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used to compile serum peptide profiles. RESULTS: A panel of 49 peptides were differentially expressed between UM patients and controls, of which 33 peptides were of higher intensities in patient group and 16 peptides were of higher intensities in control group. Based on combined use of these potential markers, peptides with mean molecular masses of 1467 and 9289.0 Da provide high sensitivity (83.3%, specificity (100% and accuracy rate (93.0% together to differentiate melanoma patients from healthy controls. At the time point of 6mo postoperatively, the levels of many peptides differentially expressed before surgery showed no more statistical difference between the patients and the control group. Fibrinogen α-chain precursors were identified as potential UM markers. CONCLUSION: We have shown that a convenient and fast proteomic technique, affinity bead separation and MALDI-TOF analysis combined with bioinformatic software, facilitates the identification of novel biomarkers for UM.

  17. Qualitative profiling and quantification of neonicotinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Taira

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid pesticides have been widely applied for the production of fruits and vegetables, and occasionally detected in conventionally grown produce. Thus oral exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides may exist in the general population; however, neonicotinoid metabolites in human body fluids have not been investigated comprehensively. The purpose of this study is the qualitative profiling and quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid metabolites in the human spot urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Human urine samples were collected from three patients suspected of subacute exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides. A qualitative profiling of urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS with a database of nominal molecular weights of 57 known metabolites of three neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, Imidacloprid, and clothianidin, as well as the parent compounds. Then a quantitative analysis of selected urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS with a standard pesticide and metabolite, which were detected by the qualitative profiling. The result of qualitative profiling showed that seven metabolites, i.e. an acetamiprid metabolite, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid; three Imidacloprid metabolites, 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid, 4,5-dihydroxy-imidacloprid, 4,5-dehydro-Imidacloprid; a common metabolite of acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, N-(6-chloronicotinoyl-glycine; and two clothianidin metabolites, N-desmethyl-clothianidin, N-(2-(methylsulfanylthiazole-5-carboxyl-glycine, as well as acetamiprid, were detected in the urine of three cases. The result of the quantitative analysis showed N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was determined in the urine of one case, which had been collected on the first visit, at a concentration of 3.2 ng/mL. This is the first report on the qualitative and quantitative detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in

  18. Synthesis of covalently linked oligo(phenyleneethynylene) wires incorporating dithiafulvene units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frederik Præstholm; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius; Andersen, Cecilie Lindholm

    2017-01-01

    Controlled alignment and self-assembly of molecular wires is one of the challenges in the field of molecular electronics. Here, we take an approach by which two oligo(phenyleneethynylene)s (OPEs) are linked together through one vinylogous linker. These molecules thus incorporate a central stilben...... from electron-withdrawing CHO groups to electron-donating DTF groups in a conversion also promoted by the phosphite....

  19. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited nanoscale multilayers by Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, G.L.; Berenyi, Z.; Vad, K.; Peter, L.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanoscale multilayers have been in the focus of research since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in this family of nanostructures. The first observation of GMR on sputtered magnetic/non-magnetic multilayers was followed by the detection of the same effect in electrodeposited Co-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers within half a decade. Electrodeposition has long been considered as an inexpensive alternative of the high-vacuum methods to produce multilayers with GMR, although the GMR effect observed for electrodeposited multilayers is usually inferior to multilayers produced by physical methods. Electrochemistry appears to be an exclusive technology to produce multilayered nanowires by using porous templates. In spite of the large number of papers about the multilayers themselves, data on the depth profile of electrodeposited multilayer samples are very scarce. It has long been known that the simultaneous electrodeposition of the iron group metals takes place in the so-called anomalous manner. The diagnostic criterion of the anomalous codeposition is that the metallic component of lower standard potential (the Co in the case of Ni/Co) can be discharged together with the more noble one (Ni) at potentials where the less noble component (Co) alone cannot be deposited onto a substrate composed of the parent metal; moreover, the less noble metal (Co) is deposited preferentially. We have investigated the composition gradient along the growth direction of electrodeposited Co/Cu and CoNiCu/Cu multilayers films using SNMS. Samples were electrodeposited using the single bath method. Commercial Cu sheets and an Cr/Cu layer evaporated onto Si (111) surface were used as substrates with high and low roughness, respectively. The depth profiles of the samples were recorded using SNMS (INA-X, Specs GmbH, Berlin) in the Direct Bombardment Mode. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited magnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures on

  20. Mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Setoyama, Daiki; Irie, Miho; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masaharu; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-03-01

    Gemcitabine resistance (GR) is one of the critical issues for therapy for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Our aim was to increase the understanding of GR by metabolic profiling approach. To establish GR cells, 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1, were exposed to increasing concentration of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells obtained by this treatment were subjected to metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses, both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, distinguished metabolic signature of responsiveness and resistance to gemcitabine in both SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 cells. Among significantly different (P metabolic pathways such as amino acid, nucleotide, energy, cofactor, and vitamin pathways. Decreases in glutamine and proline levels as well as increases in aspartate, hydroxyproline, creatine, and creatinine levels were observed in chemoresistant cells from both cell lines. These results suggest that metabolic profiling can isolate distinct features of pancreatic cancer in the metabolome of gemcitabine-sensitive and GR cells. These findings may contribute to the biomarker discovery and an enhanced understanding of GR in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Metabolic profiling of yeast culture using gas chromatography coupled with orthogonal acceleration accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry: application to biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Elsuida; Marriott, Philip J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Morrison, Paul; Adams, Mike

    2014-01-07

    Yeast and yeast cultures are frequently used as additives in diets of dairy cows. Beneficial effects from the inclusion of yeast culture in diets for dairy mammals have been reported, and the aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the accurate mass identification of the 'global' metabolites in order to differentiate a variety of yeasts at varying growth stages (Diamond V XP, Yea-Sacc and Levucell). Microwave-assisted derivatization for metabolic profiling is demonstrated through the analysis of differing yeast samples developed for cattle feed, which include a wide range of metabolites of interest covering a large range of compound classes. Accurate identification of the components was undertaken using GC-oa-ToFMS (gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration-time-of-flight mass spectrometry), followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) for data reduction and biomarker discovery. Semi-quantification (fold changes in relative peak areas) was reported for metabolites identified as possible discriminative biomarkers (p-value 2), including D-ribose (four fold decrease), myo-inositol (five fold increase), L-phenylalanine (three fold increase), glucopyranoside (two fold increase), fructose (three fold increase) and threitol (three fold increase) respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busigin, A. [NITEK USA Inc., Ocala, FL (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  3. Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of pleural effusions: fatty acids as novel cancer biomarkers for malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-05

    Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling is a powerful analytical method used for broad-spectrum identification and quantification of metabolites in biofluids in human health and disease states. In this study, we exploit metabolomic profiling for cancer biomarker discovery for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. We envisage the result will be clinically useful since currently there are no cancer biomarkers that are accurate enough for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. Metabolomes of 32 malignant pleural effusions from lung cancer patients and 18 benign effusions from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were analyzed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600. MS spectra were analyzed using XCMS, PeakView, and LipidView. Metabolome-Wide Association Study (MWAS) was performed by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Explorer and Tester (ROCCET). Insignificant markers were filtered out using a metabolome-wide significance level (MWSL) with p-value pleural effusions. Using a ratio of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0), the area-under-ROC was further increased to 0.99 (95% CI = 0.91-1.00) with sensitivity 93.8% and specificity 100.0%. Using untargeted metabolomic profiling, the diagnostic cancer biomarker with the largest area-under-ROC can be determined objectively. This lipogenic phenotype could be explained by overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in cancer cells. The diagnostic performance of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0) ratio supports its use for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions.

  4. OligoPVP: Phenotype-driven analysis of individual genomic information to prioritize oligogenic disease variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2018-05-02

    Purpose: An increasing number of Mendelian disorders have been identified for which two or more variants in one or more genes are required to cause the disease, or significantly modify its severity or phenotype. It is difficult to discover such interactions using existing approaches. The purpose of our work is to develop and evaluate a system that can identify combinations of variants underlying oligogenic diseases in individual whole exome or whole genome sequences. Methods: Information that links patient phenotypes to databases of gene-phenotype associations observed in clinical research can provide useful information and improve variant prioritization for Mendelian diseases. Additionally, background knowledge about interactions between genes can be utilized to guide and restrict the selection of candidate disease modules. Results: We developed OligoPVP, an algorithm that can be used to identify variants in oligogenic diseases and their interactions, using whole exome or whole genome sequences together with patient phenotypes as input. We demonstrate that OligoPVP has significantly improved performance when compared to state of the art pathogenicity detection methods. Conclusions: Our results show that OligoPVP can efficiently detect oligogenic interactions using a phenotype-driven approach and identify etiologically important variants in whole genomes.

  5. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  6. Metabolomic profiling using Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry with hydrophilic interaction chromatography : a method with wide applicability to analysis of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamleh, A.; Barrett, M. P.; Wildridge, D.; Burchmore, R. J. S.; Scheltema, R. A.; Watson, D. G.

    It was shown that coupling hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometery (FT-MS) provided an excellent tool for metabolic profiling, principally due to rapid elution of lipids in advance of most metabolites entering the mass spectrometer. We used in

  7. Quantitative Profiling of Major Neutral Lipid Classes in Human Meibum by Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to better understand lipid composition in human meibum. Methods. Intact lipids in meibum samples were detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in positive detection mode using sodium iodide (NaI) as an additive. The peak intensities of all major types of lipid species, that is, wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs) were corrected for peak overlapping and isotopic distribution; an additional ionization efficiency correction was performed for WEs and CEs, which was simplified by the observation that the corresponding ionization efficiency was primarily dependent on the specific lipid class and saturation degree of the lipids while independent of the carbon chain length. A set of WE and CE standards was spiked in meibum samples for ionization efficiency determination and absolute quantitation. Results. The absolute amount (μmol/mg) for each of 51 WEs and 31 CEs in meibum samples was determined. The summed masses for 51 WEs and 31 CEs accounted for 48 ± 4% and 40 ± 2%, respectively, of the total meibum lipids. The mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated species were determined to be 75 ± 2% and 25 ± 1% for CEs and 14 ± 1% and 86 ± 1% for WEs. The profiles for two types of DEs were also obtained, which include 42 α,ω Type II DEs, and 21 ω Type I-St DEs. Conclusions. Major neutral lipid classes in meibum samples were quantitatively profiled by ESI-MS analysis with NaI additive. PMID:23847307

  8. The expression profile of phosphatidylinositol in high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Goto

    Full Text Available High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (HR-MALDI-IMS is an emerging application for the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ionized molecules in situ on tissue slides. HR-MALDI-IMS in negative mode in a mass range of m/z 500-1000 was performed on optimal cutting temperature (OCT compound-embedded human prostate tissue samples obtained from patients with prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy. HR-MALDI-IMS analysis of the 14 samples in the discovery set identified 26 molecules as highly expressed in the prostate. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS showed that these molecules included 14 phosphatidylinositols (PIs, 3 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs and 3 phosphatidic acids (PAs. Among the PIs, the expression of PI(18:0/18:1, PI(18:0/20:3 and PI(18:0/20:2 were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in benign epithelium. A biomarker algorithm for prostate cancer was formulated by analyzing the expression profiles of PIs in cancer tissue and benign epithelium of the discovery set using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in the 24 validation set samples were 87.5 and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, HR-MALDI-IMS identified several PIs as being more highly expressed in prostate cancer than benign prostate epithelium. These differences in PI expression profiles may serve as a novel diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  9. A broader role for AmyR in Aspergillus niger: regulation of the utilisation of D-glucose or D-galactose containing oligo- and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benen, Jaques A E; Wösten, Han A B; Visser, Jaap; de Vries, Ronald P

    2012-01-01

    AmyR is commonly considered a regulator of starch degradation whose activity is induced by the presence of maltose, the disaccharide building block of starch. In this study, we demonstrate that the role of AmyR extends beyond starch degradation. Enzyme activity assays, genes expression analysis and growth profiling on D-glucose- and D-galactose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides showed that AmyR regulates the expression of some of the Aspergillus niger genes encoding α- and β-glucosidases, α- and β- galactosidases, as well as genes encoding α-amlyases and glucoamylases. In addition, we provide evidence that D-glucose or a metabolic product thereof may be the inducer of the AmyR system in A. niger and not maltose, as is commonly assumed.

  10. Use patterns, excretion masses and contamination profiles of antibiotics in a typical swine farm, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Liu, Shan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to screen the occurrence of 50 antibiotics in a typical swine farm in southern China, which includes animal feeds, waste collection and treatment systems (lagoons and anaerobic digesters), and receiving environments (vegetable fields, streams, and private wells). Nine antibiotics were found in the feeds for different stages of the development of pigs in the swine farm, at concentrations ranging from 2.37 ± 0.16 ng g(-1) (sulfamethazine) to 61 500 ± 11 900 ng g(-1) (bacitracin). 11, 17 and 15 target compounds were detected in feces, flush water, and suspended particles in the swine farm, respectively. Based on the survey of feeds and animal waste from the farm, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, bacitracin and florfenicol in the feces, flush water and suspended particles mainly originated from the feeds, while most sulfonamides, including doxycycline, oxytetracycline, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and trimethoprim, were mainly from injection and other oral routes. The daily excretion masses of antibiotics per pig calculated based on animal waste had the following order: sows (48.3 mg per day per pig), piglets (18.9 mg per day per pig), growing pigs (7.01 mg per day per pig) and finishing pigs (1.47 mg per day per pig), indicating that the usage of antibiotics (type and dosage) and excretion masses are related to the growth stage of pigs. Chlortetracycline and bacitracin are the main contributors to the total excretion mass of antibiotics from pigs at different stages of development in the farm. The waste treatment system (lagoons and anaerobic digesters) was found to be ineffective in the elimination of antibiotics. The detection of some antibiotics in the surrounding environments of the farm (the well water, stream water and vegetable field soil) was a reflection of pollution from the swine farm.

  11. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the total and baryonic mass distributions in deflector number 31 (CSWA 31) of the Cambridge And Sloan Survey Of Wide ARcs in the skY (CASSOWARY). We confirm spectroscopically a four-image lensing system at redshift 1.4870 with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter observations. The lensed...... find that the CSWA 31 deflector has properties suggesting it to be among the most distant and massive fossil systems studied so far. The unusually strong central dark matter dominance and the possible fossil nature of this system render it an interesting target for detailed tests of cosmological models...

  12. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Profiling for Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Iglesias-Gato, Diego

    2017-01-01

    are proteins, including the widely-used prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Recent developments in mass spectrometry allow the identification and quantification of thousands of proteins and posttranslational modifications from small amounts of biological material, including formalin-fixed paraffin......Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the western societies. Many PCa patients bear tumors that will not threat their lives if left untreated or if treatment is delayed. Our inability for early identification of these patients has resulted in massive...

  13. The impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on fertility and lifetime reproductive success: results from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Vähäsarja, M; Bloigu, A; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Corbett, S; Vääräsmäki, M; Morin-Papunen, L

    2014-03-01

    .57-1.30], were of similar age [mean (SD)] at first delivery [27.7 (4.81) versus 27.3 (4.71)] and had similar incidence of miscarriages. However, non-symptomatic women had more often ≥2 deliveries (61.6 versus 52.9%, adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-1.00, P = 0.048) and had larger family size [mean (SD)] [2.4 (1.4) versus 1.9 (0.8), P amenorrhea and hirsutism was based on a questionnaire, suggesting a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. However, we have previously shown that self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism can distinguish most women with the typical profile of PCOS. Only the women who had delivered at least once were recorded in the FMBR, thus excluding from the study those who had experienced miscarriages and/or infertility treatments but did not have a live birth. This feature could potentially decrease the differences in incidence of miscarriages and/or infertility treatment between symptomatic and non-symptomatic subjects. This is one of the few studies, in which the impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on lifetime reproductive success can be measured. Our results suggest that even at more advanced age, women with both symptoms do not quite match the parity of healthy non-symptomatic women, and that infertility treatment does not always restore normal reproductive capacity in these women. Obese women with both symptoms had the worst prognostic as regards reproduction, which emphasizes the importance of life intervention and preventive politics against obesity in this group of women. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland, University Hospital Oulu, Biocenter, University of Oulu, Finland, the European Commission and the Medical Research Council, UK, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

  14. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  15. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  16. Radiolabeling oligo nuclieotide with 90Y and its radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changbin; Tian Jiahe; Zhang Jinming; Yin Dayi; Guo Zhe

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate labeling Morpholinos (MORF), a DNA analogue, with 90 Y using p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as chelater and assess its stability and hybridization in vitro. Methods: A 25 mer MORF with a primary amine on the 3' equivalent end attached via a 10 member linker was conjugated with an isothiocyanate backbone derivative of DOTA. The conjugated product was labeled in various buffers over a different range of concentrations (0.5-2 mol/L) and pH(3-8.5). The labeled MORF was investigated for stability and hybridization in vitro. Results: By size exclusion high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) and instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) analysis, the DOTA conjugated MORF was successfully radiolabeled, the labeling efficiency was (50 ± 12)%, the specific radioactivity was 5.05 x 10 6 MBq/mmol, radiochemistry purity >95%. The labeled MORF showed one sharp peak by HPLC that shifted completely to earlier retention times following addition of a polymer conjugated with the complementary MORF. In saline at room temperature and in serum at 37 degree C, the radioactivity profile of 90 Y showed a pronounced lower molecular weight peak which did not shifted and was shown due to 90 Y-DOTA resulting from radiolysis. Conclusion: MORF can be successfully labeled with 90 Y via DOTA as chelater, but care it must be taken to avoid the effect of radiolysis. (authors)

  17. Global proteomic profiling of phosphopeptides using electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Henrik; Horn, David M; Tang, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a recently introduced mass spectrometric technique that provides a more comprehensive coverage of peptide sequences and posttranslational modifications. Here, we evaluated the use of ETD for a global phosphoproteome analysis. In all, we identified a total...... of 1,435 phosphorylation sites from human embryonic kidney 293T cells, of which 1,141 ( approximately 80%) were not previously described. A detailed comparison of ETD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes showed that ETD identified 60% more phosphopeptides than CID, with an average of 40% more...... fragment ions that facilitated localization of phosphorylation sites. Although our data indicate that ETD is superior to CID for phosphorylation analysis, the two methods can be effectively combined in alternating ETD and CID modes for a more comprehensive analysis. Combining ETD and CID, from this single...

  18. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  19. Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-10-30

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings.

  20. Honeybee Venom Proteome Profile of Queens and Winter Bees as Determined by a Mass Spectrometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings. PMID:26529016

  1. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  2. LoCuSS: THE MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTERS AT z = 0.2 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Smith, Graham P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Takada, Masahiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Futamase, Toshifumi, E-mail: okabe@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gps@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3, based on observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We develop a new method for selecting lensed background galaxies from which we estimate that our sample of red background galaxies suffers just 1% contamination. We detect the stacked tangential shear signal from the full sample of 50 clusters, based on this red sample of background galaxies, at a total signal-to-noise ratio of 32.7. The Navarro-Frenk-White model is an excellent fit to the data, yielding sub-10% statistical precision on mass and concentration: M{sub vir}=7.19{sup +0.53}{sub -0.50} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}, c{sub vir}=5.41{sup +0.49}{sub -0.45} (c{sub 200}=4.22{sup +0.40}{sub -0.36}). Tests of a range of possible systematic errors, including shear calibration and stacking-related issues, indicate that they are subdominant to the statistical errors. The concentration parameter obtained from stacking our approximately mass-selected cluster sample is broadly in line with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the uncertainty on our measurement is comparable with the differences between the different predictions in the literature. Overall, our results highlight the potential for stacked weak-lensing methods to probe the mean mass density profile of cluster-scale dark matter halos with upcoming surveys, including Hyper-Suprime-Cam, Dark Energy Survey, and KIDS.

  3. En masse in vitro functional profiling of the axonal mechanosensitivity of sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, Dmitry; Zilberter, Misha; Linnarsson, Sten; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Uhlén, Per; Harkany, Tibor; Ernfors, Patrik

    2010-09-14

    Perception of the environment relies on somatosensory neurons. Mechanosensory, proprioceptor and many nociceptor subtypes of these neurons have specific mechanosensitivity profiles to adequately differentiate stimulus patterns. Nevertheless, the cellular basis of differential mechanosensation remains largely elusive. Successful transduction of sensory information relies on the recruitment of sensory neurons and mechanosensation occurring at their peripheral axonal endings in vivo. Conspicuously, existing in vitro models aimed to decipher molecular mechanisms of mechanosensation test single sensory neuron somata at any one time. Here, we introduce a compartmental in vitro chamber design to deliver precisely controlled mechanical stimulation of sensory axons with synchronous real-time imaging of Ca(2+) transients in neuronal somata that reliably reflect action potential firing patterns. We report of three previously not characterized types of mechanosensitive neuron subpopulations with distinct intrinsic axonal properties tuned specifically to static indentation or vibration stimuli, showing that different classes of sensory neurons are tuned to specific types of mechanical stimuli. Primary receptor currents of vibration neurons display rapidly adapting conductance reliably detected for every single stimulus during vibration and are consistently converted into action potentials. This result allows for the characterization of two critical steps of mechanosensation in vivo: primary signal detection and signal conversion into specific action potential firing patterns in axons.

  4. [Search for potential gastric cancer biomarkers using low molecular weight blood plasma proteome profiling by mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V E; Arnotskaia, N E; Ogorodnikova, E V; Davydov, M M; Ibraev, M A; Turkin, I N; Davydov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most widespread malignant tumors, still lacks reliable serum/plasma biomarkers of its early detection. In this study we have developed, unified, and tested a new methodology for search of gastric cancer biomarkers based on profiling of low molecular weight proteome (LMWP) (1-17 kDa). This approach included three main components: sample pre-fractionation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), data analysis by a bioinformatics software package. Applicability and perspectives of the developed approach for detection of potential gastric cancer markers during LMWP analysis have been demonstrated using 69 plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer (stages I-IV) and 238 control samples. The study revealed peptides/polypeptides, which may be potentially used for detection of this pathology.

  5. The chemical profile of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from selected greek endemic boraginaceae plants determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianakos, Harilaos; Jeziorek, Malgorzata; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka; Chinou, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Four Greek endemic Boraginaceae plants, Onosma erecta Sibth. & Sm., Onosma kaheirei Teppner, Onosma leptantha Heldr., and Cynoglossum columnae L. (aerial parts), were screened for their content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). TLC with the Mattocks-Molyneux visualization reagent was used as a preliminary qualitative test for PA or PA N-oxide detection. The extracts of the species found to contain PAs and their N-oxides were further analyzed by GC/MS, so as to identify their structures by means of the mass spectra and retention index values of known PAs already published in the literature. Twenty-three PAs were identified. For additional peaks, recognized as possible PAs by their MS pattern, no exact structures were tentatively suggested, as a result of lack of matching literature data. Furthermore, a quantitative PA profile of the species was obtained.

  6. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  7. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  8. Fragment profiling of low molecular weight heparins using reversed phase ion pair liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Li, Daoyuan; Chi, Lequan; Du, Xuzhao; Bai, Xue; Chi, Lianli

    2015-04-30

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are linear and highly charged carbohydrate polymers prepared by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH), LMWHs are prevalently used as clinical anticoagulant drugs due to their lower side effects and better bioavailability. The work presented herein provides a rapid and powerful fragment mapping method for structural characterization of LMWHs. The chain fragments of two types of LMWHs, enoxaparin and nadroparin, were generated by controlled enzymatic digestion with each of heparinase I (Hep I, Enzyme Commission (EC) # 4.2.2.7), heparinase II (Hep II, no EC # assigned) and heparinase III (Hep III, EC # 4.2.2.8). Reversed phase ion pair high performance liquid chromatography (RPIP-HPLC) coupled with electrospray ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) was used to profile the oligosaccharide chains ranging from disaccharides to decasaccharides. A database containing all theoretical structural compositions was established to assist the mass spectra interpretation. The six digests derived by three enzymes from two types of LMWHs exhibited distinguishable fingerprinting patterns. And a total of 94 enoxaparin fragments and 109 nadroparin fragments were detected and identified. Besides the common LMWH oligosaccharides, many components containing characteristic LMWH structures such as saturated L-idopyranosuronic acid, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol, 1,6-anhydro-D-aminopyranose, as well as odd number oligosaccharides were also revealed. Quantitative comparison of major components derived from innovator and generic nadroparin products was presented. This approach to profile LMWHs' fragments offers a highly reproducible, high resolution and information-rich tool for evaluating the quality of this category of anticoagulant drugs or comparing structural similarities among samples from various sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV.

