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Sample records for olfactive par oxydation

  1. R\\'eduction de la nuisance olfactive par oxydation photocatalytique

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an interesting alternative for the purification, decontamination and smell abatment of air. In the present work, the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-butanone (MEK : methyl ethyle ketone) is investigated, this low molecular mass product being the source of serious smell pollution. The influence of light and of the pollutant concentration were investigated in an annular photoreactor. As most VOC's, the degradation rate of MEK follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type law. Intermediate products were analysed by GC-MD ; acetaldehyde is the dominant byproduct of the photocatalytic oxidation.

  2. Réduction de l'oxyde d'azote par la suie dans les produits de combustion Reduction of Nitric Oxyde by Soot in Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On a étudié dans un réacteur à lit fixe la réduction du NO par de la suie formée dans des flammes riches de mélanges éthane/oxygène/argon. Le mélange gazeux traversant le réacteur est de l'argon dopé avec du NO; dans certains cas ce mélange est enrichi d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone. En présence d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone, ces vitesses sont nettement plus grandes qu'avec la suie seule. La comparaison avec des vitesses réactionnelles obtenues sur des lits fixes composés d'autres matériaux solides, tels que l'alumine, montre que la réduction de l'oxyde d'azote se fait principalement par une réaction hétérogène avec l'hydrogène et l'oxyde de carbone catalysée par la suie. D'autres matériaux solides,tels que des oxydes réfractaires présentent une activité catalylique aussi importante que la suie. Cette observation fournit une nouvelle explication de l'effet connu de certains additifs sur la réduction de NO dans les flammes. Dans la seconde partie de l'étude, on mesure la réduction des oxydes d'azote dans les flammes fuligineuses de prémélange. De l'argon dopé par de l'oxyde d'azote est injecté dans les produits de combustion de ces flammes chargés de suie; l'introduction du NO est faite à différentes distances derrière le brûleur, correspondant à différents niveaux de température des produits de combustion. La réduction fractionnelle des oxydes d'azote est mesurée en fonction de la concentration en suie, en hydrogène et en oxyde de carbone, en faisant varier la composition du mélange inflammable. Les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec la réduction calculée en se basant sur les informations cinétiques obtenues en lit fixe. The kinetics of nitric oxide réduction by soot collected from hydrocarbon flames is studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The gas flow traversing thé reactor is either argon with NO, or argon with hydrogen and NO, or argon with carbon monoxide and NO. In th

  3. Synthèse du mélange cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone par oxydation du cyclohexane par les hydroperoxydes en présence de métaux supportés sur oxydes métalliques.

    OpenAIRE

    REKKAB-nee-HAMMOUMRAOUI, Ilhem

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail a été axé sur la préparation des catalyseurs à base de différents métaux (Ru, Pt et Co) supportés sur des oxydes métalliques (Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, ZrO2, CeO2, Fe2O3 et MgO). Leurs performances ont été par la suite évaluées en oxydation du cyclohexane par l’hydroperoxyde de tertiobutyle (TBHP) en phase liquide. Ces catalyseurs ont été caractérisés par différentes techniques : Mesure de surface par BET, IR de la thermodésorption de la pyridine pour estimer l’a...

  4. Procédé AD-OX d'élimination de polluants organiques non biodégradables (par adsorption puis oxydation catalytique)

    OpenAIRE

    Manole Creanga, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Vers un nouveau procédé séquentiel AD-OX (Adsorption–Oxydation) de traitement d'eau par charbon actif nous avons examiné les deux étapes séparément, pour des polluants peu biodégradables (phénol et acide 4-hydroxybenzoïque (4AHB), seuls et en mélange). Les isothermes d'adsorption sur charbon actif neuf, puis après oxydation catalytique, ont été obtenues à température ambiante et à 150°C. Les mélanges binaires ont aussi été testés montrant l'adsorption très préférentielle du 4AHB. L'oxydation...

  5. Synthèse de monoglycérides par transestérification catalysée par des oxydes basiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancquart Sébastien

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La préparation de monoglycérides à partir d’acides ou d’esters méthyliques gras et de glycérol peut être effectuée en présence de catalyseurs acides ou basiques. L’emploi de catalyseurs basiques solides pourrait limiter les réactions secondaires menant à la dégradation des réactifs, notamment du glycérol. Une comparaison de plusieurs solides basiques (MgO, CeO2, La2O3 et ZnO a montré que plus la basicité intrinsèque du catalyseur est importante, plus il est actif. Afin d’augmenter les performances de ces solides, plusieurs méthodes ont été utilisées pour la préparation de MgO. Un dopage alcalin a ensuite été tenté afin d’augmenter la basicité et l’activité de MgO. L’oxyde de magnésium préparé par hydratation d’un oxyde commercial et dopé au lithium, suivi de sa déshydratation, est le catalyseur le plus actif.

  6. Amélioration par ajout d’un métal de transition de la régénération in situ d’un charbon actif par oxydation catalytique

    OpenAIRE

    Benhamed, Imane

    2015-01-01

    En raison de la réglementation plus sévère sur la pollution de l’eau, l’oxydation chimique (CWAO et AOP) et l’hybridation adsorption / régénération par oxydation sont de plus en plus envisagées pour éliminer les polluants réfractaires. L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier l’effet de l’imprégnation du fer ou du cuivre sur l’activité du charbon actif dans l’oxydation catalytique en voie humide (avec ou sans ajout d’H202), ainsi que sur sa durée de vie comme adsorbant / catalyseur dans le proc...

  7. Conception et calibration d'un sonoreacteur pour l'oxydation de la cellulose par le systeme TEMPO/NaOCl/NaBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Michel

    Avec le contexte economique actuel dans le domaine des pates et papiers au Canada, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits mis en marche. La fermeture de plus de 20 usines depuis 2005, une baisse du PIB de l'industrie de 1,4 milliard CAD entre 1999--2008, une baisse de la demande de 2,4 %, une diminution du prix de la pate de 20,9 % depuis juillet 2009. La delocalisation du secteur vers l'Asie et l'hemisphere sud sont autant de raisons pour laquelle l'industrie se doit d'etre a l'avant plan de nouvelle technologie a base de fibre de bois. Pour augmenter leur rentabilite, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits dans d'autres secteurs que le simple fabricant de papier impression-ecriture. Sa diversification passe par l'elaboration de nouveaux papiers a valeur ajoutee (papier conducteur, papier bioactif, etc.), par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour la production d'energie, par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour l'elaboration d'une plateforme de chimie verte, par l'utilisation de la lignine pour le developpement de polymeres et par l'utilisation de la fibre cellulosique pour la fabrication de nanomateriaux. La fabrication de nanofibrille de cellulose peut devenir un des produits qui servira a diversifier la production des usines de pates et papiers. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose possedent des proprietes mecaniques et chimiques exceptionnelles. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose sont fabriquees a partir d'une oxydation selective de la pate kraft de feuillu avec le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr. L'oxydation selective de l'alcool primaire en C6 du monomere de glucose sous forme de carboxylates engendre une modification chimique de la cellulose qui accroit l'hydrophilicite des fibrilles. Suite a cette oxydation, nous devons effectuer une desintegration mecanique de la fibre kraft de feuillu oxydee pour separer les fibrilles. Le processus d'oxydation de la fibre par le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr et sa defibrillation par la suite engendre une

  8. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallay, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  9. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963); Preparation d'un oxyde de beryllium frittable par decomposition de l'hydiloxyde (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    fortement pollue par le sulfate de beryllium qui ne peut etre elimine meme par lavage prolonge. Nous avons pu remarquer que les differents types d'hydroxyde (gel, {alpha}, {beta}) ont des allures de decomposition differentes qui permettent d'ailleurs de les distinguer et meme de doser les melanges des formes {alpha} et {beta}. Ces varietes transmettent a l'oxyde qui en derive la forme sous laquelle ils ont ete precipites. L'heredite de l'oxyde se manifeste par son comportement au cours de sa preparation et de son frittage. La comparaison des resultats du frittage et des differentes mesures effectuees sur les poudres d'oxyde nous a conduit a conclure que, pour etre frittes sous vide, les oxydes issus d'hydroxyde doivent etre constitues de cristallites dont les dimensions sont comprises entre 0,1 et 0,2 {mu}, leur teneur en sulfate de beryllium etant inferieure a 0,2 pour cent en poids, exprimee en SO{sub 3}, par rapport a BeO. L'oxyde provenant de l'hydroxyde {alpha} precipite en fins agglomerats et renfermant peu de sulfate de beryllium semble etre celui qui repond le mieux aux conditions qui viennent d'etre enoncees. Nous avons d'ailleurs pu constater que ces conditions etaient egalement remplies par l'oxyde issu de la calcination du sulfate de beryllium. (auteur)

  10. Le champ critique de claquage de films d'oxyde de polyphénylène réalisés par voie électrochimique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adohi, B.; Gosse, J. P.; Gosse, B.

    1991-10-01

    The electrical breakdown of thin films of polyphenylene oxide electrochemically deposited on stainless steel plane substrates has been studied. First it was examined the dependence of the medium surrounding the dielectric and the electrodes (nature, hydrostatic pressure) on the breakdown voltage and on its statistical distribution. Between sphere and plane electrodes, it appears that even for pressurified gases, breakdown of the film is caused by the gas breakdown. We have analysed the discharges occurring at atmosphere pressure in the test cell. Breakdown of the film occurred when the electric field due to the charge deposited on its surface was about 230 V/μm. We have also studied self-healing capacitors with PPO as a dielectric, and determined the life-time of this material. On a étudié le claquage électrique de films minces d'oxyde de polyphénylène de quelques microns d'épaisseur déposés par voie électrochimique sur un plan en acier inoxydable. L'étude a d'abord été faite en rampe de tension continue dans la géométrie d'électrodes sphèreplan, en fonction du milieu ambiant liquide ou gazeux. L'influence de la pression sur la rigidité diélectrique du matériau, les distributions statistiques de Weibull et les cratères formés au moment du claquage, dans les différents milieux et dans les deux polarités de l'électrode sphérique montrent que le claquage du matériau est causé par des décharges qui se produisent dans le milieu environnant. A partir de l'analyse quantitative de ces décharges, on propose comme critère de caractérisation de la rupture d'un matériau sounmis aux décharges, le champ créé au moment de la rupture par les charges déposées à sa surface. On a réalisé ensuite des échantillons plans > par dépôt de couches minces d'aluminium (quelques milliers d'Å d'épaisseur) sur le film de PPO. On étudie dans cette configuration la durée de vie du matériau.

  11. Copolymères (carbazolylène-pyrrolylène) : synthèse par oxydation chimique et propriétés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucard, V.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    1998-06-01

    Conditions in which (carbazolylene-pyrrolylene) random copolymers could be synthetized directly by chemical oxidation by FeCl3 were studied. A substantial amount of soluble copolymers is obtained after work-up in the conditions corresponding to carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 molar proportions. An important fraction of polypyrrole was obtained beside a fraction of species soluble in ethanol (carbazole and dimer) and an other fraction of products soluble in water (pyrrole accompanied by the first terms of the oligomeric series). Soluble copolymers were characterized by means of SEC, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Cyclic voltammetry analysis disclosed that these copolymers exhibit both the carbazolic and the pyrrolic features. Les conditions dans lesquelles des copolymères statistiques (carbazo lylène-pyrrolylène) pouvaient être synthétisés directement par oxydation chimique par FeCl3 ont été étudiées. Des quantités substantielles de copolymères solubles en milieu organique sont obtenues par extraction lorsque les proportions molaires en réactifs carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 sont utilisées. Une fraction importante de polypyrrole est obtenue à côté d'une fraction d'espèces solubles dans l'éthanol (carbazole et son dimère) et d'une fraction de produits solubles dans l'eau (pyrrole et les premiers termes oligomères). Les copolymères solubles ont été caractérisés par CES, spectroscopies RMN et UV-Visible. L'analyse voltampérométrique de ces matériaux révèle qu'ils possèdent à la fois les caractéristiques des entités carbazolylènes et celles des entités pyrrolylènes.

  12. Oxydation catalytique du Phénol par le peroxyde d'hydrogène en présence d'argiles pontées par des espèces mixtes [Al-Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, M.; Barrault, J.; Bouchoule, C.; Srasra, N. F.; Bergaya, F.

    1999-03-01

    Various processes can be used for the treatment of wastewater, but the one we feel to be important and more promising is the wet peroxide oxidation (WPO), in the presence of a solid catalyst, at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. Different types of materials can be used as catalysts for such reactions, but as shown in previous studies dealing with phenol oxidation clays-based catalysts seem to be attractive. It is well known that natural clays are inactive in the phenol oxidation, but the intercalation of polymeric species changes their properties. When the clay is pillared with pure aluminum oxyhydroxides species, the d{001} spacing and the surface area increase, but the activity is very low. When the clay is pillared with mixed [Al-Cu] species, there is a strong increase of the phenol conversion. Nevertheless W (Wyoming) based solids are more active than H (Haîdoudi) or L (Laponite) based catalysts. The stability, the activity and the percentage of copper depend on the preparation method. Différentes techniques de traitements des eaux usées peuvent être utilisées, et l'une des plus prometteuses est l'oxydation voie humide par le peroxyde d'hydrogène en milieu aqueux dilué (WPO), en présence de catalyseurs supportés, à pression atmosphérique et à 25 ° C. Lors de cette étude, il a été montré que les argiles brutes sont inactives en oxydation du phénol. L'intercalation d'espèces hydroxyaluminiques conduit à une augmentation de la surface spécifique et de l'espace interlamellaire, mais la conversion du phénol reste faible. En revanche, l'insertion d'espèces mixtes [Al-Cu] confère au catalyseur une importante activité. En outre, la quantité de cuivre intercalé est très faible (argile et la méthode de préparation. Néanmoins, la comparaison des divers catalyseurs, montre que l'utilisation de l'argile Wyoming (W), conduit à une activité supérieure à celle des argiles moins bien définies (Haîdoudi) ou à celle de la Laponite

  13. Dispositif de stimulation olfactive pour l'investion en imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionelle

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been developing for twentyyears. Indeed, the marketing of high-resolution MRI (5 Tesla and 7 Tesla recently)allowed the study of brain mechanisms. The research work of this PHD was todevelop instrumentation for objective studies of brain behavior during a sensorystimulation. We are interested in the study of olfaction. We have designed and builta six-channel olfactometer, synchronized with breathing and controlled by computer.The originality of our wo...

  14. Étude par diffraction des rayons X de la nitruration plasma d'un acier 304L Influence sur l'oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, L.; Buscail, H.; Straboni, A.; Riffard, F.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the influence of various nitridation parameters on the 304L steel oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C, in air under atmospheric pressure. Nitridation temperatures were ranging between 300 ^{circ}C and 430 ^{circ}C with exposure times lasting from 2 to 8 hours. At 300 and 430 ^{circ}C, the nitridation treatment leads to the solid solution surface formation γ-N without any nitride formation. After oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C of blank specimens, X ray diffraction reveals the FeCr2O4 spinel formation. This oxide does not act as a good diffusion barrier. With nitrogen treated specimens, the higher the nitridation temperature is and the longer the exposure time is, better is the oxidation behaviour at 1000 ^{circ}C. We then observe that the Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 oxide is more present in the oxide sale from the very beginning of the oxidation test which is correlated to a final lower mass gain. Cette étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres de nitruration plasma sur l'oxydation de l'acier 304L à 1000 ^{circ}C, sous air, à la pression atmosphérique. Les températures employées lors de la nitruration ont été de 300 ^{circ}C et 430 ^{circ}C pour des durées de nitruration variant entre 2 et 8 heures. A 300 et 430 ^{circ}C, la nitruration conduit à la formation d'une solution solide γ-N en surface sans provoquer la formation de nitrures. Après oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C du 304L non nitruré, la diffraction des rayons X révèle la formation d'une couche de type spinelle FeCr2O4 qui ne semble pas jouer le rôle de barrière de diffusion. Pour les échantillons préalablement nitrurés, plus la température de nitruration est élevée et plus la durée du traitement est longue, meilleur est le comportement en oxydation. Nous observons alors l'oxyde Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 en proportion importante dès le début de l'oxydation et une prise de masse finale plus faible.

  15. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  16. Biophysics of olfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Marques Simoes de [Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Campus Box 6511, PO Box 6511, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Antunes, Gabriela [Psychobiology Sector and Department of Chemistry, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    The majority of the biophysical models of olfaction have been focused on the electrical properties of the system, which is justified by the relative facility of recording the electrical activity of the olfactory cells. However, depending on the level of detail utilized, a biophysical model can explore molecular, cellular and network phenomena. This review presents the state of the art of the biophysical approach to understanding olfaction. The reader is introduced to the principal problems involving the study of olfaction and guided gradually to comprehend why it is important to develop biophysical models to investigate olfaction. A large number of representative biophysical efforts in olfaction, their main contributions, the trends for the next generations of biophysical models and the improvements that may be explored by future biophysicists of olfaction have been reviewed.

  17. Oxidation films morphology; Sur la morphologie des pellicules d'oxydation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidassi, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [French] En se basant sur les etudes qu'il a faites sur l'oxydation aux temperatures elevees et a la pression atmospherique de quelques metaux purs a valences multiples (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U), et de leurs oxydes, l'auteur suggere comment le schema qui representerait la pellicule comme etant une superposition de diverses couches d'oxydes, homogenes micrographiquement, a cristallisations equiaxes, depourvues de tensions mecaniques et separees par des interfaces plans, doit etre modifie pour s'ajuster a la realite. Dans cette premiere partie, l'auteur etudie la structure micrographique reelle des pellicules d'oxydation et donne des exemples de precipitation dans les oxydes au cours du refroidissement des echantillons oxydes. (auteur)

  18. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  19. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  20. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food.

  1. Application de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température pour l'identification d'une nouvelle phase lors de l'oxydation à 900circC de l'acier 304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffard, F.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Issartel, C.; El Messki, S.; Perrier, S.

    2004-11-01

    Une nouvelle interprétation du comportement atypique couramment appelé "breakaway" observé lors de l'oxydation à haute température d'alliages chromino-formeurs est proposée grâce à l'utilisation de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. L'acier chromino-formeur AISI 304 doit établir une couche d'oxyde superficielle généralement dense et majoritairement, constituée de chromine, dont la vitesse de croissance est lente, afin d'assurer sa protection contre la corrosion à haute température. Cette faible vitesse de croissance de la couche d'oxyde est effectivement observée à 1000circC. Elle serait favorisée par l'établissement d'une couche de chromine induite par la présence d'une sous-couche continue de silice à l'interface interne. Cette dernière limiterait la diffusion du fer. Le phénomène du "breakaway" est observé à la température de 900circC après 40 heures d'oxydation. Ce phénomène serait lié à la croissance initiale d'oxydes contenant du fer. L'oxyde Fe{7}SiO{10, }a été identifié{ }pour la première fois grâce à la technique de diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. Cet oxyde semble piéger le silicium dans la couche d'oxyde, empêchant son accumulation à l'interface interne et la formation d'une couche continue de silice.

  2. Olfaction in dragonflies: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea; Piersanti, Silvana; Dell'otto, Alessandro; Gaino, Elda

    2012-02-01

    The problem of olfaction in Paleoptera (Odonata, Ephemeroptera) cannot be considered fully elucidated until now. These insects have been traditionally considered anosmic, because their brain lacks glomerular antennal lobes, typically involved in Neoptera odor perception. In order to understand if the presumed coeloconic olfactory receptors described on the antennal flagellum of adult Odonata are really functioning, we performed an electrophysiological investigation with electroantennogram (EAG) and single cell recordings (SCR), using Libellula depressa L. (Odonata, Libellulidae) as a model species. Odors representing different chemical classes such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (acetate ester), (E)-2-hexenal, octanal (aldehydes), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (alcohol), propionic acid, butyric acid (carboxylic acids), and 1,4-diaminobutane (amine) were tested. Most of the tested chemicals elicited depolarizing EAG responses in both male and female antennae; SCR show unambiguously for the first time the presence of olfactory neurons in the antennae of L. depressa and strongly support the olfactory function of the coeloconic sensilla located on the antennal flagellum of this species. Electrophysiological activity may not necessarily indicate behavioral activity, and the biological role of olfactory responses in Odonata must be determined in behavioral bioassays. This study represents a starting point for further behavioral, electrophysiological, neuroanatomical and molecular investigation on Odonata olfaction, a research field particularly interesting owing to the basal position of Paleoptera, also for tracing evolutionary trends in insect olfaction.