  10. Metabolomic profiling of lung and prostate tumor tissues by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Kenjiro; Fujimori, Tamaki; Sato, Hajime; Sato, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ishihama, Yasushi; Onozuka, Hiroko; Ochiai, Atsushi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic microenvironment of tumor cells is influenced by oncogenic signaling and tissue-specific metabolic demands, blood supply, and enzyme expression. To elucidate tumor-specific metabolism, we compared the metabolomics of normal and tumor tissues surgically resected pairwise from nine lung and seven prostate cancer patients, using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Phosphorylation levels of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism were also quantified. Metabolomic profiles of lung and prostate tissues comprised 114 and 86 metabolites, respectively, and the profiles not only well distinguished tumor from normal tissues, but also squamous cell carcinoma from the other tumor types in lung cancer and poorly differentiated tumors from moderately differentiated tumors in prostate cancer. Concentrations of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, were significantly higher in tumor tissues, independent of organ type, but of essential amino acids were particularly higher in poorly differentiated than moderately differentiated prostate cancers. Organ-dependent differences were prominent at the levels of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and associated energy status. Significantly high lactate concentrations and elevated activating phosphorylation levels of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in lung tumors confirmed hyperactive glycolysis. We highlighted the potential of CE-TOFMS-based metabolomics combined with phosphorylated enzyme analysis for understanding tissue-specific tumor microenvironments, which may lead to the development of more effective and specific anticancer therapeutics.

  11. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  13. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A_2_A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO_2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  14. Metabolic Profiling and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Mouse Brain by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buttini, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites are key mediators of cellular functions, and have emerged as important modulators in a variety of diseases. Recent developments in translational biomedicine have highlighted the importance of not looking at just one disease marker or disease inducing molecule, but at populations thereof to gain a global understanding of cellular function in health and disease. The goal of metabolomics is the systematic identification and quantification of metabolite populations. One of the most pressing issues of our times is the understanding of normal and diseased nervous tissue functions. To ensure high quality data, proper sample processing is crucial. Here, we present a method for the extraction of metabolites from brain tissue, their subsequent preparation for non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement, as well as giving some guidelines for processing of raw data. In addition, we present a sensitive screening method for neurotransmitters based on GC-MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The precise multi-analyte detection and quantification of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters can be used for further studies such as metabolic modeling. Our protocol can be applied to shed light on nervous tissue function in health, as well as neurodegenerative disease mechanisms and the effect of experimental therapeutics at the metabolic level. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Metabolomics Revealed a Distinct Lipid Profile in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer accounts for the largest number of newly diagnosed cases in female cancer patients. Although mammography is a powerful screening tool, about 20% of breast cancer cases cannot be detected by this method. New diagnostic biomarkers for breast cancer are necessary. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative metabolomics method to analyze plasma samples from 55 breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A number of 30 patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were used as a training dataset to establish a diagnostic model and to identify potential biomarkers. The remaining samples were used as a validation dataset to evaluate the predictive accuracy for the established model. Distinct separation was obtained from an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model with good prediction accuracy. Based on this analysis, 39 differentiating metabolites were identified, including significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines and higher levels of sphingomyelins in the plasma samples obtained from breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Using logical regression, a diagnostic equation based on three metabolites (lysoPC a C16:0, PC ae C42:5 and PC aa C34:2 successfully differentiated breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 96.0%.

  16. Profiling of kidney vascular endothelial cell plasma membrane proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zan; Xu, Bo; Nameta, Masaaki; Zhang, Ying; Magdeldin, Sameh; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Keiko; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yaoita, Eishin; Tasaki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Yuki; Saito, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Kota; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) play crucial roles in physiological and pathologic conditions in tissues and organs. Most of these roles are related to VEC plasma membrane proteins. In the kidney, VECs are closely associated with structures and functions; however, plasma membrane proteins in kidney VECs remain to be fully elucidated. Rat kidneys were perfused with cationic colloidal silica nanoparticles (CCSN) to label the VEC plasma membrane. The CCSN-labeled plasma membrane fraction was collected by gradient ultracentrifugation. The VEC plasma membrane or whole-kidney lysate proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and digested with trypsin in gels for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Enrichment analysis was then performed. The VEC plasma membrane proteins were purified by the CCSN method with high yield (approximately 20 μg from 1 g of rat kidney). By Mascot search, 582 proteins were identified in the VEC plasma membrane fraction, and 1,205 proteins were identified in the kidney lysate. In addition to 16 VEC marker proteins such as integrin beta-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), 8 novel proteins such as Deltex 3-like protein and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) were identified. As expected, many key functions of plasma membranes in general and of endothelial cells in particular (i.e., leukocyte adhesion) were significantly overrepresented in the proteome of CCSN-labeled kidney VEC fraction. The CCSN method is a reliable technique for isolation of VEC plasma membrane from the kidney, and proteomic analysis followed by bioinformatics revealed the characteristics of in vivo VECs in the kidney.

  17. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ˜4 effective radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj

    2018-06-01

    We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.

  18. Serum peptide/protein profiling by mass spectrometry provides diagnostic information independently of CA125 in women with an ovarian tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne; Madsen, Jonna S; Iachina, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the use of a robust and sensitive mass spectrometry based protein profiling analysis was tested as diagnostic tools for women with an ovarian tumor. The potential additional diagnostic value of serum protein profiles independent of the information provided by CA125 were also...... investigated. Protein profiles of 113 serum samples from women with an ovarian tumor (54 malign and 59 benign) were generated using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 98 peaks with a significant difference (pwomen with benign tumors/cysts and malignant ovarian tumors were identified. After...... average linkage clustering, a profile of 46 statistical significant mass peaks was identified to distinguish malignant tumors and benign tumors/cysts. In the subgroup of women with normal CA125 values (

  19. Association between muscle mass and adipo-metabolic profile: a cross-sectional study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simone Perna,1,* Davide Guido,2,* Mario Grassi,2 Mariangela Rondanelli1 1Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Medical and Genomic Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sarcopenia, the decrease in muscle mass and function, may lead to various negative health outcomes in elderly. The association among sarcopenia with adiposity and metabolic markers has rarely been studied in the elderly population, with controversial results. The aim of this study is to evaluate this relationship in older subjects.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 290 elderly patients, focusing on the possible association between muscle mass loss, assessed by relative skeletal muscle mass (RSMM, and an adipo-metabolic profile (AMP defined by adiposity and metabolic biochemical markers. Measurements of body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical parameters, such as albumin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine and its related markers (folate and vitamin B12 were measured. Using canonical correlation analysis and structural equation modeling, an individual score of AMP was created and correlated with RSMM.Results: The AMP–RSMM correlation was equal to +0.642 (95% confidence interval, +0.512 to +0.773; P<0.001. Hence, a negative association between sarcopenia severity and adiposity/metabolic biochemical markers was highlighted.Conclusion: This study contained a novel way to examine the relationship between the variables of interest based on a composite index of adiposity and metabolic conditions. Results shed light on the orientation and magnitude of

  20. Mass spectrometry protein expression profiles in colorectal cancer tissue associated with clinico-pathological features of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Christopher CL; Ward, Nicholas; Marsh, Simon; Arulampalam, Tan; Norton, John D

    2010-01-01

    Studies of several tumour types have shown that expression profiling of cellular protein extracted from surgical tissue specimens by direct mass spectrometry analysis can accurately discriminate tumour from normal tissue and in some cases can sub-classify disease. We have evaluated the potential value of this approach to classify various clinico-pathological features in colorectal cancer by employing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Protein extracts from 31 tumour and 33 normal mucosa specimens were purified, subjected to MALDI-Tof MS and then analysed using the 'GenePattern' suite of computational tools (Broad Institute, MIT, USA). Comparative Gene Marker Selection with either a t-test or a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) test statistic was used to identify and rank differentially expressed marker peaks. The k-nearest neighbours algorithm was used to build classification models either using separate training and test datasets or else by using an iterative, 'leave-one-out' cross-validation method. 73 protein peaks in the mass range 1800-16000Da were differentially expressed in tumour verses adjacent normal mucosa tissue (P ≤ 0.01, false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis classified most tumour and normal mucosa into distinct cluster groups. Supervised prediction correctly classified the tumour/normal mucosa status of specimens in an independent test spectra dataset with 100% sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval: 67.9-99.2%). Supervised prediction using 'leave-one-out' cross validation algorithms for tumour spectra correctly classified 10/13 poorly differentiated and 16/18 well/moderately differentiated tumours (P = < 0.001; receiver-operator characteristics - ROC - error, 0.171); disease recurrence was correctly predicted in 5/6 cases and disease-free survival (median follow-up time, 25 months) was correctly predicted in 22

  1. Mass spectrometry protein expression profiles in colorectal cancer tissue associated with clinico-pathological features of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Christopher CL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of several tumour types have shown that expression profiling of cellular protein extracted from surgical tissue specimens by direct mass spectrometry analysis can accurately discriminate tumour from normal tissue and in some cases can sub-classify disease. We have evaluated the potential value of this approach to classify various clinico-pathological features in colorectal cancer by employing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Methods Protein extracts from 31 tumour and 33 normal mucosa specimens were purified, subjected to MALDI-Tof MS and then analysed using the 'GenePattern' suite of computational tools (Broad Institute, MIT, USA. Comparative Gene Marker Selection with either a t-test or a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR test statistic was used to identify and rank differentially expressed marker peaks. The k-nearest neighbours algorithm was used to build classification models either using separate training and test datasets or else by using an iterative, 'leave-one-out' cross-validation method. Results 73 protein peaks in the mass range 1800-16000Da were differentially expressed in tumour verses adjacent normal mucosa tissue (P ≤ 0.01, false discovery rate ≤ 0.05. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis classified most tumour and normal mucosa into distinct cluster groups. Supervised prediction correctly classified the tumour/normal mucosa status of specimens in an independent test spectra dataset with 100% sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval: 67.9-99.2%. Supervised prediction using 'leave-one-out' cross validation algorithms for tumour spectra correctly classified 10/13 poorly differentiated and 16/18 well/moderately differentiated tumours (P = P = P = 0.001; ROC error, 0.212. Conclusions Protein expression profiling of surgically resected CRC tissue extracts by MALDI-TOF MS has potential value in studies aimed at improved molecular

  2. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyou; Wu, Ling; Xu, Chuang; Xia, Cheng; Sun, Lingwei; Shu, Shi

    2013-09-26

    Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver-operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences between CK and SK. Our

  3. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  4. Carbon ion radiotherapy for oligo-recurrent lung metastases from colorectal cancer: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Nakajima, Mio; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for oligo-recurrent lung tumors from colorectal cancer (CRC). From May 1997 to October 2012, 34 consecutive patients with oligo-recurrent pulmonary metastases from CRC were treated with CIRT. The patients were not surgical candidates for medical reasons or patient refusal. Using a respiratory-gated technique, carbon ion therapy was delivered with curative intent using 4 coplanar beam angles. A median dose of 60 GyE (range, 44–64.8 GyE) was delivered to the planning target volume (PTV), with a median daily dose of 15 GyE (range, 3.6–44 GyE). Treatment outcome was analyzed in terms of local control rate (LCR), survival rate, and treatment-related complications. In total, 34 patients with 44 oligo-recurrent pulmonary lesions were treated with CIRT. Median follow-up period was 23.7 months. The 2- and 3-year actuarial LCRs of the treated patients were 85.4% ± 6.2% and 85.4% ± 6.2%, respectively. Overall survival was 65.1% ± 9.5% at 2 years, and 50.1% ± 10.5% at 3 years. Although survival rates were relatively worse in the subsets of patients aged < 63 years or with early metastasis (< 36 months after resection of primary site), these factors were not significantly correlated with overall survival (P = 0.13 and 0.19, respectively). All treatment-related complications were self-limited, without any grade 3–5 toxicity. CIRT is one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for colorectal lung metastases, which are relatively resistant to stereotactic body radiotherapy. CIRT is considered to be the least invasive approach even in patients who have undergone repeated prior thoracic metastasectomies

  5. Mechanism of papain-catalyzed synthesis of oligo-tyrosine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Jun; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Narai-Kanayama, Asako

    2015-01-01

    Di-, tri-, and tetra-tyrosine peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity were synthesized by papain-catalyzed polymerization of L-tyrosine ethyl ester in aqueous media at 30 °C. Varying the reaction pH from 6.0 to 7.5 and the initial concentration of the ester substrate from 25 to 100 mM, the highest yield of oligo-tyrosine peptides (79% on a substrate basis) was produced at pH 6.5 and 75 mM, respectively. In the reaction initiated with 100 mM of the substrate, approx. 50% yield of insoluble, highly polymerized peptides accumulated. At less than 15 mM, the reaction proceeded poorly; however, from 30 mM to 120 mM a dose-dependent increase in the consumption rate of the substrate was observed with a sigmoidal curve. Meanwhile, each of the tri- and tetra-tyrosine peptides, even at approx. 5mM, was consumed effectively by papain but was not elongated to insoluble polymers. For deacylation of the acyl-papain intermediate through which a new peptide bond is made, L-tyrosine ethyl ester, even at 5mM, showed higher nucleophilic activity than di- and tri-tyrosine. These results indicate that the mechanism through which papain polymerizes L-tyrosine ethyl ester is as follows: the first interaction between papain and the ester substrate is a rate-limiting step; oligo-tyrosine peptides produced early in the reaction period are preferentially used as acyl donors, while the initial ester substrate strongly contributes as a nucleophile to the elongation of the peptide product; and the balance between hydrolytic fragmentation and further elongation of oligo-tyrosine peptides is dependent on the surrounding concentration of the ester substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods in endogenous steroid profiling - A comparison of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supercritical fluid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubel, Juliane; Wüst, Bernhard; Schipke, Carola G; Peters, Oliver; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2018-06-15

    In various fields of endocrinology, the determination of steroid hormones synthesised by the human body plays an important role. Research on central neurosteroids has been intensified within the last years, as they are discussed as biomarkers for various cognitive disorders. Their concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are considered to be regulated independently from peripheral fluids. For that reason, the challenging matrix CSF becomes a very interesting specimen for analysis. Concentrations are expected to be very low and available amount of CSF is limited. Thus, a comprehensive method for very sensitive quantification of a set of analytes as large as possible in one analytical aliquot is desired. However, high structural similarities of the selected panel of 51 steroids and steroid sulfates, including numerous isomers, challenges achievement of chromatographic selectivity. Since decades the analysis of endogenous steroids in various body fluids is mainly performed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (MS(/MS)). Due to the structure of the steroids of interest, derivatisation is performed to meet the analytical requirements for GC-MS(/MS). Most of the laboratories use a two-step derivatisation in multi-analyte assays that was already published in the 1980s. However, for some steroids this elaborate procedure yields multiple isomeric derivatives. Thus, some laboratories utilize (ultra) high performance liquid chromatography ((U)HPLC)-MS/MS as alternative but, even UHPLC is not able to separate some of the isomeric pairs. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an orthogonal separation technique to GC and (U)HPLC may help to overcome these issues. Within this project the two most promising methods for endogenous steroid profiling were investigated and compared: the "gold standard" GC-MS and the orthogonal separation technique SFC-MS/MS. Different derivatisation procedures for gas chromatographic detection were explored and the

  7. Efficient Oligo nucleotide mediated CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing in Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Kogle, Martin Engelhard

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 technologies are revolutionizing fungal gene editing. Here we show that survival of specific Cas9/sgRNA mediated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) depends on the non-homologous end-joining, NHEJ, DNA repair pathway and we use this observation to develop a tool to assess protospacer....... niger, and in A. oryzae indicating that this type of repair may be wide spread in filamentous fungi. Importantly, we demonstrate that by using single-stranded oligo nucleotides for CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene editing it is possible to introduce specific point mutations as well gene deletions...

  8. Comparative study of the interaction of meso-tetrakis (N-para-trimethyl-anilium) porphyrin (TMAP) in its free base and Fe derivative form with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Zahra; Ajloo, Davood; Daraie, Marzieh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between a cationic porphyrin and its ferric derivative with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15 was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS), and circular dichroism (CD) at different ionic strengths; molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were also used for completion. Followings are the observed changes in the spectral properties of meso-tetrakis (N-para-trimethyl-anilium) porphyrin (TMAP), as a free-base porphyrin with no axial ligand, and its Fe derivative (FeTMAP) upon interaction with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15: (1) the substantial red shift and hypochromicity at the Soret maximum in the UV-vis spectra; (2) the increased RLS intensity by increasing the ionic strength; and (3) an intense bisignate excitonic CD signal. All of them are the reasons for TMAP and FeTMAP binding to oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15 with the outside binding mode, accompanied by the self-stacking of the ligands along the oligonucleotide helix. The CD results demonstrated a drastic change from excitonic in monomeric behavior at higher ionic strengths, which indicates the groove binding of the ligands with oligonucleotides. Molecular docking also confirmed the groove binding mode of the ligands and estimated the binding constants and energies of the interactions. Their interaction trend was further confirmed by molecular dynamics technique and structure parameters obtained from simulation. It showed that TMAP reduced the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and increased the solvent accessible surface area in the oligonucleotide. The self-aggregation of ligands at lower concentrations was also confirmed.

  9. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS of umbilical cord blood (CB and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r £ 0.20 or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  10. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, E. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F. [Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S. [Maternidade Escola, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, M.G. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  12. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbulu, M.; Sampedro, M.C.; Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A.; Barrio, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds

  13. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbulu, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Sampedro, M.C. [Central Service of Analysis, SGIker, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Barrio, R.J., E-mail: r.barrio@ehu.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds.

  14. Targeted and untargeted high resolution mass approach for a putative profiling of glycosylated simple phenols in hybrid grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, Chiara; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Giacomelli, Mattia; Roman Villegas, Tomas; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg -1 and calibration R 2 of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of oligo-N-glycolylneuraminic acid residues in mammal-derived glycoproteins by a newly developed immunochemical reagent and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, C; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y

    1998-01-30

    The occurrence of the alpha2-->8-linked oligomeric form of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (oligo-Neu5Gc) residues in mammalian glycoproteins was unequivocally demonstrated using a newly developed anti-oligo/poly-Neu5Gc monoclonal antibody as well as by chemical and biochemical methods. First, the antibody, designated mAb.2-4B, which specifically recognized oligo/poly-Neu5Gc with a degree of polymerization of >2, was developed by establishing a hybridoma cell line from P3U1 myeloma cells fused with splenocytes from an MRL autoimmune mouse immunized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated oligo/poly-Neu5Gc. Second, oligo-Neu5Gc was shown to occur in glycoproteins derived from pig spleen by Western blot analysis using mAb.2-4B, which was also confirmed by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the product of periodate oxidation/reduction/acid hydrolysis of the purified glycopeptide fractions and by TLC and 600-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis of their mild acid hydrolysates. Finally, the ubiquitous occurrence of oligo-Neu5Gc chains as glycoproteinaceous components in Wistar rat tissue was immunochemically indicated. This is the first example demonstrating the diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure in mammalian glycoproteins, where only poly-N-acetylneuraminic acid is known to occur. Such diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure also implicates a diverged array of biological functions of this glycan unit in glycoproteins.

  16. Adsorption kinetics and mechanical properties of thiol-modified DNA-oligos on gold investigated by microcantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Rodolphe Charly Willy; Jensenius, Henriette; Thaysen, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    on the gold surface after which a significant unspecific adsorption takes place on top of the first DNA-oligo layer. The cantilever-based sensor principle has a wide range of applications in real-time local monitoring of chemical and biological interactions as well as in the detection of specific DNA......Immobilised DNA-oligo layers are scientifically and technologically appealing for a wide range of sensor applications such as DNA chips. Using microcantilever-based sensors with integrated readout, we demonstrate in situ quantitative studies of surface-stress formation during self-assembly of a 25...

  17. Hydrophilization of poly(caprolactone copolymers through introduction of oligo(ethylene glycol moieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Wurth

    Full Text Available In this study, a new family of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL copolymers that bear oligo(ethylene glycol (OEG moieties is described. The synthesis of three different oligo(ethylene glycol functionalized epoxide monomers derived from 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, and their copolymerization with ε-caprolactone (CL to poly(CL-co-OEG-MPO copolymers is presented. The statistical copolymerization initiated with SnOct2/BnOH yielded the copolymers with varying OEG content and composition. The linear relationship between feed ratio and incorporation of the OEG co-monomer enables control over backbone functional group density. The introduction of OEG moieties influenced both the thermal and the hydrophilic characteristics of the copolymers. Both increasing OEG length and backbone content resulted in a decrease in static water contact angle. The introduction of OEG side chains in the PCL copolymers had no adverse influence on MC-3TE3-E1 cell interaction. However, changes to cell form factor (Φ were observed. While unmodified PCL promoted elongated (anisotropic morphologies (Φ = 0.094, PCL copolymer with tri-ethylene glycol side chains at or above seven percent backbone incorporation induced more isotropic cell morphologies (Φ = 0.184 similar to those observed on glass controls (Φ = 0.151.

  18. Low-Dissipation Thermosets Derived from Oligo(2,6-Dimethyl Phenylene Oxide-Containing Benzoxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Han Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenyl oxide (PPO is known for its low dissipation factor. To achieve insulating materials with low dissipation factors for high-frequency communication applications, a telechelic oligomer-type benzoxazine (P-APPO and a main-chain type benzoxazine polymer (BPA-APPO were prepared from an amine end-capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (APPO. The APPO was prepared from a nucleophilic substitution of a phenol-end capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (a commercial product, SA 90 with fluoronitrobenzene, and followed by catalytic hydrogenation. After self-curing or curing with a dicyclopentadiene-phenol epoxy (HP 7200, thermosets with high-Tg and low-dissipation factor can be achieved. Furthermore, the resulting epoxy thermosets show better thermal and dielectric properties than those of epoxy thermoset cured from its precursor SA90, demonstrating it is a successful modification in simultaneously enhancing the thermal and dielectric properties.

  19. Enhanced Structural Interpretation Using Multitrace Seismic Attribute For Oligo-Miocene Target at Madura Strait Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama Wahyu Hidayat, Putra; Hary Murti, Antonius; Sudarmaji; Shirly, Agung; Tiofan, Bani; Damayanti, Shinta

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is an important parameter for the field of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, it has significant effect to the amount of resources or reserves, rock spreading, and risk analysis. The existence of geological structure or fault becomes one factor affecting geometry. This study is conducted as an effort to enhance seismic image quality in faults dominated area namely offshore Madura Strait. For the past 10 years, Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock has been slightly explored on Madura Strait area, the main reason because migration and trap geometry still became risks to be concern. This study tries to determine the boundary of each fault zone as subsurface image generated by converting seismic data into variance attribute. Variance attribute is a multitrace seismic attribute as the derivative result from amplitude seismic data. The result of this study shows variance section of Madura Strait area having zero (0) value for seismic continuity and one (1) value for discontinuity of seismic data. Variance section shows the boundary of RMKS fault zone with Kendeng zone distinctly. Geological structure and subsurface geometry for Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock could be identified perfectly using this method. Generally structure interpretation to identify the boundary of fault zones could be good determined by variance attribute.

  20. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  1. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1H CPMG NMR metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it was investigated if any genotypic footprints from the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) SNP could be found in 600 MHz 1H CPMG NMR profiles of around 1,000 human plasma samples from healthy Danish twins. The problem was addressed with a combination of univariate and multivariate...

  2. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles and NOAA G-IV Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RGB air mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. The combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting imagery does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and NOAA G-IV dropsondes provide insight about the vertical structure of the air mass represented on the RGB air mass imagery and are a first step to validating the imagery.

  3. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rats by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Yangyang; Song, Aihua; Sun, Wei; Yin, Ran

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a reliable and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry method was developed for the systematic study of the metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rat plasma, bile, urine, and feces after intravenous administration of a single dose. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C 18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) and the identification of prototype components and metabolites was achieved on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T ultra-high resolution spectrometer in negative ion mode. Results indicated that a total of 76 constituents including 29 prototype compounds and 47 metabolites (10 phase I metabolites and 37 phase II metabolites) were tentatively identified. And the metabolic pathways of these prototype compounds including hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and sulfate conjugation. In conclusion, the developed method with high resolution and sensitivity was effective for screening and identification of prototypes and metabolites of Kudiezi injection in vivo. Moreover, these results would provide significant information for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacological research of Kudiezi injection in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Profiling of Thrombotic Material Obtained by Endovascular Thrombectomy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muñoz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic material retrieved from acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients represents a valuable source of biological information. In this study, we have developed a clinical proteomics workflow to characterize the protein cargo of thrombi derived from AIS patients. To analyze the thrombus proteome in a large-scale format, we developed a workflow that combines the isolation of thrombus by endovascular thrombectomy and peptide chromatographic fractionation coupled to mass-spectrometry. Using this workflow, we have characterized a specific proteomic expression profile derived from four AIS patients included in this study. Around 1600 protein species were unambiguously identified in the analyzed material. Functional bioinformatics analyses were performed, emphasizing a clustering of proteins with immunological functions as well as cardiopathy-related proteins with blood-cell dependent functions and peripheral vascular processes. In addition, we established a reference proteomic fingerprint of 341 proteins commonly detected in all patients. Protein interactome network of this subproteome revealed protein clusters involved in the interaction of fibronectin with 14-3-3 proteins, TGFβ signaling, and TCP complex network. Taken together, our data contributes to the repertoire of the human thrombus proteome, serving as a reference library to increase our knowledge about the molecular basis of thrombus derived from AIS patients, paving the way toward the establishment of a quantitative approach necessary to detect and characterize potential novel biomarkers in the stroke field.

  6. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  7. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  8. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  9. Contamination profiles and mass loadings of macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2009-03-01

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters.

  10. Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles - I. Theoretical model - Mass-loss history unravelled in VYCMa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Hony, S.; de Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    Context. Mass loss plays a dominant role in the evolution of low mass stars while they are on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The gas and dust ejected during this phase are a major source in the mass budget of the interstellar medium. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of

  11. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination and profiling of prohibited steroids in human biological matrices. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-05-15

    list of the prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In WADA list steroids figure in three main classes, namely anabolic steroids, corticosteroids and substances with anti-estrogenic properties. It must be strongly reminded that assumption of doping agents not only leads to athletes the possible failing of doping tests but causes important health risk and WADA prohibited list establishes criteria to highlight the alteration of the natural steroid profile caused by exogenous administration. Doping control analyses are generally performed in urine, a matrix that provides a prolonged detection time window, and less often in blood, serum, plasma, hair, saliva, and nails. To identify the chemical structures of anabolic steroids the use of mass spectrometry detection is very advantageous. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques allowed for the development of comprehensive screening methods. GC-MS methods are sensitive and robust but present the disadvantages of time-consuming sample pretreatment, that is often based on hydrolysis and derivatisation reactions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods have been successfully used to identify and determinate steroids in different matrices, as well as to study their metabolisms. Nowadays, automatic rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry has become the technique of choice for steroid analysis. Due to its generally higher speed, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity with respect to HPLC, it can be used to simultaneously separate and determinate multi component steroid mixtures. The technique is of huge interest to separate conjugates anabolic androgenic steroids, as it allows efficiency enhancement due to the small particle (sub-2μm) column packing, which provides high peak capacity within analysis times even 5-10 fold shorter than conventional HPLC methods. Modern multiplex instruments can analyze thousands of samples per month

  12. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S

    2008-01-01

    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  13. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Patients with Tuberculosis by Use of Untargeted Mass Spectrometry Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lee, Kim-Chung; Curreem, Shirly O T; Chow, Wang-Ngai; To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Ho, Deborah T Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Li, Iris W S; Ding, Vanessa S Y; Koo, Eleanor W F; Wong, Chi-Fong; Tam, Sidney; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-12-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a reemerging disease that affects people in developing countries and immunocompromised populations in developed countries, the current diagnostic methods are far from optimal. Metabolomics is increasingly being used for studies on infectious diseases. We performed metabolome profiling of plasma samples to identify potential biomarkers for diagnosing TB. We compared the plasma metabolome profiles of TB patients (n = 46) with those of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (n = 30) and controls without active infection (n = 30) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOFMS). Using multivariate and univariate analyses, four metabolites, 12R-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(R)-HETE], ceramide (d18:1/16:0), cholesterol sulfate, and 4α-formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol, were identified and found to have significantly higher levels in TB patients than those in CAP patients and controls. In a comparison of TB patients and controls, the four metabolites demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.914, 0.912, 0.905, and 0.856, sensitivities of 84.8%, 84.8%, 87.0%, and 89.1%, specificities of 90.0%, 86.7%, 86.7%, and 80.0%, and fold changes of 4.19, 26.15, 6.09, and 1.83, respectively. In a comparison of TB and CAP patients, the four metabolites demonstrated AUC values of 0.793, 0.717, 0.802, and 0.894, sensitivities of 89.1%, 71.7%, 80.4%, and 84.8%, specificities of 63.3%, 66.7%, 70.0%, and 83.3%, and fold changes of 4.69, 3.82, 3.75, and 2.16, respectively. 4α-Formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol combined with 12(R)-HETE or cholesterol sulfate offered ≥70% sensitivity and ≥90% specificity for differentiating TB patients from controls or CAP patients. These novel plasma biomarkers, especially 12(R)-HETE and 4α-formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol, alone or in

  14. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-01

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  15. The Oligo Fucoidan Inhibits Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Stimulated Proliferation of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Huei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of asthma, the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs is a key factor in airway remodeling and causes airway narrowing. In addition, ASMCs are also the effector cells of airway inflammation. Fucoidan extracted from marine brown algae polysaccharides has antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticlotting, and anticancer properties; however, its effectiveness for asthma has not been elucidated thus far. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with or without oligo-fucoidan (100, 500, or 1000 µg/mL to evaluate its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We found that PDGF (40 ng/mL increased the proliferation of ASMCs by 2.5-fold after 48 h (p < 0.05. Oligo-fucoidan reduced the proliferation of PDGF-stimulated ASMCs by 75%–99% after 48 h (p < 0.05 and induced G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, but did not induce apoptosis. Further, oligo-fucoidan supplementation reduced PDGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, Akt, and nuclear factor (NF-κB phosphorylation. Taken together, oligo-fucoidan supplementation might reduce proliferation of PDGF-treated ASMCs through the suppression of ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. The results provide basis for future animal experiments and human trials.

  16. Study on the Effects of Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert on Two Rice Mutants, NMR 151 and NMR 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakinah Salleh; Faiz Ahmad; Sobri Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has successfully developed two new rice mutants namely NMR 151 and NMR 152. In addition, Nuclear Malaysia has also successfully developed Oligo chitosan and liquid bio fertilizer (Bioliquifert). Oligo chitosan acts as elicitor that has been proven to be very effective in controlling disease infections and improving yield productivity. Bioliquifert on the other hand is a mixture of microbes containing major nutrient-providing microorganisms. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert on rice mutants, NMR 151 and NMR 152. The treatment was applied on 14 day old seedlings of MR 219, NMR 151 and NMR 152 sowed in 20 cm pots containing silty clay from the paddy soil of Tanjung Karang, Selangor. The seedlings were then placed in the greenhouse at Nuclear Malaysia until it reaches 110 days old. Study was conducted in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications was used and each replication consisted of three plants. All treatments received compound and single dressing fertilizer as recommended by National Rice Production Package except for Treatment 2 and 3, in which Treatment 2 received Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert while Treatment 3 only received Bioliquifert. Results on plant height, number of tiller and plant fresh weight are not significantly different for all cultivar except for seed dry weight of NMR 152 and MR 219. (author)

  17. Osteochondral repair in the rabbit model utilizing bilayered, degradable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogel scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, T.A.; Bodde, E.W.H.; Baggett, L.S.; Tabata, Y.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, hydrogel scaffolds, based on the polymer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), were implanted into osteochondral defects in the rabbit model. Scaffolds consisted of two layers-a bottom, bone forming layer and a top, cartilage forming layer. Three scaffold formulations were

  18. Conductance Enhancement of InAs/InP Heterostructure Nanowires by Surface Functionalization with Oligo(phenylene vinylene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Storm, Kristian; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic transport through 3 μm long, 45 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment as electronic barrier. After assembly of 12 nm long oligo(phenylene vinylene) derivative molecules onto these InAs/InP nanowires, we observed a pronounced, nonlinear I...

  19. Toxin Profile of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae from the Portuguese Coast, as Determined by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum has been associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP outbreaks in Portuguese waters for many years. PSP syndrome is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a suite of potent neurotoxins. Gymnodinium catenatum was frequently reported along the Portuguese coast throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, but was absent between 1995 and 2005. Since this time, G. catenatum blooms have been recurrent, causing contamination of fishery resources along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxin profile of G. catenatum isolated from the Portuguese coast before and after the 10-year hiatus to determine changes and potential impacts for the region. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS was utilized to determine the presence of any known and emerging PSTs in sample extracts. Several PST derivatives were identified, including the N-sulfocarbamoyl analogues (C1–4, gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5, gonyautoxin 6 (GTX6, and decarbamoyl derivatives, decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNeo and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 3 (dcGTX3. In addition, three known hydroxy benzoate derivatives, G. catenatum toxin 1 (GC1, GC2 and GC3, were confirmed in cultured and wild strains of G. catenatum. Moreover, two presumed N-hydroxylated analogues of GC2 and GC3, designated GC5 and GC6, are reported. This work contributes to our understanding of the toxigenicity of G. catenatum in the coastal waters of Portugal and provides valuable information on emerging PST classes that may be relevant for routine monitoring programs tasked with the prevention and control of marine toxins in fish and shellfish.

  20. Toxin profile of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Portuguese coast, as determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro R; Robertson, Alison; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-13

    The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum has been associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks in Portuguese waters for many years. PSP syndrome is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a suite of potent neurotoxins. Gymnodinium catenatum was frequently reported along the Portuguese coast throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, but was absent between 1995 and 2005. Since this time, G. catenatum blooms have been recurrent, causing contamination of fishery resources along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxin profile of G. catenatum isolated from the Portuguese coast before and after the 10-year hiatus to determine changes and potential impacts for the region. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was utilized to determine the presence of any known and emerging PSTs in sample extracts. Several PST derivatives were identified, including the N-sulfocarbamoyl analogues (C1-4), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), gonyautoxin 6 (GTX6), and decarbamoyl derivatives, decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNeo) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 3 (dcGTX3). In addition, three known hydroxy benzoate derivatives, G. catenatum toxin 1 (GC1), GC2 and GC3, were confirmed in cultured and wild strains of G. catenatum. Moreover, two presumed N-hydroxylated analogues of GC2 and GC3, designated GC5 and GC6, are reported. This work contributes to our understanding of the toxigenicity of G. catenatum in the coastal waters of Portugal and provides valuable information on emerging PST classes that may be relevant for routine monitoring programs tasked with the prevention and control of marine toxins in fish and shellfish.

  1. Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-11-04

    Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets.

  2. Toxin Profile of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Portuguese Coast, as Determined by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro R.; Robertson, Alison; Quilliam, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum has been associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks in Portuguese waters for many years. PSP syndrome is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a suite of potent neurotoxins. Gymnodinium catenatum was frequently reported along the Portuguese coast throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, but was absent between 1995 and 2005. Since this time, G. catenatum blooms have been recurrent, causing contamination of fishery resources along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxin profile of G. catenatum isolated from the Portuguese coast before and after the 10-year hiatus to determine changes and potential impacts for the region. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was utilized to determine the presence of any known and emerging PSTs in sample extracts. Several PST derivatives were identified, including the N-sulfocarbamoyl analogues (C1–4), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), gonyautoxin 6 (GTX6), and decarbamoyl derivatives, decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNeo) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 3 (dcGTX3). In addition, three known hydroxy benzoate derivatives, G. catenatum toxin 1 (GC1), GC2 and GC3, were confirmed in cultured and wild strains of G. catenatum. Moreover, two presumed N-hydroxylated analogues of GC2 and GC3, designated GC5 and GC6, are reported. This work contributes to our understanding of the toxigenicity of G. catenatum in the coastal waters of Portugal and provides valuable information on emerging PST classes that may be relevant for routine monitoring programs tasked with the prevention and control of marine toxins in fish and shellfish. PMID:25871287

  3. Protein resistance of surfaces modified with oligo(ethylene glycol) aryl diazonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Callie; Ginges, Joshua Z; Lowe, Stuart B; Gooding, J Justin

    2013-07-22

    Anti-fouling surfaces are of great importance for reducing background interference in biosensor signals. Oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moieties are commonly used to confer protein resistance on gold, silicon and carbon surfaces. Herein, we report the modification of surfaces using electrochemical deposition of OEG aryl diazonium salts. Using electrochemical and contact angle measurements, the ligand packing density is found to be loose, which supports the findings of the fluorescent protein labelling that aryl diazonium OEGs confer resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins albeit lower than alkane thiol-terminated OEGs. In addition to protein resistance, aryl diazonium attachment chemistry results in stable modification. In common with OEG species on gold electrodes, OEGs with distal hydroxyl moieties do confer superior protein resistance to those with a distal methoxy group. This is especially the case for longer derivatives where superior coiling of the OEG chains is possible. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Survival and prognostic factors in 321 patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligo-metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mette Marie; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To establish a model to predict survival after SBRT for oligo-metastases in patients considered ineligible for surgical resection (SR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall survival (OS) rates were estimated in 321 patients treated for 587...... metastases with SBRT over 13years. Patients were treated for a variety of metastasis types with colorectal cancer (CRC) being the most frequent (n=201). RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 5.0years, the median OS was 2.4years (95% CI 2.3-2.7) and the survival rates were 80%, 39%, 23% and 12% at 1, 3, 5...... and 7.5years after SBRT, respectively. WHO performance status (PS) (0-1) (HR 0.49; pSBRT chemotherapy (HR 0.59; p

  5. Nomogram based overall survival prediction in stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligo-metastatic lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanadini-Lang, S; Rieber, J; Filippi, A R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radical local treatment of pulmonary metastases is practiced with increasing frequency due to acknowledgment and better understanding of oligo-metastatic disease. This study aimed to develop a nomogram predicting overall survival (OS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT......) for pulmonary metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional database of 670 patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary metastases was used as training cohort. Cox regression analysis with bidirectional variable elimination was performed to identify factors to be included into the nomogram model...... to predict 2-year OS. The calibration rate of the nomogram was assessed by plotting the actual Kaplan-Meier 2-year OS against the nomogram predicted survival. The nomogram was externally validated using two separate monocentric databases of 145 and 92 patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary metastases...

  6. An algorithm and program for finding sequence specific oligo-nucleotide probes for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautz Diethard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of species or species groups with specific oligo-nucleotides as molecular signatures is becoming increasingly popular for bacterial samples. However, it shows also great promise for other small organisms that are taxonomically difficult to tract. Results We have devised here an algorithm that aims to find the optimal probes for any given set of sequences. The program requires only a crude alignment of these sequences as input and is optimized for performance to deal also with very large datasets. The algorithm is designed such that the position of mismatches in the probes influences the selection and makes provision of single nucleotide outloops. Program implementations are available for Linux and Windows.

  7. Determination of naphthenic acid profile in Ghana's Jubilee Oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuteye, I.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is the life-blood of the global economy. Its importance stems from the fact that it is a base product for a wide variety of goods [Drugs, Plastics, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)]. The oil discovery (over 3 billion barrel reserves in hydrocarbon and gas), about 60 km offshore between the Deepwater Tano and Cape Three Points Block in South western Ghana is a valuable natural asset and it has the potential of boosting the Ghanaian economy. During petroleum processing, various waste products are generated. One of such products is Naphthenic acids (NA). Naphthenic acids are organic acids naturally occurring in crude oil and a constituent of waste associated with oil refinery. Naphthenic acids serve as biomarkers for identification of the source of crude oil. The presence of Naphthenic acid in the aquatic environment causes toxic effects due to their weak biodegradable nature; the toxicity of Naphthenic acids depends on the class of Naphthenic acids present in the crude oil. The study assessed the profile of Naphthenic acids in Ghana’s Jubilee crude oil using Low Resolution Electron Impact – Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LREI-GCMS) after isolation of Naphthenic acids in the Jubilee oil by a modified Kupchan’s Partitioning Process. The Mass Spectrometric (MS) Work Station Software was used for the identification of the Naphthenic acids present in the Jubilee crude oil. The quality of the Jubilee oil was also evaluated through the use of some key physico-chemical parameters [Total Acid Number (TAN), Sulphur Content, Viscosity, Pour Point, Flashpoint, Water Content and Densities] based on the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM, 2007). The Total Acid Number was determined by Colorimetric Titration (ASTM D974); Sulphur Content by X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (ASTM D4294); Pour Point by the use of the SETA cloud and Pour Point Refrigerator Technique (ASTM D97); Viscosity by Gravity Timed Method (ASTM D445); Density by the Hydrometer

  8. Oligo-Miocene peatland ecosystems of the Gippsland Basin and modern analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasidis, Vera A.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Holdgate, Guy R.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed examination of the brown coal facies preserved in the Latrobe Valley Morwell 1B seam indicates that the type of peat-forming environment and the associated hydrological regime are the main factors influencing the development of lithotypes in brown coal deposits. New palynological data from the Morwell 1B seam suggests that each respective lithotype in the lightening-upwards lithotype cycles was deposited in a particular depositional environment that was characterised by a distinct floral community. The laminated dark lithotype represents a fire-prone emergent marsh that grew on the margins of a coastal lagoon and/or freshwater swamp. This facies grades into the dark lithotype, representing the transition from a meadow marsh to a periodically flooded ombrogenous forested bog. The medium and lighter lithotypes are interpreted as being deposited in an angiosperm-dominated ombrogenous forest bog that was intolerant of fire. These peat-forming environments are interpreted as being largely controlled by moisture and relative depth to water table. Each environment produces distinct lithotypes and lightening-upwards cycles are interpreted as terrestrialization cycles. As the peat grew upwards and above the water table, less moist conditions prevailed and lighter lithotypes were produced. The observed change in colour, from darker to lighter lithotypes, results from the environment evolving from anaerobic/inundated to less anaerobic/less moist settings via terrestrialization. The thin and laterally extensive light and pale lithotypes that top the cycles are interpreted to represent a residual layer of concentrated, oxidation resistant peat-forming elements that result from intense weathering and aerobic degradation of the peats. At a generic level, modern lowland bogs of South Westland in New Zealand have remarkably similar floral/ecological gradients to those of the Oligo-Miocene Morwell 1B brown coal cycles in Australia. This suggests that modern New Zealand

  9. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Pei

    2011-09-30

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine or ajmalicine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized and reduced species, were characterized. Common fragments and mass differences are described. It was shown that the use of IMS could provide another molecular descriptor, i.e. molecular shape by rotationally averaged collision cross-section; this is of great value for identification of constituents when reference materials are usually not available. Using the combination of high resolution (~40000) accurate mass measurement with time-aligned parallel (TAP) fragmentation, MS(E) (where E represents collision energy), ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) and UPLC chromatography, a total 55 indole alkaloids were characterized and a few new indole alkaloids are reported for the first time. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of the profile of DO and its mass transferring coefficient in a biofilm reactor packed with semi-suspended bio-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Song, Haoliang; Bin, Liying; Huang, Shaosong; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fu, Fenglian; Zhao, Yiliang; Chen, Qianyu

    2017-10-01

    The work aims at illustrating the profile of DO and its mass transferring process in a biofilm reactor packed with a novel semi-suspended bio-carrier, and further revealing the main factors that influence the mass transferring coefficient of DO within the biofilm. Results showed that the biofilm was very easy to attach and grow on the semi-suspended bio-carrier, which obviously changed the DO profile inside and outside the biofilm. The semi-suspended bio-carrier caused three different mass transfer zones occurring in the bioreactor, including the zones of bulk solution, boundary layer and biofilm, in which, the boundary layer zone had an obvious higher mass transfer resistance. Increasing the aeration rate might improve the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor and accelerate the mass transfer of DO, but it also detached the biofilm from the surface of bio-carrier, which reduced the consumption of DO, and accordingly, decreased the DO gradient in the bioreactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of serum lipid profile, body mass index, and waistline in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rongtao; Qi, Zhiming; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. Glucose intolerance (insulin resistance) is the main feature of type 2 diabetes. Obesity leads to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters and measures of obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 2,273 males and 6,547 females previously healthy volunteers (aged 41-95 years old) were recruited by open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, was collected by questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profile, liver transaminase, blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were obtained after 12 hours of fasting. According to our results, diabetic patients presented serum lipid abnormality. Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels (≥1.7 mmol/L) were noted in 19.69% of males and 20.40% of females, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (≤1.15 mmol/L) were noted in 21.96% of males and 15.74% of females. The combination of elevated TG and reduced HDL-C was the most prevalent of the combined lipid abnormalities. In contrast, no differences were observed in the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in the levels of BMI and waistline between T2DM and non-T2DM participants. After adjustment for BMI, logistic regression analysis revealed that the subjects with BMI ≤20 kg/m(2) and >30 kg/m(2) had a significantly elevated hazard ratio of T2DM compared with participants having a BMI range of 20-30 kg/m(2) in both males and females. However, there was a significant difference between T2DM patients and non-T2DM patients in waistline (χ (2)=8.57, P<0.001) than in BMI parameter (χ (2)=6.29, P<0.001). The present study shows for the first

  12. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  13. Study of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and ginkgo bilobal polyprenol influences on micronuclear rates and p53, gadd45 protein expression of radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianping; Wang Yongli; Wei Jinping; Yang Zhongtian; Liu Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Study of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and ginkgo bilobal polyprenol (GP) influences on micronuclear rate and p53, gadd45 protein expression of radiated mice. Survival rate and survival time of 30-day-time of radiated mice was studied with the mixture of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and different density of GP. High survival rate of mixture density was screening. Another study on this mixture density was about micronuclear rates of marrow and p53, gadd45 protein of spleen after mice were radiated 12 h. The mixture of 300 mg/kg oligo-chitosan and 5 mg/kg GP could increase remarkably the survival rate and survival time of 30-day-time of radiated mice and degrade micronuclear rates and p53, gadd45 protein expression. Compatibility of oligo-chitosan and GP effectively raise the survival rate of radiated mice. It could proved initially that the mixture has the function of radiation protection. (authors)

  14. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is a balanced therapy for fibromyalgia with nutritional and symptomatic benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Marum, Ana Paula; Moreira, Cátia; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Saraiva, Fernando; Guerreiro, Catarina Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease producing widespread pain, associated to a major comorbidity -irritable bowel syndrome. Low FODMAPS diet (low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet) has been effective in controlling irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Overweight is an aggravating factor for fibromyalgia. We studied effects of low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets on fibromyalgia symptoms and weight status. Methods: A longitudinal ...

  15. Golden gravitational lensing systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey - II. SDSS J1430+4105: a precise inner total mass profile from lensing alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Bauer, Anne

    2012-12-01

    We study the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey strong-lensing system SDSS J1430+4105 at zl = 0.285. The lensed source (zs = 0.575) of this system has a complex morphology with several subcomponents. Its subcomponents span a radial range from 4 to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. Therefore, we can constrain the slope of the total projected mass profile around the Einstein radius from lensing alone. We measure a density profile that is slightly but not significantly shallower than isothermal at the Einstein radius. We decompose the mass of the lensing galaxy into a de Vaucouleurs component to trace the stars and an additional dark component. The spread of multiple-image components over a large radial range also allows us to determine the amplitude of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components separately. We get a mass-to-light ratio of M de Vauc LB ≈ (5.5±1.5) M⊙L⊙,B and a dark matter fraction within the Einstein radius of ≈20 to 40 per cent. Modelling the star formation history assuming composite stellar populations at solar metallicity to the galaxy's photometry yields a mass-to-light ratio of M, salp LB ≈ 4.0-1.3+0.6 M⊙L⊙,B and M, chab LB ≈ 2.3-0.8+0.3 M⊙L⊙,B for Salpeter and Chabrier initial mass functions, respectively. Hence, the mass-to-light ratio derived from lensing is more Salpeter like, in agreement with results for massive Coma galaxies and other nearby massive early-type galaxies. We examine the consequences of the galaxy group in which the lensing galaxy is embedded, showing that it has little influence on the mass-to-light ratio obtained for the de Vaucouleurs component of the lensing galaxy. Finally, we decompose the projected, azimuthally averaged 2D density distribution of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components of the lensing signal into spherically averaged 3D density profiles. We can show that the 3D dark and luminous matter density within the Einstein radius (REin ≈ 0.6 Reff) of this SLACS galaxy is similar to the

  16. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Results: Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anormalidades nos perfis lipídico e glicêmico entre crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e também verificar se existe correlação entre os escores-z de índice de massa corporal (z-IMC e indicadores de comorbidades ligados a esses perfis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal

  17. Holocraneal irradiation with boost integrated simultaneous of oligo metastases using Exa frame and Exa skin with VMAI-IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Montero Perea, E.; Ortiz Seidel, M.

    2013-01-01

    The described technique of prophylaxis back hippo-fractionated with simultaneous integrated boost presents advantages in terms of reduction of treatment time total, fast local effect on the oligo metastases and possible prevention of the emergence of new cranial metastasis. The possible impact on long-term survival remains to be determined. In any case, this technique is presented as a valid alternative in terms of clinical outcomes and toxicity to stereotaxic standard treatments. (Author)

  18. Pyrene-Containing ortho-Oligo(phenylene)ethynylene Foldamer as a Ratiometric Probe Based on Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiné, Pablo; Justicia, Jose; Morcillo, Sara P; Abbate, Sergio; Vaz, Belen; Ribagorda, María; Orte, Ángel; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Longhi, Giovanna; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Cuerva, Juan M

    2018-04-20

    In this manuscript, we report the first synthesis of an organic monomolecular emitter, which behaves as a circularly polarized luminescence (CPL)-based ratiometric probe. The enantiopure helical ortho-oligo(phenylene)ethynylene ( o-OPE) core has been prepared by a new and efficient macrocyclization reaction. The combination of such o-OPE helical skeleton and a pyrene couple leads to two different CPL emission features in a single structure whose ratio linearly responds to silver(I) concentration.