  3. Contribution to the study of a method for measuring continuously the isotopic effect. The search for an isotopic effect during the reduction of cuprous oxide by a {sup 12}CO - {sup 14}CO mixture (1962); Contribution a l'etude d'une methode de mesure continue de l'effet isotopique. Recherche d'un effet isotopique dans la reduction de l'oxyde cuivreux par le melange {sup 12}CO - {sup 14}CO (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-15

    The determination of an isotopic effect between the two reactions: {sup 12}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 12}CO{sub 2} + 2 Cu 'light' reaction {sup 14}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 14}C{sub O}2 + 2 Cu 'heavy' reaction is possible if the respective kinetics are known. The condensation, during the reaction, of the carbon dioxide formed, and the measurement as a function of time of the residual carbon monoxide pressure, makes it possible to deduce, uninterruptedly, the 'light' reaction kinetics. The 'heavy' reaction kinetics are obtained by measuring continuously, in situ, the radioactivity of the residual reactant gas as a function of the time. The apparatus used for this is a plastic scintillator counter. A calibration curve of the measured radioactivity as a function of the reactant gas pressure in the absence of reaction makes it possible to compare the kinetics of the 'light' and 'heavy' reactions. The reaction temperature is chosen such that the reaction rate is sufficiently slow, so that the variation of the radioactivity during unit counting time is negligible. (author) [French] La determination d'un effet isotopique entre les deux reactions: {sup 12}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 12}CO{sub 2} + 2 Cu reaction 'legere' {sup 14}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 14}C{sub O}2 + 2 Cu reaction 'lourde' est rendue possible par la connaissance de leurs cinetiques respectives. La condensation, au cours de la reaction, du gaz carbonique forme et la mesure en fonction du temps de la pression de l'oxyde de carbone residuel, permet d'obtenir, de facon continue, la cinetique de la reaction 'legere'. La cinetique de la reaction lourde est determinee par la mesure continue, in situ, du taux de radioactivite du reactif gazeux residuel en fonction du temps. Le dispositif employe dans ce but est un compteur a scintillateur plastique. Une courbe d'etalonnage, du taux mesure de

  4. Synchronization of Olfaction-enhanced multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Ademoye, OA; G. Ghinea

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to explore, from an end user perspective, the temporal boundaries within which olfactory data can be used to enhance multimedia applications. Results show the presence of two main synchronization regions, and that olfaction ahead of audiovisual content is more tolerable than olfaction behind content.

  5. Effet de l'etat de la surface de l'acier au carbone 300W sur l'entartrage par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Liliana

    Une etude a ete effectuee sur l'entartrage des surfaces en acier au carbone par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer. Trois methodes ont ete utilisees afin de determiner le mecanisme de formation du tartre: mesure de la vitesse d'entartrage, etude electrochimique et protection cathodique. Cette etude demontre que le tartre de gibbsite est un tartre de cristallisation et que l'etat physico-chimique de la surface metallique a une influence marquee sur l'entartrage. Ainsi, l'oxyde en surface a ete identifie comme un facteur determinant pour l'entartrage. Les essais electrochimiques ont montre que la couche d'oxyde formee dans les solutions Bayer est un oxyde mixte de fer et d'aluminium. Les essais de protection cathodique a courant constant valident le role determinant joue par l'oxyde sur l'entartrage, puisqu'en empechant l'oxyde de se former, l'entartrage est pratiquement elimine. Le mecanisme d'adherence du tartre a l'acier implique trois etapes, soit l'oxydation du metal, la formation de la goethite/goethite alumineuse sur l'oxyde et finalement, la germination de la gibbsite sur la goethite/goethite alumineuse.

  6. Intelligent Mobile Olfaction of Swarm Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siti Nurmaini; Bambang Tutuko; Aulia Rahman Thoharsin

    2013-01-01

      This work presents intelligent mobile olfaction design and experimental results of intelligent swarm robots to detection a gas/odour source in an indoor environment by using multi agent based on hybrid algorithm...

  7. Olfaction, Valuation, and Action: Reorienting Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brian Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophy of perception, olfaction is the perennial problem child, presenting a range of difficulties to those seeking to define its proper referents, and its phenomenological content. Here, we argue that many of these difficulties can be resolved by recognizing the object-like representation of odors in the brain, and by postulating that the basic objects of olfaction are best defined by their biological value to the organism, rather than physico-chemical dimensions of stimuli. Building on this organism-centered account, we speculate that the phenomenological space of olfaction is organized into a number of coarse affective dimensions that apply categorically. This organization may be especially useful for coupling sensation to decision-making and instrumental action in a sensory modality where the stimulus space is especially complex and high-dimensional.

  8. La formation de l'oxyde azotique dans les flammes de diffusion de gaz naturel Nitrogen. Oxyde Formation in Natural-Gas Diffusion Flams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portrait L. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la formation de l'oxyde azotique dans des flammes de diffusion de ga naturel est effectuée depuis deux ans sur le four expérimental du Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel situé à Toulouse. Un certain nombre de variables ont été explorées : type de flamme, excès d'air, préchauffage de l'air, teneur en oxygène du comburant, puissance calorifique, et débit de moment cinétique. L'étude a mis en évidence une corrélation générale, quelle que soit la variable considérée, entre la quantité maximale d'oxyde d'azote formé et la température maximale de la flamme. Certains des résultats précédents ont été exploités à l'Institut Français du Pétrole, en vue d'établir une équation de vitesse de formation de NO applicable aux flammes axiales de diffusion de gaz naturel. Les calculs s'appuient sur les connaissances obtenues lors de l'étude cinétique de formation de NO effectuée au Laboratoire d'Aérothermique Fondamentale. Les résultats du calcul théorique confirment ceux de l'étude sur le four expérimental en ce qui concerne l'influence prépondérante de la température sur la formation de l'oxyde azotique. Par ailleurs, le calcul théorique retrouve bien les résultats obtenus lors de l'étude fondamentale, selon lesquels la cinétique de formation de NO évolue le long de la flamme depuis le front de flamme jusqu'aux gaz brûlés. La généralisation à un grand nombre de flammes de l'équation cinétique expérimentale obtenue nécessite maintenant de prendre en compte certains phénomènes de diffusion négligés jusqu'à présent. Research on the formation of nitrogen oxide in natural-gas diffusion flammes has been going on for two years in the experimental furnace of the Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel located in Toulouse. Different variables have been investigoted such as type of flamme, air excess, air preheating, oxygen content in the oxidant, heating power and kinetic moment output

  9. [Olfaction in depressive disorders: Issues and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, G; Schaal, B

    2017-04-01

    Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear. The current explanatory models are based on two main factors, i.e. pharmacological dysfunctions and stress effects. In this way and because of strong connections between olfactory pathways and cerebral areas implied in mood regulation and emotions (i.e. the limbic system and prefrontal areas), the interactions between olfaction and depression could constitute a relevant way of research at three different levels. First, olfactory dysfunction observed in depression could serve the diagnosis and contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms implied in thymic pathologies. Published papers show a decrease of olfactory sensitivity in major depression which does not occur in bipolar or saisonal depression. Second, it has been shown that olfactory deficits could induce depressive symptoms. In this context, an animal model (olfactory bulbectomized rat) reinforces the hypothesis of the important role of olfaction in depression based on neuroanatomical and neurochemical observations. Third, several publications have demonstrated that odors can positively impact the depressive mood. Thus, a remediation by odors in depression appears to be a promising way. From several decades, the olfaction/depression interactions have been covered by a broad literature. Thus, the present review will not propose an exhaustive examination but aims to point out the most recently published papers and

  10. Texture study of divided solids by gas adsorption: application to beryllia, alumina and to gels and oxides; Contribution a l'etude, par adsorption gazeuse, de la texture des solides divises. Application a l'alumine, a la glucine et a differents gels et oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouquerol, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    particulier dans le cas des solides mtcroporeux) pour la determination du volume de gaz adsorbe dans une couche monomoleculaire et que l'azote est sensible aux interactions chimiques ou electriques avec l'adsorbant: il convient de le remplacer par l'argon. Les methodes de calcul de la distribution de taille des pores sont analysees et discutees. Nos resultats experimentaux ont montre que l'epaisseur de la couche multimoleculaire doit etre calculee a partir du nombre de couches donne par Shull et d'une epaisseur de 3,6 angstrom par couche. Enfin, nous proposons une nouvelle methode d'analyse de la branche de desorption. Nous montrons que certains systemes lamellaires, non poreux, tels que Be(OH){sub 2}, donnent une hysteresis sur une isotherme d'adsorption du type I ou II. En nous basant sur les resultats numeriques fournis par notre methode ainsi que sur des observations obtenues par microscopie electronique, nous concluons que cette hysteresis est due au manque de rigidite du solide. Inversement, nous avons caracterise des solides poreux qui ne donnent pas lieu au phenomene d'hysteresis. C'est le cas des echantillons de glucine de texture microporeuse (r < 20 A). Les conclusions precedentes nous permettent de decrire l'evolution de texture subie par deux series d'echantillons (glucine et alumine) au cours de leur deshydratation progressive (traitement thermique allant de 150 a 1100 C). (auteur)

  11. The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

    2014-11-01

    The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors.

  12. Occupational exposure limits and olfaction in hyperbaric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M.E. [MATSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    This report with 62 references presents the results of a literature review of current information on exposure limits and olfaction in hyperbaric environments. Sources of contamination in the hyperbaric environment are identified, and measured concentrations of contaminants, occupational limits for contaminants in hyperbaric conditions, and principles adopted for the establishment of exposure limits are examined. Toxicological studies and olfaction and sense of smell are discussed, Details of current practice, alternative strategies, monitoring techniques, and the data on olfaction are given.

  13. Role of ortho-retronasal olfaction in mammalian cortical evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Timothy B; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2016-02-15

    Fossils of mammals and their extinct relatives among cynodonts give evidence of correlated transformations affecting olfaction as well as mastication, head movement, and ventilation, and suggest evolutionary coupling of these seemingly separate anatomical regions into a larger integrated system of ortho-retronasal olfaction. Evidence from paleontology and physiology suggests that ortho-retronasal olfaction played a critical role at three stages of mammalian cortical evolution: early mammalian brain development was driven in part by ortho-retronasal olfaction; the bauplan for neocortex had higher-level association functions derived from olfactory cortex; and human cortical evolution was enhanced by ortho-retronasal smell.

  14. Olfaction: the physics of how smell works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jennifer C.

    2011-09-01

    Smell is a physical process used by us all, but fully understood by none. A physicist seeks to understand the mysterious phenomena of nature and so it is natural to apply physics to this problem. There is a reluctance in the field of olfactory science to explore the physical processes of fundamental interactions in odorant recognition because the system is complex. However, nature is often compliant to our simple models, and part of the art is to reduce the problem to a soluble one, and part of the beauty of science is often that the simple model with the simple answers give the right ones. This article reviews the applicability of some physical models to olfaction and looks in particular at one theory within the realm of olfactory science. This theory was first endorsed by Turin in 1996, that smell signalling may be based on a form of Inelastic Electron Tunnelling (IETS). This review looks at the mystery of olfaction and the physical principles that may unveil such mysterious phenomena.

  15. Evaluation de quelques paramètres de la balance oxydants / antioxydants chez des rats diabétiques recevant de la quercétine

    OpenAIRE

    BESSAOUD, Sarra

    2015-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail est de déterminer l’effet des polyphénols « la quercétine » au cours du diabète comme étant un antioxydant en évaluant le statut oxydant/antioxydant chez les rats diabétiques traités par la quercétine comparés aux rats diabétiques au niveau du plasma et des organes « le foie et le tissu adipeux ». Nos résultats montrent que le diabète favorise le stress oxydatif, sa présence est marquée par une augmentation des protéines carbonylées, une diminution d...

  16. Objective and subjective olfaction across the schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Tracey L; Cohen, Alex S; Callaway, Dallas A; Brown, Laura A

    2014-01-01

    Much research indicates that patients with schizophrenia have impaired olfaction detection ability. However, studies of individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy reveal mixed results-some document impairments while others do not. In addition to deficits in objective accuracy in olfaction for patients with schizophrenia, there has been an interest in subjective experience of olfaction. Unfortunately, methods of assessing accuracy and subjective hedonic olfactory evaluations in prior studies may not have been sensitive enough to detect group differences in this area. This study employed a measure of olfactory functioning featuring an expanded scoring system to assess both accuracy and subjective evaluations of pleasant and unpleasant experience. Data were collected for patients with schizophrenia, young adults with psychometrically defined schizotypy, psychiatric outpatients, and healthy controls. Results of this study indicate that both the schizophrenia and outpatient psychiatric groups showed similar levels of impaired olfaction ability; however, the schizotypy group was not impaired in olfaction detection. Interestingly, with regard to subjective hedonic evaluation, it was found that patients with schizophrenia did not differ from psychiatric outpatients, whereas individuals with schizotypy tended to rate smells as significantly less pleasant than healthy control participants. This suggests that subjective olfactory assessment is abnormal in some manner in schizotypy. It also suggests that accuracy of olfaction identification may be a characteristic of severe mental illness across severe mental illness diagnoses. The results are potentially important for understanding olfaction deficits across the mental illness spectrum.

  17. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  18. Reid on Olfaction and Secondary Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake eQuilty-Dunn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Reid is one of the primary early expositors of the dual-component theory of perception, according to which conscious perception constitutively involves a non-intentional sensation accompanied by a noninferential perceptual belief. In this paper, I will explore Reid's account of olfactory perception, and of odor as a secondary quality. Reid is often taken to endorse a broadly Lockean picture of secondary qualities, according to which they are simply dispositions to cause sensations. This picture creates problems, however, for Reid's account of how we perceive secondary qualities, including odors. Given Reid's insistence that we come to be aware of odors only by inferring a causal relation to obtain between them and our olfactory sensations, it seems that he cannot allow for direct, noninferential perceptual awareness of odors. Since his general account of perception invokes noninferential perceptual beliefs to explain perceptual awareness, it seems that Reid must either reject this general account for the case of olfactory perception (and supplant it with something else, or else deny that we ever actually perceive odors.I will attempt to reconcile these ideas by appeal to Reid's doctrine of acquired perception, which involves the incorporation of learned conceptual representations into perceptual states via perceptual learning. Reidian acquired perception enables genuine olfactory perceptual acquaintance with odors despite the dependence of the semantic properties of the relevant representations on causal relations to sensations. In exploring these issues, I hope to illuminate several features of Reid's account of perception and demonstrate its interest to contemporary theorizing about conscious perception--especially olfaction--in the process. Reid’s theory of olfaction remains a live, coherent option for present-day theorists.

  19. Précipitation sélective de cations métalliques au moyen d'acide azélaïque issu de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Meux, E.; Oget, N.; Lecuire, J. M.; Mieloszynski, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Actuellement, les métaux présents dans les effluents liquides industriels sont précipités sous forme d'hydroxydes métalliques par ajout de lait de chaux. Les boues obtenues sont dirigées vers des centres de stockage de déchets ultimes sans possibilité de valorisation. Cette étude propose comme alternative au traitement actuel, une précipitation sélective par des réactifs qui peuvent être préparés à partir d'acides carboxyliques résultant de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique présent dans les huiles végétales. Cette publication présente dans un premier temps l'oxydation de l'acide oléique par le système oxydant NaIO4/RuO4 pour l'obtention de deux acides carboxyliques. Le rendement de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique est de 100% avec production des acides pélargonïque et azélaïque qui sont facilement purifiés par recristallisation dans l’eau. Dans un deuxième temps, cette étude présente la caractérisation de différents azélates métalliques. La détermination de leur stœchiométrie conduit à des composés de type MAz pour les cations divalents et M2Az3 pour les trivalents. Des mesures de solubilités ont été réalisées pour les azélates de Fe(III), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) et Ca(II). La gamme de solubilité s'étend de 1,17.10-2 M pour CaAz à 1,58.10-6 M pour Fe2Az3.

  20. Quantum Origins of Molecular Recognition and Olfaction in Drosophila

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, Eric R; Czader, Arkadiuz; Roman, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The standard model for molecular recognition of an odorant is that receptor sites discriminate by molecular geometry as evidenced that two chiral molecules may smell very differently. However, recent studies of isotopically labeled olfactants indicate that there may be a molecular vibration-sensing component to olfactory reception, specifically in the spectral region around 2300 cm$^{-1}$. Here we present a donor-bridge-acceptor model for olfaction which attempts to explain this effect. Our model, based upon accurate quantum chemical calculations of the olfactant (bridge) in its neutral and ionized states, posits that internal modes of the olfactant are excited impulsively during hole transfer from a donor to acceptor site on the receptor, specifically those modes that are resonant with the tunneling gap. By projecting the impulsive force onto the internal modes, we can determine which modes are excited at a given value of the donor-acceptor tunneling gap. Only those modes resonant with the tunneling gap and ...

  1. Smelling directions: olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

    2014-07-23

    Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway.

  2. Artificial olfaction systems: principles and applications to food analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonella Macagnano; Roberto Paolesse; Arnaldo D’Amico; Corrado Di Natale

    2001-01-01

    .... On the other hands, since human senses are strongly involved in the interaction with foods the analysis of food provides an excellent field to compare the performances of natural and artificial olfaction systems...

  3. Suivi par methode optique du frittage micro-ondes d'oxydes ceramiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Zymelka, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Microwave sintering is known to be a promising sintering technology. Indeed, this method has advantages such as reducing the duration of heat treatment and a significant energy saving compared with conventional processes. Year after year, sintering in a microwave environment is studied by a growing number of researchers. However, the reasons for the beneficial effect of this type of sintering are not clearly identified.In this context, the objective of this work was to verify the influence of...

  4. Synthese de nanostructures d'oxyde de zinc par procede laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Christian

    The main objective of this thesis was to develop a new manufacturing technique allowing the local synthesis of nanostructures on a surface for their eventual integration into nanodevices. The desired process has to be selective, reproducible, versatile, simple, fast and inexpensive for potential industrial utilization. Moreover, the manufacturing process must have a minimal environmental impact for sustainable development. To implement the required specifications, a laser process combining the characteristics of laser-induced chemical liquid deposition (LCLD) and of sol-gel synthesis was proposed. The technique is very simple and consists of three steps. A precursor solution is first prepared. Next, a droplet of a controlled volume is transferred on a substrate by means of a micropipette. The droplet is then irradiated using a laser emitting in the infrared to induce the fast synthesis of nanostructures. In order to prove the feasibility of the manufacturing concept for the synthesis of nanostructures, the new process was used for the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO has become one of most studied nanomaterials in the five last years as it presents very interesting properties for optoelectronics and sensing applications, while being synthesizable in a plethora of nanoscale morphologies. Using laser processing, the deposition of coatings of several square millimetres of various nanostructures (nanorods, nanowires, porous films of nanoparticles) was carried out. In particular, nanorods with an average width of 300 nm and a length of two micrometers with hexagonal cross-sections and almost atomically flat surfaces were synthesized. Nanowires with diameters of approximately 50 nm and lengths exceeding four micrometers were also grown. This constituted an innovation among the laser processing techniques, as only laser-induced chemical vapour deposition (LCVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) had been used to produce ZnO, and just in the form of thin films and nanoparticles. One of the secondary objectives of this thesis was to improve the properties of the deposits for one of the target applications of ZnO, photoluminescent devices. For this reason, a parametric study was carried out during which the influence of the laser-related parameters (irradiation time, intensity) and of the solution-related parameters (precursor, additives, concentration) on morphology and crystallinity was studied. The use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that an increase in laser intensity and irradiation time increased nanostructure length and XII crystallite size. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the nanorods grew along the c axis of the crystal lattice, at the apex of randomly oriented ZnO crystals forming a seed layer on the substrate. Additionally, an increase in precursor concentration was found to increase the thickness of this seed layer and the introduction of additives in the solution had the effect of promoting the vertically aligned growth of nanorods. Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy also showed that the deposits were of high quality with few crystalline defects. In particular, the PL spectroscopy results gave evidence that the ZnO nanostructured deposits produced by the laser process were good for ultraviolet emission applications with the presence of an intense peak at 390 nm. The extensive characterization of the samples also allowed the development of a qualitative growth model for the laser-grown ZnO nanostructures inspired by the growth and nucleation models used for conventional chemical synthesis in a liquid medium. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. ETUDE PAR PHOTOEMISSION (XPS & XPD) D'HETEROSTRUCTURES D'OXYDES FONCTIONNELS EPITAXIES SUR SILICIUM

    OpenAIRE

    El Kazzi, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is on one of the main INL axes, the goal of which is to develop the growth procedures of thin oxide single crystal on silicon. These oxides are meant to replace the presently used amorphous gate oxide (SiOxNy and HfSixOyNz) by a high-κ oxide in future “sub 22nm” CMOS. Besides, the interest in controlling the growth of these oxides goes far beyond this oxide gate application. This know-how would be a technological breakthrough to develop monolithic integration on silicon. In this c...

  6. Olfaction in child and adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecklmann, Martin; Pfannstiel, Christoph; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Warnke, Andreas; Gerlach, Manfred; Romanos, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies indicate disturbed olfactory functions in anorexia nervosa with presumable relationship to the clinical symptom of food aversion and weight loss. However, these studies are in part limited due to inadequately matched control samples, insufficient exclusion criteria, complex interactions of the olfactory and trigeminal system, and the lack of regard to co-morbidity and medication. Thus, we investigated olfactory function in 26 female adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa and 23 healthy controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and intelligence. No significant group differences were identified. Controlling for co-morbid disorders, psychopharmacological treatment, and depressivity revealed superior olfactory identification performance in the "pure" anorexia nervosa group (n = 15) in contrast to the controls. Superior identification may be mediated by increased attentional processes towards food stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa. Effects of co-morbidity and medication highlight the role of neurobiological factors in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, as other neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder show distinct olfactory function patterns, olfaction may be suitable as phenotypic marker with potential relevance for (differential) diagnosis in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Glomerular latency coding in artificial olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber eAl Yamani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory perception results from the way sensory information is subsequently transformed in the brain. Olfaction is a typical example in which odor representations undergo considerable changes as they pass from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to second-order neurons. First, many ORNs expressing the same receptor protein yet presenting heterogeneous dose-response properties converge onto individually identifiable glomeruli. Second, onset latency of glomerular activation is believed to play a role in encoding odor quality and quantity in the context of fast information processing. Taking inspiration from the olfactory pathway, we designed a simple yet robust glomerular latency coding scheme for processing gas sensor data. The proposed bio-inspired approach was evaluated using an in-house Sn02 sensor array. Glomerular convergence was achieved by noting the possible analogy between receptor protein expressed in ORNs and metal catalyst used across the fabricated gas sensor array. Ion implantation was another technique used to account both for sensor heterogeneity and enhanced sensitivity. The response of the gas sensor array was mapped into glomerular latency patterns, whose rank order is concentration-invariant. Gas recognition was achieved by simply looking for a match within a library of spatio-temporal spike fingerprints. Because of its simplicity, this approach enables the integration of sensing and processing onto a single-chip.