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular mass and function, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Egyptian children with growth hormone deficiency: A single-center prospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD in adults is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that may contribute to an increased mortality for cardiovascular disease. In children, relatively few studies have investigated the effect of GHD and replacement therapy on cardiac performance and metabolic abnormalities that may place them at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD at an early age. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the left ventricular function, lipid profile, and degree of insulin resistance in Egyptian children with GHD before and after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Thirty children with short stature due to GHD were studied in comparison to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched children. All subjects were subjected to history, clinical examination, auxological assessment, and echocardiography to assess the left ventricular function. Blood samples were collected for measuring IGF-1, lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and atherogenic index (AI, fasting blood sugar, and fasting insulin levels. In addition, basal and stimulated GH levels were measured in children with suspected GHD. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test was used for parametric data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for non-parametric data. Results: Total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI, and insulin were significantly higher in children with GHD than in healthy controls at baseline. After 12 months of GH replacement therapy, total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI and insulin were significantly decreased, while homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was significantly increased compared to both pre-treatment and control values. At baseline, the left ventricular mass (LVM and left ventricular mass index (LVMi were significantly lower in GHD children than in controls. After 12 months of GH

  20. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; Pprofile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.

  1. Profiling analysis of low molecular weight heparins by multiple heart-cutting two dimensional chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yilan; Zeng, Yangyang; Rong, Yinxiu; Song, Yue; Shi, Lv; Chen, Bo; Yang, Xinlei; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are polydisperse and microheterogenous mixtures of polysaccharides used as anticoagulant drugs. Profiling analysis is important for obtaining deeper insights into the structure of LMWHs. Previous oligosaccharide mapping methods are relatively low resolution and are unable to show an entire picture of the structural complexity of LMWHs. In the current study a profiling method was developed relying on multiple heart-cutting, two-dimensional, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This represents an efficient, automated, and robust approach for profiling LMWHs. Using size-exclusion chromatography and ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography in a two-dimensional separation, LMW components of different sizes and LMW components of the same size but with different charges and polarities can be resolved, providing a more complete picture of a LMWH. Structural information on each component was then obtained with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 80 and 120 oligosaccharides were observed and unambiguously assigned from the LMWHs, nadroparin and enoxaparin, respectively. This method might be useful for quality control of LMWHs and as a powerful tool for heparin-related glycomics.

  2. Detailed polyphenolic profiling of Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca) by a combination of RP-UHPLC and HILIC, both hyphenated to IT-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Ostacolo, Carmine; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Maria Teresa; Novellino, Ettore; Manfra, Michele; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Annurca apple, a Southern Italian cultivar, possesses not only a particular taste and flavor, different from other types of apple, but also several healthy properties. With the aim to thoroughly elucidate the polyphenolic profile of this variety, listed as Protected Geographical Indication product, an extensive qualitative profiling of Annurca apple polyphenolic peel extract was carried out, by employing a combination of ultra high performance reversed phase (RP-UHPLC) and hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometry. A total of 63 compounds were tentatively identified, 25 of which not reported in Annurca apple extract so far. Furthermore, thanks to the different selectivity obtained with the HILIC, in combination with accurate mass measurements, an improved separation and detection of procyanidins, was obtained. Moreover, the obtained profiles were compared with those of a conventional variety, such as Red Delicious (RD), highlighting their differences. This work contributes to increase the knowledge about the polyphenolic fingerprint of this typical apple variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with metabolic profiling of human urine as a tool for environmental analysis of dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma

    2012-10-12

    We use the combination of liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) and urine metabolic profiling to find and identify the metabolites of dextromethorphan, a common over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant. Next, we use the combination of ion masses, their MS/MS fragmentation, and retention times to determine dextromethorphan and its metabolites in surface water impacted by wastewater. Prior to this study, neither dextromethorphan nor its metabolites have been reported in surface water; in spite of its common use in over 100 various OTC medications. We found that the concentration of the dextrorphan metabolite in surface water greatly exceeded the parent compound by factors of 5-10 times, which reflects the urine profile, where parent compound is approximately <2% of the total excreted drug based on ion intensities. Urine profiling also indicated that glucuronide metabolites are major phase 2 products (92% of the total) in urine and then are completely hydrolyzed in wastewater to dextrorphan and N-demethyldextrorphan, which are phase 1 metabolites-a "kind of reversal" of human metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Online extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for rapid flavonoid profiling of Fructus aurantii immaturus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Runna; Peng, Mijun; Tong, Chaoying; Guo, Keke; Shi, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    Chemical profiling of natural products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was critical for understanding of their clinical bioactivities, and sample pretreatment steps have been considered as a bottleneck for analysis. Currently, concerted efforts have been made to develop sample pretreatment methods with high efficiency, low solvent and time consumptions. Here, a simple and efficient online extraction (OLE) strategy coupled with HPLC-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was developed for rapid chemical profiling. For OLE strategy, guard column inserted with ground sample (2 mg) instead of sample loop was connected with manual injection valve, in which components were directly extracted and transferred to HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system only by mobile phase without any extra time, solvent, instrument and operation. By comparison with offline heat-reflux extraction for Fructus aurantii immaturus (Zhishi), OLE strategy presented higher extraction efficiency perhaps because of the high pressure and gradient elution mode. A total of eighteen flavonoids were detected according to their retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and compound 9, natsudaidain-3-O-glucoside, was discovered in Zhishi for the first time. It is concluded that the developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Modification of oligo-Ricinoleic Acid and Its Derivatives with 10-Undecenoic Acid via Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claudia Montiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipases were employed under solvent-free conditions to conjugate oligo-ricinoleic acid derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid, to incorporate a reactive terminal double bond into the resultant product. First, undecenoic acid was covalently attached to oligo-ricinoleic acid using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL at a 30% yield. Thirty percent conversion also occurred for CAL-catalyzed esterification between undecenoic acid and biocatalytically-prepared polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, with attachment of undecenoic acid occurring primarily at free hydroxyls of the polyglycerol moiety. The synthesis of oligo-ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl- structured triacylglycerols comprised two steps. The first step, the 1,3-selective lipase-catalyzed interesterification of castor oil with undecenoic acid, occurred successfully. The second step, the CAL-catalyzed reaction between ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl structured TAG and ricinoleic acid, yielded approximately 10% of the desired structured triacylglycerols (TAG; however, a significant portion of the ricinoleic acid underwent self-polymerization as a side-reaction. The employment of gel permeation chromatography, normal phase HPLC, NMR, and acid value measurements was effective for characterizing the reaction pathways and products that formed.

  6. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  7. BioSunMS: a plug-in-based software for the management of patients information and the analysis of peptide profiles from mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuemin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With wide applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS, statistical comparison of serum peptide profiles and management of patients information play an important role in clinical studies, such as early diagnosis, personalized medicine and biomarker discovery. However, current available software tools mainly focused on data analysis rather than providing a flexible platform for both the management of patients information and mass spectrometry (MS data analysis. Results Here we presented a plug-in-based software, BioSunMS, for both the management of patients information and serum peptide profiles-based statistical analysis. By integrating all functions into a user-friendly desktop application, BioSunMS provided a comprehensive solution for clinical researchers without any knowledge in programming, as well as a plug-in architecture platform with the possibility for developers to add or modify functions without need to recompile the entire application. Conclusion BioSunMS provides a plug-in-based solution for managing, analyzing, and sharing high volumes of MALDI-TOF or SELDI-TOF MS data. The software is freely distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/biosunms/.

  8. Quantitative detection of mass concentration of sand-dust storms via wind-profiling radar and analysis of Z- M relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Ming, Hu; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Lianhui; Yang, Di

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to achieve quantitative monitoring of sand-dust storms in real time, wind-profiling radar is applied to monitor and study the process of four sand-dust storms in the Tazhong area of the Taklimakan Desert. Through evaluation and analysis of the spatial-temporal distribution of reflectivity factor, it is found that reflectivity factor ranges from 2 to 18 dBz under sand-dust storm weather. Using echo power spectrum of radar vertical beams, sand-dust particle spectrum and sand-dust mass concentration at the altitude of 600 ˜ 1500 m are retrieved. This study shows that sand-dust mass concentration reaches 700 μg/m3 under blowing sand weather, 2000 μg/m3 under sand-dust storm weather, and 400 μg/m3 under floating dust weather. The following equations are established to represent the relationship between the reflectivity factor and sand-dust mass concentration: Z = 20713.5 M 0.995 under floating dust weather, Z = 22988.3 M 1.006 under blowing sand weather, and Z = 24584.2 M 1.013 under sand-dust storm weather. The retrieval results from this paper are almost consistent with previous monitoring results achieved by former researchers; thus, it is implied that wind-profiling radar can be used as a new reference device to quantitatively monitor sand-dust storms.

  9. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Metastatic Lung Cancer as Oligo-Recurrence: An Analysis of 42 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the outcome and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT in patients with oligo-recurrence cancer in the lung (ORCL. Methods and Materials. A retrospective review of 42 patients with ORCL who underwent SBRT in our two hospitals was conducted. We evaluated the outcome and adverse effects after SBRT for ORCL. Results. All patients finished their SBRT course without interruptions of toxicity reasons. The median follow-up period was 20 months (range, 1–90 months. The 2-year local control rate and overall survival were 87% (95% CI, 75–99% and 65% (95% CI, 48–82%. As for prognostic factor, the OS of patients with a short disease-free interval (DFI months, between the initial therapy and SBRT for ORCL, was significantly worse than the OS of long DFI months (. The most commonly observed late effect was radiation pneumonitis. One patient had grade 4 gastrointestinal toxicity (perforation of gastric tube. No other ≧ grade 3 acute and late adverse events occurred. There were no treatment-related deaths during this study. Conclusions. In patients with ORCL, radical treatment with SBRT is safe and provides a chance for long-term survival by offering favorable local control.

  11. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  12. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...

  13. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of ovarian cancer across clinical studies: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, AK; Mogensen, O; Jensen, AK

    2012-01-01

    of published discriminatory peaks to peaks found in an original MALDI MS protein profiling study was made to address the key question of reproducibility across studies. An overlap was found despite substantial heterogeneity between studies relating to study design, biological material, pre-analytical treatment...

  14. Evaluation of analytical performance and reliability of direct nanoLC-nanoESI-high resolution mass spectrometry for profiling the (xeno)metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwynd, Andrew J; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Abdul-Sada, Alaa

    2014-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) profiling techniques are used for analysing metabolites and xenobiotics in biofluids; however, detection of low abundance compounds using conventional MS techniques is poor. To counter this, nanoflow ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-time-of-flight MS (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS), which has been used primarily for proteomics, offers an innovative prospect for profiling small molecules. Compared to conventional UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS, nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS enhanced detection limits of a variety of (xeno)metabolites by between 2 and 2000-fold. In addition, this study demonstrates for the first time excellent repeatability and reproducibility for analysis of urine and plasma samples using nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS, supporting implementation of this platform as a novel approach for high-throughput (xeno)metabolomics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Investigation of UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast profiling of fatty acids in the high Arctic sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Farshid Mashayekhy; Leck, Caroline; Ilag, Leopold L; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2018-03-09

    Fatty acids are enriched in the ocean surface microlayer (SML) and have as a consequence been detected worldwide in sea spray aerosols. In searching for a relationship between the properties of the atmospheric aerosol and its ability to form cloud condensation nuclei and to promote cloud droplet formation over remote marine areas, the role of surface active fatty acids sourced from the SML is of interest to be investigated. Here is presented a fast method for profiling of major fatty acids in SML samples collected in the high Arctic (89 °N, 1 °W) in the summer of 2001. UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling was evaluated and compared with UHPLC/TOFMS. No sample preparation, except evaporation and centrifugation, was necessary to perform prior to the analysis. TOFMS data on accurate mass, isotopic ratios and fragmentation patterns enabled identification of the fatty acids. The TWIMS dimension added to the selectivity by extensive reduction of the noise level and the entire UHPLC/TWIMS/TOFMS method provided a fast profiling of the acids, ranging from C 8 to C 24 . Hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were shown to yield the highest signals among the fatty acids detected in a high Arctic SML sample, followed by the unsaturated octadecenoic and octadecadienoic acids. The predominance of signal from even-numbered carbon chains indicates a mainly biogenic origin of the detected fatty acids. This study presents a fast alternative method for screening and profiling of fatty acids, which has the advantage of not requiring any complicated sample preparation thus limiting the loss of analytes. Almost no manual handling, together with the very small sample volumes needed, is certainly beneficial for the determination of trace amounts and should open up the field of applications to also include atmospheric aerosol and fog. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly informative multiclass profiling of lipids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - Low resolution (quadrupole) mass spectrometry by using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Marco; Inferrera, Veronica; Rigano, Francesca; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Purcaro, Giorgia; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-08-04

    A simple, fast, and versatile method, using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a low resolution (single quadrupole) mass spectrometer was optimized to perform multiclass lipid profiling of human plasma. Particular attention was made to develop a method suitable for both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces (sequentially in positive- and negative-ion mode), without any modification of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phase, flow-rate, gradient, etc.). Emphasis was given to the extrapolation of the structural information based on the fragmentation pattern obtained using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface, under each different ionization condition, highlighting the complementary information obtained using the electrospray ionization interface, of support for related molecule ions identification. Furthermore, mass spectra of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol obtained using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface are reported and discussed for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-09-27

    Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  18. Impurity profiling of liothyronine sodium by means of reversed phase HPLC, high resolution mass spectrometry, on-line H/D exchange and UV/Vis absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggenthaler, M; Grass, J; Schuh, W; Huber, C G; Reischl, R J

    2017-09-05

    For the first time, a comprehensive investigation of the impurity profile of the synthetic thyroid API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) liothyronine sodium (LT 3 Na) was performed by using reversed phase HPLC and advanced structural elucidation techniques including high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) and on-line hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange. Overall, 39 compounds were characterized and 25 of these related substances were previously unknown to literature. The impurity classification system recently developed for the closely related API levothyroxine sodium (LT 4 Na) could be applied to the newly characterized liothyronine sodium impurities resulting in a wholistic thyroid API impurity classification system. Furthermore, the mass-spectrometric CID-fragmentation of specific related substances was discussed and rationalized by detailed fragmentation pathways. Moreover, the UV/Vis absorption characteristics of the API and selected impurities were investigated to corroborate chemical structure assignments derived from MS data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  20. Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

    2010-01-15

    In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were

  1. Perspectives on the Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP): developing an online data query system to target a variety of user needs and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce B; Franklin, Saul; West, James K

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP) has many distinctive features. These features evolved to maximize the usefulness of this query system for a broad group of users with varied needs, differing levels of knowledge about public health, and diverse experience using public health data. Three major features of MassCHIP help target our large user population. These features are as follows: (1) multiple avenues of entry to initiate queries ranging from an alphabetical list of simple topics to detailed International Classification of Disease codes; (2) the inclusion of data sets from other state agencies in addition to those of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to reflect a broad view of public health; and (3) the capacity to retrieve data for multiple levels of geography, from the neighborhood through the state, including planning districts and hospitals. In this article, we discuss the history and design of MassCHIP, and focus on the features of MassCHIP that target a great variety of user needs and capabilities, and which are distinctive among Web-based data query systems.

  2. Rapid profiling of polymeric phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza by hybrid data-dependent/targeted multistage mass spectrometry acquisition based on expected compounds prediction and fragment ion searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Feng, Zijin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Han, Sumei; Hou, Jinjun; Li, Zhenwei; Wu, Wanying; Guo, De-An

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic acids are the major water-soluble components in Salvia miltiorrhiza (>5%). According to previous studies, many of them contribute to the cardiovascular effects and antioxidant effects of S. miltiorrhiza. Polymeric phenolic acids can be considered as the tanshinol derived metabolites, e.g., dimmers, trimers, and tetramers. A strategy combined with tanshinol-based expected compounds prediction, total ion chromatogram filtering, fragment ion searching, and parent list-based multistage mass spectrometry acquisition by linear trap quadropole-orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry was proposed to rapid profile polymeric phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza. More than 480 potential polymeric phenolic acids could be screened out by this strategy. Based on the fragment information obtained by parent list-activated data dependent multistage mass spectrometry acquisition, 190 polymeric phenolic acids were characterized by comparing their mass information with literature data, and 18 of them were firstly detected from S. miltiorrhiza. Seven potential compounds were tentatively characterized as new polymeric phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. This strategy facilitates identification of polymeric phenolic acids in complex matrix with both selectivity and sensitivity, which could be expanded for rapid discovery and identification of compounds from complex matrix. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Profiling ABA metabolites in Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turečková, Veronika; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2009), s. 390-399 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) * Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  4. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-07-23

    Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries.

  5. Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 μm) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  7. 6-O-Branched Oligo-β-glucan-Based Antifungal Glycoconjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guochao; Zhou, Zhifang; Liao, Jun; Zu, Luning; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2016-02-12

    With the rapid growth in fungal infections and drug-resistant fungal strains, antifungal vaccines have become an especially attractive strategy to tackle this important health problem. β-Glucans, a class of extracellular carbohydrate antigens abundantly and consistently expressed on fungal cell surfaces, are intriguing epitopes for antifungal vaccine development. β-Glucans have a conserved β-1,3-glucan backbone with sporadic β-1,3- or β-1,6-linked short glucans as branches at the 6-O-positions, and the branches may play a critical role in their immunologic functions. To study the immunologic properties of branched β-glucans and develop β-glucan-based antifungal vaccines, three branched β-glucan oligosaccharides with 6-O-linked β-1,6-tetraglucose, β-1,3-diglucose, and β-1,3-tetraglucose branches on a β-1,3-nonaglucan backbone, which mimic the structural epitopes of natural β-glucans, were synthesized and coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to form novel synthetic conjugate vaccines. These glycoconjugates were proved to elicit strong IgG antibody responses in mice. It was also discovered that the number, size, and structure of branches linked to the β-glucan backbone had a significant impact on the immunologic property. Moreover, antibodies induced by the synthetic oligosaccharide-KLH conjugates were able to recognize and bind to natural β-glucans and fungal cells. Most importantly, these conjugates elicited effective protection against systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. Thus, branched oligo-β-glucans were identified as functional epitopes for antifungal vaccine design and the corresponding protein conjugates as promising antifungal vaccine candidates.

  8. Spherical oligo-silicic acid SOSA disclosed as possible endogenous digitalis-like factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz eKerek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Na+/K+-ATPase is a membrane ion-transporter protein, specifically inhibited by digitalis glycosides used in cardiac-therapy. The existence in mammals of some endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF as presumed ATPase ligands is generally accepted. But the chemical structure of these factors remained elusive because no weighable amounts of pure EDLF have been isolated. Recent high resolution crystal structure data of Na+/K+-ATPase have located the hydrophobic binding pocket of the steroid glycoside ouabain. Our recently disclosed spherical oligo-silicic acids (SOSA fulfill the main criteria to be identified with the presumed EDL factor. SOSA was found as a very potent inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase and of K-dp-ATPase, with IC50 values between 0.2-0.5µg/ml. These findings are even more astonishing while so far, neither mono silicic acid nor its poly-condensed derivatives have been remarked biologically active. With the diameter ϕ between 1 - 3nm, SOSA still belong to molecular species definitely smaller than silica nano-particles with ϕ >5nm. In SOSA molecules almost all Si-OH bonds are displayed on the external shell which facilitates the binding to hydrophilic ATPase domains. SOSA is stable for long-term in solution but is sensitive to freeze-drying which could explain the failure of countless attempts to isolate pure EDLF. There is a strong resemblance between SOSA and vanadates, the previously known general inhibitors of P-type ATPases. SOSA may be generated endogenously by spherical oligomerization of the mono-silicic acid ubiquitously present in animal cells and fluids. Based on the finding that the SOSA structure is sensitive to the concentration and nature of the cationic species a presumably archaic mechanism to regulate the activity of the ATPase pumps is proposed.

  9. Foamed oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) hydrogels as versatile prefabricated scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Matthias; Baumer, Julia; Blunk, Torsten; Tessmar, Joerg

    2014-03-01

    Radically cross-linked hydrogels are frequently used as cell carriers due to their excellent biocompatibility and their tissue-like mechanical properties. Through frequent investigation, PEG-based polymers such as oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate [OPF] have proven to be especially suitable as cell carriers by encapsulating cells during hydrogel formation. In some cases, NaCl or biodegradable gelatin microparticles were added prior to cross-linking in order to provide space for the proliferating cells, which would otherwise stay embedded in the hydrogel matrix. However, all of these immediate cross-linking procedures involve time consuming sample preparation and sterilization directly before cell culture and often show notable swelling after their preparation. In this study, ready to use OPF-hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by gas foaming, freeze drying, individual packing into bags and subsequent γ-sterilization. The scaffolds could be stored and used "off-the-shelf" without any need for further processing prior to cell culture. Thus the handling was simplified and the sterility of the cell carrier was assured. Further improvement of the gel system was achieved using a two component injectable system, which may be used for homogenous injection molding in order to create individually shaped three dimensional scaffolds. In order to evaluate the suitability of the scaffolds for tissue engineering, constructs were seeded with juvenile bovine chondrocytes and cultured for 28 days. Cross-sections of the respective constructs showed an intense and homogenous red staining of GAG with safranin O, indicating a homogenous cell distribution within the scaffolds and the production of substantial amounts of GAG-rich matrix. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  11. Effect of the systemic versus inhalatory administration of synthetic glucocorticoids on the urinary steroid profile as studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzarino, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; Giacomelli, Laura; Botre, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study carried out on human urine to verify whether the administration of glucocorticoids can affect the urinary steroid profile, and especially the levels of endogenous glucocorticoids, androgens and their main metabolites. Betamethasone and beclomethasone, administered either systemically (per os or i.m.) or locally (by inhalation) have been studied. The determination of the urinary levels of endogenous glucocorticoids and androgens was carried out by GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode. Data were evaluated taking into account the baseline individual variability, and compared with values obtained on a control group. Detectable differences were recorded in the steroids metabolites excretion profiles between men and women. The circadian variability of the steroid profile was the same for both sexes, showing a maximum during the morning hours. After systemic treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids, the relative urinary concentrations of corticosteroids, androgens and of their metabolites were significantly altered, recording a transient decrease of the concentration of cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol and a parallel, although less pronounced, increase of the concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone and related androgenic steroids; while no effects were recorded if the administration was by inhalation

  12. Effect of the systemic versus inhalatory administration of synthetic glucocorticoids on the urinary steroid profile as studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzarino, Monica [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Rossi, Francesca [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Giacomelli, Laura [Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche, Universita La Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy) and Dipartimento CGMIA, Universita La Sapienza, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.botre@uniroma1.it

    2006-02-10

    This paper presents a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study carried out on human urine to verify whether the administration of glucocorticoids can affect the urinary steroid profile, and especially the levels of endogenous glucocorticoids, androgens and their main metabolites. Betamethasone and beclomethasone, administered either systemically (per os or i.m.) or locally (by inhalation) have been studied. The determination of the urinary levels of endogenous glucocorticoids and androgens was carried out by GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode. Data were evaluated taking into account the baseline individual variability, and compared with values obtained on a control group. Detectable differences were recorded in the steroids metabolites excretion profiles between men and women. The circadian variability of the steroid profile was the same for both sexes, showing a maximum during the morning hours. After systemic treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids, the relative urinary concentrations of corticosteroids, androgens and of their metabolites were significantly altered, recording a transient decrease of the concentration of cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol and a parallel, although less pronounced, increase of the concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone and related androgenic steroids; while no effects were recorded if the administration was by inhalation.

  13. Urinary Metabolomic Profiling to Identify Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Behcet’s Disease by Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight−Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Kyong Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing Behcet’s disease (BD is challenging because of the lack of a diagnostic biomarker. The purposes of this study were to investigate distinctive metabolic changes in urine samples of BD patients and to identify urinary metabolic biomarkers for diagnosis of BD using gas chromatography/time-of-flight–mass spectrometry (GC/TOF−MS. Metabolomic profiling of urine samples from 44 BD patients and 41 healthy controls (HC were assessed using GC/TOF−MS, in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 110 urinary metabolites were identified. The urine metabolite profiles obtained from GC/TOF−MS analysis could distinguish BD patients from the HC group in the discovery set. The parameter values of the orthogonal partial least squared-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA model were R2X of 0.231, R2Y of 0.804, and Q2 of 0.598. A biomarker panel composed of guanine, pyrrole-2-carboxylate, 3-hydroxypyridine, mannose, l-citrulline, galactonate, isothreonate, sedoheptuloses, hypoxanthine, and gluconic acid lactone were selected and adequately validated as putative biomarkers of BD (sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 93.3%, area under the curve 0.974. OPLS-DA showed clear discrimination of BD and HC groups by a biomarker panel of ten metabolites in the independent set (accuracy 88%. We demonstrated characteristic urinary metabolic profiles and potential urinary metabolite biomarkers that have clinical value in the diagnosis of BD using GC/TOF−MS.

  14. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  15. A Rough Guide to Metabolite Identification Using High Resolution Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Metabolomic Profiling in Metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Watson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound identification in mass spectrometry based metabolomics can be a problem but sometimes the problem seems to be presented in an over complicated way. The current review focuses on metazoans where the range of metabolites is more restricted than for example in plants. The focus is on liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry where it is proposed that most of the problems in compound identification relate to structural isomers rather than to isobaric compounds. Thus many of the problems faced relate to separation of isomers, which is usually required even if fragmentation is used to support structural identification. Many papers report the use of MS/MS or MS2 as an adjunct to the identification of known metabolites but there a few examples in metabolomics studies of metazoans of complete structure elucidation of novel metabolites or metabolites where no authentic standards are available for comparison.

  16. Comparative study of metabolic profile of women presenting with polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya S.; Ratnaboli Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The objective was to study and compare the metabolic effects of PCOS in lean PCOS (BMI 23). Methods: Fifty healthy women who were euthyroid with age range 15-38 years who presented to gynecology OPD and diagnosed to have PCOS according to ESHRE/ASRM criteria were included in the study. BMI (body mass index) was calculated by the formula weight in kg/height ...

  17. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan; Subha Palanisamy; Senthilkumar Subramanian; Sumathi Selvaraj; Kavitha Rani Mari; Ramalingam Kuppulingam

    2016-01-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. Th...

  18. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentz, Susan; Abbott, Jason Anthony; Smith, Caroline Anne; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-12-18

    , fasting insulin and testosterone. There was evidence for the regulation of ovulation, improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes in PCOS. There was evidence for an equivalent effect of two herbal medicines and the pharmaceutical agents bromocriptine (and Vitex agnus-castus) and clomiphene citrate (and Cimicifuga racemosa). There was less robust evidence for the complementary combination of spirinolactone and Glycyrrhiza spp. for hyperandrogenism. Preclinical and clinical studies provide evidence that six herbal medicines may have beneficial effects for women with oligo/amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and PCOS. However the quantity of pre-clinical data was limited, and the quality of clinical evidence was variable. Further pre-clinical studies are needed to explain the effects of herbal medicines not included in this review with current clinical evidence but an absence of pre-clinical data.

  19. Chip-based nanoflow high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for profiling of soybean flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuwei; Zhao, Chunxia; Wu, Zeming; Zhou, Jia; Zhao, Sumin; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2012-08-01

    In this work a chip-based nano HPLC coupled MS (HPLC-chip/MS) method with a simple sample preparation procedure was developed for the flavonoid profiling of soybean. The analytical properties of the method including the linearity (R(2) , 0.992-0.995), reproducibility (RSD, 1.50-7.66%), intraday precision (RSD, 1.41-5.14%) and interday precision (RSD, 2.76-16.90%) were satisfactory. Compared with the conventional HPLC/MS method, a fast extraction and analysis procedure was applied and more flavonoids were detected in a single run. Additionally, 13 flavonoids in soybean seed were identified for the first time. The method was then applied to the profiling of six varieties of soybean sowed at the same place. A clear discrimination was observed among different cultivars, three isoflavones, accounting for nearly 80% of total flavonoid contents, were found increased in the spring soybeans compared with the summer cultivars. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae. PMID:28974018

  1. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, K.-G.; Schumacher, C.; Tempez, A.; Nielsch, K.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS™)) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s −1 and 3 nm s −1 , respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi 2 Te 3 the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb 2 Te 3 the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: ► Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. ► Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. ► Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  2. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima, and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58% and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%. Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  3. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-09-30

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima ( P. lima ), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%-100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima . The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9-34.0 and 15.2-27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70-79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  4. Strategy for Comprehensive Profiling and Identification of Acidic Glycosphingolipids Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhixin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2017-07-18

    Acidic glycosphingolipids (AGSLs), which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this study, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ganglioside isomers with different glycan chains such as GD1a/GD1b were completely separated on a C18 column for the first time to our knowledge, facilitated by the addition of formic acid in the mobile phase. A mathematical model was established to predict the retention times (RTs) of all theoretically possible AGSLs on the basis of the good logarithmic relationship between the ceramide carbon numbers of the AGSLs in the reference material and their RTs. A data set was created of 571 theoretically possible AGSLs, including the ceramide carbon numbers, RTs, and high-resolution quasi-molecular ions. A novel fast identification strategy was established for global AGSL profiling by comparing the high-resolution quasi-molecular ions and RTs of the tested peaks to those in the data set of 571 AGSLs. Using this strategy, 199 AGSL candidates were identified in rat brain tissue. MS/MS fragments were further collected for these 199 candidates to confirm their identity as AGSLs. This novel strategy was employed to profile AGSLs in brain tissue samples from control rats and model rats with bilateral common carotid artery (2-VO) cerebral ischemia. Forty AGSLs were significantly different between the control and model groups, and these differences were further interpreted.

  5. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here

  6. Mass spectrometry profiling of oxysterols in human sperm identifies 25-hydroxycholesterol as a marker of sperm function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zerbinati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number. We detected Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 25-HC production, in human spermatozoa at the level of the neck and the post acrosomal area. Upon incubation with spermatozoa, 25-HC induced calcium and cholesterol transients in connection with the acrosomal reaction. Our results support a role for 25-HC in sperm function.

  7. Characterization of the volatile profile of Antarctic bacteria by using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, Riccardo; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; de Pascale, Donatella; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Michaud, Luigi; LoGiudice, Angelina; Fani, Renato; Bartolucci, Gianluca

    2011-10-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are significant pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients and are resistant to a plethora of antibiotics. In this context, microorganisms from Antarctica are interesting because they produce antimicrobial compounds inhibiting the growth of other bacteria. This is particularly true for bacteria isolated from Antarctic sponges. The aim of this work was to characterize a set of Antarctic bacteria for their ability to produce new natural drugs that could be exploited in the control of infections in CF patients by Bcc bacteria. Hence, 11 bacterial strains allocated to different genera (e.g., Pseudoalteromonas, Arthrobacter and Psychrobacter) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of 21 Bcc strains and some other human pathogens. All these bacteria completely inhibited the growth of most, if not all, Bcc strains, suggesting a highly specific activity toward Bcc strains. Experimental evidences showed that the antimicrobial compounds are small volatile organic compounds, and are constitutively produced via an unknown pathway. The microbial volatile profile was obtained by SPME-GC-MS within the m/z interval of 40-450. Solid phase micro extraction technique affords the possibility to extract the volatile compounds in head space with a minimal sample perturbation. Principal component analysis and successive cluster discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships among the volatile organic compounds with the aim of classifying the microorganisms by their volatile profile. These data highlight the potentiality of Antarctic bacteria as novel sources of antibacterial substances to face Bcc infections in CF patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Efficient mining of myxobacterial metabolite profiles enabled by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and compound-based principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, Daniel; Zurek, Gabriela; Schneider, Birgit; Garcia, Ronald; Mueller, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria producing secondary metabolites are an important source of natural products with highly diverse structures and biological activities. Developing methods to efficiently mine procaryotic secondary metabolomes for the presence of potentially novel natural products is therefore of considerable interest. Modern mass spectrometry-coupled liquid chromatography can effectively capture microbial metabolic diversity with ever improving sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, computational and statistical tools increasingly enable the targeted analysis and exploration of information-rich LC-MS datasets. In this article, we describe the use of such techniques for the characterization of myxobacterial secondary metabolomes. Using accurate mass data from high-resolution ESI-TOF measurements, target screening has facilitated the rapid identification of known myxobacterial metabolites in extracts from nine Myxococcus species. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA), implementing an advanced compound-based bucketing approach, readily revealed the presence of further compounds which contribute to variation among the metabolite profiles under investigation. The generation of molecular formulae for putative novel compounds with high confidence due to evaluation of both exact mass position and isotopic pattern, is exemplified as an important key for de-replication and prioritization of candidates for further characterization

  9. N-alkylamide profiling of Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium extracts by liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lieselotte Veryser; Lien Taevernier; Evelien Wynendaele; Yannick Verheust; Ann Dumoulin; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2017-01-01

    Achillea millefolium and Achillea ptarmica are both plants belonging to the Asteracea family and are traditionally used for their medicinal properties. It has already been shown that some N-alkylamides (NAAs) are responsible for these pharmacological actions. Therefore, in the present study, the NAA content of the two plants was analytically characterised. Different extracts were prepared from the roots, the leaves, the stems and the flowers. The structures of NAAs have been assigned in ethanolic extracts of Achillea millefolium and Achillea ptarmica using high performance liquid chromatography – electrospray ionisation – mass spectro-metry (HPLC–ESI–MS) and gas chromatography–electron impact–mass spectrometry (GC–EI–MS). Using both analytical techniques, the structures of 14 and 15 NAAs have been assigned in Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium, respectively. Structures of two new NAAs, previously never observed in Achillea ptarmica, were assigned: deca-2E,6Z,8E-trienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (homospilanthol) or a related isomeric compound and deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide. The structure of homospilanthol or a related isomeric compound was also assigned in Achillea millefolium for the first time.

  10. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling of bile acid metabolites in biofluids: application to experimental toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Elizabeth J; Coen, Muireann; Masson, Perrine; Keun, Hector C; Pearce, Jake T M; Reily, Michael D; Robertson, Donald G; Rohde, Cynthia M; Holmes, Elaine; Lindon, John C; Plumb, Robert S; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2010-06-15

    We have developed an ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS(E)) method to measure bile acids (BAs) reproducibly and reliably in biological fluids and have applied this approach for indications of hepatic damage in experimental toxicity studies. BAs were extracted from serum using methanol, and an Acquity HSS column coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer was used to separate and identify 25 individual BAs within 5 min. Employing a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile over 21 min enabled the detection of a wide range of endogenous metabolites, including the BAs. The utilization of MS(E) allowed for characteristic fragmentation information to be obtained in a single analytical run, easily distinguishing glycine and taurine BA conjugates. The proportions of these conjugates were altered markedly in an experimental toxic state induced by galactosamine exposure in rats. Principally, taurine-conjugated BAs were greatly elevated ( approximately 50-fold from control levels), and were highly correlated to liver damage severity as assessed by histopathological scoring (r = 0.83), indicating their potential as a sensitive measure of hepatic damage. The UPLC-MS approach to BA analysis offers a sensitive and reproducible tool that will be of great value in exploring both markers and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and can readily be extended to clinical studies of liver damage.

  11. Profiling of Histone Post-Translational Modifications in Mouse Brain with High-Resolution Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-12-21

    Histones play central roles in most chromosomal functions and both their basic biology and roles in disease have been the subject of intense study. Since multiple PTMs along the entire protein sequence are potential regulators of histones, a top-down approach, where intact proteins are analyzed, is ultimately required for complete characterization of proteoforms. However, significant challenges remain for top-down histone analysis primarily because of deficiencies in separation/resolving power and effective identification algorithms. Here, we used state of the art mass spectrometry and a bioinformatics workflow for targeted data analysis and visualization. The workflow uses ProMex for intact mass deconvolution, MSPathFinder as search engine, and LcMsSpectator as a data visualization tool. ProMex sums across retention time to maximize sensitivity and accuracy for low abundance species in MS1deconvolution. MSPathFinder searches the MS2 data against protein sequence databases with user-defined modifications. LcMsSpectator presents the results from ProMex and MSPathFinder in a format that allows quick manual evaluation of critical attributes for high-confidence identifications. When complemented with the open-modification tool TopPIC, this workflow enabled identification of novel histone PTMs including tyrosine bromination on histone H4 and H2A, H3 glutathionylation, and mapping of conventional PTMs along the entire protein for many histone subunits.

  12. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data descriptions are provided at the following urls:GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.htmlhttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/QA-Handbook-Vol-II.pdfVIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB) http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/saa/products/search?datatype_family=VIIRS_SDRMODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night -MOD0&_L2; http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/MOD07_L2/index.html NWS surface meteorological data - https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isdThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang, J., C. Aegerter, and J. Szykman. Potential Application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for Monitoring Nighttime Surface PM2.5 Air Quality From Space. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 124(0): 55-63, (2016).

  13. Fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for phosphometabolome profiling by capillary ion chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitvang, Hans F N; Bruheim, Per

    2015-08-15

    Capillary ion chromatography (capIC) is the premium separation technology for low molecular phosphometabolites and nucleotides in biological extracts. Removal of excessive amounts of salt during sample preparation stages is a prerequisite to enable high quality capIC separation in combination with reproducible and sensitive MS detection. Existing sampling protocols for mammalian cells used for GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling can therefore not be directly applied to capIC separations. Here, the development of a fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome on capIC-MS/MS is presented. The whole procedure from sampling the culture to transfer of filter to quenching and extraction solution takes less than 10s. To prevent leakage it is critical that a low vacuum pressure is applied, and satisfactorily reproducibility was only obtained by usage of a vacuum pressure controlling device. A vacuum of 60mbar was optimal for filtration of multiple myeloma Jjn-3 cell cultures through 5μm polyvinylidene (PVDF) filters. A quick deionized water (DI-water) rinse step prior to extraction was tested, and significantly higher metabolite yields were obtained during capIC-MS/MS analyses in this extract compared to extracts prepared by saline and reduced saline (25%) washing steps only. In addition, chromatographic performance was dramatically improved. Thus, it was verified that a quick DI-water rinse is tolerated by the cells and can be included as the final stage during filtration. Over 30 metabolites were quantitated in JJN-3 cell extracts by using the optimized sampling protocol with subsequent capIC-MS/MS analysis, and up to 2 million cells can be used in a single filtration step for the chosen filter and vacuum pressure. The technical set-up is also highly advantageous for microbial metabolome filtration protocols after optimization of vacuum pressure and washing solutions, and the reduced salt

  14. Profiling monoterpenol glycoconjugation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat of Alexandria using a novel putative compound database approach, high resolution mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation fragmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmeland, Anna K; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-08-05

    In this work we present a novel approach for the identification of plant metabolites using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The workflow involves developing an in-house compound database consisting of exact masses of previously identified as well as putative compounds. The database is used to screen accurate mass spectrometry (MS) data to identify possible compound matches. Subsequent tandem MS data is acquired for possible matches and used for structural elucidation. The methodology is applied to profile monoterpene glycosides in Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Alexandria grape berries over three developmental stages. Monoterpenes are a subclass of terpenes, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, and are found in two major forms in the plant, "bound" to one or more sugar moieties or "free" of said sugar moieties. In the free form, monoterpenes are noted for their fragrance and play important roles in plant defense and as attractants for pollinators. However, glycoconjugation renders these compounds odorless, and it is this form that the plant uses for monoterpene storage. In order to gain insight into monoterpene biochemistry and their fate in the plant an analysis of intact glycosides is essential. Eighteen monoterpene glycosides were identified including a monoterpene trisaccharide glycoside, which is tentatively identified here for this first time in any plant. Additionally, while previous studies have identified monoterpene malonylated glucosides in other grapevine tissue, we tentatively identify them for the first time in grape berries. This analytical approach can be readily applied to other plants and the workflow approach can also be used for other classes of compounds. This approach, in general, provides researchers with data to support the identification of putative compounds, which is especially useful when no standard is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Estimating the Optical Properties of Inorganic Matter-Dominated Oligo-to-Mesotrophic Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies over the years have focused on bio-optical modeling of inland waters to monitor water quality. However, those studies have been conducted mainly in eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic environments dominated by phytoplankton. With the launch of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI/Sentinel-3A in 2016, a range of bands became available including the 709 nm band recommended for scaling up these bio-optical models for productive inland waters. It was found that one category of existing bio-optical models, the quasi-analytical algorithms (QAAs, when applied to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM and detritus-dominated waters, produce large errors. Even after shifting the reference wavelength to 709 nm, the recently re-parameterized QAA versions could not accurately retrieve the inherent optical properties (IOPs in waterbodies dominated by inorganic matter. In this study, three existing versions of QAA were implemented and proved inefficient for the study site. Therefore, several changes were incorporated into the QAA, starting with the re-parameterization of the empirical steps related to the total absorption coefficient retrieval. The re-parameterized QAA, QAAOMW showed a significant improvement in the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE. MAPE decreased from 58.05% for existing open ocean QAA (QAALv5 to 16.35% for QAAOMW. Considerable improvement was also observed in the estimation of the absorption coefficient of CDOM and detritus from a MAPE of 91.05% for QAALv5 to 18.87% for QAAOMW. The retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton ( a ϕ using the native form of QAA proved to be inaccurate for the oligo-to-mesotrophic waterbody due to the low a ϕ returning negative predictions. Therefore, a novel approach based on the normalized a ϕ was adopted to maintain the spectral shape and retrieve positive values, resulting in an improvement of 119% in QAAOMW. Further tuning and scale-up of QAAOMW to OLCI bands will aid in

  16. Membrane protein resistance of oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amit; Vanderah, David J; Vierling, Ryan; Crawshaw, Fay; Gallagher, D Travis; Walker, Marlon L

    2014-10-01

    As part of an effort to develop biointerfaces for structure-function studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) a series of oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers (OEO-SAMs) were evaluated for their resistance to protein adsorption (RPA) of IMPs on Au and Pt. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to determine SAM thicknesses and compare the RPA of HS(CH2)3O(CH2CH2O)6CH3 (1), HS(CH2)3O(CH2CH2O)6H (2), [HS(CH2)3]2CHO(CH2CH2O)6CH3 (3) and [HS(CH2)3]2CHO(CH2CH2O)6H (4), assembled from water. For both substrates, SAM thicknesses for 1 to 4 were found to be comparable indicating SAMs with similar surface coverages and OEO chain order and packing densities. Fibrinogen (Fb), a soluble plasma protein, and rhodopsin (Rd), an integral membrane G-protein coupled receptor, adsorbed to the SAMs of 1, as expected from previous reports, but not to the hydroxy-terminated SAMs of 2 and 4. The methoxy-terminated SAMs of 3 were resistant to Fb but, surprisingly, not to Rd. The stark difference between the adsorption of Rd to the SAMs of 3 and 4 clearly indicate that a hydroxy-terminus of the OEO chain is essential for high RPA of IMPs. The similar thicknesses and high RPA of the SAMs of 2 and 4 show the conditions of protein resistance (screening the underlying substrate, packing densities, SAM order, and conformational mobility of the OEO chains) defined from previous studies on Au are applicable to Pt. In addition, the SAMs of 4, exhibiting the highest resistance to Fb and Rd, were placed in contact with undiluted fetal bovine serum for 2h. Low protein adsorption (≈12.4ng/cm(2)), obtained under these more challenging conditions, denote a high potential of the SAMs of 4 for various applications requiring the suppression of non-specific protein adsorption. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. DNA strand breakage by 125I-decay in oligoDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevsky, P.; Martin, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide containing 125 I-dC in a defined location, with 5'- or 3'- 32 P-end-labelling of either strand, was used to investigate DNA strand breakage resulting from 125 I decay. Samples of the 32 P-end-labelled and 125 I-dC containing oligoDNA were incubated in 20 mM phosphate buffer (PB), or PB + 2 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at 4 deg during 18-20 days. The 32 P-end-labelled DNA fragments produced by 125 I decays were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the 3P activity in each fragment was determined by scintillation counting after elution from the gel. The fragment size distribution was then converted to a distribution of single stranded break probabilities at each nucleotide position. The results indicate that each 125 I decay event produces at least one break in the 125 I-dC containing strand, and causes breakage of the opposite strand in 75-80% of events. Thus, the double stranded break is produced by 125 I decay with probability ∼0.8. Most of single stranded breaks (around 90%) occurred within 5-6 nucleotides of the 125 I-dC, however DNA breaks were detected up to 18-20 nucleotides from the decay site. The average numbers of single stranded breaks per decay are 3.7 (PB) and 3.3 (PB+DMSO) in 125 I-dC containing strand, and 1.5 (PB) and 1.3 (PB+DMSO) in the opposite strand. Deconvolution of strand break probabilities as a function of separation from the 125 I, in terms of both distance (to target deoxyribosyl carbon atoms, in B-DNA) and nucleotide number, show that the latter is an important parameter for the shorter-range damage. This could indicate a role for attenuation/dissipation of damage through the stacked bases. In summary, the results represent a much more extensive set of data than available from earlier experiments on DNA breakage from l25 I-decay, and may provide new mechanistic insights

  18. Mixed DNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Surface Improve DNA Hybridization in Complex Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Gamble, L.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable, direct 'sample-to-answer' capture of nucleic acid targets from complex media would greatly improve existing capabilities of DNA microarrays and biosensors. This goal has proven elusive for many current nucleic acid detection technologies attempting to produce assay results directly from complex real-world samples, including food, tissue, and environmental materials. In this study, we have investigated mixed self-assembled thiolated single-strand DNA (ssDNA) monolayers containing a short thiolated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) surface diluent on gold surfaces to improve the specific capture of DNA targets from complex media. Both surface composition and orientation of these mixed DNA monolayers were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS results from sequentially adsorbed ssDNA/OEG monolayers on gold indicate that thiolated OEG diluent molecules first incorporate into the thiolated ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer OEG exposures, competitively displace adsorbed ssDNA molecules from the gold surface. NEXAFS polarization dependence results (followed by monitoring the N 1s→π* transition) indicate that adsorbed thiolated ssDNA nucleotide base-ring structures in the mixed ssDNA monolayers are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure ssDNA monolayers. This supports ssDNA oligomer reorientation towards a more upright position upon OEG mixed adlayer incorporation. DNA target hybridization on mixed ssDNA probe/OEG monolayers was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Improvements in specific target capture for these ssDNA probe surfaces due to incorporation of the OEG diluent were demonstrated using two model biosensing assays, DNA target capture from complete bovine serum and from salmon genomic DNA mixtures. SPR results demonstrate that OEG incorporation into the ssDNA adlayer improves surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and protein

  19. Seasonal succession of cyanoprokaryotes in a hypereutrophic oligo-mesohaline lagoon from the South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomérat, Nicolas; Garnier, Robert; Bertrand, Céline; Cazaubon, Arlette

    2007-05-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (South of France) is an oligo-mesohaline coastal lagoon that has undergone intense eutrophication in the past decades, resulting from a strong concentration of human activities in its drainage basin. Consequently, it exhibits some characteristics typical of an advanced trophic state; namely, the disappearance of submerged vegetation, the permanently intense phytoplankton growth and the recurrence of cyanoprokaryote blooms. As cyanoprokaryote dominance in south-temperate saline lagoons is little reported, we carried out this study in order to understand the seasonal variations in the phytoplankton composition and biomass, and to analyse the influence of environmental parameters such as salinity, nutrients and climate on the seasonal succession of species. In this lagoon, the phytoplankton was permanently dominated by cyanoprokaryotes, probably because of high availability of nutrients, low light penetration in the water column and frequent turbulent mixing induced by wind. The two most abundant species Planktothrix agardhii (in winter-spring) and Pseudanabaena limnetica (in summer) have low light requirements and are well adapted to a high mixing frequency, which defines the S1 functional group in Reynolds' typology for phytoplankton. Although widely studied in north-temperate lakes, blooms of these typically freshwater species are almost unreported in the Mediterranean area, especially in brackish ecosystems that are not their normal habitat. In the Bolmon lagoon, all their requirements for nutrients, light and mixing are satisfied and they seem to cope with a moderate presence of salt but P. agardhii was less competitive than P. limnetica at highest salinities, the latter being probably more halophytic. Contrary to the observations in lakes located at higher latitudes, the Mediterranean climate seems to induce a typical seasonal pattern of succession characterised by the dominance of P. agardhii (winter) - Chroococcales (spring

  20. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  3. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,2 Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa,3 Marina Morato Stival,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,4 Leonardo Costa Pereira,1 Marja Letícia Chaves Antunes,1 Luciano Ramos de Lima,1 Jonato Prestes,4 Ricardo Jacó Oliveira,1 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,2 Vinícius Carolino Souza,1,4 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski1 1University of Brasília (UnB, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Estácio de Sá of Vitória, ES, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Objective: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI and percentage body fat (PBF for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women.Method: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein.Results: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05 and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL than did the overweight group (P≤0.05. According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005 proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003 and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0

  4. Study on preparation and effect of oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan on immune stimulation white patches in the internal organs disease on Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Pham Duy Hai

    2015-01-01

    Oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of β-glucan/H_2O_2 and chitosan/H_2O_2 solution. The efficiency of the degradation process was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) method. Results showed that the Mw decreased with increasing concentration of H_2O_2 and doses. For oligoβ-glucan, Mw reduced from 56.7 kDa to 7.1 kDa when β-glucan 10%/H_2O_2 1% solution was irradiated at 14 kGy. For oligochitosan, Mw reduced from 45.5 kDa to 5.0 kDa when chitosan 5%/H_2O_2 0.5% solution was irradiated at 21 kGy. Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed with oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan in various concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg feed for 45 days and then was challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacteria to investigate immune stimulation effect against white patches in the internal organs disease. The results indicated that oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan exhibited good immune stimulation effect with optimum concentration of 100 mg/kg feed. Survival rate of Tra catfishes fed with oligochitosan and oligoβ-glucan is 47.62 ± 1.96% and 46.67 ± 2.58%, respectively. In addition, the mixture of oligochitosan 50 mg/kg + oligo?-glucan 50 mg/kg showed the highest survival rate (62.22 ± 1.96%). (author)