  8. Olfaction in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Boris A; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Despite the implications for quality of life, relatively few articles have tested olfactory function in their investigations. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the following 2 questions: (1) What does AR do to human olfaction? (2) How effective is the treatment of AR in restoring the sense of smell? A comprehensive literature search was performed, and human studies of any design were included. A total of 420 articles were identified, and 36 articles were considered relevant. Data indicate that the frequency of olfactory dysfunction increases with the duration of the disorder, and most studies report a frequency in the range of 20% to 40%. Although olfactory dysfunction does not appear to be very severe in patients with AR, its presence seems to increase with the severity of the disease. There is very limited evidence that antihistamines improve olfactory function. In addition, there is limited evidence that topical steroids improve the sense of smell, especially in patients with seasonal AR. This is also the case for specific immunotherapy. However, many questions remain unanswered because randomized controlled trials are infrequent and only a few studies rely on quantitative measurement of olfactory function.

  9. Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa eDemattè

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications.

  10. Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demattè, M Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person's diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications.

  11. Interaction between Olfaction and Gustation by Using Synchrony Perception Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsu Kobayakawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that interaction between olfaction (smell sensation and gustation (taste sensation will stronger than other interactions among five senses, although no one has ever confirmed psychophysically. In this study, we utilized synchrony perception task to confirm this specificity comparing control condition, interaction between vision and olfaction and one between vision and gustation. We used NaCl as taste stimuli and flavor from bubbling chicken stock as olfactory stimuli. We used taste stimulator which was able to present pure gustation without tactile stimuli, and smell stimulator with original developed real time stimulus monitoring. We used LED for vision stimuli. Timing of both stimuli was shifted from −1000 ms to +1000ms with each other, and participants were instructed to judge synchronicity. Control conditions revealed that olfaction and gustation has almost equivalent temporal resolution to other sensations. And probability distribution between olfaction and gustation was quite different from other interactions including vision. These results shows interaction between olfaction and gustation is more specific.

  12. Quantum origins of molecular recognition and olfaction in drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Eric R.; Madalan, Adrian; Czader, Arkadiusz; Roman, Gregg

    2012-12-01

    The standard model for molecular recognition of an odorant is that receptor sites discriminate by molecular geometry as evidenced that two chiral molecules may smell very differently. However, recent studies of isotopically labeled olfactants indicate that there may be a molecular vibration-sensing component to olfactory reception, specifically in the spectral region around 2300 cm-1. Here, we present a donor-bridge-acceptor model for olfaction which attempts to explain this effect. Our model, based upon accurate quantum chemical calculations of the olfactant (bridge) in its neutral and ionized states, posits that internal modes of the olfactant are excited impulsively during hole transfer from a donor to acceptor site on the receptor, specifically those modes that are resonant with the tunneling gap. By projecting the impulsive force onto the internal modes, we can determine which modes are excited at a given value of the donor-acceptor tunneling gap. Only those modes resonant with the tunneling gap and are impulsively excited will give a significant contribution to the inelastic transfer rate. Using acetophenone as a test case, our model and experiments on D. melanogaster suggest that isotopomers of a given olfactant give rise to different odorant qualities. These results support the notion that inelastic scattering effects may play a role in discriminating between isotopomers but that this is not a general spectroscopic effect.

  13. Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric; Jang, Seogjoo; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Dethier, Bérénice; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Gundala, Sivaji; Pan, Yi; Li, Shengju; Li, Zhen; Lodge, Stephene N; Ozbil, Mehmet; Jiang, Huihong; Penalba, Sonia F; Batista, Victor S; Zhuang, Hanyi

    2015-05-26

    The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies, ultimately leading to olfactory perception. A previous study reported that human subjects differentiated hydrogen/deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of the musk compound cyclopentadecanone as evidence supporting the theory. Here, we find no evidence for such differentiation at the molecular level. In fact, we find that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and (13)C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling our results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that the proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm(-1) IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with our extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory.

  14. Advances in artificial olfaction: sensors and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2014-06-01

    The artificial olfaction, based on electronic systems (electronic noses), includes three basic functions that operate on an odorant: a sample handler, an array of gas sensors, and a signal-processing method. The response of these artificial systems can be the identity of the odorant, an estimate concentration of the odorant, or characteristic properties of the odour as might be perceived by a human. These electronic noses are bio inspired instruments that mimic the sense of smell. The complexity of most odorants makes characterisation difficult with conventional analysis techniques, such as gas chromatography. Sensory analysis by a panel of experts is a costly process since it requires trained people who can work for only relatively short periods of time. The electronic noses are easy to build, provide short analysis times, in real time and on-line, and show high sensitivity and selectivity to the tested odorants. These systems are non-destructive techniques used to characterise odorants in diverse applications linked with the quality of life such as: control of foods, environmental quality, citizen security or clinical diagnostics. However, there is much research still to be done especially with regard to new materials and sensors technology, data processing, interpretation and validation of results. This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses and their most important applications in the environmental, and security fields. The above mentioned main components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, more advanced materials and methods for sensing, and data processing system) are described. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in the different applications are also mentioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfaction in Neurologic and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy, Maria Dantas Costa Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Loss of smell is involved in various neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the olfactory test is usually neglected by physicians at large. Objective The aim of this study was to review the current literature about the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases. Data Synthesis Twenty-seven studies were selected for analysis, and the olfactory system, olfaction, and the association between the olfactory dysfunction and dementias were reviewed. Furthermore, is described an up to date in olfaction. Conclusion Otolaryngologist should remember the importance of olfaction evaluation in daily practice. Furthermore, neurologists and physicians in general should include olfactory tests in the screening of those at higher risk of dementia.

  16. Contribution to the thermodynamic study of the non-stoichiometric oxides UO{sub 2+x} et FeO{sub 1+x}; Contribution a l'etude thermodynamique des oxydes non stoechiometriques UO{sub 2+x} et FeO{sub 1+x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdanian, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-04-15

    This thermodynamic study has provided new results concerning the oxide UO{sub 2+X} and FeO{sub 1+x}. For the oxides UO{sub 2+X} correct values have been obtained for {mu}{sub O{sub 2}}{sup M} at 900, 1000 and 1100 deg. C using an improved method based on physico-chemical equilibria. For the oxides FeO{sub 1+x} the use of an E. Calvet high temperature calorimeter has made it possible to measure for the first time the values of h{sub O{sub 2}}{sup M} at 800 deg. C over the whole iron monoxide range. The method of oxygen transfer between oxides, usually used to determine the phase limits, has been improved by using a thermo-balance; this has made it possible to draw up simple rules which have to be respected in order to detect the phenomena under study. The theory due to J.S. Anderson has been applied to the oxides UO{sub 2+X} and a new method is given for improving the representation of non-stoichiometric oxides by models. (author) [French] Cette etude thermodynamique presente des resultats nouveaux en ce qui concerne les oxydes UO{sub 2+X} et FeO{sub 1+x}. Pour les oxydes UO{sub 2+X} les valeurs correctes de {mu}{sub O{sub 2}}{sup M} a 900, 1000 et 1100 deg. C ont pu etre obtenues, grace a la methode des equilibres physico-chimiques qui a ete amelioree. Pour les oxydes FeO{sub 1+x} l'emploi du microcalorimetre a haute temperature de Ed. CALVET a permis de mesurer pour la premiere fois les valeurs de h{sub O{sub 2}}{sup M} a 800 deg. C dans toute l'etendue du domaine du protoxyde de fer. La metode de transfert d'oxygene entre oxydes, habituellement utilisee pour determiner les limites de phase a ete perfectionnee par l'emploi d'une thermo-balance ce qui a permis d'enoncer les regles simples auxquelles il est indispensable de se conformer pour obtenir les limites cherchees. La theorie de J.S. Anderson a ete appliquee aux oxydes UO{sub 2+X} et une nouvelle voie est indiquee qui peut permettre de perfectionner la representation des oxydes

  17. Olfactory cleft computed tomography analysis and olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Preeti; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Storck, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Volumetric analysis of the olfactory cleft by using computed tomography has been associated with olfaction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, existing studies have not comprehensively measured olfaction, and it thus remains unknown whether correlations differ across specific dimensions of odor perception. Objective: To use comprehensive measures of patient-reported and objective olfaction to evaluate the relationship between volumetric olfactory cleft opacification and olfaction. Methods: Olfaction in patients with CRS was evaluated by using “Sniffin' Sticks” tests and a modified version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders. Olfactory cleft opacification was quantified by using two- and three-dimensional, computerized volumetric analysis. Correlations between olfactory metrics and olfactory cleft opacification were then calculated. Results: The overall CRS cohort included 26 patients without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) (68.4%) and 12 patients with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) (31.6%). Across the entire cohort, total olfactory cleft opacification was 82.8%, with greater opacification in the CRSwNP subgroup compared with CRSsNP (92.3 versus 78.4%, p < 0.001). The percent total volume opacification correlated with the total Sniffin' Sticks score (r = −0.568, p < 0.001) as well as individual threshold, discrimination, and identification scores (p < 0.001 for all). Within the CRSwNP subgroup, threshold (r = −0.616, p = 0.033) and identification (r = −0.647, p = 0.023) remained highly correlated with total volume opacification. In patients with CRSsNP, the threshold correlated with total volume scores (r = −0.457, p = 0.019), with weaker and nonsignificant correlations for discrimination and identification. Correlations between total volume opacification and the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders were qualitatively similar to objective olfactory findings in both CRSwNP (r = −0.566, p = 0.070) and CRSsNP (r = −0.310, p

  18. Olfaction and gustation abilities after a total laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumovic Gordana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A laryngectomy affects many of a patient’s functions. Besides speech and respiratory-tract problems, olfaction and gustation problems can also have an influence on the quality of life. The aim of this study was to find out how often various nasal problems and decreased gustation appear after a laryngectomy.

  19. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects; Proprietes physiques et caracteristiques mecaniques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte - Effet de l'irradiation et guerison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    ovees en plusieurs points, on en deduit le coefficient de diffusivite thermique. Ont ete mesures egalement: la resistance a la traction; la resistance a la compression; le coefficient de dilatation; la vitesse de propagation du son; les parametres cristallins. Certaines des mesures ont ete effectuees apres irradiation par des neutrons. Quelques indications ont ete obtenues sur les variations des proprietes de l'oxyde de beryllium en fonction du flux integre recu. (auteur)

  20. Effets du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'aciers ferritiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, C.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Riffard, F.; El Messki, S.; Karimi, N.; Antoni, L.

    2004-11-01

    Nous avons étudié l'effet du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'un acier Fe-Cr chrominoformeur. La DRX in situ montre que le titane semble s'oxyder en formant Cr{2}TiO{5} et TiO{2} qui contribuent à une augmentation de la prise de masse des échantillons. Une partie du titane issu de ces oxydes semble doper la couche de chromine. Sa présence augmente la concentration en lacunes cationiques dans la chromine et augmente donc la diffusion du chrome dans la couche. Nous avons aussi montré que le niobium n'a pas d'influence sur l'oxydation de ce type d'acier à 950circC.

  1. Investigation experimentale de l'ecoulement et des performances thermiques du nanofluide eau-oxyde de cuivre dans un Micro-Canal Chauffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbault, Benjamin

    Cette these de maitrise presentee par articles visait a etudier le comportement hydraulique et thermique d'un ecoulement de nanofluides en micro-canal chauffe. Nous avons etudie premierement de l'eau distillee, ensuite des melanges de particules d'oxyde de cuivre (taille 29nm) avec de l'eau distillee en concentrations particulaires volumiques 4.5%, 1.03%, et 0.24% (CuO-H2O). L'ecoulement force des differents fluides a ete realise au moyen de pompes a engrenages au sein d'un circuit ferme, comprenant un micro-canal a section rectangulaire (e=1.116mm,1=25.229mm) chauffe sur deux faces paralleles via des cartouches electriques, deux echangeurs de chaleurs en serie, ainsi qu'un debitmetre magnetique. A notre connaissance peu d'etudes sur l'ecoulement de nanofluides d'oxyde de cuivre-eau en micro-canal rectangulaire chauffe sont disponibles dans la litterature, cette recherche sert de contribution. Premierement, une validation avec la litterature a ete effectuee pour le cas d'un ecoulement d'eau entre plaques planes paralleles chauffees. Des essais hydrauliques ont ete realises pour une gamme du nombre de Reynolds allant jusqu'a Re=5000 a temperature constante. Par la suite des essais thermiques jusqu'a Re=2500 ont consiste en une elevation de temperature fixe (20.5°C a 30.5°C) a travers la longueur du micro-canal sous un regime stationnaire. Les resultats ont demontre une augmentation de la perte de pression et du coefficient de frottement des nanofluides sur l'eau pour un meme debit. Une telle augmentation de perte de pression etait de +70%, +25%, et +0 a 30% respectivement pour les concentrations 4.50%, 1.03%, et 0.24%. Concernant la transition laminaire a turbulent les comportements semblaient indiquer une valeur critique semblable entre l'eau et les differentes concentrations avec et sans chauffage a un nombre de Reynolds critique Rem 1000. Nous avons observe une legere augmentation du coefficient de convection thermique avec le debit massique pour les faibles

  2. Molecular Vibration-Sensing Component in Human Olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gane; Dimitris Georganakis; Klio Maniati; Manolis Vamvakias; Nikitas Ragoussis; Efthimios M C Skoulakis; Luca Turin

    2013-01-01

    Whether olfaction recognizes odorants by their shape, their molecular vibrations, or both remains an open and controversial question. A convenient way to address it is to test for odor character differences between deuterated and undeuterated odorant isotopomers, since these have identical ground-state conformations but different vibrational modes. In a previous paper (Franco et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9, 3797-802) we showed that fruit flies can recognize the presence of deuteri...

  3. The survival advantage of olfaction in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Kenta; Pavlenkovich, Viktoryia; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-08-05

    Olfaction is generally assumed to be critical for survival because this sense allows animals to detect food and pheromonal cues. Although the ability to sense sex pheromones [1, 2, 3] is likely to be important for insects, the contribution of general odor detection to survival is unknown. We investigated the extent to which the olfactory system confers a survival advantage on Drosophila larvae foraging for food under conditions of limited resources and competition from other larvae.

  4. The Role of Spike Temporal Latencies in Artificial Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, D.; Martinelli, E.; Dini, F.; Paolesse, R.; Filippini, D.; Lundström, I.; Di Natale, C.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the recognition power of spike time latencies in an artificial olfactory system. For the scope we used a recently introduced platform for artificial olfaction implementing an artificial olfactory epithelium, formed by thousands sensors, and an abstract olfactory bulb1. Results show that correct volatile compounds classification can be achieved considering only the first two spikes of the neural network output evidencing that the latency of the first spikes contains actually enough information for odor identification.

  5. Olfactory region schwannoma: Excision with preservation of olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory region schwannomas are rare, but when they occur, they commonly arise from the meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve and may present without involvement of the olfaction. A 24 year old lady presented with hemifacial paraesthesias. Radiology revealed a large olfactory region enhancing lesion. She was operated through a transbasal with olfactory preserving approach. This manuscript highlights the importance of olfactory preservation in such lesions.

  6. Development of a Scalable Testbed for Mobile Olfaction Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Syed Muhammad Mamduh Syed; Visvanathan, Retnam; Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Yeon, Ahmad Shakaff Ali; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Zakaria, Ammar; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2015-12-09

    The lack of information on ground truth gas dispersion and experiment verification information has impeded the development of mobile olfaction systems, especially for real-world conditions. In this paper, an integrated testbed for mobile gas sensing experiments is presented. The integrated 3 m × 6 m testbed was built to provide real-time ground truth information for mobile olfaction system development. The testbed consists of a 72-gas-sensor array, namely Large Gas Sensor Array (LGSA), a localization system based on cameras and a wireless communication backbone for robot communication and integration into the testbed system. Furthermore, the data collected from the testbed may be streamed into a simulation environment to expedite development. Calibration results using ethanol have shown that using a large number of gas sensor in the LGSA is feasible and can produce coherent signals when exposed to the same concentrations. The results have shown that the testbed was able to capture the time varying characteristics and the variability of gas plume in a 2 h experiment thus providing time dependent ground truth concentration maps. The authors have demonstrated the ability of the mobile olfaction testbed to monitor, verify and thus, provide insight to gas distribution mapping experiment.

  7. Development of a Scalable Testbed for Mobile Olfaction Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Mamduh Syed Zakaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information on ground truth gas dispersion and experiment verification information has impeded the development of mobile olfaction systems, especially for real-world conditions. In this paper, an integrated testbed for mobile gas sensing experiments is presented. The integrated 3 m × 6 m testbed was built to provide real-time ground truth information for mobile olfaction system development. The testbed consists of a 72-gas-sensor array, namely Large Gas Sensor Array (LGSA, a localization system based on cameras and a wireless communication backbone for robot communication and integration into the testbed system. Furthermore, the data collected from the testbed may be streamed into a simulation environment to expedite development. Calibration results using ethanol have shown that using a large number of gas sensor in the LGSA is feasible and can produce coherent signals when exposed to the same concentrations. The results have shown that the testbed was able to capture the time varying characteristics and the variability of gas plume in a 2 h experiment thus providing time dependent ground truth concentration maps. The authors have demonstrated the ability of the mobile olfaction testbed to monitor, verify and thus, provide insight to gas distribution mapping experiment.

  8. A Mechanistic Link between Olfaction and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenkrantz, Liron; Zachor, Ditza; Heller, Iris; Plotkin, Anton; Weissbrod, Aharon; Snitz, Kobi; Secundo, Lavi; Sobel, Noam

    2015-07-20

    Internal action models (IAMs) are brain templates for sensory-motor coordination underlying diverse behaviors. An emerging theory suggests that impaired IAMs are a common theme in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, whether impaired IAMs occur across sensory systems and how they relate to the major phenotype of ASD, namely impaired social communication, remains unclear. Olfaction relies on an IAM known as the sniff response, where sniff magnitude is automatically modulated to account for odor valence. To test the failed IAM theory in olfaction, we precisely measured the non-verbal non-task-dependent sniff response concurrent with pleasant and unpleasant odors in 36 children--18 with ASD and 18 matched typically developing (TD) controls. We found that whereas TD children generated a typical adult-like sniff response within 305 ms of odor onset, ASD children had a profoundly altered sniff response, sniffing equally regardless of odor valance. This difference persisted despite equal reported odor perception and allowed for 81% correct ASD classification based on the sniff response alone (binomial, p 0.18), impairment. These results uncover a novel ASD marker implying a mechanistic link between the underpinnings of olfaction and ASD and directly linking an impaired IAM with impaired social abilities.

  9. First evidence of the use of olfaction in Odonata behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Gaino, Elda; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2014-03-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies are among the most ancient winged insects. Adults belonging to this order are visually oriented and are considered anosmic on the basis of neuroanatomical investigations. As a consequence, the chemical ecology of these predatory insects has long been neglected. Morphological and electrophysiological data demonstrated that dragonfly antennae possess olfactory sensilla. Additionally, a neuroanatomical study revealed the presence of spherical knots in the aglomerular antennal lobe that could allow for the perception of odour. However, the biological role of the antennal olfactory sensilla remains unknown, and no bioassay showing the use of olfaction in Odonata has been performed thus far. Here, we demonstrate through behavioural assays that adults of Ischnura elegans are attracted by olfactory cues emitted by prey; furthermore, using electrophysiological single-cell recordings, we prove that the antennal olfactory sensilla of I. elegans respond to prey odour. Our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of antennal olfactory sensilla in Odonata predation, thus showing, for the first time, the use of olfaction in Odonata biology. This finding indicates that the nervous system of Odonata is able to receive and process olfactory information, suggesting that the simple organisation of the antennal lobe does not prevent the use of olfaction in insects.

  10. Study of the catalytic activity of pure or cerium-containing thoria in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (1963); Etude de l'activite catalytique de la thorine pure ou contenant du cerium. Dans l'oxydation de l'oxyde de carbone (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    We have undertaken research into the oxidation of carbon monoxide on pure thoria prepared by the decomposition of thorium nitrate, and on the same oxide containing small amounts of cerium. The results we have obtained, both as concerns the chemisorption of the various gases as well as the conductivity of the absorbent and the kinetics of the oxidation itself, appear to be quite coherent. The following steps occur: 1) The carbon monoxide is adsorbed on a clean catalyst surface, the oxygen remaining un-adsorbed. 2) The oxygen is adsorbed on a previously adsorbed carbon, monoxide layer, and reacts to give carbon dioxide (no role being played by the lattice oxygen). This behaviour is usual for a p-type semiconductor. We have in fact confirmed that semi-conductivity is of this type, and the gas-solid interactions can be written: (1) CO{sub (g)} {r_reversible} CO{sup +}{sub (a)} + e{sup -} (2) CO{sup +} 1/2 O{sub 2(g)} + 2 e{sup -} {yields} CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} (3) CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} {r_reversible} CO{sub 2(g)} + e{sup -} The kinetic equation obtained by supposing that step (2) is the slowest, makes it possible to deduce correctly the experimental results which can be expressed as: dp / dt = k (P{sup 0.3}{sub CO} x P{sup 0.5}{sub O{sub 2}}) / (1+ k' x P{sub CO{sub 2}}) The influence of the addition of small amounts of cerium can also be explained logically by this process; there is in fact both a decrease in the conductivity and an increase in the catalytic activity, this being characteristic, according to VOLKENSTEIN [52] of an n-type rate-determining reaction occurring on a p-type semi-conductor. We believe that these first results could be advantageously complemented by a study of thoria prepared by other means and doped differently. (author) [French] Nous avons entrepris l'etude de l'oxydation de l'oxyde de carbone sur la thorine pure preparee par decomposition du nitrate de thorium, et sur le meme oxyde renfermant de petites quantites de cerium

  11. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez Murcia, Susana; Giner Bartolomé, Cristina; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Torre Fornell, Rafael de la; Pastor, Antonio; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling T...