  5. Protein-phosphotyrosine proteome profiling by superbinder-SH2 domain affinity purification mass spectrometry, sSH2-AP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefei; Cao, Biyin; Martyn, Gregory D; Krieger, Jonathan R; Taylor, Paul; Yates, Bradley; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Li, Shawn S C; Mao, Xinliang; Moran, Michael F

    2017-03-01

    Recently, "superbinder" SH2 domain variants with three amino acid substitutions (sSH2) were reported to have 100-fold or greater affinity for protein-phosphotyrosine (pY) than natural SH2 domains. Here we report a protocol in which His-tagged Src sSH2 efficiently captures pY-peptides from protease-digested HeLa cell total protein extracts. Affinity purification of pY-peptides by this method shows little bias for pY-proximal amino acid sequences, comparable to that achieved by using antibodies to pY, but with equal or higher yield. Superbinder-SH2 affinity purification mass spectrometry (sSH2-AP-MS) therefore provides an efficient and economical approach for unbiased pY-directed phospho-proteome profiling without the use of antibodies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Unbiased metabolite profiling by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis for herbal authentication: classification of seven Lonicera species flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Yang, Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen; Liu, E-Hu; Ren, Mei-Ting; Yan, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jun; Li, Ping

    2012-07-06

    Plant-based medicines become increasingly popular over the world. Authentication of herbal raw materials is important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Some herbs belonging to closely related species but differing in medicinal properties are difficult to be identified because of similar morphological and microscopic characteristics. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an alternative method to distinguish them. Existing approaches do not allow a comprehensive analysis for herbal authentication. We have now developed a strategy consisting of (1) full metabolic profiling of herbal medicines by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS), (2) global analysis of non-targeted compounds by molecular feature extraction algorithm, (3) multivariate statistical analysis for classification and prediction, and (4) marker compounds characterization. This approach has provided a fast and unbiased comparative multivariate analysis of the metabolite composition of 33-batch samples covering seven Lonicera species. Individual metabolic profiles are performed at the level of molecular fragments without prior structural assignment. In the entire set, the obtained classifier for seven Lonicera species flower buds showed good prediction performance and a total of 82 statistically different components were rapidly obtained by the strategy. The elemental compositions of discriminative metabolites were characterized by the accurate mass measurement of the pseudomolecular ions and their chemical types were assigned by the MS/MS spectra. The high-resolution, comprehensive and unbiased strategy for metabolite data analysis presented here is powerful and opens the new direction of authentication in herbal analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycerolipid Profiling of Yellow Sarson Seeds Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuning ZHENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa ssp. trillocularis is an important rapeseed-mustard species of Brassica rapa due to its high seed oil content. Glycerolipids and fatty acid composition affect seed germination and determine the quality of seed oil. To date, no information is available on the composition of individual glycerolipids in this species. Therefore, in this study the glycerolipid profiling of yellow sarson seeds was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. A fast and efficient chromatographic separation of glycerolipids was accomplished based on an UPLCTM BEH C8 column within 22 min. In ESI positive ion mode, TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition-product ion scan was carried out to acquire both high resolution MS and MS/MS information from one injection. According to MS/MS spectra, predominant fragmentation patterns of glycerolipids were elucidated in detail. Based on retention time, accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and fragmentation patterns, the composition of 144 glycerolipids and fatty acids were finally identified in yellow sarson seeds, including 77 triacylglycerols, 32 diacylglycerols, 18 sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols, 5 monogalactosyl-diaclyglycerols, and 12 digalactosyl-diacylglycerols. Of them, the most abundant glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds were triacylglycerols, the major storage form of seed oil in plants. In addition, diacylglycerols were found as a minor component of glycerolipids. The lowest amounts of glycerolipids detected in seeds were glycosyl-acylglycerols. The results revealed the composition and relative content of glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds, which will provide a more comprehensive assessment of the quality of seed oil and also help to select functional cultivars with higher beneficial glycerolipids. This profiling method has the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity and good accuracy

  8. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol; Fatigue plastique oligocyclique du Zircaloy-4 sous vide et dans le methanol iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloucif, A.

    1995-01-01

    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling Reveals Mannitol as a Major Storage Carbohydrate in the Coccolithophorid Alga Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair R. Fernie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae are divergent organisms having a wide variety of evolutional histories. Although most of them share photosynthetic activity, their pathways of primary carbon metabolism are rather diverse among species. Here we developed a method for gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS based metabolite profiling for the coccolithophorid alga Emiliania huxleyi, which is one of the most abundant microalgae in the ocean, in order to gain an overview of the pathway of primary metabolism within this alga. Following method optimization, twenty-six metabolites could be detected by this method. Whilst most proteogenic amino acids were detected, no peaks corresponding to malate and fumarate were found. The metabolite profile of E. huxleyi was, however, characterized by a prominent accumulation of mannitol reaching in excess of 14 nmol 106 cells−1. Similarly, the accumulation of the 13C label during short term H13CO3− feeding revealed a massive redistribution of label into mannitol as well as rapid but saturating label accumulation into glucose and several amino acids including aspartate, glycine and serine. These results provide support to previous work suggesting that this species adopts C3 photosynthesis and that mannitol functions as a carbon store in E. huxleyi.

  10. A novel strategy for target profiling analysis of bioactive phenylethanoid glycosides in Plantago medicinal plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Xiong, Aizhen; Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2012-06-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides are a group of phenolic compounds with diverse biological activities such as hypotensive, diuretic, and hypoglycemic effects. In this study, a target profiling analysis approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) was established on the basis of parent ion scanning for m/z 161, the characteristic product ion for phenylethanoid glycosides. It was successfully employed to discriminate the chemical composition of phenylethanoid glycosides between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, two medicinal parts of Plantago plants, which are widely used as herbal medicine in China. Totally, 34 phenylethanoid glycosides were characterized and tentatively identified by their retention times, MS, and tandem quadrupole MS (MS/MS) data. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, eight of them, especially acteoside and plantamajoside, were picked out and contributed to the chemical distinction between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, which might be responsible for the differences in diuretic and hypotensive effects between the two medicinal parts. This new approach for target profiling provides not only a novel idea for specific analysis of active chemical constituents in the same type, but also a promising and reference method for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metabolite profiling of a diverse collection of wheat lines using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna B Matthews

    Full Text Available Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized; however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum (DW and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum (BW were subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS. Discriminant analyses distinguished DW from BW with 100% accuracy due to differences in expression of nonpolar and polar ions, with differences attributed to sterol lipids/fatty acids and phospholipids/glycerolipids, respectively. Hard versus soft BW was distinguished with 100% accuracy by polar ions, with differences attributed to heterocyclic amines and polyketides versus phospholipid ions, respectively. This work provides a foundation for identification of metabolite profiles associated with desirable agronomic and human health traits and for assessing how environmental factors impact these characteristics.

  12. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of N-glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded clinical tissue blocks and tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas W; Neely, Benjamin A; Shao, Yuan; Tang, Huiyuan; Troyer, Dean A; Mehta, Anand S; Haab, Brian B; Drake, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) method to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species in frozen tissues has been extended and improved for the direct analysis of glycans in clinically derived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed tissues from normal mouse kidney, human pancreatic and prostate cancers, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue microarray were processed by antigen retrieval followed by on-tissue digestion with peptide N-glycosidase F. The released N-glycans were detected by MALDI-IMS analysis, and the structural composition of a subset of glycans could be verified directly by on-tissue collision-induced fragmentation. Other structural assignments were confirmed by off-tissue permethylation analysis combined with multiple database comparisons. Imaging of mouse kidney tissue sections demonstrates specific tissue distributions of major cellular N-linked glycoforms in the cortex and medulla. Differential tissue distribution of N-linked glycoforms was also observed in the other tissue types. The efficacy of using MALDI-IMS glycan profiling to distinguish tumor from non-tumor tissues in a tumor microarray format is also demonstrated. This MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any FFPE tissue block or tissue microarray to enable higher throughput analysis of the global changes in N-glycosylation associated with cancers.

  13. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems.

  14. Metabolic profiling of five flavonoids from Dragon's Blood in human liver microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Rui; Wei, Lizhong; Deng, Yulin; Ren, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Although much is known about the pharmacological activities of Dragon's Blood (DB, a traditional Chinese herb), its metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes has not been studied. This study aims to identify the metabolic profile of five flavonoids (loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone) from DB in HLMs as well as the CYP enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of them. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the structures of their metabolites and 10 cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were used to verify which isozymes mediate in the metabolism of the metabolites. Totally, 29 metabolites including 10 metabolites of loureirin A, 10 metabolites of loureirin B, 4 metabolites of loureirin C, 2 metabolites of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 3 metabolites of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone were elucidated and identified on the basis of the high-resolution MS n data. The metabolic profile of the five flavonoids in HLMs involved hydroxylation, oxidation and demethylation. Among them, hydroxylation was the predominant biotransformation of the five flavonoids in HLMs, occurring in combination with other metabolic reactions. Assay with recombinant P450s revealed that CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 played an important role in the hydroxylation of flavonoids in HLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vitro evaluation of the metabolic profile of loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone in HLMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Young

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient high throughput screening systems of useful mutants are prerequisite for study of plant functional genomics and lots of application fields. Advance in such screening tools, thanks to the development of analytic instruments. Direct analysis in real-time (DART-mass spectrometry (MS by ionization of complex materials at atmospheric pressure is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical technique. Here we describe a rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by DART-MS. Results To determine whether this DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis can perform genetic discrimination based on global metabolic profiling, intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds were subjected to DART-MS without any sample preparation. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA of DART-MS spectral data from intact seeds classified 14 different lines of seeds into two distinct groups: Columbia (Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype backgrounds. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA subdivided the Col-0 ecotype into two groups: mutant lines harboring defects in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants without these defects. These results indicated that metabolic profiling with DART-MS could discriminate intact Arabidopsis seeds at least ecotype level and metabolic pathway level within same ecotype. Conclusion The described DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis allows for rapid screening and metabolic characterization of lots of Arabidopsis mutant seeds without complex metabolic preparation steps. Moreover, potential novel metabolic markers can be detected and used to clarify the genetic relationship between Arabidopsis cultivars. Furthermore this technique can be applied to predict the novel gene function of metabolic mutants regardless of morphological phenotypes.

  16. Electrochemically assisted mechanically controllable break junction studies on the stacking configurations of oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jue-Ting; Yan, Run-Wen; Tian, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jun-Yang; Pei, Lin-Qi; Wu, De-Yin; Dai, Ke; Yang, Yang; Jin, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • I-V characteristics of a series of oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s molecular junctions were measured. • Conductance values were found to be dependent on molecular length and substituent group. • The measured low conductance values were explained by theoretical calculations. • EC-MCBJ is feasible to fabricate and characterize molecular junctions. - Abstract: We demonstrate an electrochemically assisted mechanically controllable break junction (EC-MCBJ) approach for current-voltage characteristic (I-V curve) measurements of metal/molecule/metal junctions. A series of oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s compounds (OPEs), including those involving electron withdrawing substituent group and different backbone lengths, had been successfully designed, synthesized, and placed onto the fabricated nanogap to form molecular junctions. The observed evolution in the measured conductances of OPEs indicates that there is a dependence of conductance on molecular length and substituent group. Compared with those extracted from conductance histogram construction, the conductances of OPEs measured from I-V curves are considerably lower. Based on the transmission spectra of OPEs that calculated by density functional theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method, this difference was attributed to our distinct experimental operation, which may give rise to a stacking configuration of two OPE molecules.

  17. Enhanced splicing correction effect by an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and cationic carrier complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Mi; Kim, Myung Hee; Yu, Gwang Sig; Um, Bong Ho; Park, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hyun-il; Lee, Kang Taek; Suh, Yung Doug; Choi, Joon Sig

    2014-02-10

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic structural analogues of DNA and RNA. They recognize specific cellular nucleic acid sequences and form stable complexes with complementary DNA or RNA. Here, we designed an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and showed its enhanced delivery into cells with high gene correction efficiency using conventional cationic carriers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI) and Lipofectamine 2000. The negatively charged oligo-aspartic acid-PNA (Asp(n)-PNA) formed complexes with PEI and Lipofectamine, and the resulting Asp(n)-PNA/PEI and Asp(n)-PNA/Lipofectamine complexes were introduced into cells. We observed significantly enhanced cellular uptake of Asp(n)-PNA by cationic carriers and detected an active splicing correction effect even at nanomolar concentrations. We found that the splicing correction efficiency of the complex depended on the kind of the cationic carriers and on the number of repeating aspartic acid units. By enhancing the cellular uptake efficiency of PNAs, these results may provide a novel platform technology of PNAs as bioactive substances for their biological and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Two fossil species of Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) from the Oligo-Miocene Golden Fleece locality in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarran, Myall; Wilson, Peter G; Macphail, Michael K; Jordan, Greg J; Hill, Robert S

    2017-06-01

    The capsular-fruited genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plant genera in the Pacific but is extinct in Australia today. The center of geographic origin for the genus and the reason for and timing of its extinction in Australia remain uncertain. We identify fossil Metrosideros fruits from the newly discovered Golden Fleece fossil flora in the Oligo-Miocene of Tasmania, Australia, shedding further light on these problems. Standard paleopalynological techniques were used to date the fossil-bearing sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and an auto-montage camera system were used to take high-resolution images of fossil and extant fruits taken from herbarium specimens. Fossils are identified using a nearest-living-relative approach. The fossil-bearing sediments are palynostratigraphically dated as being Proteacidites tuberculatus Zone Equivalent (ca. 33-16 Ma) in age and provide a confident Oligo-Miocene age for the macrofossils. Two new fossil species of Metrosideros are described and are here named Metrosideros dawsonii sp. nov. and Metrosideros wrightii sp. nov. These newly described fossil species of Metrosideros provide a second record of the genus in the Cenozoic of Australia, placing them in the late Early Oligocene to late Early Miocene. It is now apparent not only that Metrosideros was present in Australia, where the genus is now extinct, but that at least several Metrosideros species were present during the Cenozoic. These fossils further strengthen the case for an Australian origin of the genus. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Suriyavathana; Palanisamy, Subha; Subramanian, Senthilkumar; Selvaraj, Sumathi; Mari, Kavitha Rani; Kuppulingam, Ramalingam

    2016-08-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. The HPLC analysis of ELEV showed the presence of gallic and caffeic acids as the major components at concentrations of 2.0 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively, as well as other components. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 3-eicosyne; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; phytol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diundecyl ester; 1-octanol, 2-butyl-; squalene; and 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy) tetrahydro-derivative. Because pharmacopuncture is a new evolving natural mode that uses herbal extracts for treating patients with various ailments with minimum pain and maximum effect, the results of this study are particularly important and show that ELEV possesses a wide range of phytochemical constituents, as indicated above, as effective active principle molecules that can be used individually or in combination to treat patients with various diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Comprehensive Quantitative Profiling of Tau and Phosphorylated Tau Peptides in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry Provides New Biomarker Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Claire L; Mitra, Vikram; Hansson, Karl; Blennow, Kaj; Gobom, Johan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hiltunen, Mikko; Ward, Malcolm; Pike, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant tau phosphorylation is a hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD), believed to promote formation of paired helical filaments, the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. While cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine residue 181 (pThr181) are established core biomarkers for AD, the value of alternative phosphorylation sites, which may have more direct relevance to pathology, for early diagnosis is not yet known, largely due to their low levels in CSF and lack of standardized detection methods. To overcome sensitivity limitations for analysis of phosphorylated tau in CSF, we have applied an innovative mass spectrometry (MS) workflow, TMTcalibratortrademark, to enrich and enhance the detection of phosphoproteome components of AD brain tissue in CSF, and enable the quantitation of these analytes. We aimed to identify which tau species present in the AD brain are also detectable in CSF and which, if any, are differentially regulated with disease. Over 75% coverage of full-length (2N4R) tau was detected in the CSF with 47 phosphopeptides covering 31 different phosphorylation sites. Of these, 11 phosphopeptides were upregulated by at least 40%, along with an overall increase in tau levels in the CSF of AD patients relative to controls. Use of the TMTcalibratortrademark workflow dramatically improved our ability to detect tau-derived peptides that are directly related to human AD pathology. Further validation of regulated tau peptides as early biomarkers of AD is warranted and is currently being undertaken.

  1. Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Elizângela M; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Caetano, Luiz Cs; Pinto, Fernanda E; Oliveira, Bruno G; Barroso, Maria Eduarda S; Scherer, Rodrigo; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2018-02-01

    Pineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0-5) and their physico-chemical parameters monitored. In addition, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(-)FT-ICR MS] was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively. Physico-chemical tests show an increase in the total soluble solids (TSS) values and in the TSS/total titratable acidity ratio as a function of the maturity stage, where a maximum value was observed in stage 3 (¾ of the fruit is yellow, which corresponds to the color of the fruit peel). ESI(-)FT-ICR MS analysis for crude extracts showed the presence mainly of sugars as primary metabolites present in deprotonated molecule form ([M - H] - and [2 M - H] - ions) whereas, for phenolic fractions, 11 compounds were detected, being the most abundant in the third stage of maturation. This behavior was confirmed by quantitative analysis of total polyphenols. ESI-FT-ICR MS was efficient in identifying primary (carbohydrates and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (13 phenolic compounds) presents in the crude and phenolic extract of the samples, respectively. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Rapid label-free profiling of oral cancer biomarker proteins using nano-UPLC-Q-TOF ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Ala F; Williams, Brad J; Yaworksy, Dustin C; Patel, Vyomesh; Rusling, James F

    2016-03-01

    It has become quite clear that single cancer biomarkers cannot in general provide high sensitivity and specificity for reliable clinical cancer diagnostics. This paper explores the feasibility of rapid detection of multiple biomarker proteins in model oral cancer samples using label-free protein relative quantitation. MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics offer a rapid alternative that bypasses the need for stable isotope containing compounds to chemically bind and label proteins. Total protein content in oral cancer cell culture conditioned media was precipitated, subjected to proteolytic digestion, and then analyzed using a nano-UPLC (where UPLC is ultra-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to a hybrid Q-Tof ion-mobility mass spectrometry (MS). Rapid, simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple possible cancer biomarker proteins was achieved. In a comparative study between cancer and noncancer samples, approximately 952 proteins were identified using a high-throughput 1D ion mobility assisted data independent acquisition (IM-DIA) approach. As we previously demonstrated that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were readily detected in oral cancer cell conditioned media(1), we targeted these biomarker proteins to validate our approach. Target biomarker protein IL-8 was found between 3.5 and 8.8 fmol, while VEGF-A was found at 1.45 fmol in the cancer cell media. Overall, our data suggest that the nano-UPLC-IM-DIA bioassay is a feasible approach to identify and quantify proteins in complex samples without the need for stable isotope labeling. These results have significant implications for rapid tumor diagnostics and prognostics by monitoring proteins such as IL-8 and VEGF-A implicated in cancer development and progression. The analysis in tissue or plasma is not possible at this time, but the subsequent work would be needed for validation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Analysis of post-operative changes in serum protein expression profiles from colorectal cancer patients by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: a pilot methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Simon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry-based protein expression profiling of blood sera can be used to discriminate colorectal cancer (CRC patients from unaffected individuals. In a pilot methodological study, we have evaluated the changes in protein expression profiles of sera from CRC patients that occur following surgery to establish the potential of this approach for monitoring post-surgical response and possible early prediction of disease recurrence. Methods In this initial pilot study, serum specimens from 11 cancer patients taken immediately prior to surgery and at approximately 6 weeks following surgery were analysed alongside 10 normal control sera by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Using a two-sided t-test the top 20 ranked protein peaks that discriminate normal from pre-operative sera were identified. These were used to classify post-operative sera by hierarchical clustering analysis (Spearman's Rank correlation and, as an independent 'test' dataset, by k-nearest neighbour and weighted voting supervised learning algorithms. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis classified post-operative sera from all six early Dukes' stage (A and B patients as normal. The remaining five post-operative sera from more advanced Dukes' stages (C1 and C2 were classified as cancer. Analysis by supervised learning algorithms similarly grouped all advanced Dukes' stages as cancer, with four of the six post-operative sera from early Dukes' stages being classified as normal (P = 0.045; Fisher's exact test. Conclusions The results of this pilot methodological study illustrate the proof-of-concept of using protein expression profiling of post-surgical blood sera from individual patients to monitor disease course. Further validation on a larger patient cohort and using an independent post-operative sera dataset would be required to evaluate the potential clinical relevance of this approach. Prospective

  4. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  5. mIMT-visHTS: A novel method for multiplexing isobaric mass tagged datasets with an accompanying visualization high throughput screening tool for protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuto, Piero; Iwata, Hiroshi; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Yamada, Iwao; Pieper, Brett; Sharma, Amitabh; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A

    2015-10-14

    Isobaric mass tagging (IMT) methods enable the analysis of thousands of proteins simultaneously. We used tandem mass tagging reagents (TMT™) to monitor the relative changes in the proteome of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 at the same six time points after no stimulation (baseline phenotype), stimulation with interferon gamma (pro-inflammatory phenotype) or stimulation with interleukin-4 (anti-inflammatory phenotype). The combined TMT datasets yielded nearly 12,000 protein profiles for comparison. To facilitate this large analysis, we developed a novel method that combines or multiplexes the separate IMT (mIMT) datasets into a single super dataset for subsequent model-based clustering and co-regulation analysis. Specially designed visual High Throughput Screening (visHTS) software screened co-regulated proteins. visHTS generates an interactive and visually intuitive color-coded bullseye plot that enables users to browse the cluster outputs and identify co-regulated proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding protein as calreticulin from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj; Metwal, Mamta; Kumar, Vandana A; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-30

    Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using proteomics, bioinformatics and molecular approaches. A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains-all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed up to 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different levels of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  8. O Star Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock Physics from X-ray Line Profiles in Archival XMM RGS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    O stars are characterized by their dense, supersonic stellar winds. These winds are the site of X-ray emission from shock-heated plasma. By analyzing high-resolution X-ray spectra of these O stars, we can learn about the wind-shock heating and X-ray production mechanism. But in addition, the X-rays can also be used to measure the mass-loss rate of the stellar wind, which is a key observational quantity whose value affects stellar evolution and energy, momentum, and mass input to the Galactic interstellar medium. We make this X-ray based mass-loss measurement by analyzing the profile shapes of the X-ray emission lines observed at high resolution with the Chandra and XMM-Newton grating spectrometers. One advantage of our method is that it is insensitive to small-scale clumping that affects density-squared diagnostics. We are applying this analysis technique to O stars in the Chandra archive, and are finding mass-loss rates lower than those traditionally assumed for these O stars, and in line with more recent independent determinations that do account for clumping. By extending this analysis to the XMM RGS data archive, we will make significant contributions to the understanding of both X-ray production in O stars and to addressing the issue of the actual mass-loss rates of O stars. The XMM RGS data archive provides several extensions and advantages over the smaller Chandra HETGS archive: (1) there are roughly twice as many O and early B stars in the XMM archive; (2) the longer wavelength response of the RGS provides access to diagnostically important lines of nitrogen and carbon; (3) the very long, multiple exposures of zeta Pup provide the opportunity to study this canonical O supergiant's X-ray spectrum in unprecedented detail, including looking at the time variability of X-ray line profiles. Our research team has developed a sophisticated empirical line profile model as well as a computational infrastructure for fitting the model to high-resolution X-ray spectra

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Profiling of new psychoactive substances (NPS) by using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS): study on the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-PB-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster-Müller, S; Scheid, N; Holdermann, T; Schneiders, S; Pütz, M

    2018-05-21

    In this paper results of a pilot study on the profiling of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist 5F-PB-22 (5F-QUPIC, pentylfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid-8-quinolinyl ester) via isotope ratio mass spectrometry are presented. It is focused on δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 2 H isotope ratios, which are determined using elemental analyser (EA) and high temperature elemental analyser (TC/EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). By means of a sample of pure material of 5F-PB-22 it is shown that the extraction of 5F-PB-22 from herbal material, a rapid clean-up procedure, or preparative column chromatography had no influences on the isotope ratios. Furthermore, 5F-PB-22 was extracted from fourteen different herbal blend samples ("Spice products" from police seizures) and analysed via IRMS, yielding three clusters containing seven, five and two samples, distinguishable through their isotopic composition, respectively. It is assumed that herbal blends in each cluster have been manufactured from individual batches of 5F-PB-22. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization and evaluation of surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Baltazar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF potentially carries an archive of peptides and small proteins relevant to pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS and surrounding brain tissue. Proteomics is especially well suited for the discovery of biomarkers of diagnostic potential in CSF for early diagnosis and discrimination of several neurodegenerative diseases. ProteinChip surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS is one such approach which offers a unique platform for high throughput profiling of peptides and small proteins in CSF. In this study, we evaluated methodologies for the retention of CSF proteins m/z we found a high degree of overlap between the tested array surfaces. The combination of CM10 and IMAC30 arrays was sufficient to represent between 80–90% of all assigned peaks when using either sinapinic acid or α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the energy absorbing matrices. Moreover, arrays processed with SPA consistently showed better peak resolution and higher peak number across all surfaces within the measured mass range. We intend to use CM10 and IMAC30 arrays prepared in sinapinic acid as a fast and cost-effective approach to drive decisions on sample selection prior to more in-depth discovery of diagnostic biomarkers in CSF using alternative but complementary proteomic strategies.