  12. Les oxydes d'azote dans l'environnement Nitrogen Oxides in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppeneau J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article expose les concentrations en oxydes d'azote rencontrées dans l'environnement et fait la part des origines naturelles et anthropogéniques. II présente une des manifestations les plus connues des interactions entre les oxydes d'azote, les molécules organiques, la vapeur d'eau et le rayonnement solaire le brouillard photochimique. Un certain nombre de données sur les effets d'oxydes d'azote sur l'homme et le milieu sont cités et il est mentionné que de nombreuses recherches sont à effectuer pour préciser les connaissances actuelles. Enfin, les réglementations présentes et futures sont décrites. This article describes concentrations of nitrogen oxides found in the environment and explains their natural and anthropogenic origins. It describes one of the best known examples of interactions between nitrogen oxides, organic molecules, water vaporand solorradiation, i. e. photochemical smog. Various data are brought outconcerning the effects of nitrogen oxides on man and the environment, and mention is mode of the many research projects being carried out ta specify current knowledge. Present and future regulations are also described.

  13. The creation of a uranium oxide industry, from the laboratory stage to a pilot plant (1961); Creation d'une industrie de l'oxyde d'uranium du laboratoire a l'usine pilote (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Delange, M.; Sauteron, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hauser, R. [Compagnie Industrielle des Combustibles atomiques frittes (France)

    1961-07-01

    The qualities of uranium oxide, in particular its good in-pile characteristics and its resistance to corrosion by the usual heat-exchange fluids, have led to this material being chose at the present time as a nuclear fuel in many power reactors, either planned or under construction. A great effort has been made these last few years in France in studying processes for transforming powdered uranium oxide into a dense material with satisfactory behaviour in a neutron flux. The laboratories at Saclay have studied the physico-chemical features of the phenomena accompanying the calcination of uranium peroxide or ammonium uranate to give uranium trioxide, and the subsequent reduction of the latter to dioxide as well as the sintering of the powders obtained. This work has made it possible on one hand to prepare powder of known specific surface area, and on the other to show the overriding influence of this factor, all other things being equal, on the behaviour of powders during sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. The work has led to defining two methods for sintering stoichiometric uranium oxide of high density. The technological study of the preparation of the powder and its industrial production are carried out at the plant of Le Bouchet which produces at the moment powders of known characteristics suitable for sintering in hydrogen at 1650 deg. C without prior grinding. The industrial sintering is carried out by the Compagnie industrielle des Combustibles Atomiques Frittes who has set up a pilot plant having a capacity of 25 metric tons/year, for the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique and has been operating this plant since May 1958. This plant is presented by a film entitled 'uranium oxide'. (author) [French] Les qualites de l'oxyde d'uranium, en particulier son bon comportement en pile et sa resistance a la corrosion par les fluides caloporteurs habituels, font choisir aujourd'hui ce materiau comme combustible de nombreux reacteurs de

  14. Etude paramétrique des effets de la stratification de la flamme sur les émissions d'oxydes d'azote (première partie Parametric Study of Statification Effects on Nitric Oxyde Emissions from Flam (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On a étudié les effets de la stratification de flammes de prémélange laminaires, stationnaires et non stationnaires, sur les émissions d'oxydes d'azote formés par le mécanisme thermique et par le mécanisme du fuel-NO. Deux modalités de stratification ont été considérées, l'une juxtaposant sur le même plan les zones de combustion primaires correspond aux fractions individuelles du mélange stratifié (stratification en juxtaposition, l'autre disposant ces zones de combustion primaires sur des plans successifs (stratification en succession. Les émissions d'oxydes d'azote mesurées sur les flammes stratifiées ont été comparées à celles provenant de flammes non stratifiées de même composition globale et brûlant dans des conditions identiques. L'étude montre qu'il y a lieu de distinguer deux types d'effets de stratification. II existe un effet primaire -qui est la simple conséquence du morcellement de la flamme en un certain nombre de zones de combustion primaires (caractérisées par des compositions différentes et qui se traduit par l'additivité des émissions individuelles provenant des fractions respectives du mélange. L'effet total de la stratification se réduit à ce seul effet primaire au cas où les vitesses de formation des oxydes d'azote deviennent nulles après re-mélange des produits de combustion provenant des différentes fractions du mélange stratifié. Il en est ainsi par exemple dans le cas des flammes non stationnaires stratifiées en succession ; il en résulte alors soit une augmentation soit une diminution des émissions d'oxydes d'azote par rapport à celles des flammes non stratifiées, suivant la valeur de la richesse globale et du degré de stratification. Des effets secondaires de stratification se manifestent chaque fois que des produits de combustion, provenant d'une zone de combustion primaire donnée, sont introduits totalement ou partiellement dans un autre front de flamme créé par la

  15. Discrimination of Chinese Herbal Medicine by Machine Olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available “Small Sample Size” (SSS problem would occur while using linear discriminant analysis (LDA algorithm with traditional Fisher criterion if the within-class scatter matrix is singular. The combination of maximum scatter difference (MSD criterion and LDA algorithm for solve SSS problem is described. It is employed to detect three kinds of Chinese herbal medicines from different growing areas by machine olfaction. Compared with PCA or PCA + LDA algorithm, the classification result was enhanced. It works out that only a few samples of Anhui Atractylodes are classified incorrectly, however, the classification rate reaches 97.8%.

  16. The Research on Artificial Olfaction System-Electronic Nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C W [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao (China); Wang, G D [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper has presented an artificial olfactory system, based on the structure and mechanism of biological olfactory system. The main goal of our study was to expound the principle of olfaction system of human body. It has complex structure model and of which structure and mechanism still under exploration. We built the model of sensory system mechanism, depicted the olfactory mechanism of the olfactory, and compared the different methods of pattern recognition. The result will show that the SOM method of pattern recognition accord by and large with human mode, and is better than the BP neural network.

  17. Olfaction in Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher F; Kern, Robert C; Conley, David B

    2015-10-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common complaint for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, because smell loss decreases a patient's quality of life. Smell loss is caused by obstruction from polyps, nasal discharge, and mucosal edema, as well as inflammatory changes within the olfactory epithelium. Addressing olfaction before endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery is important in order to set postoperative expectations, because an improvement in smell is difficult to predict. Several commercially available olfactory testing measures are available and can easily be administered in clinic. During surgery, careful dissection within the olfactory cleft is recommended in order to optimize postoperative olfactory function.

  18. DEGRADATION PHOTOCATALYTIQUE DE L’ISOPROTURON EN SUSPENSIONS AQUEUSES DU BIOXYDE DE TITANE IRRADIEE PAR UV: CINETIQUE DE DEGRADATION, PRODUITS INTERMEDIAIRES ET MECANISME REACTIONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S AZIZI

    2008-06-01

    sur la dégradation de IP a été également étudié. Les produits intermédiaires ont été identifiés par chromatographie liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse (LC-MS. Les produits principaux par ordre d'importance étaient les produits ortho- et méta hydroxylé et composés d'oxydation sur la chaînes urée qui mène au produit de la déméthylation

  19. MALICE: un logiciel couplant la méthode intégrale et la méthode des éléments finis. Application à la fusion des oxydes en creuset froid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, S.; Saumabere, D.; Gagnoud, A.; Du Terrail Couvat, Y.

    1992-11-01

    The multimethod Malice package allows to modelize coupled phenomena in the inducion elaboration. It is the result of the couping of 3D electromagnetic package OPHELIE and a generator of partial derivative equations FLUX EXPERT. The electromagnetic model is solved by integral method. It is well adapted to 3D problem, infinite domain of study and fine skin depth which is particularly intersting for the modelling of cold crucible installation. FLUX EXPERT uses finite element method to solve phenomenon equations: thermic and hydrodynamic phenomena are described in its equation base. In the particular application of fusion of oxyde in cold crucible, the results obtained enhance the interest of the package. The physical properties of these materials strongly depend on temperature, thus physical phenomena are coupled. Results calculated without coupling may lead to false exploitation of the process. Le logiciel MALICE modélise les phénomènes physiques couplés dans les installations d'élaboration par induction. Il est le résultat du couplage de deux logiciels: OPHELIE et FLUX-EXPERT. Le phénomène électromagnétique est résolu par la Méthode Intégrale (MI), bien adaptée au problème électromagnétique 3D notamment pour les domaines infinis et les régions où l'épaisseur de peau électromagnétique est faible. Ceci est particulièrement intéressant pour la modélisation du creuset froid. Le logiciel FLUX-EXPERT est basé sur la Méthode des Eléments Finis (MEF) et contient un générateur d'équations incluant la description des phénomènes thermique et hydrodynamique. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de la fusion des oxydes en creuset froid mettent en évidence l'intérêt du couplage. Les propriétés physiques des oxydes varient fortement avec la température et l'interaction entre les phénomènes est importante. Les résultats obtenus sans couplage sont erronés et peuvent conduire à un dimensionnement aberrant de l'installation de fusion.

  20. Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Andrew P; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities.

  1. Data Simulation in Machine Olfaction with the R Package Chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Perera-Lluna, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In machine olfaction, the design of applications based on gas sensor arrays is highly dependent on the robustness of the signal and data processing algorithms. While the practice of testing the algorithms on public benchmarks is not common in the field, we propose software for performing data simulations in the machine olfaction field by generating parameterized sensor array data. The software is implemented as an R language package chemosensors which is open-access, platform-independent and self-contained. We introduce the concept of a virtual sensor array which can be used as a data generation tool. In this work, we describe the data simulation workflow which basically consists of scenario definition, virtual array parameterization and the generation of sensor array data. We also give examples of the processing of the simulated data as proof of concept for the parameterized sensor array data: the benchmarking of classification algorithms, the evaluation of linear- and non-linear regression algorithms, and the biologically inspired processing of sensor array data. All the results presented were obtained under version 0.7.6 of the chemosensors package whose home page is chemosensors.r-forge.r-project.org. PMID:24586410

  2. Data simulation in machine olfaction with the R package chemosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ziyatdinov

    Full Text Available In machine olfaction, the design of applications based on gas sensor arrays is highly dependent on the robustness of the signal and data processing algorithms. While the practice of testing the algorithms on public benchmarks is not common in the field, we propose software for performing data simulations in the machine olfaction field by generating parameterized sensor array data. The software is implemented as an R language package chemosensors which is open-access, platform-independent and self-contained. We introduce the concept of a virtual sensor array which can be used as a data generation tool. In this work, we describe the data simulation workflow which basically consists of scenario definition, virtual array parameterization and the generation of sensor array data. We also give examples of the processing of the simulated data as proof of concept for the parameterized sensor array data: the benchmarking of classification algorithms, the evaluation of linear- and non-linear regression algorithms, and the biologically inspired processing of sensor array data. All the results presented were obtained under version 0.7.6 of the chemosensors package whose home page is chemosensors.r-forge.r-project.org.

  3. Molecular Vibration-Sensing Component in Human Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakias, Manolis; Ragoussis, Nikitas; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.; Turin, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Whether olfaction recognizes odorants by their shape, their molecular vibrations, or both remains an open and controversial question. A convenient way to address it is to test for odor character differences between deuterated and undeuterated odorant isotopomers, since these have identical ground-state conformations but different vibrational modes. In a previous paper (Franco et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9, 3797-802) we showed that fruit flies can recognize the presence of deuterium in odorants by a vibrational mechanism. Here we address the question of whether humans too can distinguish deuterated and undeuterated odorants. A previous report (Keller and Vosshall (2004) Nat Neurosci 7:4, 337-8) indicated that naive subjects are incapable of distinguishing acetophenone and d-8 acetophenone. Here we confirm and extend those results to trained subjects and gas-chromatography [GC]-pure odorants. However, we also show that subjects easily distinguish deuterated and undeuterated musk odorants purified to GC-pure standard. These results are consistent with a vibrational component in human olfaction. PMID:23372854

  4. Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gane

    Full Text Available Whether olfaction recognizes odorants by their shape, their molecular vibrations, or both remains an open and controversial question. A convenient way to address it is to test for odor character differences between deuterated and undeuterated odorant isotopomers, since these have identical ground-state conformations but different vibrational modes. In a previous paper (Franco et al. (2011 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9, 3797-802 we showed that fruit flies can recognize the presence of deuterium in odorants by a vibrational mechanism. Here we address the question of whether humans too can distinguish deuterated and undeuterated odorants. A previous report (Keller and Vosshall (2004 Nat Neurosci 7:4, 337-8 indicated that naive subjects are incapable of distinguishing acetophenone and d-8 acetophenone. Here we confirm and extend those results to trained subjects and gas-chromatography [GC]-pure odorants. However, we also show that subjects easily distinguish deuterated and undeuterated musk odorants purified to GC-pure standard. These results are consistent with a vibrational component in human olfaction.

  5. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors.

  6. Data simulation in machine olfaction with the R package chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Perera-Lluna, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In machine olfaction, the design of applications based on gas sensor arrays is highly dependent on the robustness of the signal and data processing algorithms. While the practice of testing the algorithms on public benchmarks is not common in the field, we propose software for performing data simulations in the machine olfaction field by generating parameterized sensor array data. The software is implemented as an R language package chemosensors which is open-access, platform-independent and self-contained. We introduce the concept of a virtual sensor array which can be used as a data generation tool. In this work, we describe the data simulation workflow which basically consists of scenario definition, virtual array parameterization and the generation of sensor array data. We also give examples of the processing of the simulated data as proof of concept for the parameterized sensor array data: the benchmarking of classification algorithms, the evaluation of linear- and non-linear regression algorithms, and the biologically inspired processing of sensor array data. All the results presented were obtained under version 0.7.6 of the chemosensors package whose home page is chemosensors.r-forge.r-project.org.

  7. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article, en utilisant la méthode du ruban chauffé, une étude de la compétition entre (1 la dévolatilisation et l'oxydation consécutive des produits de pyrolyse et (2 l'ignition de la matrice solide et sa combustion rapide. La comparaison entre le moment de l'ignition et le début de la pyrolyse permet de déterminer en fonction de la température, de la taille des particules et de la concentration en oxygène, le domaine dans lequel l'ignition d'un combustible solide pyrolysable est du type whole coal ignition (c'est-à-dire lorsque l'ignition intervient avant que la pyrolyse devienne mesurable. Les résultats suggèrent que ce type d'ignition doit s'effectuer en règle générale dans les conditions de mise en oeuvre des combustibles solides pulvérisés dans les flammes industrielles. Dans le cas de l'ignition whole coal , la vitesse de combustion de la matrice solide est inhibée dans la période qui suit l'ignition. Cette inhibition est due d'une part à la difficulté pour l'oxygène de diffuser dans les pores pendant la sortie des produits de pyrolyse, et d'autre part à la consommation préférentielle de l'oxygène dans l'oxydation des produits de pyrolyse, principalement dans le cas où cette oxydation se développe sous forme de flamme. Ce n'est que lorsque la pyrolyse s'achève que la vitesse de combustion hétérogène peut atteindre sa valeur stationnaire normale, qui est alors pratiquement identique à celle du coke. Aux températures situées entre la température d'ignition du combustible solide et la température d'extinction du coke résiduel, la combustion est incomplète, une extinction intervenant à un degré de dévolatilisation d'autant plus grande que la température est élevée. Ce phénomène s'explique qualitativement par la théorie classique d'ignition thermique lorsqu'on l'applique au cas particulier des combustibles solides pyrolysables. Les températures d'ignition ainsi que les d

  8. Olfaction in chemotherapy for head and neck malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Boris R; Berg, Stephanie; Boessert, Patrick; Mann, Wolf J; Fruth, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Systemic chemotherapy for different malignancies occurs alongside various side effects, including reduced sensory function. To date, little is known about the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on olfaction. The aim of this study was to provide new data about changes in sense of smell during chemotherapy among patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. In a prospective, controlled cohort study of patients undergoing up to three courses of chemotherapy (cis- or carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel), olfaction was evaluated prior to and directly following completing a cycle, as well as 3 weeks later with the beginning of the next cycle. For evaluation of sense of smell, the established Sniffin' Sticks test with a determination of threshold, discrimination and identification (TDI) was used. Thirty-three patients (44-85 years old, 25 men and 8 women) were included in the study. Most malignancies were located in the oropharynx. Among the 28 patients who scored normosmic or hyposmic at the beginning of the study, the mean decrease in TDI-score was 0.72 points (24.0-23.2) in the first cycle, 2.1 points (24.5-22.4) in the second cycle and 0.77 points (24.2-23.4) in the third cycle. The decrease during the second cycle was significant. Age (>55 years) had a significant (negative) influence in the first and the second cycles. Smoking only showed a tendency to decreased TDI-scores in chemotherapy. In-between consecutive cycles an increase in TDI-score was obvious (+1.0 points after the first and +1.5 points after the second cycle). Chemotherapy with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel significantly affected sense of smell to a small extent. This effect was more pronounced in elderly patients and smokers. This fact must be taken into account as a possible additional negative effect in usually prevailing malnutrition in these patients. Furthermore, no cumulative effect of the administered therapeutic agents on olfaction could be proven

  9. Plasticity in Insect Olfaction: To Smell or Not to Smell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadenne, Christophe; Barrozo, Romina B; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    In insects, olfaction plays a crucial role in many behavioral contexts, such as locating food, sexual partners, and oviposition sites. To successfully perform such behaviors, insects must respond to chemical stimuli at the right moment. Insects modulate their olfactory system according to their physiological state upon interaction with their environment. Here, we review the plasticity of behavioral responses to different odor types according to age, feeding state, circadian rhythm, and mating status. We also summarize what is known about the underlying neural and endocrinological mechanisms, from peripheral detection to central nervous integration, and cover neuromodulation from the molecular to the behavioral level. We describe forms of olfactory plasticity that have contributed to the evolutionary success of insects and have provided them with remarkable tools to adapt to their ever-changing environment.

  10. Etude de l'oxydation d'un colorant organique AO7, par H2O2, en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The main objective of this work was to study the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) dye in an aqueous ... que les pesticides, d'où la nécessité de rechercher de meilleures alternatives. ..... Heteropolyblues: Relationship between metal-oxygen-metal bridges and ... 7 Using Ti/RuO2-Pt Electrode, Int. J. Electrochem.

  11. Fabrication et analyse de nanomatériaux à bases d'oxydes par des techniques de diffusion de rayonnement

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Safall

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of oxides (ZnO and SiO2) synthesized by sol-gel method. Firstly, we study the kinectics growth of ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The aqueous chemical growth of ZnO was done at the ESRF (ID10 beamline) for using the synchrotron radiation (22 Kev). The in-situ monitoring by synchrotron radiation on a substrate placed in solution made up from zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2,6H2O, 98%, Acros Organics] and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4, 99%, Acros Org...

  12. Signalisation apototique induite par les LDL oxydées Implication dans l’athérosclérose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negre-Salvayre Anne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between vascular cell proliferation vs apoptosis plays a key role in vessel wall remodeling. Intimal migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC, and secretion of extracellular matrix are involved in fibrous cap formation and plaque stability, whereas apoptosis of vascular cells may contribute to the erosion and instability of the plaque leading to its rupture and subsequent thrombus formation. LDL become atherogenic after undergoing oxidation within the vascular wall. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL and oxidized lipids exhibit complex biological properties involved in endothelial dysfunction, SMC migration and proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis involves the extrinsic propapoptotic pathway (linked to Fas/Fas ligand in lymphocytes, and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, involving bcl-2 family members, cytochrome C release, and the terminal executive caspase-3 pathway, as well as the mitochondrial apoptotic factor AIF, in vascular cells. The apoptotic signaling of oxLDL is mediated in part by an intense and sustained rise of cytosolic calcium. The mechanisms regulating the balance between proliferation and apoptosis triggered by oxLDL and their role in vivo in atherosclerotic plaque progression remains to be clarified.

  13. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys; Plasticite des alliages ferritiques renforces par dispersion d`oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakine, C.

    1994-07-05

    The object of this work is to study the plasticity mechanisms of two oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys, DT and DY. Microstructural characterisation has been performed on DT and DY alloys by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials, strengthened by an oxide dispersion, contain an intermetallic {chi} phase precipitated on grain boundaries. The {chi} phase, stable up to 900 deg, can be dissolved into the matrix by heat treatment beyond 1 000 deg. Between 20 and 700 deg, according to tensile tests, the DY alloy which is strengthened by a fine dispersion of yttria particles is more resistant and less ductile than DT alloy, strengthened by titanium oxides. Tensile tests performed at room temperature, in the chamber of a SEM, have shown that micro-cracking of the {chi} phase coincides with the first stage of the macroscopic yielding. The cavities initiated by the {chi} phase micro-cracking induce a ductile fracture of the matrix. A dynamic strain ageing mechanism has been observed around 400 deg, which is attributed to the Mo contribution. Between 20 and 700 deg, comparison of tensile properties of alloys with or without {chi} phase has shown that the intermetallic phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, but has no influence on the mechanical strength. Creep tests have been performed between 500 and 700 deg. Thermally activated plasticity mechanisms are observed in this temperature range. The {chi} phase, which is always micro-cracked after tensile testing, is not damaged after creep testing below a critical stress. This behaviour is explained by the influence of strain rate through the competition between strain hardening and relaxation of the matrix. (author).

  14. Olfaction evaluation and correlation with brain atrophy in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J-J; Noblet, V; Durand, M; Scheidecker, S; Zinetti-Bertschy, A; Foucher, J; Marion, V; Muller, J; Riehm, S; Dollfus, H; Kremer, S

    2014-12-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a well-recognized ciliopathy characterized by cardinal features namely: early onset retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, obesity, hypogonadism, renal and cognitive impairment. Recently, disorders of olfaction (anosmia, hyposmia) have been also described in BBS patients. Moreover, morphological brain anomalies have been reported and prompt for further investigations to determine whether they are primary or secondary to peripheral organ involvement (i.e. visual or olfactory neuronal tissue). The objective of this article is to evaluate olfactory disorders in BBS patients and to investigate putative correlation with morphological cerebral anomalies. To this end, 20 BBS patients were recruited and evaluated for olfaction using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). All of them underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. We first investigated brain morphological differences between BBS subjects and 14 healthy volunteers. Then, we showed objective olfaction disorders in BBS patients and highlight correlation between gray matter volume reduction and olfaction dysfunction in several brain areas.

  15. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  16. Spectrophotometric study of neptunium (VI) complexation by nitrate ions; Etude par spectrophotometrie de la complexation du neptunium au degre d'oxydation (VI) par les ions nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, P. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre Regional Associe de Lyon, 69 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Neptunium(VI) complexation by nitrate ions was investigated by visible and near-infrared spectrophotometry, a technique suitable for observing the appearance and evolution of the species in solution. In the absence of reference spectra for Np(VI) nitrate- complexes, mathematical (factor analysis) tools were used to interpret the spectra. These chemo-metric techniques were first tested and validated on a simpler chemical system: Np(VI)complexation by the SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-} anion. The test media used to investigate Np(VI) nitrate- complexes generally contain nitrate and perchlorate salts at high concentrations (high ionic strength). Media effects arising from the presence of cations, acidity or the perchlorate ion concentration are therefore significant, and no doubt account for the scattered values of the complexation constants published in the literature. The evolution of the neptunium spectra according to the parameters of the reaction medium illustrated these effects and allowed them to be quantified by a global 'perturbation constant'. In order to minimize the spectrum modifications due to media effects, the neptunium nitrate-complexes were studied at constant ionic strength in weak acidic media (2 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}) in the presence of sodium salts. The bulk formation constants and the spectrum of the NpO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sup +} complex were determined for ionic strength values of 2.2, 4, 6 and 8 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}. The constants remained on the same order of magnitude regardless of the ionic strength; the thermodynamic constant {beta}{sub 1}{sup 0} determined from them according to specific interaction theory is thus probably of little significance. Conversely, the bulk constants can be corrected for the effects of the perchlorate ions by taking the global 'perturbation constant' into account. (author)

  17. Synthesis of ceramics by carbo-thermal reduction process of oxides by sugars; Elaboration de ceramiques par carboreduction d'oxydes par des sucres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanels, X.; Magnin, V.; Diat, O.; Grandjean, A. [CEA Marcoule, Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule UMR 5257, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of ceramics by carbo-thermal reduction of colloidal oxides by sugars. The synthesis is carried out in three steps: 1)mixing by mechanical stirring of sugar and of the precursor oxide colloidal solution 2)lyophilization of the suspension to produce a powder 3)pyrolysis under a neutral atmosphere to synthesize the carbide of the considered element. The first results obtained have allowed to synthesize ZrC and SiC. The powders obtained have a sub-micron grain size and a specific surface area relatively high and able to reach 300 m{sup 2}/g for the zirconium carbide. These powders have a residual carbon amount variable with the initial ratio sugar/oxide. (O.M.)

  18. De Par en Par (Wide Open), 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Par en Par, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the serial "De Par en Par" published during 1993. This serial provides lessons in Spanish for elementary school children. It is written by bilingual education teachers for use in the bilingual classroom. The magazine bases itself on the K-6 curriculum and offers a variety of activities for classroom…

  19. Direct behavioral evidence for retronasal olfaction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari Gautam

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is becoming increasingly important to understand abnormal feeding behaviors and associated chronic diseases such as obesity. Yet, flavor research has mainly depended on human subjects due to the lack of an animal model. A crucial step towards establishing an animal model of flavor research is to determine whether the animal uses the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of flavor perception. We designed a go- no go behavioral task to test the rat's ability to detect and discriminate retronasal odorants. In this paradigm, tasteless aqueous solutions of odorants were licked by water-restricted head-fixed rats from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided by employing a combination of a vacuum around the lick-spout and blowing clean air toward the nose. Flow models support the effectiveness of both approaches. The licked odorants were successfully discriminated by rats. Moreover, the tasteless odorant amyl acetate was reliably discriminated against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. The results from this retronasal odor discrimination task suggest that rats are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct behavioral evidence establishes the rat as a useful animal model for flavor research.

  20. Direct behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for retronasal olfaction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Rebello

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is hence becoming increasingly important to understand food flavor perception that guides food selection, ingestion and appreciation. We recently provided evidence that rats can use the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of human flavor perception. We showed that in rats, like humans, odors can acquire a taste. We and others also defined how the input of the olfactory bulb (OB -not functionally imageable in humans- codes retronasal smell in anesthetized rat. The powerful awake transgenic mouse, however, would be a valuable additional model in the study of flavor neuroscience. We used a go/no-go behavioral task to test the mouse's ability to detect and discriminate the retronasal odor amyl acetate. In this paradigm a tasteless aqueous odor solution was licked by water-restricted head-fixed mice from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided. The retronasal odor was successfully discriminated by mice against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. Bulbectomy removed the mice's ability to discriminate the retronasal odor but not tastants. The OB showed robust optical calcium responses to retronasal odorants in these awake mice. These results suggest that mice, like rats, are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct neuro-behavioral evidence establishes the mouse as a useful additional animal model for flavor research.

  1. Direct Behavioral and Neurophysiological Evidence for Retronasal Olfaction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Michelle R.; Kandukuru, Padma; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroscience of flavor perception is hence becoming increasingly important to understand food flavor perception that guides food selection, ingestion and appreciation. We recently provided evidence that rats can use the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of human flavor perception. We showed that in rats, like humans, odors can acquire a taste. We and others also defined how the input of the olfactory bulb (OB) -not functionally imageable in humans- codes retronasal smell in anesthetized rat. The powerful awake transgenic mouse, however, would be a valuable additional model in the study of flavor neuroscience. We used a go/no-go behavioral task to test the mouse's ability to detect and discriminate the retronasal odor amyl acetate. In this paradigm a tasteless aqueous odor solution was licked by water-restricted head-fixed mice from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided. The retronasal odor was successfully discriminated by mice against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. Bulbectomy removed the mice's ability to discriminate the retronasal odor but not tastants. The OB showed robust optical calcium responses to retronasal odorants in these awake mice. These results suggest that mice, like rats, are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct neuro-behavioral evidence establishes the mouse as a useful additional animal model for flavor research. PMID:25675095

  2. Activation et transfert de l'oxygène moléculaire catalysés par les complexes des métaux de transition Activation and Tranfer of Molecular Oxygen Catalyzed by Transition Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoun H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article tente de rationaliser les différents processus par lesquels les complexes des métaux de transition permettent d'activer l'oxygène moléculaire et de le transférer sélectivement sur des substrats définis. Après un bref rappel des propriétés de l'oxygène moléculaire et de ses associations possibles avec les métaux, nous distinguons trois voies essentielles par les-quelles l'oxygène peut être activé a Les oxydations catalysées par les complexes de type peroxo dans lesquelles substrat et oxygène sont coordinés ensemble sur le même métal formant intermédiairement un peroxométallocycle. b Les oxydations catalysées par les complexes superoxo dans lesquelles l'attaque du substrat s'effectue sur l'oxygène coordiné au métal. c Les oxydations catalysées par les complexes oxo dans lesquelles ces derniers ont un comportement carbénique. This article attempts to make a rational explanation of the different processes by which transition metal complexes can be used to activate molecular oxygen and selectively transfer it on specific substrates. After a brief review of the properties of molecular oxygen and of its possible associations with metals, a distinction is made between three basic ways of activating oxygen: a Oxidations catalyzed by peroxo-type complexes in which substrate and oxygen are both coordinated on the saure metal forming transiently a peroxometallocycle. b Oxidations catalyzed by superoxo complexes in which the substrate attacks the coordinated oxygen. c Oxidations catalyzed by oxo complexes in which these oxo complexes have a carbenic behavior.

  3. Par-tjek Manualen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Due, Mattias Stølen; Nørr Fentz, Hanne;

    Par-tjek er et tilbud til par, der ønsker at styrke forholdet og forebygge vanskeligheder. Et Par-tjek består af et indledende online spørgeskema efterfulgt at to samtaler med en psykolog eller lignende vejleder. Ved den sidste samtale modtager parret en personlig feedback-rapport, som de kan...

  4. Olfaction, Emtion & the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

  5. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  6. Olfaction in Eating Disorders and Abnormal Eating Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insights with regard to the complex etiopathology of ED and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1,352 articles, 14 articles were selected (820 patients and 385 control participants for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6% followed by BN (35.7% and obesity (14.3%. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and Obesity and indicates towards there being no differences in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  7. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C; McGee, Amanda R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2011-12-22

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we assessed relative olfactory bulb size, here used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capabilities, in 157 species of non-avian theropods, fossil birds and living birds. We show that relative olfactory bulb size increased during non-avian maniraptoriform evolution, remained stable across the non-avian theropod/bird transition, and increased during basal bird and early neornithine evolution. From early neornithines through a major part of neornithine evolution, the relative size of the olfactory bulbs remained stable before decreasing in derived neoavian clades. Our results show that, rather than decreasing, the importance of olfaction actually increased during early bird evolution, representing a previously unrecognized sensory enhancement. The relatively larger olfactory bulbs of earliest neornithines, compared with those of basal birds, may have endowed neornithines with improved olfaction for more effective foraging or navigation skills, which in turn may have been a factor allowing them to survive the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

  8. Diagnostic value of the impairment of olfaction in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaantje Casjens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is increasingly recognized as an early symptom in the development of Parkinson's disease. Testing olfactory function is a non-invasive method but can be time-consuming which restricts its application in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. Here, we investigate odor identification as a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease and estimate the performance of odor subsets to allow a more rapid testing of olfactory impairment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odor identification was assessed with 16 Sniffin' sticks in 148 Parkinson patients and 148 healthy controls. Risks of olfactory impairment were estimated with proportional odds models. Random forests were applied to classify Parkinson and non-Parkinson patients. Parkinson patients were rarely normosmic (identification of more than 12 odors; 16.8% and identified on average seven odors whereas the reference group identified 12 odors and showed a higher prevalence of normosmy (31.1%. Parkinson patients with rigidity dominance had a twofold greater prevalence of olfactory impairment. Disease severity was associated with impairment of odor identification (per score point of the Hoehn and Yahr rating OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.77. Age-related impairment of olfaction showed a steeper gradient in Parkinson patients. Coffee, peppermint, and anise showed the largest difference in odor identification between Parkinson patients and controls. Random forests estimated a misclassification rate of 22.4% when comparing Parkinson patients with healthy controls using all 16 odors. A similar rate (23.8% was observed when only the three aforementioned odors were applied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that testing odor identification can be a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease. The application of only three odors performed well in discriminating Parkinson patients from controls, which can facilitate a wider application of this method

  9. Evaluation de l'effet anti-oxydant des extraits de l'espèce Saharo-Endemique (Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. obtenus in situ et in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem TOUAIBIA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. est une plante saharo-endémique, très réputée au sud algérien pour ses vertus thérapeutiques en médecine populaire. Cependant, ses usages restent, toutefois, exclusivement limités au savoir-faire ancestral. Ce travail apporte une première contribution à l'investigation du pouvoir anti-oxydant des extraits méthanoliques de cette espèce récoltée in situ ainsi que des cals multipliés in vitro. Les analyses spectrophotométriques effectuées ont montré que l'extrait méthanolique de la plante récoltée in situ s'est avéré plus riche en polyphenols par rapport à l'extrait des cals. Il a éventuellement exprimé un bon pouvoir de capture des radicaux libres avec une EC50=0,98 mg/ml, et un très bon pouvoir inhibiteur de la peroxydation de l'acide linoléique estimé à 74,01%, qui s'est avéré largement supérieur à celui exprimé par l'acide ascorbique (50,57% utilisé comme contrôle positif. Néanmoins, les extraits méthanoliques préparés à partir des cals ont exprimé le meilleur pouvoir chélateur des ions Fe2+ estimé à 66,71%.

  10. Fractionnement par le dioxyde de carbone supercritique et urée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Danielle

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Le dioxyde de carbone supercritique est un solvant de choix dans le cadre de la production ou de la purification des lipides. Il peut être utilisé à des températures voisines de la température ambiante, il protège les molécules sensibles à l’oxydation et, enfin, il évite l’élimination de solvant organique. La connaissance des équilibres de phases devrait permettre une meilleure précision des procédés de séparation potentielle constituée par l’extraction et la chromatographie préparative supercritique.

  11. Chemical Looping with Copper Oxide as Carrier and Coal as Fuel Boucle chimique pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de cuivre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyring E.M.

    2011-04-01

    oxygène, les taux de conversion du carbone et la pression partielle en oxygène dans le réacteur de combustion. Pour faire cette analyse, des données expérimentales de cyclage CuO/Cu2O ont été utilisées afin de déterminer les cinétiques de décomposition et d’oxydation du matériau. Elles ont été obtenues avec un oxyde non supporté. La cinétique de décomposition est très rapide à 950°C dans les conditions du réacteur de combustion. Il est montré que la cinétique d’oxydation est maximale au voisinage de 800°C, la vitesse décroissant ensuite pour des températures plus élevées, à cause de résistances diffusionnelles liées à la formation d’une couche de CuO entourant le Cu2O. L’analyse montre que le CLOU permet une combustion rapide du carbone, les temps de combustion du carbone étant plus lents que les temps de décomposition du transporteur d’oxygène. Pour confirmer le potentiel du procédé, des données cinétiques additionnelles sont nécessaires sur des oxydes supportés à haute température (>850°C, dans les conditions du réacteur de combustion permettant la libération d’oxygène par l’oxyde de cuivre.

  12. Contribution to the study of the sintering of uranium oxide; Contribution a l'etude du frittage de l'oxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel, A.; Carteret, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The sintering ofnium oxide has been considered and the following factors have been particularly taken in consideration: - the particle size and the particles in shape of the initial powder, - the specific area of the initial powder, - the chemical composition of the oxide, - and the medium in which the sintering was carried out. A method of sintering uranium oxide on semi-industrial scale is presented. (author)Fren. [French] On xamine l'influence de differents facteurs sur le frittage de l'oxyde d'uranium. Sont particulierement prises en consideration: - la taille et la forme des grains de la poudre initiale, - la surface specifique de la poudre initiale, - la composition chimique de l'oxyde, - ainsi que la nature de l'atmosphere durant le frittage. D'autre part, une technique de frittage de l'oxyde d'uranium a l'echelle semi-industrielle est presentee. (auteur)

  13. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo...

  14. A network of stimulatory and inhibitory G alpha-subunits regulates olfaction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lans (Hannes); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); G. Jansen (Gert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe two pairs of sensory neurons of C. elegans, AWA and AWC, that mediate odorant attraction, express six Galpha-subunits, suggesting that olfaction is regulated by a complex signaling network. Here, we describe the cellular localization and functions of the six olfacto

  15. The Hydrodynamics and Odorant Transport Phenomena of Olfaction in the Hammerhead Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The hammerhead shark possesses a unique head morphology that is thought to facilitate enhanced olfactory performance. The olfactory organs, located at the distal ends of the cephalofoil, contain numerous lamellae that increase the surface area for olfaction. Functionally, for the shark to detect chemical stimuli, water-borne odors must reach the olfactory sensory epithelium that lines these lamellae. Thus, odorant transport from the aquatic environment to the sensory epithelium is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we investigate the hydrodynamics and odorant transport phenomena of olfaction in the hammerhead shark based on an anatomically-accurate reconstruction of the head and olfactory chamber from high-resolution micro-CT and MRI scans of a cadaver specimen. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow in the reconstructed model reveal the external and internal hydrodynamics of olfaction during swimming. Odorant transport in the olfactory organ is investigated using a multi-scale approach, whereby molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate odorant partition coefficients that are subsequently utilized in macro-scale CFD simulations of odorant deposition. The hydrodynamic and odorant transport results are used to elucidate several important features of olfactory function in the hammerhead shark.

  16. Ablation de ZnO par laser UV (193 nm) : nano-agrégats en phase gazeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, I.; Bulgakov, A.; Nelson, D.; Castell, R.; Sentis, M.; Marine, W.

    2003-06-01

    La condensation de nano-agrégats d'oxyde de zinc en phase gazeuse est mise en évidence lors de l'ablation de ZnO massif par laser ArF pulsé. Nous comparons l'évolution spatio-temporelle de la forme du panache d'ablation (plume) de ZnO sous vide et sous atmosphère de gaz de couverture (oxygène et/ou hélium) à partir des images CCD et des résultats issus d'analyses spectroscopiques. L'expansion du plasma et la croissance des nano-clusters sont influencées par l'effet du confinement de la plume dû aux collisions entre les particules ablatées et les molécules de gaz ambiant ainsi que par les réactions chimiques dans le cas de l'oxygène. Le spectre de rayonnement du plasma est constitué principalement par l'émission d'atomes excités de Zn neutre. Nous avons observé la photoluminescence des nano-agrégats en suspension dans le gaz ainsi que leur décomposition par laser ArF.

  17. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418

  18. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundo, Ana B; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.

  19. High Throughput Approach Applied to VOC Oxidation at Low Temperature Approche haut débit appliquée à l’oxydation basse température des COV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A High Throughput (HT approach is used to prepare and characterize the catalytic activity of materials for the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC at low temperature. The interest of the Designs of Experiments (DoE in the primary screening is demonstrated through modeling catalysts composition according to the light-off temperature detected by infrared thermography. The combination of the mass spectrometry and the infrared thermography appears very useful to confirm and increase information about catalytic properties of the catalysts extracted to the primary screening stage. Finally, in situ Raman spectroscopy with infrared thermography allows to better understand the origin of the catalytic properties in the case ofAu/CeO2 catalysts. A strong interaction between gold and Ce-O bonds leading to an improvement of the cerium oxide reducibility could explain its high reactivity for 2-propanol oxidation at lower temperature. Une approche haut debit (HD est utilisée de la préparation jusqu’à la caractérisation de l’activité catalytique des matériaux pour l’élimination des Composés Organiques Volatils (COV à basse température. L’intérêt des plans d’expériences (DoE, en anglais Designs of Experiments dans le screening primaire est démontré grâce à l’identification d’une composition optimale de catalyseur prédite à l’aide des différentes températures d’ignition des catalyseurs obtenues par thermographie infrarouge. La combinaison in situ de la spectrométrie de masse et de la thermographie infrarouge s’est avérée d’une grande utilité pour confirmer et augmenter le niveau d’information concernant les propriétés catalytiques des catalyseurs provenant du screening primaire. Enfin, la spectroscopie Raman in situ couplée à la thermographie infrarouge permet de mieux comprendre l’origine des propriétés catalytiques dans le cas du catalyseur Au/CeO2. Une forte interaction entre les particules d

  20. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...

  1. ETUDE PAR DFT+U DE L’INTERACTION Ni-CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z CHAFI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de l’interaction Ni-CeO2 a été entreprise en utilisant une méthode ab initio basée sur la DFT+U. Dans une première étape, les valeurs du paramètre d’Hubbard, Ueff, ont été déterminées après ajustement du paramètre de maille et de l’énergie de gap du volume de l’oxyde de cérium. Elles sont respectivement de 3 et 5 eV pour les approximations GGA et LDA. Nous avons ensuite étudié d’une part la possibilité d’insérer le nickel atomique dans le volume de CeO2. D’autre part, nous avons testé les effets de l’insertion et l’adsorption de Ni dans les surfaces les plus stables (111 et (110 de CeO2. Les résultats des calculs DFT+U sont en bon accord avec ceux que nous avons précédemment trouvé en utilisant un calcul DFT concernant les sites favorables de l’atome de nickel et le nombre de liaisons. Toutefois, l’approximation LDA+5 eV, a permis d’obtenir des énergies plus favorables ainsi que des distances comparables à celles observées expérimentalement à l’interface métal/oxyde dans les catalyseurs Ni/CeO2 synthétisés sous irradiation. Une expansion du volume est observée lors de l’insertion du nickel dans le volume de l’oxyde de cérium. Concernant l’adsorption sur les surfaces, la meilleure énergie est trouvée dans le cas où l’atome de nickel est situé en position bridge entre deux atomes d’oxygène sur la surface (110. Finalement, les calculs montrent que le nickel s’insère plus facilement dans la surface (110 avec une meilleure énergie d’insertion, obtenue par l’approximation LDA+5 eV, de 4,071 eV.

  2. Modulation de l'attention émotionnelle chez les femmes par l'androstadiénone

    OpenAIRE

    Ischer, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    La survie de nombreuses espèces dépend de leur capacité à percevoir les informations transmises par les molécules présentes dans leur environnement. Chez les mammifères, ce sont principalement les sens du goût et de l’odorat qui permettent d‘interpréter cette forme de communication. La majorité des informations olfactives sont traité par le système olfactif principal et le système olfactif voméronasal. Au sein des molécules sécrétées par les organismes dans l’environnement, certaines possèden...