  12. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Effect of Lactobacillus Treatment on the Faecal Metabolite Profile of Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Jiang, Hongli; He, Quan; Wang, Meng; Xue, Jinhong; Liu, Hua; Shi, Kehui; Wei, Meng; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Liwen

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups. The rats in uremia and UP groups were prepared through surgical renal mass 5/6 ablation. The rats in the UP group received Lactobacillus LB (1 ml, 109 CFU/ml) through gavage every day for 4 weeks. The rats were fed with a standard diet. Faecal samples were analysed through ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed using MetaboAnalyst and MATLAB. A total of 99, 324 and 177 significantly different ion peaks were selected between sham and uremia groups; sham and UP groups; and uremia and UP groups, respectively. In the 3 groups, 35 significantly altered metabolites were identified; of the 35 metabolites, 27 initially increased and then decreased; by contrast, 8 metabolites initially decreased and then increased. The 35 metabolites were subjected to pathway analysis in MetaboAnalyst. Faecal metabolites were significantly altered in rats with uremia; these changes were partially reversed by Lactobacillus. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  14. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinsberg, K.-G. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Schumacher, C. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Tempez, A. [HORIBA Jobin Yvon, 16-18 rue du Canal, F-91160 Longjumeau (France); Nielsch, K. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS Trade-Mark-Sign )) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s{sup -1} and 3 nm s{sup -1}, respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  15. Profiling and identification of (-)-epicatechin metabolites in rats using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhanpeng; Wang, Fei; Dai, Shengyun; Lu, Jianqiu; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiayu

    2017-08-01

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, faeces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS 1 to ESI-MS n stage. Finally, a total of 67 metabolites (including parent drug) were tentatively identified based on standard substances, chromatographic retention times, accurate mass measurement, and relevant drug biotransformation knowledge. The results demonstrated that EC underwent multiple in vivo metabolic reactions including methylation, dehydration, hydrogenation, glucosylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions. Among them, methylation, dehydration, glucosylation, and their composite reactions were observed only occurring on EC when compared with C. Meanwhile, the distribution of these detected metabolites in various tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain were respectively studied. The results demonstrated that liver and kidney were the most important organs for EC and its metabolites elimination. In conclusion, the newly discovered EC metabolites significantly expanded the understanding on its pharmacological effects and built the foundation for further toxicity and safety studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Profiling ABA metabolites in Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecková, Veronika; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-11-15

    We have developed a simple method for extracting and purifying (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and eight ABA metabolites--phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), neophaseic acid (neoPA), ABA-glucose ester (ABAGE), 7'-hydroxy-ABA (7'-OH-ABA), 9'-hydroxy-ABA (9'-OH-ABA), ABAaldehyde, and ABAalcohol--before analysis by a novel technique for these substances, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The procedure includes addition of deuterium-labelled standards, extraction with methanol-water-acetic acid (10:89:1, v/v), simple purification by Oasis((R)) HLB cartridges, rapid chromatographic separation by UPLC, and sensitive, accurate quantification by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring modes. The detection limits of the technique ranged between 0.1 and 1 pmol for ABAGE and ABA acids in negative ion mode, and 0.01-0.50 pmol for ABAGE, ABAaldehyde, ABAalcohol and the methylated acids in positive ion mode. The fast liquid chromatographic separation and analysis of ABA and its eight measured derivatives by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS provide rapid, accurate and robust quantification of most of the substances, and the low detection limits allow small amounts of tissue (1-5mg) to be used in quantitative analysis. To demonstrate the potential of the technique, we isolated ABA and its metabolites from control and water-stressed tobacco leaf tissues then analysed them by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Only ABA, PA, DPA, neoPA, and ABAGE were detected in the samples. PA was the most abundant analyte (ca. 1000 pmol/g f.w.) in both the control and water-stressed tissues, followed by ABAGE and DPA, which were both present at levels ca. 5-fold lower. ABA levels were at least 100-fold lower than PA concentrations, but they increased following the water stress treatment, while ABAGE, PA, and DPA levels decreased. Overall, the technique offers substantial improvements over previously described methods, enabling the detailed, direct study of

  17. A REVIEW OF STATURE, BODY MASS AND MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE PROFILES OF U17, U20 AND FIRST DIVISION PLAYERS IN BRAZILIAN SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Diniz Da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations in the physiological demands of soccer have identified that a significant percentage of energy production in match performance is provided through the aerobic pathways. It is therefore important to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max of players in order to evaluate their aerobic fitness status and optimize their physical conditioning. However, it is also important to consider the variation of (VO2Max profiles for soccer players, with differences having been identified in terms of playing position as well as playing style. This paper reviews the academic literature between 1996 and 2006 and reports on the methodologies employed and the values obtained for stature, body mass and (VO2Max profiles of soccer players of different positions in professional Brazilian clubs at U-17, U-20 and First Division levels. Indirect measurements accounted for the majority of tests conducted at U-17 (70% and U-20 (84.6% levels whereas at First Division level almost half of the (VO2Max evaluations were performed by direct measurements (47.8%. The mean (VO2Max profiles obtained for outfield players in U-17 was 56.95 ± 3.60 ml·kg-1·min-1, 58.13 ± 3.21 ml·kg-1·min-1 for U-20 players and 56.58 ± 5.03 ml·kg-1·min-1 for First Division players. In Brazil, the U-20 players appear to have highest VO2Max values, however the profiles reported for all outfield positions in U-17 and First Division levels are often lower than those reported for the same category of players from other countries. This may be a reflection of the style of play used in Brazilian soccer. This is further emphasized by the fact that the playing position with the highest VO2Max values was the external defenders whereas most findings from studies performed in European soccer indicate that midfielders require the highest VO2Max values.

  18. Oligo dendrogliomas. Analysis of 77 cases treated in the neuro oncology unit from 1970-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, R; Roldán, G.; Mañana, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors distinguishing: astrocytic tumors, oligodendroglial and ependymal. There has been an increase in he incidence of oligodendrogliomas (OG) reaching 30% of all gliomas in some series. The OG of particular interest because of their particular sensitivity to treatment (tto) oncospecific which confers a better prognosis compared to other gliomas. Identifying alterations makes the target specific chromosomal active investigation. Objective: To analyze the outcome of patients (ptes) carriers treated OG Unit Neuro-Oncology Clinical Hospital of Montevideo. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 77 ptes is done with pathologic diagnosis of OG treated at the Neuro-Oncology Unit between January 1970 and July 2004 were analyzed epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary. Survival analysis was performed according to the Kaplan-Meier method (95%) comparing by logrank test with alpha = 0.05. Results: Thirty-seven (48.1%) were female gender and 40 (51.9%) were men. The median age was 41.2 years (range: 5-74). Ptes Twenty (29.9%) had low OG degree, 32 (41.6%) high-grade and 22 (28.6%) Mixed (oligo-astrocytic). hypertension intracranial and seizures were the most frequent reasons for consultation. survival (SV) median ptes in this series was 57 months and the median disease-free interval of 39 months. The overall 5-year SV reached 46% and 10 years 34%. SV free survival was 44 % And 33% respectively. We found no overall relationship between SV and factors recognized value prognosis such as age, gender, histological grade and initial tto made; although gender analysis results showed borderline statistical significance (p = 0.0579) in favor of women. the SV median was 58, 70, 53 and 21 months to complete ptes with surgery (35 patients), subtotal (16) part (22) and biopsies (4), respectively, with the significant difference from the biopsy (p = 0.04). Ptes of 77, 42 relapsed with a

  19. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M.; Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  20. Re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence from esophageal cancer with radiotherapy history: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Keiichi; Niibe, Yuzuru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Katsui, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Nishina, Tomohiro; Terahara, Atsuro

    2017-09-05

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following surgery has recently become a standard therapy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy or by surgery with additional radiotherapy. We reviewed retrospectively 248 patients treated with (chemo)radiotherapy for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer in five Japanese high-volume centers between 2000 and 2015. Thirty-three patients in whom re-irradiation was performed were enrolled in this study, and the results for patients in whom re-irradiation was performed were compared with the results for other patients. Median maximum lymph node diameter was 22 mm. Median total radiation dose was 60 Gy. The median calculated biological effective dose using the LQ model with α/β = 10 Gy (BED10) in patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was significantly lower than the median BED10 in others. There was no different factor except for BED10, histology and irradiation field between patients with a past irradiation history and patients without a past irradiation history. The median observation period in surviving patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was 21.7 months. The 3-year overall survival rate in the 33 patients with a past irradiation history was 17.9%, with a median survival period of 16.0 months. Overall survival rate and local control rate in patients with a past irradiation history were significantly worse than those in patients without a past irradiation history (log-rank test, p = 0.016 and p = 0.0007, respectively). One patient in whom re-irradiation was performed died from treatment-related gastric hemorrhage. Results in the present study suggested that re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy or by surgery with additional radiotherapy might be acceptable but

  1. Impact of antepartum diagnostic amnioinfusion on targeted ultrasound imaging of pregnancies presenting with severe oligo- and anhydramnios: An analysis of 61 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Seneesh Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Balakrishnan, Bijoy; Batra, Meenu; Sethumadhavan, Sreeja; Patil, Swapneel Neelkanth; Nair, Sabila; Kannoly, Gopinathan

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective our study was to assess the role of diagnostic antepartum amnioinfusion on the yield from targeted ultrasounds performed in pregnancies with severe oligo- and anhydramnios. This was a retrospective and descriptive study, conducted in the fetal medicine units of two private tertiary care referral centers in south India. The details of all the cases of diagnostic amnioinfusion performed at these two centers from January 2009 to June 2016 were collected and analyzed. Inclusion criteria were pregnancies between 17 and 26 weeks of gestational age with severe oligo- or anhydramnios. Pregnancies with obvious preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) were excluded. The primary outcome measure was the improvement in diagnostic information pertaining to cause of severe oligo- and anhydramnios, and the nature of such anomalies. A total of 61 cases of were identified. The median gestational age at performance of the procedure was 22 weeks [IQR, 19.5-23]. The mean volume of normal saline infused was 314±54ml. A significant increase in the single vertical pocket (SVP) was observed following the procedure (pre-procedure SVP=0.6±0.9cm, post procedure SVP=3.4±1.7; paired t test, pamnioinfusion is a valuable ancillary technique in prenatal diagnosis as it increases the diagnostic yield from pregnancies presenting with severe oligo- and anhydramnios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT and NASBA-oligochromatography for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basiye, Frank L.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Magiri, Charles; Kirigi, George; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Schoone, Gerard J.; Saad, Alfarazdeg A.; El-Safi, Sayda; Matovu, Enock; Wasunna, Monique K.

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the OligoC-TesT and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification coupled to oligochromatography (NASBA-OC) for molecular detection of Leishmania in blood from patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and healthy endemic controls from Kenya.

  3. Role of Nearby Charges on the Electronic Structure of π-Conjugated Molecules: Symmetric versus Asymmetric Charge Distributions in Oligo(p-phenyleneethynylene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirketerp, Maj-Britt Suhr; Ryhding, Torben; Støchkel, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Oligo(p-phenyleneethynylene)s (OPEs) are conjugated oligomers of great interest within materials science and molecular electronics on account of their highly applicable electronic and optical properties. Here we use gas-phase action spectroscopy to elucidate how the intrinsic electronic properties...

  4. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased nitrogen deposition on growth and chemical composition of ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum and oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, E; Jauhiainen, J; Silvola, J; Vasander, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2000-01-01

    The ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum (Russ.) C. Jens. and the oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. were grown at ambient (360 mu l l(-1)) and at elevated (720 mu l l(-1)) atmospheric CO2 concentrations and at different nitrogen deposition rates, varying between 0 and 30kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), The

  5. Phthalocyanines with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy units: thermotropic phase behavior, aggregate formation and ion complexation with redox-active ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, D.P.; Verheij, H.J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior of phthalocyanines (Pc's) with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy side chains has been investigated. An increase in the number of ethylene oxide units results in a decrease in the solid-to-mesophase and isotropization temperatures. The investigated compounds display a

  6. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  7. Application of organic facies in sedimentological-stratigraphical model of the Oligo-Miocene and Miocene of the Campos Basin; Aplicacao da faciologia organica no modelo sedimentologico-estratigrafico do Oligo-Mioceno e Mioceno da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Mendonca, Joalice de Oliveira; Oliveira, Antonio Donizeti de; Torres, Jaqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Inst. de Geociencias (Brazil)], e-mails: graciano@geologia.ufrj.br, donizeti@lafo.geologia.ufrj.br, joalice@lafo.geologia.ufrj.br, jaqueline@lafo.geologia.ufrj.br; Menezes, Taissa Rego [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES), RJ (Brazil). P e D em Geociencias. Gerencia de Geoquimica], e-mail: taissamenezes@petrobras.com.br; Santos, Viviane Sampaio Santiago dos; Arienti, Luci Maria [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES), RJ (Brazil). P e D em Geociencias. Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], e-mails: vsss@petrobras.com.br, arienti@petrobras.com.br

    2010-05-15

    This study integrates palynofacies analyses and the sedimentological and stratigraphic model of the Oligo-Miocene/Miocene siliciclastic deposits from the stratigraphic interval of the shallow continental platform up to the slope/basin of the Oligo-Miocene/ Miocene of the Campos Basin proposed. The main objective of the palynofacies study was to characterize the particulate sedimentary organic matter to obtain information about the proximal-distal relationship and the sedimentary organic matter preservation and depositional environmental conditions. The 158 core samples collected in 29 wells of the 9 oil production fields (Albacora, Barracuda, Marlim Sul, Marlim, Voador, Marlim Leste, Moreia and Albacora Leste), were studied. This technique provides information about the proximal-distal relationship and the paleoenvironmental conditions of deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic matter, to facilitate the evaluation and comparisons between the associations of particulate organic components. Thus, the palynofacies technique can be used as another tool in the characterization of depositional systems, based on the spatial and temporal distribution of sedimentary intervals. In general the palynofacies assemblages showed the predominance of the Phytoclast Group (terrestrial derived organic matter) at various degradation stages due to the selective preservation process diagnosed in the studied samples. Some samples, revealed high dinocysts percentages indicative of transgressive depositional conditions. From the obtained data, it was possible to characterize the stratigraphic sequences according to the distribution of particulate organic content (e.g. influence of fluvio-deltaic systems, oxygen system, regressive-transgressive tendencies of each sequence). Additional analyses of Total Organic Carbon (% wt) showed the control of the particulate components from the Phytoclast Group on the TOC (% wt) content, suggesting that the relative sea-level variation curves

  8. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  9. Leucine-rich diet alters the 1H-NMR based metabolomic profile without changing the Walker-256 tumour mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Laís Rosa; Canevarolo, Rafael; Luiz, Anna Caroline Perina; Soares, Raquel Frias; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-10-03

    Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia). After 21 days feeding Wistar female rats a leucine-rich diet, distributed in L-leucine and LW-leucine Walker-256 tumour-bearing groups, we examined the metabolomic profile of serum and tumour tissue samples and compared them with samples from tumour-bearing rats fed a normal protein diet (C - control; W - tumour-bearing groups). We utilised 1 H-NMR as a means to study the serum and tumour metabolomic profile, tumour proliferation and tumour protein synthesis pathway. Among the 58 serum metabolites examined, we found that 12 were altered in the tumour-bearing group, reflecting an increase in activity of some metabolic pathways related to energy production, which diverted many nutrients toward tumour growth. Despite displaying increased tumour cell activity (i.e., higher Ki-67 and mTOR expression), there were no differences in tumour mass associated with changes in 23 metabolites (resulting from valine, leucine and isoleucine synthesis and degradation, and from the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies) in the leucine-tumour group. This result suggests that the majority of nutrients were used for host maintenance. A leucine rich-diet, largely used to prevent skeletal muscle loss, did not affect Walker 256 tumour growth and led to metabolomic alterations that may partially explain the positive effects of leucine for the whole tumour-bearing host.

  10. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  11. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  12. Eccentric knee flexor strength profiles of 341 elite male academy and senior Gaelic football players: Do body mass and previous hamstring injury impact performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane; Delahunt, Eamonn; Collins, Kieran; Gissane, Conor; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Murphy, John C; Blake, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    Report eccentric knee flexor strength values of elite Gaelic football players from underage to adult level whilst examining the influence of body mass and previous hamstring injury. Cross-sectional study. Team's training facility. Elite Gaelic football players (n = 341) from under 14 years to senior age-grades were recruited from twelve teams. Absolute (N) and relative (N·kg -1 ) eccentric hamstring strength as well as corresponding between-limb imbalances (%) were calculated for all players. Mean maximum force was 329.4N (95% CI 319.5-340.2) per limb. No statistically significant differences were observed in relative force values (4.4 N ·kg -1 , 95% CI 4.2-4.5) between age-groups. Body mass had moderate-to-large and weak associations with maximum force in youth (r = 0.597) and adult (r =0 .159) players, respectively. Overall 40% (95 CI 31.4-48.7) presented with a maximum strength between-limb imbalance >10%. Players with a hamstring injury had greater relative maximum force (9.3%, 95% CI 7.0-11.8; p > 0.05) and a 28% (95% CI 10.0-38.0) higher prevalence of between-limb imbalances ≥15% compared to their uninjured counterparts. Overlapping strength profiles across age-groups, combined with greater strength in previously injured players, suggests difficulties for establishing cut-off thresholds associated with hamstring injury risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal variations in the profile of main phospholipids in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels: A study by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Laura; Losito, Ilario; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    A systematic characterization of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in mussels of sp Mytilus galloprovincialis was performed by high-efficiency hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), based on a quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid spectrometer. The FTMS/MS experiments under high collisional energy dissociation conditions, complemented by low-energy collisionally induced dissociation MS n (n = 2,3) experiments, performed in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, were exploited for structural elucidation purposes. The described approach led to an unprecedented characterization of the mussel phospholipidome, with 185 phosphatidylcholines and 131 phosphatidylethanolamines species recognized, distributed among diacylic, plasmanylic, and plasmenylic forms. This was the starting point for the evaluation of the effects of season (in particular, of sea temperature) on the profile of those phospholipids. To this aim, a set of mussel samples retrieved from commercial sources in different periods of the year was considered. Principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between samples collected in periods characterized by cold, intermediate, or warm sea temperatures, respectively. In particular, an enrichment in phospholipids containing unsaturated side chains was observed in mussels collected from cold seawaters (winter-early spring), thus confirming the general model previously elaborated to explain the adaptation of marine invertebrates, including some bivalve molluscs, to low temperatures. On the other hand, relevant levels of plasma(e)nylic and acylic phospholipids bearing either saturated or non-methylene-interrupted side chains were found in mussels collected in warm seawaters (typical of summer and early autumn, at Italian latitudes). This finding opened interesting perspectives towards the development of strategies able to prevent global warming-related mussel

  14. Oligo- and Polymetastatic Progression in Lung Metastasis(es) Patients Is Associated with Specific MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A.; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A.; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E.; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B.; Posner, Mitchell C.; Chmura, Steven J.; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. Methods We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Results Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Conclusion Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level. PMID:23251360

  15. HTP-OligoDesigner: An Online Primer Design Tool for High-Throughput Gene Cloning and Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Cesar M; Lima, Gustavo M A; Maluf, Fernando V; Guido, Rafael V C; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Following burgeoning genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data, biochemical and molecular biology groups worldwide are implementing high-throughput cloning and mutagenesis facilities in order to obtain a large number of soluble proteins for structural and functional characterization. Since manual primer design can be a time-consuming and error-generating step, particularly when working with hundreds of targets, the automation of primer design process becomes highly desirable. HTP-OligoDesigner was created to provide the scientific community with a simple and intuitive online primer design tool for both laboratory-scale and high-throughput projects of sequence-independent gene cloning and site-directed mutagenesis and a Tm calculator for quick queries.

  16. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. METHODS: We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. RESULTS: Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP and low rate of progression (LRP; the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. CONCLUSION: Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  17. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es) patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Regan, Kelly; Corbin, Kimberly; Li, Haiquan; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A; Gnerlich, Jennifer L; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  18. Synthesis of homo- and heteromultivalent carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines using novel glyco-building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wojcik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the solid phase synthesis of carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines with different functionalization patterns utilizing a novel alphabet of six differently glycosylated building blocks. Highly efficient in flow conjugation of thioglycosides to a double-bond presenting diethylentriamine precursor is the key step to prepare these building blocks suitable for fully automated solid-phase synthesis. Introduction of the sugar ligands via functionalized building blocks rather than postfunctionalization of the oligomeric backbone allows for the straightforward synthesis of multivalent glycoligands with full control over monomer sequence and functionalization pattern. We demonstrate the potential of this building-block approach by synthesizing oligomers with different numbers and spacing of carbohydrates and also show the feasibility of heteromultivalent glycosylation patterns by combining building blocks presenting different mono- and disaccharides.

  19. Conductance enhancement of InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires by surface functionalization with oligo(phenylene vinylene)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Storm, Kristian; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Søndergaard, Roar R; Szwajca, Anna; Hansen, Allan; Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Bora, Achyut; Dick, Kimberly A; Thelander, Claes; Krebs, Frederik C; Lugli, Paolo; Samuelson, Lars; Tornow, Marc

    2013-05-28

    We have investigated the electronic transport through 3 μm long, 45 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment as electronic barrier. After assembly of 12 nm long oligo(phenylene vinylene) derivative molecules onto these InAs/InP nanowires, we observed a pronounced, nonlinear I-V characteristic with significantly increased currents of up to 1 μA at 1 V bias, for a back-gate voltage of 3 V. As supported by our model calculations based on a nonequilibrium Green Function approach, we attribute this effect to charge transport through those surface-bound molecules, which electrically bridge both InAs regions across the embedded InP barrier.

  20. Solid polymer electrolytes based on alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers with methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takahito; Fujita, Katsuhito; Inoue, Kentaro; Iwama, Hiroki; Kondoh, Kensaku; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers and vinylene carbonate. • Preparation of polymer electrolytes based on the alternating copolymers with LiTFSI. • Structure-property relationship for alternating copolymers-based electrolytes. • Interfacial stability between polymer electrolytes with lithium metal electrode. - Abstract: Alternating copolymers (poly(1a-g-alt-VC)) of vinyl ethers with various methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate (VC) were prepared, and the thermal and electrochemical properties of their polymer electrolytes with LiTFSI and interfacial stability between the polymer electrolyte and Li metal electrode were investigated. T g 's increased linearly with salt contents, and decreased with an increase in the chain length of methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups in the vinyl ethers at constant salt concentration. The slopes of T g vs. [Li]/[O] were identical, independent of the polymer structure. The ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolytes increased with increasing the side-chain ethyleneoxy (EO) unit length of the vinyl ether unit in the alternating copolymers, and also their temperature dependences became relatively smaller in the polymer electrolytes having longer EO units in the vinyl ethers. The highest ionic conductivity, 1.2 × 10 −4 S/cm at 30 °C, was obtained in the alternating copolymer with a side-chain EO unit length of 23.5 in the vinyl ether unit. Ion transport coupled with the segmental motion of the polymer is dominant in these polymer electrolytes. Interfacial resistance increased gradually with contact time, indicative of the formation of passivation films on the Li metal electrode. These polymer electrolytes are thermally stable and have large electrochemical windows of use

  1. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  2. Systematic chemical profiling of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan-lin; Liu, Meng-hua; Hu, Jie-hui; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-03-01

    Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa', as the original plant of the traditional Chinese medicine "Huajuhong", has been used as antitussive and expectorant in clinic for thousands of years. The fruit epicarp and whole fruit of this plant were both literarily recorded and commonly used. In the present study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling method was developed for rapid holistic quality evaluation of C. grandis 'Tomentosa', which laid basis for chemical comparison of two medicinal parts. As a result, forty-eight constituents, mainly belonging to flavonoids and coumarins, were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards and/or tentatively characterized by elucidating UV spectra, quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. Both of the epicarp and whole fruit samples were rich in flavonoids and coumarins, but major flavonoids contents in whole fruit were significantly higher than in epicarp (P<0.5). The proposed method could be useful in quality control and standardization of C. grandis 'Tomentosa' raw materials and its products. Results obtained in this study will provide a basis for quality assessment and further study in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María García-Portela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta that were subjected to different feeding regimes (well-fed and prey-limited and feeding on two Mesodinium (Spanish and Danish strains. Both Dinophysis species were able to grow while feeding on both Mesodinium strains, although differences in growth rates were observed. Toxin and metabolomic profiles of the two Dinophysis species were significantly different, and also varied between different feeding regimes and different prey organisms. Furthermore, significantly different metabolomes were expressed by a strain of D. acuminata that was feeding on different strains of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Both species-specific metabolites and those common to D. acuminata and D. acuta were tentatively identified by screening of METLIN and Marine Natural Products Dictionary databases. This first metabolomic study applied to Dinophysis acuminata and D.acuta in culture establishes a basis for the chemical inventory of these species.