  3. Cross-modal correspondence between vision and olfaction: the color of smells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A N; Martin, R; Kemp, S E

    1996-01-01

    Cross-modal sensory correspondences between vision and audition have been well described, but those between vision and olfaction have not. In Experiment 1, a method previously used to relate color names, mood names, and line elements was replicated and extended to describe odors by color. Significant color characterizations were found for all 20 test odors. Test-retest correlations showed color-odor correspondences to be as stable as nonodor measures after 2 years. In Experiment 2, new subjects matched Munsell color chips to the test odors. Thirteen odors had characteristic hues; there was significant variation in chroma and value. The selected Munsell hues corresponded to the color names endorsed in Experiment 1. Together, these experiments suggest the existence of robust correspondences between vision and olfaction.

  4. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  5. Strategies Used by Pet Dogs for Solving Olfaction-Based Problems at Various Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory acuity of domestic dogs has been well established through numerous studies on trained canines, however whether untrained dogs spontaneously utilize this ability for problem solving is less clear. In the present paper we report two studies that examine what strategies family dogs use in two types of olfaction-based problems as well as their success at various distances. In Study 1, thirty dogs were tasked with distinguishing a target, either their covered owner (Exp 1) or baited food (Exp 2), from three visually identical choices at distances of 0m (touching distance), 1m, and 3m. There were nine consecutive trials for each target. We found that in Exp 1 the dogs successfully chose their owners over strangers at 0m and 1m, but not at 3m, where they used a win-stay strategy instead. In Exp 2 the dogs were only successful in choosing the baited pot at 0m. They used the win-stay strategy at 1m, but chose randomly at 3m. In Study 2, a different group of dogs was tested with their owners (Exp 1) and baited food (Exp 2) at just the 3m distance with two possible targets in 10-10 trials. In Exp 1 the dogs' overall performance was at chance level; however, when analyzed by trial, we noticed that despite tending to find their owners on the first trial, they generally switched to a win-stay strategy in subsequent trials, only to return to correctly choosing their owners based on olfaction in the later trials. In Exp 2, the dogs chose randomly throughout. We also found that dogs who relied on visual information in the warm-up trials were less successful in the olfaction-based test. Our results suggest that despite their ability to successfully collect information through olfaction, family dogs often prioritize other strategies to solve basic choice tasks.

  6. Strategies Used by Pet Dogs for Solving Olfaction-Based Problems at Various Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available The olfactory acuity of domestic dogs has been well established through numerous studies on trained canines, however whether untrained dogs spontaneously utilize this ability for problem solving is less clear. In the present paper we report two studies that examine what strategies family dogs use in two types of olfaction-based problems as well as their success at various distances. In Study 1, thirty dogs were tasked with distinguishing a target, either their covered owner (Exp 1 or baited food (Exp 2, from three visually identical choices at distances of 0m (touching distance, 1m, and 3m. There were nine consecutive trials for each target. We found that in Exp 1 the dogs successfully chose their owners over strangers at 0m and 1m, but not at 3m, where they used a win-stay strategy instead. In Exp 2 the dogs were only successful in choosing the baited pot at 0m. They used the win-stay strategy at 1m, but chose randomly at 3m. In Study 2, a different group of dogs was tested with their owners (Exp 1 and baited food (Exp 2 at just the 3m distance with two possible targets in 10-10 trials. In Exp 1 the dogs' overall performance was at chance level; however, when analyzed by trial, we noticed that despite tending to find their owners on the first trial, they generally switched to a win-stay strategy in subsequent trials, only to return to correctly choosing their owners based on olfaction in the later trials. In Exp 2, the dogs chose randomly throughout. We also found that dogs who relied on visual information in the warm-up trials were less successful in the olfaction-based test. Our results suggest that despite their ability to successfully collect information through olfaction, family dogs often prioritize other strategies to solve basic choice tasks.

  7. Effects of Support on the Performance of NiO-Based Oxygen Carriers Effets du support sur les performances de matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek J.-I.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an oxygen carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion varies with the support material used. NiO oxygen carriers were prepared using 60 or 70 wt% NiO and different raw support materials (γ-Al2O3, pseudoboehmite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4, and γ-Al2O3 with added graphite by the mechanical mixing method. Reactivity tests were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at 950˚C. The oxygen carriers prepared using γ-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with a small amount of MgO, hydrotalcite, and MgAl2O4 showed high oxygen transfer capacity, high oxygen utilization, and a high oxygen transfer rate. Graphite addition to γ-Al2O3 did not increase the surface area or reactivity. The use of pseudoboehmite as a support led to a significant decrease in oxygen transfer capacity and severe agglomeration of the oxygen carriers during the redox reaction. The increase in MgO content in the raw support materials decreased the reduction reactivity. The oxygen carriers prepared with α-Al2O3 showed less oxygen transfer capacity than the other oxygen carriers. The differences in the reactivity according to the support type were explained by the relative strength of NiO-support interaction obtained from the temperature-programmed reduction analysis. The reactivity test results in this work indicate that γ-Al2O3 and hydrotalcite could be desirable raw support materials to prepare highly reactive NiO oxygen carriers with high NiO content. Les performances des materiaux transporteurs d’oxygene varient en fonction du support utilise dans le procede de combustion en boucle chimique. Differents materiaux a base d’oxyde de Nickel ont ete synthetises avec des concentrations elevees en NiO, comprises entre 60 et 70 %, sur differents supports (γ-Al2O3, pseudobohemite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 melangee avec MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4 et γ-Al2O3 additivees avec du graphite par melange mecanique. Des tests de reactivite ont ete

  8. Use of Indian smell identification test for evaluating olfaction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Jose, Toney; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been recognized for a long time and a number of studies have been performed in various parts of the world, using culturally appropriate smell identification tests. In this study, for the first time, olfactory function has been assessed in the Indian Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) patients using an indigenously developed smell test. Olfaction was assessed in 53 IPD patients and 50 healthy controls using SniffIn-sticks ® test and Indian Smell Identification test (INSIT). In both these tests, the subjects were asked to identify the smell from a set of choices and were scored out of 10 and 12 for INSIT and SniffIn-sticks ® test, respectively. Both SniffIn-sticks ® test and INSIT showed significant impairment in olfaction in IPD patients (P more acceptable in the Indian population, can be considered as a better alternative for SniffIn-sticks ® test in the evaluation of olfaction in Indian PD subjects.

  9. [Changes in olfaction during ageing and in certain neurodegenerative diseases: up-to-date].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies.

  10. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  11. Etude paramétrique des effets de la stratification de la flamme sur les émissions d'oxydes d'azote (deuxième partie Parametric Study of Stratification Effects on Nitric Oxide Emissions from Flames (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On a étudié les effets de la stratification de flammes de prémélange laminaires, stationnaires et non stationnaires, sur les émissions d'oxydes d'azote formés par le mécanisme thermique et par le mécanisme du fuel-NO. Deux modalités de stratification ont été considérées, l'une juxtaposant sur le même plan les zones de combustion primaires correspond aux fractions individuelles du mélange stratifié (stratification en juxtaposition, l'autre disposant ces zones de combustion primaires sur des plans successifs (stratification en succession. Les émissions d'oxydes d'azote mesurées sur les flammes stratifiées ont été comparées à celles provenant de flammes non stratifiées de même composition globale et brûlant dans des conditions identiques. L'étude montre qu'il y a lieu de distinguer deux types d'effets de stratification. II existe un effet primaire qui est la simple conséquence du morcellement de la flamme en un certain nombre de zones de combustion primaires (caractérisées par des compositions différentes/ et qui se traduit par l'additivité des émissions individuelles provenant des fractions respectives du mélange. L'effet total de la stratification se réduit à ce seul effet primaire au cas où les vitesses de formation des oxydes d'azote deviennent nulles après re-mélange des produits de combustion provenant des différentes fractions du mélange stratifié. fi' en est ainsi par exempte dans le cas des flammes non stationnaires stratifiées en succession; il en résulte alors soit une augmentation soit une diminution des émissions d'oxydes d'azote par rapport à celles des flammes non stratifiées, suivant la valeur de la richesse globale et du degré de stratification. Des effets secondaires de stratification se manifestent chaque fois que des produits de combustion, provenant d'une zone de combustion primaire donnée, sont introduits totalement ou partiellement dans un autre front de flamme créé par la

  12. Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Language acquisition is based on our knowledge about the world and forms through multiple sensory-motor interactions with the environment. We link the properties of individual experience formed at different stages of ontogeny with the phased development of sensory modalities and with the acquisition of words describing the appropriate forms of sensitivity. To test whether early-formed experience related to skin sensations, olfaction and taste differs from later-formed experience related to vision and hearing, we asked Russian-speaking participants to categorize or to assess the pleasantness of experience mentally reactivated by sense-related adjectives found in common dictionaries. It was found that categorizing adjectives in relation to vision, hearing and skin sensations took longer than categorizing adjectives in relation to olfaction and taste. In addition, experience described by adjectives predominantly related to vision, hearing and skin sensations took more time for the pleasantness judgment and generated less intense emotions than that described by adjectives predominantly related to olfaction and taste. Interestingly the dynamics of skin resistance corresponded to the intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions. We also found that sense-related experience described by early-acquired adjectives took less time for the pleasantness judgment and generated more intense and more positive emotions than that described by later-acquired adjectives. Correlations were found between the time of the pleasantness judgment of experience, intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions, age of acquisition, frequency, imageability and length of sense-related adjectives. All in all these findings support the hypothesis that early-formed experience is less differentiated than later-formed experience. PMID:27400090

  13. PAR Loop Schedule Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, Jr.; W.F.

    1958-04-30

    The schedule for the installation of the PAR slurry loop experiment in the South Facility of the ORR has been reviewed and revised. The design, fabrications and Installation is approximately two weeks behind schedule at this time due to many factors; however, indications are that this time can be made up. Design is estimated to be 75% complete, fabrication 32% complete and installation 12% complete.

  14. [Loss of olfaction with aging: a frequent disorder receiving little attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, S; Staudenmaier, R; Hummel, T; Arnold, W

    2008-10-01

    Loss of olfaction in old age is a frequent problem, which occurs at the same frequency as diabetes or severe sensorineural hearing loss. Problems caused by loss of the sense of smell may include weight loss due to loss of appetite, intake of rotten foods, social isolation and depression. Until now the loss of olfactory function has received relatively little attention compared to diabetes or hearing loss. In this article we review the loss of the sense of smell with age. Possible therapies are discussed to improve the quality of life in older people.

  15. Linkage between increased nociception and olfaction via a SCN9A haplotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Heimann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mutations reducing the function of Nav1.7 sodium channels entail diminished pain perception and olfactory acuity, suggesting a link between nociception and olfaction at ion channel level. We hypothesized that if such link exists, it should work in both directions and gain-of-function Nav1.7 mutations known to be associated with increased pain perception should also increase olfactory acuity. METHODS: SCN9A variants were assessed known to enhance pain perception and found more frequently in the average population. Specifically, carriers of SCN9A variants rs41268673C>A (P610T; n = 14 or rs6746030C>T (R1150W; n = 21 were compared with non-carriers (n = 40. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification using an established olfactory test. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (punctate and blunt mechanical pressure, heat and electrical stimuli. RESULTS: The number of carried alleles of the non-mutated SCN9A haplotype rs41268673C/rs6746030C was significantly associated with the comparatively highest olfactory threshold (0 alleles: threshold at phenylethylethanol dilution step 12 of 16 (n = 1, 1 allele: 10.6±2.6 (n = 34, 2 alleles: 9.5±2.1 (n = 40. The same SCN9A haplotype determined the pain threshold to blunt pressure stimuli (0 alleles: 21.1 N/m(2, 1 allele: 29.8±10.4 N/m(2, 2 alleles: 33.5±10.2 N/m(2. CONCLUSIONS: The findings established a working link between nociception and olfaction via Nav1.7 in the gain-of-function direction. Hence, together with the known reduced olfaction and pain in loss-of-function mutations, a bidirectional genetic functional association between nociception and olfaction exists at Nav1.7 level.

  16. Associations between former exposure to manganese and olfaction in an elderly population: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Pesch, Beate; Robens, Sibylle; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Ulrich, Nadin; Arendt, Marina; Eisele, Lewin; Pundt, Noreen; Marr, Anja; van Thriel, Christoph; Van Gelder, Rainer; Aschner, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been associated with impairments in olfaction and motor functions, but it has yet to be determined if such effects persist upon cessation of exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of former occupational Mn exposure on olfaction within the framework of a prospective cohort study among an elderly German population. Information on job tasks with recognized Mn exposure and data on odor identification assessed with Sniffin' sticks was collected during the second follow-up of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. The study population consisted of 1385 men aged 55-86 years, 354 of whom ever worked in jobs with potential Mn exposure (median 58.3μg/m(3) years, interquartile range 19.0-185μg/m(3) years). Multiple exposure measures, including job tasks, cumulative Mn exposure, and Mn determined in blood samples (MnB) archived at baseline, were used to estimate effects of Mn on olfaction. Having ever worked as welder was associated with better olfaction compared to other blue-collar workers without Mn exposure. Blue-collar workers identified less odors in comparison to white-collar workers. Concentrations of previous Mn exposure >185μg/m(3) years or MnB ≥15μg/L were not associated with impaired olfaction. In addition to a strong age effect, participants with lower occupational qualification identified less odors. We found no relevant association of former Mn exposure at relatively low levels with impaired olfaction. Possible neurotoxic Mn effects may not be persistent after cessation.

  17. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1 buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2 buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3 buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1. We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs' relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a 'multi-modal foraging strategy' among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard's genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors.

  18. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Walther, Bruno A; Weng, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1) buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2) buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3) buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1). We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs' relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a 'multi-modal foraging strategy' among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard's genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors.

  19. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  20. Mélanine produite par oxydation de la dopamine : films minces et interactions avec des multicouches de polyélectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernsmann, Falk

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous oxidation of dopamine in slightly alkaline solutions was investigated on the basis of the work of Lee and others [Science, 318:426-430, 2007], and the reaction product was identified as dopamine-melanin. The ability of melanin to covalently bind amine functional groups was confirmed by quantification of the corresponding binding sites on dopamine-melanin aggregates. Furthermore it is possible to redissolve dopamine-melanin aggregates in strongly alkaline solutions. The obtaine...

  1. Metallic oxide reduction in molten chlorides: electrochemical solvent regeneration; Reduction d'oxydes metalliques en milieu de chlorures fondus: regeneration du solvant salin par electrochimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.

    2005-11-15

    We consider the reaction MeO{sub 2} + 2 Ca {yields} Me + 2 CaO in CaCl{sub 2} at 850 C. We want to re-use the molten media, which is a CaO-CaCl{sub 2} melt at the end of the reaction. For that we want to de-oxidize it. When we electrolyse CaO we obtain Ca and O{sub 2}; it presents three difficult points that we want to solve: (1) it is difficult to oxidize O{sub 2}{sup -} without oxidizing Cl{sup -} because their oxidation potential are very closed, (2) the chemical or electrochemical anodic corrosion, (3) the anodically produced gas dissolution in the mell One way of avoiding chlorine gas evolution is to prevent chloride ions from reaching the anode, for example using a selective membrane. Furthermore, the best prevention of the anodically produced gas dissolution in the melt can be done with a compartment, physically separating the anode from the rest of the reactional media. Thus in this work we have used an yttria stabilized zirconia membrane as a selective membrane for the deoxidation of a CaO-CaCl{sub 2} melt at 850 C. (author)

  2. From odor molecules to plume tracking: an interdisciplinary, multilevel approach to olfaction in stomatopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Kristina S

    2002-04-01

    Like many marine crustaceans, mantis shrimp rely on their sense of smell to find food, mates, and habitat. In order for olfaction to function, odorant molecules in the surrounding fluid must gain access to the animal's chemosensors. Thus fluid motion is important for olfaction, both in terms of the large scale fluid movements (currents, waves, etc.) that advect the odorants to the vicinity of the sensors, and the small-scale viscosity dominated flows that determine odorant access to the surface of the sensor. In order to understand how stomatopods interpret their chemical environment, I investigated how stomatopod chemosensory morphology and the movement of the structures bearing the chemosensors affect fluid access to the sensor surface in Gonodactylaceus mutatus. Preliminary results from new directions are presented, including mathematical modeling of molecular flux at the sensor surface, field studies of the effects of ambient flow on odor sampling behavior, and flume experiments testing the ability of stomatopods to trace odor plumes. Finally, I show how the use of multiple techniques from several disciplines leads to new ideas about the functional morphology of stomatopod antennules.

  3. Networks involved in olfaction and their dynamics using independent component analysis and unified structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Eslinger, Paul J; Wang, Jian-Li; Weitekamp, Christopher W; Molitoris, Sarah; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Yang, Qing X

    2014-05-01

    The study of human olfaction is complicated by the myriad of processing demands in conscious perceptual and emotional experiences of odors. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging with convergent multivariate network analyses, we examined the spatiotemporal behavior of olfactory-generated blood-oxygenated-level-dependent signal in healthy adults. The experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm was found to offset the limitations of olfactory habituation effects and permitted the identification of five functional networks. Analysis delineated separable neuronal circuits that were spatially centered in the primary olfactory cortex, striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, and parietal-occipital junction. We hypothesize that these functional networks subserve primary perceptual, affective/motivational, and higher order olfactory-related cognitive processes. Results provided direct evidence for the existence of parallel networks with top-down modulation for olfactory processing and clearly distinguished brain activations that were sniffing-related versus odor-related. A comprehensive neurocognitive model for olfaction is presented that may be applied to broader translational studies of olfactory function, aging, and neurological disease.

  4. Preservation of olfaction after unilateral endoscopic approach for resection of esthesioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessell, Aaron; Singh, Ameet; Litvack, Zachary

    2014-08-01

    Objectives We present a case of olfactory preservation after a unilateral transcribriform transethmoidal endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma. We also discuss the oncologic results of endoscopic and transcranial approaches and describe the potential benefits and limitations of an endoscopic approach. Setting Single academic medical center. Participant and Design The clinical course of a 28-year-old patient who underwent endoscopic en bloc resection of esthesioneuroblastoma through a unilateral transcribriform transethmoidal approach was reviewed. Results Imaging demonstrated a left-sided nasal mass with cribriform plate involvement (Kadish C). Intraoperatively, the left olfactory bulb and epithelium were sacrificed. Negative frozen sections were obtained from the right olfactory epithelium and dura surrounding the right olfactory bulb. Reconstruction was performed using a multilayered closure of fascia, rigid buttress, and nasoseptal flap. Histology was consistent with esthesioneuroblastoma. Postoperative clinical evaluation, endoscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor at 18 months. The UPSIT smell testing revealed normal olfaction preoperatively, moderate microsomia at 3 months postoperatively, and mild microsomia at 18 months postoperatively. Conclusions Endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma has demonstrated similar oncologic control while reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality over transcranial approaches. This case reveals the potential to preserve olfaction while achieving en bloc endoscopic resection of early stage esthesioneuroblastoma.

  5. The Multi-Chamber Electronic Nose—An Improved Olfaction Sensor for Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major disadvantages of the use of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS technology as a transducer for electronic gas sensing devices (e-noses is the long recovery period needed after each gas exposure. This severely restricts its usage in applications where the gas concentrations may change rapidly, as in mobile robotic olfaction, where allowing for sensor recovery forces the robot to move at a very low speed, almost incompatible with any practical robot operation. This paper describes the design of a new e-nose which overcomes, to a great extent, such a limitation. The proposed e-nose, called Multi-Chamber Electronic Nose (MCE-nose, comprises several identical sets of MOS sensors accommodated in separate chambers (four in our current prototype, which alternate between sensing and recovery states, providing, as a whole, a device capable of sensing changes in chemical concentrations faster. The utility and performance of the MCE-nose in mobile robotic olfaction is shown through several experiments involving rapid sensing of gas concentration and mobile robot gas mapping.

  6. The Multi-Chamber Electronic Nose--an improved olfaction sensor for mobile robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jimenez, Javier; Monroy, Javier G; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    One of the major disadvantages of the use of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) technology as a transducer for electronic gas sensing devices (e-noses) is the long recovery period needed after each gas exposure. This severely restricts its usage in applications where the gas concentrations may change rapidly, as in mobile robotic olfaction, where allowing for sensor recovery forces the robot to move at a very low speed, almost incompatible with any practical robot operation. This paper describes the design of a new e-nose which overcomes, to a great extent, such a limitation. The proposed e-nose, called Multi-Chamber Electronic Nose (MCE-nose), comprises several identical sets of MOS sensors accommodated in separate chambers (four in our current prototype), which alternate between sensing and recovery states, providing, as a whole, a device capable of sensing changes in chemical concentrations faster. The utility and performance of the MCE-nose in mobile robotic olfaction is shown through several experiments involving rapid sensing of gas concentration and mobile robot gas mapping.

  7. The role of olfaction in homing and estuarine migratory behavior of yellow-phase American eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The role of olfaction in homing migrations of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) was examined in the Penobscot Estuary, Maine, U.S.A. Ultrasonic telemetry was used to track continuously (65 ?? 12 h) 16 yellow eels displaced from a capture site. Four eels were not treated, eight rendered anosmic, and four rendered partially anosmic. All normal, only three anosmic, and two partially anosmic eels homed. Normal eels expressed a singular behavioral pattern, selective tidal stream transport (STST). STST was also displayed by three anosmic eels and one partially anosmic eel. Three alternative behavioral patterns ('sporadic vertical excursions,' 'sloshing,' and 'directed swimming') were displayed by the remainder of the anosmic and partially anosmic eels. Eels that displayed STST used the water column differently (moving at depths shallower than the thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline) from those that displayed other behaviors. Olfaction seems to be important for discrimination of the appropriate tide for transport and location of a home site but is not the only orientational mechanism used in estuaries. Mechanisms used to detect rates of change of water mass characteristics are probably important for guidance of estuarine migrations.