  4. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Il Yong; Son, Yeri; Byeon, Seul Kee; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-07-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats.

  5. Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Reguera, Beatriz; Sibat, Manoella; Altenburger, Andreas; Rodríguez, Francisco; Hess, Philipp

    2018-04-26

    Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum , which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta that were subjected to different feeding regimes (well-fed and prey-limited) and feeding on two Mesodinium (Spanish and Danish) strains. Both Dinophysis species were able to grow while feeding on both Mesodinium strains, although differences in growth rates were observed. Toxin and metabolomic profiles of the two Dinophysis species were significantly different, and also varied between different feeding regimes and different prey organisms. Furthermore, significantly different metabolomes were expressed by a strain of D. acuminata that was feeding on different strains of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum . Both species-specific metabolites and those common to D. acuminata and D. acuta were tentatively identified by screening of METLIN and Marine Natural Products Dictionary databases. This first metabolomic study applied to Dinophysis acuminata and D.acuta in culture establishes a basis for the chemical inventory of these species.

  6. Profiling of phytohormones and their major metabolites in rice using binary solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Ping; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2016-06-17

    A high-throughput method was developed using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the profiling and quantification of 43 phytohormones and their major metabolites, including auxins, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinins and gibberellins in a single sample extract. Considerable matrix effects (MEs) were observed (with most ME values in the range of 29%-84%, but maximum MEs of more than 115%, even up to 206%, existed) in sample extracts for most of the compounds studied. The application of the proposed binary solid-phase extraction using polymer anion and polymer cation exchange resins, was performed to purify 25 acidic and 18 alkaline phytohormones and their major metabolites prior to the LC-MS/MS analysis, which markedly reduced the MEs to acceptable levels, with ME values in the range of ±15%. Moreover, all of the isomers of cytokinins and their metabolites were fully separated on a sub-2μm particle C18 reverse-phase column with the optimized mobile phase consisting of methanol and 5mM ammonium formate. The method showed good linearity for all 43 analytes with regression coefficients (R(2))>0.991. Limits of detection ranged from 0.19 to 7.57 fmol for auxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid and their metabolites, 29.7 fmol for jasmonic acid, 18.1 fmol for salicylic acid, and from 0.03 to 0.31 fmol for cytokinins and their metabolites. The mean recoveries for all of the analytes were from 70.7 to 118.5%, and the inter-day precisions (n=6) were less than 18.7%, with intra-day precisions (n=6) within 25.4%. Finally, 20 compounds were successfully quantified in rice sample profiles using the proposed method, which will greatly facilitate the understanding of hormone-related regulatory networks that influence rice growth and development. To our knowledge, there are limited reports that measure this level of phytohormone species in rice samples using a single analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable isotope N-phosphoryl amino acids labeling for quantitative profiling of amine-containing metabolites using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Shi, Jinwen; Shan, Changkai; Huang, Chengting; Wu, Yile; Ding, Rong; Xue, Yuhua; Liu, Wen; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Yufen; Xu, Pengxiang; Gao, Xiang

    2017-07-25

    Stable isotope chemical labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful strategy for comprehensive metabolomics profiling, which can improve metabolites coverage and quantitative information for exploration of metabolic regulation in complex biological systems. In the current work, a novel stable isotope N-phosphoryl amino acids labeling strategy (SIPAL) has been successful developed for quantitative profiling of amine-containing metabolites in urine based on organic phosphorus chemistry. Two isotopic reagents, 16 O 2 - and 18 O 2 -N-diisopropyl phosphoryl l-alanine N-hydroxysuccinimide esters ( 16 O/ 18 O-DIPP-L-Ala-NHS), were firstly synthesized in high yields for labeling the amine-containing metabolites. The performance of SIPAL strategy was tested by analyzing standard samples including 20 l-amino acids, 10 d-amino acids and small peptides by using LC-MS. We observed highly efficient and selective labeling for SIPAL strategy within 15 min in a one-pot derivatization reaction under aqueous reaction conditions. The introduction of a neutral phosphate group at N-terminus can increase the proton affinity and overall hydrophobicity of targeted metabolites, leading to the better ionization efficiency in electrospray ionization processes and chromatographic separations of hydrophilic metabolites on reversed-phase column. Furthermore, the chiral metabolites, such as d-amino acids, could be converted to diastereomers after SIPAL and successfully separated on regular reversed-phase column. The chirality of labeled enantiomers can be determined by using different detection methods such as 31 P NMR, UV, and MS, demonstrating the potential application of SIPAL strategy. In addition, absolute quantification of chiral metabolites in biological samples can be easily achieved by using SIPAL strategy. For this purpose, urine samples collected from a healthy volunteer were analyzed by using LC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Over 300 pairs of different amine

  8. A novel deconvolution method for modeling UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthetic pathways based on 13C mass isotopologue profiles under non-steady-state conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belshoff Alex C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracing is a powerful technique for following the fate of individual atoms through metabolic pathways. Measuring isotopic enrichment in metabolites provides quantitative insights into the biosynthetic network and enables flux analysis as a function of external perturbations. NMR and mass spectrometry are the techniques of choice for global profiling of stable isotope labeling patterns in cellular metabolites. However, meaningful biochemical interpretation of the labeling data requires both quantitative analysis and complex modeling. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach that involved acquiring and modeling the timecourses of 13C isotopologue data for UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc synthesized from [U-13C]-glucose in human prostate cancer LnCaP-LN3 cells. UDP-GlcNAc is an activated building block for protein glycosylation, which is an important regulatory mechanism in the development of many prominent human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Results We utilized a stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM approach to determine the timecourse of 13C incorporation from [U-13C]-glucose into UDP-GlcNAc in LnCaP-LN3 cells. 13C Positional isotopomers and isotopologues of UDP-GlcNAc were determined by high resolution NMR and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. A novel simulated annealing/genetic algorithm, called 'Genetic Algorithm for Isotopologues in Metabolic Systems' (GAIMS was developed to find the optimal solutions to a set of simultaneous equations that represent the isotopologue compositions, which is a mixture of isotopomer species. The best model was selected based on information theory. The output comprises the timecourse of the individual labeled species, which was deconvoluted into labeled metabolic units, namely glucose, ribose, acetyl and uracil. The performance of the algorithm was demonstrated by validating the computed fractional 13C enrichment in these subunits

  9. Validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater using accuracy profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Cécile; Roosen, Martin; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

    2017-06-02

    The analysis of biomarkers in wastewater has become a common approach to assess community behavior. This method is an interesting way to estimate illicit drug consumption in a given population: by using a back calculation method, it is therefore possible to quantify the amount of a specific drug used in a community and to assess the consumption variation at different times and locations. Such a method needs reliable analytical data since the determination of a concentration in the ngL -1 range in a complex matrix is difficult and not easily reproducible. The best analytical method is liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry coupling after solid-phase extraction or on-line pre-concentration. Quality criteria are not specially defined for this kind of determination. In this context, it was decided to develop an UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze 10 illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant influent or effluent using a pre-concentration on-line system. A validation process was then carried out using the accuracy profile concept as an innovative tool to estimate the probability of getting prospective results within specified acceptance limits. Influent and effluent samples were spiked with known amounts of the 10 compounds and analyzed three times a day for three days in order to estimate intra-day and inter-day variations. The matrix effect was estimated for each compound. The developed method can provide at least 80% of results within ±25% limits except for compounds that are degraded in influent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolomic Profiling of the Effects of Melittin on Cisplatin Resistant and Cisplatin Sensitive Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry and Biolog Microarray Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanad Alonezi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists. Principal component analysis (PCA gave clear separation between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant strains and their respective controls. The cisplatin-resistant cells were slightly more sensitive to melittin than the sensitive cells with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.8 μg/mL respectively, although the latter cell line exhibited the greatest metabolic perturbation upon treatment. The changes induced by melittin in the cisplatin-sensitive cells led mostly to reduced levels of amino acids in the proline/glutamine/arginine pathway, as well as to decreased levels of carnitines, polyamines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+. The effects on energy metabolism were supported by the data from the Biolog assays. The lipid compositions of the two cell lines were quite different with the A2780 cells having higher levels of several ether lipids than the A2780CR cells. Melittin also had some effect on the lipid composition of the cells. Overall, this study suggests that melittin might have some potential as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment.

  11. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  12. No association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and later risk of developing oligo- and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S. U.; Pipper, C. B.; Alberdi-Saugstrup, M.

    2017-01-01

    -hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] around time of birth would be associated with increased risk of oligo- or polyarticular JIA. Method: We conducted a case–cohort study of validated cases diagnosed with oligo- and polyarticular JIA (1993–2012) and controls matched on date of birth. Cases and controls were born......Objectives: Basic and epidemiological studies on rheumatic autoimmune diseases have suggested an association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and disease risk. The literature on vitamin D and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is scarce. We hypothesized that low levels of 25...... regression and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for season and birth year 25(OH)D variations. A total of 300 matched pairs were included in the statistical analyses. Results: No significant association was found between levels of 25(OH)D and JIA risk in the adjusted model [OR (per 25...

  13. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  14. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  15. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  16. Electrochemical investigation of Li-Al anodes in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether/LiPF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Wang, X.; Lee, H.; Nam, K.; Haas, O.

    2011-01-01

    LiPF 6 dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol -1 was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF 6 ) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1 -3 S cm -1 was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1 -3 S cm -1 . The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol -1 . OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF 6 allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

  17. A Synthetic Oligo Library and Sequencing Approach Reveals an Insulation Mechanism Encoded within Bacterial σ54 Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Levy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We use an oligonucleotide library of >10,000 variants to identify an insulation mechanism encoded within a subset of σ54 promoters. Insulation manifests itself as reduced protein expression for a downstream gene that is expressed by transcriptional readthrough. It is strongly associated with the presence of short CT-rich motifs (3–5 bp, positioned within 25 bp upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD motif of the silenced gene. We provide evidence that insulation is triggered by binding of the ribosome binding site (RBS to the upstream CT-rich motif. We also show that, in E. coli, insulator sequences are preferentially encoded within σ54 promoters, suggesting an important regulatory role for these sequences in natural contexts. Our findings imply that sequence-specific regulatory effects that are sparsely encoded by short motifs may not be easily detected by lower throughput studies. Such sequence-specific phenomena can be uncovered with a focused oligo library (OL design that mitigates sequence-related variance, as exemplified herein.

  18. Radiation-grafting of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polypropylene films by one step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Alejandro [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bucio, Emilio, E-mail: ebucio@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Polypropylene films were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) using the pre-irradiation method with gamma-rays (one step method). The effect of absorbed dose from 10 to 100 kGy, temperature (50, 60, and 70 {sup o}C), monomer concentration between 12.5% and 62.5%, monomers ratio from 10% to 90% and reaction time from 5 to 50 h; on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were analyzed by FTIR-ATR, TGA, DSC, swelling, and contact angle. Grafts onto polymeric films between 3% and 109% were obtained at doses from 10 to 100 kGy and a dose rate around 7.4 kGy/h. The graft percent increased with the content in HEMA in the HEMA:OEGMA feed mixture, which indicates a lower reactivity of OEGMA compared to HEMA. The hydrogel layer grafted on the polypropylene substrate increases the hydrophilicity of the surface and also provides certain temperature-responsiveness, which may be of interest for biomedical applications. - Highlights: > PP was grafted with a hydrogel layer applying the {gamma}-ray pre-irradiation method. > Effects of radiation dose, time, temperature and monomers concentration were evaluated. > Grafted layer increases the hydrophilicity of PP films. > HEMA and OEGMA grafted onto PP may be of interest for biomedical applications.

  19. X-shape oligo(thiophene)s as donor materials for vacuum-deposited organic photovoltaic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ya-Nan; Zhou Yin-Hua; Xu Yue; Sun Xiao-Bo; Wu Wei-Cai; Tian Wen-Jing; Liu Yun-Qi

    2008-01-01

    The films of two x-shape oligo(thiophene)s, 3, 4-dibithienyl-2, 5-dithienylthiophene (TT) and 2, 5-dibithienyl-3, 4-ditrithienylthiophene (11T), which are prepared by vacuum evaporation, have been investigated as novel electron donor layers in two-layer photovoltaic cells. UV-Vis absorptions show red-shifted and broadened absorptions of the vacuumevaporated films as compared with those of the corresponding solutions and spin-coating films, which is beneficial for photovoltaic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements show that the vacuum-evaporated films are almost amorphous. Two-layer photovoltaic cells have been realized by the thermal evaporation of 7T and 11T as donors and N, N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-3, 4:9,10-perylene bis(tetracarboxyl diimide) (EPPTC) as an acceptor. An energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of 0.18% of the cell based on 7T with an irradiation of white light at 100 mw/cm2 has been demonstrated by the measurements of current (Ⅰ)- voltage (Ⅴ) curves of the cells to be higher than the ECE of the reference system based on donor dihexylterthienyl (H3T) that is linear and without á, a linkage.

  20. Preparation of Biodegradable Oligo(lactides-Grafted Dextran Nanogels for Efficient Drug Delivery by Controlling Intracellular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ohya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanogels, nanometer-sized hydrogel particles, have great potential as drug delivery carriers. To achieve effective drug delivery to the active sites in a cell, control of intracellular traffic is important. In this study, we prepared nanogels composed of dextran with oligolactide (OLA chains attached via disulfide bonds (Dex-g-SS-OLA that collapse under the reductive conditions of the cytosol to achieve efficient drug delivery. In addition, we introduced galactose (Gal residues on the nanogels, to enhance cellular uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and secondary oligo-amine (tetraethylenepentamine groups, to aid in escape from endosomes via proton sponge effects. The obtained Dex-g-SS-OLA with attached Gal residues and tetraethylenepentamine (EI4 groups, EI4/Gal-Dex-g-SS-OLA, formed a nanogel with a hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 203 nm in phosphate-buffered solution. The collapse of the EI4/Gal-Dex-g-SS-OLA nanogels under reductive conditions was confirmed by a decrease in the hydrodynamic diameter in the presence of reductive agents. The specific uptake of the hydrogels into HepG2 cells and their intercellular behavior were investigated by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluorescence dye-labeled nanogels. Escape from the endosome and subsequent collapse in the cytosol of the EI4/Gal-Dex-g-SS-OLA were observed. These biodegradable nanogels that collapse under reductive conditions in the cytosol should have great potential as efficient drug carriers in, for example, cancer chemotherapy.

  1. OligoHeatMap (OHM): an online tool to estimate and display hybridizations of oligonucleotides onto DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Olivier; Chevenet, François; Christen, Richard

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency of molecular methods involving DNA/DNA hybridizations depends on the accurate prediction of the melting temperature (T(m)) of the duplex. Many softwares are available for T(m) calculations, but difficulties arise when one wishes to check if a given oligomer (PCR primer or probe) hybridizes well or not on more than a single sequence. Moreover, the presence of mismatches within the duplex is not sufficient to estimate specificity as it does not always significantly decrease the T(m). OHM (OligoHeatMap) is an online tool able to provide estimates of T(m) for a set of oligomers and a set of aligned sequences, not only as text files of complete results but also in a graphical way: T(m) values are translated into colors and displayed as a heat map image, either stand alone or to be used by softwares such as TreeDyn to be included in a phylogenetic tree. OHM is freely available at http://bioinfo.unice.fr/ohm/, with links to the full source code and online help.

  2. Conductance enhancement of InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires by surface assembly of oligo-phenylenevinylene molecular wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Szwajca, Anna; Hansen, Allan; Tornow, Marc [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Storm, Kristian; Thelander, Claes; Samuelson, Lars [Lund University, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Soendergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe DTU, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas [PTB, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The direct combination of organic molecules with semiconductor nanostructures provides an appealing approach towards possible future nanoelectronic systems. In this context, indium-arsenide is a material of particular interest due to the presence of an electron inversion layer at the surface. We have prepared 50 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment, and contacted them by Ti/Au metallic leads on a planar Si/Si-oxide substrate. Electronic transport measurements at 77 K confirmed the presence of the potential barrier of the InP segment. After investigation of the assembly of 12 nm long, dithiolated oligo-phenylenevinylene (OPV) derivative molecules from solution onto planar InAs surfaces the same recipe was applied to the InAs/InP nanowires, which led to a pronounced, non-linear I-V characteristic, with significantly increased currents of up to 1 {mu}A at 1 V bias, for a back-gate voltage of 3 V. We attribute this effect to the OPV molecules tethered to the nanowire surface, thereby increasing the surface conductance across the InP barrier.

  3. Oligo- and polymeric FET devices: Thiophene-based active materials and their interaction with different gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, W.; Destri, S.; Pasini, M.; Bolognesi, A.; Angiulli, A.; Di Gianvincenzo, P.; Natali, D.; Sampietro, M.; Caironi, M.; Fumagalli, L.; Ferrari, S.; Peron, E.; Perissinotti, F.

    2006-01-01

    Derivatives of both oligo- and polythiophene-based FET were recently considered for low cost electronic applications. In the device optimization, factors like redox reversibility of the molecule/polymer, electronic level compatibility with source/drain electrodes, packing closeness, and orientation versus the electrodes, can determine the overall performance. In addition, a gate insulator with a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and capability to promote ordering in the semiconductor is required to increase device performances and to lower the FET operating voltage. In this view, Al 2 O 3 appears a good candidate, although its widespread adoption is limited by the disorder that such oxide induces on the semiconductor with detrimental consequences on semiconductor electrical properties. In this contribution, an overview of recent results obtained on thiophene-derivative-based FET devices, fabricated by different growth techniques, and using both thermally grown SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 from atomic layer deposition gate insulators will be reported and discussed with particular reference to organic solid state aggregation, morphology, and organic-inorganic interface

  4. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  5. Clinical significance of coryneform Gram-positive rods from blood identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and their susceptibility profiles - a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ammara; Chen, Derrick J; Strand, Gregory J; Dylla, Brenda L; Cole, Nicolynn C; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), most Gram-positive rods (GPRs) are readily identified; however, their clinical relevance in blood cultures remains unclear. Herein, we assessed the clinical significance of GPRs isolated from blood and identified in the era of MALDI-TOF MS. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from January 1, 2013, to October 13, 2015, was performed. Any episode of a positive blood culture for a GPR was included. We assessed the number of bottles positive for a given isolate, time to positivity of blood cultures, patient age, medical history, interpretation of culture results by the healthcare team and whether infectious diseases consultation was obtained. We also evaluated the susceptibility profiles of a larger collection of GPRs tested in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from January 1, 2013, to October 31, 2015. There were a total of 246 GPRs isolated from the blood of 181 patients during the study period. 56% (n = 101) were deemed contaminants by the healthcare team and were not treated; 33% (n = 59) were clinically determined to represent true bacteremia and were treated; and 8% (n = 14) were considered of uncertain significance, with patients prescribed treatment regardless. Patient characteristics associated with an isolate being treated on univariate analysis included younger age (P = 0.02), identification to the species level (P = 0.02), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P < 0.0001), lower time to positivity (P < 0.0001), immunosuppression (P = 0.03), and recommendation made by an infectious disease consultant (P = 0.0005). On multivariable analysis, infectious diseases consultation (P = 0.03), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P = 0.0005) and lower time to positivity (P = 0.03) were associated with an isolate being treated. 100, 83, 48 and 34% of GPRs

  6. Reconciling structural and thermodynamic predictions using all-atom and coarse-grain force fields: the case of charged oligo-arginine translocation into DMPC bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-10-16

    Using the translocation of short, charged cationic oligo-arginine peptides (mono-, di-, and triarginine) from bulk aqueous solution into model DMPC bilayers, we explore the question of the similarity of thermodynamic and structural predictions obtained from molecular dynamics simulations using all-atom and Martini coarse-grain force fields. Specifically, we estimate potentials of mean force associated with translocation using standard all-atom (CHARMM36 lipid) and polarizable and nonpolarizable Martini force fields, as well as a series of modified Martini-based parameter sets. We find that we are able to reproduce qualitative features of potentials of mean force of single amino acid side chain analogues into model bilayers. In particular, modifications of peptide-water and peptide-membrane interactions allow prediction of free energy minima at the bilayer-water interface as obtained with all-atom force fields. In the case of oligo-arginine peptides, the modified parameter sets predict interfacial free energy minima as well as free energy barriers in almost quantitative agreement with all-atom force field based simulations. Interfacial free energy minima predicted by a modified coarse-grained parameter set are -2.51, -4.28, and -5.42 for mono-, di-, and triarginine; corresponding values from all-atom simulations are -0.83, -3.33, and -3.29, respectively, all in units of kcal/mol. We found that a stronger interaction between oligo-arginine and the membrane components and a weaker interaction between oligo-arginine and water are crucial for producing such minima in PMFs using the polarizable CG model. The difference between bulk aqueous and bilayer center states predicted by the modified coarse-grain force field are 11.71, 14.14, and 16.53 kcal/mol, and those by the all-atom model are 6.94, 8.64, and 12.80 kcal/mol; those are of almost the same order of magnitude. Our simulations also demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the structural aspects of the ensemble of

  7. Profiling an electrospray plume by laser-induced fluorescence and Fraunhofer diffraction combined to mass spectrometry: influence of size and composition of droplets on charge-state distributions of electrosprayed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Dagany, Xavier; Boutou, Véronique; Broyer, Michel; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Mordehai, Alex; Love, Craig; Werlich, Mark; Fjeldsted, John; Stafford, George

    2012-07-14

    We investigated how physico-chemical properties of charged droplets are affected by the electrospray process, using simultaneous in situ measurements by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Fraunhofer diffraction and mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we implemented a laser-induced-fluorescence profiling setup in conjunction with a fast, high-resolution particle sizing scheme on a modified Agilent Jet Stream electrospray source coupled to a single quadrupole mass analyser. The optical setup permits us to profile the solvent fractionation and the size of the droplets as they evaporate in an electrospray plume by measuring both the angular scattering pattern and emission spectra of a solvatochromic fluorescent dye. Mass spectra are recorded simultaneously. These mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy investigations allow us to study the relation between the observed charge-state distributions of protein anions and physico-chemical properties of evaporating droplets in the spray plume. By mixing water with methanol, a refolding of cytochrome C is observed as the water percentage increases in the plume due to the preponderant evaporation of volatile methanol.

  8. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data descriptions are provided at the following urls: GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.html...

  9. The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88% and 141 men (69.12%, we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI. We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05 in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05 in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001. We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food

  10. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections : A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive

  11. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Flurin; Gloess, Alexia N; Keller, Marco; Wetzel, Andreas; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2012-03-01

    A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

  12. Profiling of urinary amino-carboxylic metabolites by in-situ heptafluorobutyl chloroformate mediated sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Švagera, Z.; Hanzlíková, D.; Řimnáčová, Lucie; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Šimek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1443, April 22 (2016), s. 211-232 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolite profiling * metabolomics * urine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967316302692

  13. Approach to the profiling and characterization of influenza vaccine constituents by the combined use of size-exclusion chromatography, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cañas, Virginia; Lorbetskie, Barry; Cyr, Terry D; Hefford, Mary A; Smith, Sophie; Girard, Michel

    2010-03-01

    A combination of separation and identification techniques was used to rapidly and reproducibly analyze influenza vaccine constituents. Size-exclusion HPLC analysis reduced significantly the complexity by providing a constituents profile according to size. Significantly, no sample treatment was required prior to analysis thus eliminating a potential source of artifacts and degradation. Distinct profiles were associated with influenza strains as well as with vaccines from different manufacturers. Samples analyzed over several years allowed evaluation of method performance and provided stability-indicating data relating to the structural integrity of separated components. Collected chromatographic peaks were identified by gel electrophoresis and MALDI/MS of tryptic digests from excised gel bands. The challenge in obtaining high quality analytical data from complex mixtures clearly demonstrated the value of separation steps prior to MS identification. The method presented here is not intended to replace existing methodology; it is intended to provide a product specific profile to be used as a rapid screen for manufacturer, year (for annual influenza vaccines), stability or counterfeit product. It is a new screening method that provides a rapid and robust indication of products which require further investigation as a result of a deviation in their characteristic profile. Until now this tool did not exist. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3) CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of apple trees and identify key species

  15. Measurement of the jet fragmentation function and transverse profile in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Dani\\|{e}l Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin--Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Hong, Van Nguyen Thi; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; 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Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; 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Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; 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Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tom\\'{a}\\v{s}; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willo