  8. Méthodes générales de synthèse des catalyseurs à base d'oxydes General Synthesis Methods for Mixed Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty Ph.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux procédés industriels (industrie céramique, électronique, nucléaire catalyse hétérogène utilisent des matériaux constitués d'oxydes mixtes. Les études fondamentales réalisées en catalyse et leurs applications industrielles montrent qu'au-delà des diverses interprétations fines de l'activité catalytique des oxydes mixtes, une notion plus générale se dégage, celle de l'homogénéité de la phase active, donc du premier intermédiaire de fabrication du catalyseur (le précurseur. Les différentes méthodes de synthèse des oxydes mixtes, puis des catalyseurs, sont alors exposées. Pour chacune d'entre elles, il est montré comment l'obtention d'un précurseur homogène peut être favorisée et maintenue. Un exemple illustre le cas de l'oxyde mixte déposé sur support. Finalement, l'étape de mise en forme de l'oxyde mixte est évoquée, l'aspect économique de la fabrication du catalyseur conclut ce texte. A great mony industrial processes (ceramics, electronics, nuclear energy, hererogeneous catalysis use materials made up of mixed oxides. Fundamental research on catalysis and its industrial applications has shown that, over and beyond the various subtle interpretations of the catalytic activity of mixed oxides, a more general concept emerges, i. e. that of the homogeneity of the active phase, hence of the first catalyst-manufacturing intermediate (the precursor. Different synthesis methods for mixed oxides, and then for cotalysts, are described. The demonstration is made for each of them how the production of a homogeneous precursor con be enhanced and maintained. An example illustrotes the case of a mixed oxide deposited on a carrier. To conclude, the shaping of the mixed oxide is described, followed by the economic aspect of catalyst manufacturing.

  9. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  10. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Giral Lamenca, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  11. Canine olfaction as an alternative to analytical instruments for disease diagnosis: understanding 'dog personality' to achieve reproducible results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all t...

  12. Olfaction, Emotion, and the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction: beginning to unravel the Proust phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

  13. The olfactory thalamus: unanswered questions about the role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCourtiol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT is a higher order thalamic nucleus and its role in cognition is increasingly well established. Interestingly, components of the MDT also have a somewhat unique sensory function as they link primary olfactory cortex to orbitofrontal associative cortex. In fact, anatomical evidence firmly demonstrates that the MDT receives direct input from primary olfactory areas including the piriform cortex and has dense reciprocal connections with the orbitofrontal cortex. The functions of this olfactory pathway have been poorly explored but lesion, imaging, and electrophysiological studies suggest that these connections may be involved in olfactory processing including odor perception, discrimination, learning, and attention. However, many important questions regarding the MDT and olfaction remain unanswered. Our goal here is not only to briefly review the existing literature but also to highlight some of the remaining questions that need to be answered to better define the role(s of the MDT in olfactory processing.

  14. What is so special about smell? Olfaction as a model system in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwich, Ann-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiology studies mechanisms of cell signalling. A key question is how cells recognise specific signals. In this context, olfaction has become an important experimental system over the past 25 years. The olfactory system responds to an array of structurally diverse stimuli. The discovery of the olfactory receptors (ORs), recognising these stimuli, established the olfactory pathway as part of a greater group of signalling mechanisms mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are the largest protein family in the mammalian genome and involved in numerous fundamental physiological processes. The OR family exhibits two characteristics that make them an excellent model system to understand GPCRs: its size and the structural diversity of its members. Research on the OR binding site investigates what amino acid sequences determine the receptor-binding capacity. This promises a better understanding of how the basic genetic makeup of GPCRs relates to their diversification in ligand-binding capacities.

  15. Odor-cued taste avoidance: a simple and robust test of mouse olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Burton; Coppola, David M

    2015-05-01

    In odor-cued taste avoidance (OCTA), thirsty mice, offered either an odorized nonaversive fluid (S+) or an odorized aversive fluid (S-), quickly learn to use odor to avoid drinking the S-. Acquisition of both odor detection and odor discrimination tasks is very rapid with learning evidenced in most cases by either long response times or total avoidance on the second presentation of the S- stimulus. OCTA is perhaps one of the simplest conditioning procedures for assessing olfaction in mice; it requires only a test box, drinkometer circuit, and thirsty mice accustomed to drinking in the apparatus. Its advantages over the most commonly used alternatives, habituation-dishabituation, and the mouse dig test, are discussed.

  16. Pursing Contamination Detection on Aircraft CFRP Surfaces By Artificial Olfaction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Saverio; Massera, Ettore; Fattoruso, Grazia; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2011-09-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) structures can be easily bonded via adhesive assembly procedures but their cleanliness is of fundamental importance to ensure the strength of the adhesive bonding. Actually, surface contamination by several aeronautics fluids eventually results in weak or kissing bonds. The goal of our research work is to investigate solid state chemical sensors and artificial olfaction techniques (AO) for the detection of CFRP surface contamination by aeronautic fluids. This result will allow the implementation of an instrumental NDT procedure for CFRP surface cleanliness assessment prior to bonding. Herein, results of our first experimental setup, based on the use of an array of polymer sensors for the detection of aeronautic fluids contamination, are presented.

  17. The olfactory thalamus: unanswered questions about the role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT) is a higher order thalamic nucleus and its role in cognition is increasingly well established. Interestingly, components of the MDT also have a somewhat unique sensory function as they link primary olfactory cortex to orbitofrontal associative cortex. In fact, anatomical evidence firmly demonstrates that the MDT receives direct input from primary olfactory areas including the piriform cortex and has dense reciprocal connections with the orbitofrontal cortex. The functions of this olfactory pathway have been poorly explored but lesion, imaging, and electrophysiological studies suggest that these connections may be involved in olfactory processing including odor perception, discrimination, learning, and attention. However, many important questions regarding the MDT and olfaction remain unanswered. Our goal here is not only to briefly review the existing literature but also to highlight some of the remaining questions that need to be answered to better define the role(s) of the MDT in olfactory processing.

  18. Insect parapheromones in olfaction research and semiochemical-based pest control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renou, M; Guerrero, A

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of disrupting the chemical communication of insect pests has initiated the development of new semiochemicals, parapheromones, which are anthropogenic compounds structurally related to natural pheromone components. Modification at the chain and/or at the polar group, isosteric replacements, halogenation or introduction of labeled atoms have been the most common modifications of the pheromone structure. Parapheromones have shown a large variety of effects, and accordingly have been called agonists, pheromone mimics, synergists and hyperagonists, or else pheromone antagonists, antipheromones and inhibitors. Pheromone analogues have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of insect olfaction, and from a practical point of view they can replace pheromones when these are costly to prepare or unstable under field conditions.

  19. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  20. ParB spreading requires DNA bridging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Thomas G. W.; Wang, Xindan; Song, Dan; Etson, Candice M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Rudner, David Z.; Loparo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The parABS system is a widely employed mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParB binds to parS sites on plasmids and chromosomes and associates with broad regions of adjacent DNA, a phenomenon known as spreading. Although essential for ParB function, the mechani

  1. Aroma sebagai Komunikasi Artifaktual Pencetus Emosi Cinta: Studi Olfactics pada Memory Recall Peristiwa Romantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhernadetta Pravita Wahyuningtyas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes how scents can be a trigger for the memories about relationships. Scents inhaled do not only awaken a person's thoughts and feelings about the beautiful and fun memories in the past, but can trigger emotions also, especially the emotion of love ending up in miserable way, without power to strengthen it. Change is constant, as well as scent, its existence can always be a trigger of the emotional memories of love that is still tethered. Scents send specific messages of communication. They are associated with attraction and often trigger emotional romantic feelings. What can be triggered by scent or what sort of emotions that can be caused by a particular scent really depends on the experience, memories, and, to some extent, cultural background because every culture has various mapping on scent. Scent is closely linked to perception. In communications, scent is classified as artifactual communication or nonverbal communication. Olfactics or olfactory communication, or the study of scent is very important in a variety of communication situations. Olfactics in communications is to attract people's attention, to complement the flavors and tastes, to recall the events of emotional situations, and to form an image of one self and identity. Scents specifically trigger the memories of romantic feelings and affect a persons feelings. This study analyzed the love relationships experienced by informants who have had romantic relationship for at least one year. The paradigm used in this study is positivism, with descriptive qualitative approach. Data collection techniques are in-depth interview and observation.

  2. Genetic signatures for enhanced olfaction in the African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Stathopoulos

    Full Text Available The Olfactory Receptor (OR superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a 'birth and death' model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors' ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics.

  3. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  5. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  6. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  7. Lack of evidence for a role of olfaction on first maturation in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, João L; Martins, Rute S; Hubbard, Peter C; Canário, Adelino V M

    2015-09-15

    Chemical communication is widespread in the animal kingdom and olfaction constitutes a powerful channel for social and environmental cues. In fish, olfactory stimuli are known to influence physiological processes, including reproduction. Here we investigate the effects of olfaction on puberty in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax males. Intact sea bass coming to first maturity (puberty) are able to smell conspecific odours. However, induced anosmia during most of the spermatogenesis period had no effect on the sex ratio, gonad maturation state or gonado-somatic index at the time of reproduction. Furthermore anosmia decreased mRNA expression of brain KISS2 and pituitary LHb and FSHb, but not brain GnRH1 and GnRH3. Thus, although anosmia seems to modify gene expression of key reproduction related genetic factors, it seems to be insufficient to stop or delay growth or gonadal development and maturation.

  8. Development of hydrogen oxidizing bacteria using hydrogen from radiolysis or metal corrosion; Developpement de populations microbiennes oxydant l'hydrogene produit par radiolyse ou par corrosion des metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M.F.; Sellier, R.; Marty, V.; Camaro, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of many parameters need to be studied to characterize the long term behavior of nuclear waste in a deep repository. These parameters concern the chemical effects, radiolytic effects, mechanical properties, water composition, and microbiological activity. To evaluate microbial activity in such an environment, work was focused on an inventory of key nutrients (C, H, 0, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The production of hydrogen in the nuclear waste environment leads to the growth of hydrogen oxidizing bacteria, which modify the gas production balance. A deep repository containing bituminized waste drums implies several sources of hydrogen: - water radiolysis; -corrosion of metal containers; - radiolysis of the embedding matrix (bitumen). Two deep geological disposal conditions leading to H{sub 2} production in a bituminized nuclear waste environment were simulated in the present study: - H{sub 2} production by iron corrosion under anaerobic conditions was simulated by adding 10% of H{sub 2} in the atmosphere; - H{sub 2} production by radiolysis of bitumen matrix was approached by subjecting this material to external gamma irradiation with a dose rate near real conditions (6 Gy/h). The presence of dissolved H{sub 2} in water allows the growth of hydrogen oxidizing bacteria leading to: - CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} production; - H{sub 2} consumption; - lower NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration caused by reduction to nitrogen. In the first case, hydrogen consumption is limited by the NO{sub 3}{sup -} release rate from the bitumen matrix. In the second case, however, under gamma radiation at a low dose rate, hydrogen production is weak, and the hydrogen is completely consumed by microorganisms. Knowledge about these hydrogen oxidizing bacteria is just beginning to emerge. Heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria adapt well to hydrogen metabolism (autotrophic metabolism) by oxidizing H{sub 2} instead of hydrocarbons. (authors)

  9. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  10. Pars planitis in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, P; Sanz, A; Criado, D

    1994-01-01

    The familial occurrence of pars planitis is rare. We have found ten cases reported previously. We describe a new case of pars planitis in a family. The affected members included a mother and two of her four children. The family was tested for HLA antigens in order to establish a comparison with others HLA types by different authors. We have not identified any cause for the familial occurrence of this disease. We discuss the role of genetic and ambiental factors.

  11. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Tilton, Fred A.; Tilton, Susan C.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Nathaniel L Scholz; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical exposures in fish have been linked to loss of olfaction leading to an inability to detect predators and prey and decreased survival. However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory neurotoxicity are not well characterized, especially in environmental exposures which involve chemical mixtures. We used zebrafish to characterize olfactory transcriptional responses by two model olfactory inhibitors, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and mixtures of CPF with the neurotoxic metal copper (Cu). ...

  12. A computational study of the hydrodynamics in the nasal region of a hammerhead shark (Sphyrna tudes: implications for olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rygg

    Full Text Available The hammerhead shark possesses a unique head morphology that is thought to facilitate enhanced olfactory performance. The olfactory chambers, located at the distal ends of the cephalofoil, contain numerous lamellae that increase the surface area for olfaction. Functionally, for the shark to detect chemical stimuli, water-borne odors must reach the olfactory sensory epithelium that lines these lamellae. Thus, odorant transport from the aquatic environment to the sensory epithelium is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we investigate the hydrodynamics of olfaction in Sphyrna tudes based on an anatomically-accurate reconstruction of the head and olfactory chamber from high-resolution micro-CT and MRI scans of a cadaver specimen. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of water flow in the reconstructed model reveal the external and internal hydrodynamics of olfaction during swimming. Computed external flow patterns elucidate the occurrence of flow phenomena that result in high and low pressures at the incurrent and excurrent nostrils, respectively, which induces flow through the olfactory chamber. The major (prenarial nasal groove along the cephalofoil is shown to facilitate sampling of a large spatial extent (i.e., an extended hydrodynamic "reach" by directing oncoming flow towards the incurrent nostril. Further, both the major and minor nasal grooves redirect some flow away from the incurrent nostril, thereby limiting the amount of fluid that enters the olfactory chamber. Internal hydrodynamic flow patterns are also revealed, where we show that flow rates within the sensory channels between olfactory lamellae are passively regulated by the apical gap, which functions as a partial bypass for flow in the olfactory chamber. Consequently, the hammerhead shark appears to utilize external (major and minor nasal grooves and internal (apical gap flow regulation mechanisms to limit water flow between the olfactory lamellae, thus protecting these

  13. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium-high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (phistory and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders.

  14. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction.

  15. Prokaryotic ParA-ParB-parS system links bacterial chromosome segregation with the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Jolanta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    While the essential role of episomal par loci in plasmid DNA partitioning has long been appreciated, the function of chromosomally encoded par loci is less clear. The chromosomal parA-parB genes are conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom and encode proteins homologous to those of the plasmidic Type I active partitioning systems. The third conserved element, the centromere-like sequence called parS, occurs in several copies in the chromosome. Recent studies show that the ParA-ParB-parS system is a key player of a mitosis-like process ensuring proper intracellular localization of certain chromosomal regions such as oriC domain and their active and directed segregation. Moreover, the chromosomal par systems link chromosome segregation with initiation of DNA replication and the cell cycle.

  16. Acide alpha-linolénique, anti-oxydants et croissance tumorale mammaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajes Véronique

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En France, comme dans la plupart des pays occidentaux, le cancer du sein est la première cause de mortalité, avec un nombre annuel de décès proche de 10 000. Chez les femmes, le cancer du sein est celui dont le taux d’incidence est le plus élevé dans la plupart des pays occidentaux. En France, il y a approximativement 35 000 nouveaux cas chaque année. Le taux d’incidence est de 80 pour 100 000 femmes/an. Il existe une disparité géographique dans les taux d’incidence du cancer du sein. Ils sont élevés dans tous les pays développés, à l’exception du Japon et de la Chine. Ajusté sur l’âge, il est le plus élevé aux États-Unis, et le plus bas en Chine, en Inde, au Japon. La France se situe à une position intermédiaire en Europe. L’incidence du cancer du sein est globalement plus faible dans les pays du Sud de l’Europe. Cette disparité géographique ne peut pas être expliquée uniquement par les facteurs génétiques. L’étude des populations migrantes, dont les taux d’incidence du cancer du sein se modifient pour atteindre celui du pays dans lequel elles migrent, a permis de mettre en évidence le rôle des facteurs environnementaux dans l’apparition du cancer du sein. Parmi ceux-là, la part de l’alimentation est estimée à environ 35 % (entre 20 à 60 %, en fonction du site du cancer [1]. Il existe donc un réel potentiel de prévention du cancer du sein, sous réserve que les aliments protecteurs soient mis en évidence et que les nutriments responsables de ces effets protecteurs soient individualisés.

  17. suPAR: the molecular crystal ball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and suPAR(I) which show different properties due to structural differences....... Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by actingas uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPAR(II-III) act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement...

  18. Olfaction in the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata: an experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays C. Parolin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.

  19. Olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis: comparing two different endonasal steroid application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sophia C; Batashev, Islam; Reden, Jens; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Limited olfactory improvement after topical steroid therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients might result from restricted drug access to the olfactory cleft. The aim of our study was to investigate the difference between two methods to topically administer steroids with respect to olfaction: (1) conventional nasal spray and (2) a device using pressure and vibration to distribute steroid aerosol endonasally. A prospective study was performed in patients with olfactory impairment due to chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps. While the first group used the conventional dexamethasone nasal spray, the second group used the device over a period of 12 days. Olfactory testing was done at 0, 2, and 8 weeks using Sniffin' Sticks test. A significant olfactory improvement was found after 2 weeks of treatment with either steroid (p = 0.005). However, there was no significant difference between the different methods of steroid application. There is a significant olfactory improvement in CRS patients following topical dexamethasone therapy, but no obvious superiority of one of the two ways to administer the steroid.

  20. The role of mosquito olfaction in oviposition site location and in the avoidance of unsuitable hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Woodcock, C M

    1996-01-01

    Developments in the exploitation of mosquito olfaction are traced, in collaborative studies with various groups, from the first identification of a mosquito pheromone through to a discussion of non-host avoidance. The characterization of the oviposition pheromone for mosquitoes in the genus Culex, e.g. Culex quinquefasciatus, as a novel chiral lactone ester provided the impetus for a number of sophisticated asymmetric syntheses and economical large-scale routes to racemic products. The latter have provided material for successful field trials in three continents. During the course of this field work, we obtained evidence that semiochemicals originating directly from the oviposition site are essential for activity of the oviposition pheromone. Recent studies are elucidating the nature of these agents and their geographical variability. Initially, we used synthetic oviposition pheromone to attract mosquitoes to sites treated with a biorational larvicide. However, recyclable biological control agents offer better prospects for resource-poor regions. A biotechnological approach to pheromone production has been devised involving the generation of inexpensive starting materials by the cultivation of a higher plant. New studies on dipterous pests feeding on farm animals indicate a semiochemically based mechanism by which unsuitable individuals within the host species are avoided. There appears to be an analogous process in which mosquitoes avoid certain potential human hosts, thereby raising prospects for the development of novel, rationally identified repellents once the semiochemical/olfactory interactions have been fully elucidated.

  1. Olfaction in three genetic and two MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kurtenbach

    Full Text Available Various genetic or toxin-induced mouse models are frequently used for investigation of early PD pathology. Although olfactory impairment is known to precede motor symptoms by years, it is not known whether it is caused by impairments in the brain, the olfactory epithelium, or both. In this study, we investigated the olfactory function in three genetic Parkinson's disease (PD mouse models and mice treated with MPTP intraperitoneally and intranasally. To investigate olfactory function, we performed electro-olfactogram recordings (EOGs and an olfactory behavior test (cookie-finding test. We show that neither a parkin knockout mouse strain, nor intraperitoneal MPTP treated animals display any olfactory impairment in EOG recordings and the applied behavior test. We also found no difference in the responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorants in a mouse strain over-expressing doubly mutated α-synuclein, while this mouse strain was not suitable to test olfaction in a cookie-finding test as it displays a mobility impairment. A transgenic mouse expressing mutated α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons performed equal to control animals in the cookie-finding test. Further we show that intranasal MPTP application can cause functional damage of the olfactory epithelium.

  2. Effect of dietary nickel deprivation on vision, olfaction, and taste in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Uthus, Eric O; Penland, James G; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Early studies on dietary nickel deprivation found decreased reproduction rate in pigs and decreased insemination and conception rates in goats. Studies from our laboratory demonstrated that nickel deprivation impaired male reproductive function of rats. A physiological amount of nickel modulates the function of cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (CNG channels) in vitro. Thus, because CNG channels have important roles in spermatozoa function, it was speculated that the impairment of reproduction by nickel deprivation was through an effect on CNG channels. Because CNG channels are found in retinal photoreceptor, olfactory receptor, and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that nickel deprivation would also alter light/dark preference, odor preference to female rat urine, and taste preference/aversion in rats. In the light/dark Y-maze, nickel deprivation significantly decreased time spent in the dark arm by rats. The number of sniffs to estrous female urine was significantly increased only in nickel-supplemented rats. The number of licks at the saccharin bottle was significantly decreased by dietary nickel deprivation. These findings suggest that nickel has a biological role in the special senses: vision, olfaction and taste.

  3. MOXD2, a Gene Possibly Associated with Olfaction, Is Frequently Inactivated in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chul Jun; Choi, Dongjin; Park, Dong-Bin; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate MOXD2 encodes a monooxygenase DBH-like 2 protein that could be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, potentially during olfactory transduction. Loss of MOXD2 in apes and whales has been proposed to be associated with evolution of olfaction in these clades. We analyzed 57 bird genomes to identify MOXD2 sequences and found frequent loss of MOXD2 in 38 birds. Among the 57 birds, 19 species appeared to have an intact MOXD2 that encoded a full-length protein; 32 birds had a gene with open reading frame-disrupting point mutations and/or exon deletions; and the remaining 6 species did not show any MOXD2 sequence, suggesting a whole-gene deletion. Notably, among 10 passerine birds examined, 9 species shared a common genomic deletion that spanned several exons, implying the gene loss occurred in a common ancestor of these birds. However, 2 closely related penguin species, each of which had an inactive MOXD2, did not share any mutation, suggesting an independent loss after their divergence. Distribution of the 38 birds without an intact MOXD2 in the bird phylogenetic tree clearly indicates that MOXD2 loss is widespread and independent in bird lineages. We propose that widespread MOXD2 loss in some bird lineages may be implicated in the evolution of olfactory perception in these birds.

  4. Sex-specific responses to sexual familiarity, and the role of olfaction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cedric K W; Løvlie, Hanne; Greenway, Elisabeth; Goodwin, Stephen F; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2013-11-22

    Studies of mating preferences have largely neglected the potential effects of individuals encountering their previous mates ('directly sexually familiar'), or new mates that share similarities to previous mates, e.g. from the same family and/or environment ('phenotypically sexually familiar'). Here, we show that male and female Drosophila melanogaster respond to the direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity of potential mates in fundamentally different ways. We exposed a single focal male or female to two potential partners. In the first experiment, one potential partner was novel (not previously encountered) and one was directly familiar (their previous mate); in the second experiment, one potential partner was novel (unrelated, and from a different environment from the previous mate) and one was phenotypically familiar (from the same family and rearing environment as the previous mate). We found that males preferentially courted novel females over directly or phenotypically familiar females. By contrast, females displayed a weak preference for directly and phenotypically familiar males over novel males. Sex-specific responses to the familiarity of potential mates were significantly weaker or absent in Orco(1) mutants, which lack a co-receptor essential for olfaction, indicating a role for olfactory cues in mate choice over novelty. Collectively, our results show that direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity is detected through olfactory cues and play an important role in sex-specific sexual behaviour.

  5. Olfaction in the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata: an experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Lays C; Mikich, Sandra B; Bianconi, Gledson V

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.

  6. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted.

  7. EFFET DU DOPAGE AVEC AL SUR LES PROPRIETES STRUCTURALE & OPTIQUE DES NANOPOUDRES DE ZNO SYNTHETISEES PAR VOIE SOL-GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L ARAB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but d'améliorer les applications des nanomatériaux, on a synthétisés des nanopoudres de l’oxyde de zinc purs et dopés avec Al par voie sol-gel,  sol gel est une méthode simple et peu couteuse, nous permettre d'obtenir des poudres de ZnO à des tailles de grains très petites. La solution a été préparée en dissolvant l'acétate de zinc dihydraté dans 2-méthoxyéthanol, on a ajouté quelques millilitres du monoéthanolamine pour stabiliser la solution. Les nanopoudres de ZnO dopées avec l’Al sont obtenues en ajoutant une quantité de nitrate d'aluminium, variée entre 0 à 10% en moles. La diffraction des rayons X montrent que toutes les poudres sont des solutions solides avec une structure hexagonale compacte et  une taille des grains varient entre 23 à 36 nm. FTIR des poudres registrent une bande d'absorption autour de 429,92 cm-1, correspondant au liaison Zn-O. L’UV-Vis des nanopoudres synthétisées indique que le gap est environ 3,44 eV, un bleu shift est enregistré par apport au ZnO massive (3,37 eV.

  8. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replicati

  9. Optic capture pars plana lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joo Eun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South KoreaObjective: To describe an optic capture pars plana lensectomy technique.Methods: After core vitrectomy, pars plana lensectomy is performed with preservation of the anterior capsule. Capsulorhexis is performed on the preserved anterior capsule through a 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. An intraocular lens (IOL is placed in the ciliary sulcus, and then the optic of the IOL is pushed back to the vitreous cavity so that the optic is captured by the surrounding capsulorhexis margin.Results: The captured IOL-capsule diaphragm remained stable during air–fluid exchange and prevented air prolapse to the anterior chamber. IOL stability and a clear visual axis were preserved during the follow-up period.Conclusion: With this modified pars plana lensectomy technique, stable IOL position and clear visual axis can be maintained when a pars plana approach is needed during combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery.Keywords: lensectomy, optic capture, pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy

  10. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  11. Vision par ordinateur: outils fondamentaux

    OpenAIRE

    Horaud, Radu; Monga, Olivier

    1995-01-01

    National audience; Cet ouvrage présente les outils fondamentaux de la vision par ordinateur dans un langage mathématique accessible aux étudiants de niveau DEUG en mathématiques ou informatique. Il donne également de nombreux exemples d'utilisation de la vision par ordinateur dans deux domaines de technologie de pointe : la robotique et l'imagerie médicale. Cette deuxième édition largement augmentée est un manuel de référence. Les outils fondamentaux sont présentés dans un langage mathématiqu...

  12. Effet des additifs sur la structure cristalline du polyéthylène à basse densité (PEBD irradiés par des rayonnements UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheloufi T

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des rayons U V sur les propriétés physico-chimiques et mécaniques du polyéthylène à basse densité (PEBD et pigmenté avec des additifs dans différentes formulations ont été étudiées. Les échantillons ont été exposés au rayonnement U V émis par une lampe à xénon d’une puissance de 6000 W à une température de 46 °C pour différents temps. Un échantillon de référence a été pris pour la comparaison. A l’aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge FTIR et l’essai de traction, on a pu suivre les changements structuraux physico-chimiques et mécaniques. L’évolution des paramètres mécaniques (module d’élasticité, contrainte et allongement à la rupture ainsi que l’évolution des groupements carbonylés sous l’effet des radiations UV sont discutées. L’allongement à la rupture diminue avec le temps d’exposition pour la plupart des formulations étudiées, sauf la formulation F4 (anti-oxydant/stabilisant dont il y à une augmentation avec le temps. Par les RX, on a pu calculer le taux de cristallinité qui ont donné des valeurs élevées par rapport à d’autres ce qui est du probablement aux additifs ajoutés (chimassorb 81. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les additifs (stabilisants lumière et anti-oxydants avec des concentrations appropriées donnent des améliorations fiables concernant le comportement mécanique et les propriétés physico-chimiques des échantillons du PEBD exposés au rayonnement UV.

  13. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Shuo; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E.; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. Olfm1−/− female mice were previously reported to have reduced fertility. Previous microarray analysis revealed Olfm1 among the most highly upregulated genes in the uterine luminal epithelium upon embryo implantation, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. We hypothesized that Olfm1 deficiency led to defective embryo implantation and thus impaired fertility. Indeed, Olfm1−/− females had defective embryo implantation. However, Olfm1−/− females rarely mated and those that mated rarely became pregnant. Ovarian histology indicated the absence of corpora lutea in Olfm1−/− females, indicating defective ovulation. Superovulation using equine chorionic gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin rescued mating, ovulation, and pregnancy, and equine chorionic gonadotropin alone rescued ovulation in Olfm1−/− females. Olfm1−/− females had a 13% reduction of hypothalamic GnRH neurons but comparable basal serum LH levels and GnRH-induced LH levels compared with wild-type controls. These results indicated no obvious local defects in the female reproductive system and a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Olfm1−/− females were unresponsive to the effects of male bedding stimulation on pubertal development and estrous cycle. There were 41% fewer cFos-positive cells in the mitral cell layer of accessory olfactory bulb upon male urine stimulation for 90 minutes. OLFM1 was expressed in the main and accessory olfactory systems including main olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, main olfactory bulb, and accessory olfactory bulb, with the highest expression detected in the axon bundles of olfactory sensory neurons. These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1−/− females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction. PMID:26107991

  14. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Shuo; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Mattson, Mark P; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2015-09-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. Olfm1(-/-) female mice were previously reported to have reduced fertility. Previous microarray analysis revealed Olfm1 among the most highly upregulated genes in the uterine luminal epithelium upon embryo implantation, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. We hypothesized that Olfm1 deficiency led to defective embryo implantation and thus impaired fertility. Indeed, Olfm1(-/-) females had defective embryo implantation. However, Olfm1(-/-) females rarely mated and those that mated rarely became pregnant. Ovarian histology indicated the absence of corpora lutea in Olfm1(-/-) females, indicating defective ovulation. Superovulation using equine chorionic gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin rescued mating, ovulation, and pregnancy, and equine chorionic gonadotropin alone rescued ovulation in Olfm1(-/-) females. Olfm1(-/-) females had a 13% reduction of hypothalamic GnRH neurons but comparable basal serum LH levels and GnRH-induced LH levels compared with wild-type controls. These results indicated no obvious local defects in the female reproductive system and a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Olfm1(-/-) females were unresponsive to the effects of male bedding stimulation on pubertal development and estrous cycle. There were 41% fewer cFos-positive cells in the mitral cell layer of accessory olfactory bulb upon male urine stimulation for 90 minutes. OLFM1 was expressed in the main and accessory olfactory systems including main olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, main olfactory bulb, and accessory olfactory bulb, with the highest expression detected in the axon bundles of olfactory sensory neurons. These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1(-/-) females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction.

  15. Underwater olfaction for real-time detection of submerged unexploded ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ross J.; Dock, Matthew L.

    2007-04-01

    The presence of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UUXO) represents a considerable threat in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of dissolved explosive compounds, such as TNT and RDX, may be produced in the vicinity of degraded UUXO shell casings and are known to have significant toxicant effects on local marine organisms. During World War II and in subsequent years, the US military inadvertently or, in some cases intentionally, deposited many thousands of tons of UUXO in US coastal waters. Much of this material is difficult to locate by magnetometry or sonar imaging techniques, and can be extremely challenging to identify by visual means after lying on the bottom of the ocean for several decades. The present work is focused on advances in underwater olfaction, wherein trace amounts of dissolved explosive compounds may be detected and discriminated from other chemical species found in the marine environment, for the purpose of establishing safe cordons and/or neutralization of the explosives. ICx Nomadics has developed the first known real-time sensor system that is capable of detecting chemical signatures emanating from underwater explosives. The SeaPup sensor, which is based on the fluorescence-quenching transduction mechanism of an amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP), is capable of real-time detection of the trace chemical signatures emanating from submerged explosive compounds. The SeaPup system has been successfully tested on various marine platforms, including a crawler robot, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). In one study, the SeaPup was shown to effectively map liquid phase "explosive scent plumes" emanating from an underwater source of TNT. The presented paper will provide an overview of the history, current status, and future development of explosive analyte detection in the underwater environment.

  16. ParSplice, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-05

    The ParSplice code implements the Parallel Trajectory Splicing algorithm described in [1]. This method is part of the Accelerated Molecular Dynamics family of techniques developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory over the last 16 years. These methods aim at generating high-quality trajectories of ensembles of atoms in materials. ParSplice uses multiple independent replicas of the system in order to parallelize the generation of such trajectories in the time domain, enabling simulations of systems of modest size over very long timescales. ParSplice includes capabilities to store configurations of the system, to generate and distribute tasks across a large number of processors, and to harvest the results of these tasks to generate long trajectories. ParSplice is a management layer that orchestrate large number of calculations, but it does not perform the actual molecular dynamics itself; this is done by external molecular dynamics engines. [1] Danny Perez, Ekin D Cubuk, Amos Waterland, Efthimios Kaxiras, Arthur F Voter, Long-time dynamics through parallel trajectory splicing, Journal of chemical theory and computation 12, 18 (2015)

  17. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (psmell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor

  18. An Artificial Olfaction System Formed by a Massive Sensors Array Dispersed in a Diffusion Media and an Automatically Formed Glomeruli Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Corrado; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar

    2009-05-01

    Optical imaging is a read-out technique for sensors that can easily provide advances in artificial olfaction implementing features such as the large number of receptors and the glomeruli layer. In this paper an artificial olfaction system based on the imaging of a continuous layer of chemical indicators is illustrated. The system results in an array of thousands of sensors, corresponding to the pixels of the image. The choice of Computer Screen Photoassisted Technology as a platform for optical interrogation of the sensing layer allows for the definition of a strategy for an automatic definition of the glomeruli layer based on the classification of the optical fingerprints of the image pixels. Chemical indicators are dissolved into a polymeric matrix mimicking the functions of the olfactory mucosa. The system is here illustrated with a simple experiment. Data are treated applying a lateral inhibition to the glomeruli layer resulting in a dynamic pattern resembling that observed in natural olfaction.

  19. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  20. Study on perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus gramineus for treatment of the Alzheimer's disease rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Niu, Wen-Min; Yang, Xiao-Hang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Gang

    2010-12-01

    To probe into the therapeutic effect of perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus on the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat. Totally 50 adult SD rats, male,weighing 300 +/- 10 g, were randomly divided into 5 groups, normal group (group A), olfactory nerve severing model group (group B), AD model group (group C), AD model plus perfume stimulation group (group D), AD model olfactory nerve severing plus perfume stimulation group (group E), 10 rats in each group. After perfume stimulation, Morris maze test was conducted for valuating the learning and memory ability; Malondaldehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain, and the brain weight were detected. Compared with the AD model group, the average escape latency and swimming distance in 6 days were significantly shorter than those in the group A, B, D (P 0.05); Compared with the group A, B and D, MDA content in the group C significantly increased (P 0.05). Perfume stimultating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus can significantly increase the learning-memory ability, decrease MDA content and increase SOD and GSH-Px activities and weight of brain in AD rats.

  1. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  2. Un stress oxydant chronique est associé à une amelioration de la sensibilité à l’insuline et des fonctions mitochondrialesdans le muscle squelettique de souris SAMP8

    OpenAIRE

    Barquissau, Valentin; Denis, Philippe; Jouve, Chrystele; Patrac, Véronique; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Feillet Coudray, Christine; Galinier, A; Rieusset, Jennifer; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Morio, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    De nombreuses études suggèrent que les espèces réactives del’oxygène participent à l’étiologie du diabète de type 2. Ce travail a pour objectifd’étudier l’effet d’un stress oxydant chronique sur le développement de l’insulino-résistance et sur les adaptations des fonctions mitochondriales musculaires.

  3. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thunø

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions.

  4. Study of the low temperature oxidation of uranium powders and its application to the sintering of uranium oxide powders; Etude de l'oxydation des poudres dtranium a basse temperature et son application au frittage de poudres d'uranium oxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte-Albert, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    techniques utilisees sont la micrographie, la thermogravimetrie, le frittage sous charge, la radiocristallographie. A 170 deg. C, sous air ou dans des melanges argon + oxygene, l'oxyde d'uranium forme est toujours UO{sub 2} et il est uniformement reparti autour des billes d'uranium de depart. Ces poudres mixtes se frittent facilement sous charge en phase {gamma}. On obtient des echantillons dont la densite est de 85 a 90 pour cent de la densite theorique. L'influence de l'UO{sub 2} sur les proprietes de l'uranium a ete mise en evidence par dilatometrie et cyclage thermique en phase {alpha}. Les temperatures des changements de phase {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} sont abaissees, l'allongement remanent est diminue. Les echantillons de bonne densite ont une bonne tenue au cyclage thermique; les defauts caracteristiques de l'uranium: grande distorsion, peau d'orange, n'existent presque plus. Des traitements thermiques sous vide secondaire a 1050 deg. C provoquent la cristallisation de l'UO{sub 2} sous forme geometrique et l'apparition d'une phase, de systeme cristallin C.F.C., de formule U{sub W}C{sub X}O{sub Y}N{sub Z}. Cette phase provoque un nouvel abaissement des temperatures de transformation {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} de l'uranium. Apres dix cycles dilatometriques, l'allongement remanent de l'echantillon est de l'ordre de 0,5 pour cent. La tenue au cyclage thermique d'un echantillon de faible densite ayant ete traite thermiquement est comparable a celle d'un echantillon de bonne densite n'ayant pas subi de traitement thermique. (auteur)

  5. Fabrication de memoire monoelectronique non volatile par une approche de nanogrille flottante

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmain, Marc

    Les transistors monoelectroniques (SET) sont des dispositifs de tailles nanometriques qui permettent la commande d'un electron a la fois et donc, qui consomment peu d'energie. Une des applications complementaires des SET qui attire l'attention est son utilisation dans des circuits de memoire. Une memoire monoelectronique (SEM) non volatile a le potentiel d'operer a des frequences de l'ordre des gigahertz ce qui lui permettrait de remplacer en meme temps les memoires mortes de type FLASH et les memoires vives de type DRAM. Une puce SEM permettrait donc ultimement la reunification des deux grands types de memoire au sein des ordinateurs. Cette these porte sur la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques non volatiles. Le procede de fabrication propose repose sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par C. Dubuc et al. a 1'Universite de Sherbrooke. L'un des avantages de ce procede est sa compatibilite avec le back-end-of-line (BEOL) des circuits CMOS. Ce procede a le potentiel de fabriquer plusieurs couches de circuits memoirestres denses au-dessus de tranches CMOS. Ce document presente, entre autres, la realisation d'un simulateur de memoires monoelectroniques ainsi que les resultats de simulations de differentes structures. L'optimisation du procede de fabrication de dispositifs monoelectroniques et la realisation de differentes architectures de SEM simples sont traitees. Les optimisations ont ete faites a plusieurs niveaux : l'electrolithographie, la gravure de l'oxyde, le soulevement du titane, la metallisation et la planarisation CMP. La caracterisation electrique a permis d'etudier en profondeur les dispositifs formes de jonction de Ti/TiO2 et elle a demontre que ces materiaux ne sont pas appropries. Par contre, un SET forme de jonction de TiN/Al2O3 a ete fabrique et caracterise avec succes a basse temperature. Cette demonstration demontre le potentiel du procede de fabrication et de la deposition de couche atomique (ALD) pour la fabrication de memoires

  6. First experimental evidence that a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones detects odors of non-rotten dead prey by olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiany Miranda Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvestmen feed on live, dead and fresh, or decomposing animals, fungi, and plant matter, being very dependent on chemoreception to find food. Herein we performed an experiment to test if individuals of Discocyrtus pectinifemur Mello-Leitão, 1937 (Gonyleptidae (n = 23 behave differently when in contact with olfactory cues from different sources (rotten prey, non-rotten prey and a control. Using dead crickets in a box covered with a mesh, and recording the time the harvestmen spent in the vicinities of the box, we show that D. pectinifemur detects non-rotten prey and stays longer on it than on the other two treatments. Our results contrast with a previous study on another species, showing that we should not generalize results obtained for one species. Our data also suggest that olfactory receptors occur on the legs of these harvestmen and that D. pectinifemur might choose dietary items based on olfaction.

  7. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  8. Olfaction-Inspired Sensing Using a Sensor System with Molecular Recognition and Optimal Classification Ability for Comprehensive Detection of Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Imahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the comprehensive detection of numerous volatile molecules based on the olfactory information constructed by using olfaction-inspired sensor technology. The sensor system can simultaneously detect multiple odors by the separation and condensation ability of molecularly imprinted filtering adsorbents (MIFAs, where a MIP filter with a molecular sieve was deposited on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS substrate. The adsorption properties of MIFAs were evaluated using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results demonstrated that the system embedded with MIFAs possesses high sensitivity and specific selectivity. The digitization and comprehensive classification of odors were accomplished by using artificial odor maps constructed through this system.

  9. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods.

  10. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Fred A; Tilton, Susan C; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Stapleton, Patricia L; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Gallagher, Evan P

    2011-04-01

    Chemical exposures in fish have been linked to loss of olfaction leading to an inability to detect predators and prey and decreased survival. However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory neurotoxicity are not well characterized, especially in environmental exposures which involve chemical mixtures. We used zebrafish to characterize olfactory transcriptional responses by two model olfactory inhibitors, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and mixtures of CPF with the neurotoxic metal copper (Cu). Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from olfactory tissues of zebrafish exposed to CPF alone or to a mixture of CPF and Cu. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, whereas gene set analysis was used to identify biological themes in the microarray data. Microarray results were confirmed by real-time PCR on genes serving as potential biomarkers of olfactory injury. In addition, we mined our previously published Cu-induced zebrafish olfactory transcriptional response database (Tilton et al., 2008) for the purposes of discriminating pathways of olfaction impacted by either the individual agents or the CPF-Cu mixture transcriptional signatures. CPF exposure altered the expression of gene pathways associated with cellular morphogenesis and odorant binding, but not olfactory signal transduction, a known olfactory pathway for Cu. The mixture profiles shared genes from the Cu and CPF datasets, whereas some genes were altered only by the mixtures. The transcriptional signature of the mixtures was more similar to that in zebrafish exposed to Cu alone than for CPF. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture containing a common environmental metal and pesticide causes a unique transcriptional signature that is heavily influenced by the metal, even when organophosphate predominates.

  11. Performance testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malliakos, A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) have been under consideration in the U.S. as a combustible gas control system in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) containments for design basis and severe accidents. PARs do not require a source of power. Instead they use palladium or platinum as a catalyst to recombine hydrogen and oxygen gases into water vapor upon contact with the catalyst. Energy from the recombination of hydrogen with oxygen is released at a relatively slow but continuous rate into the containment which prevents the pressure from becoming too high. The heat produced creates strong buoyancy effects which increases the influx of the surrounding gases to the recombiner. These natural convective flow currents promote mixing of combustible gases in the containment. PARs are self-starting and self-feeding under a very wide range of conditions. The recombination rate of the PAR system needs to be great enough to keep the concentration of hydrogen (or oxygen) below acceptable limits. There are several catalytic recombiner concepts under development worldwide. The USNRC is evaluating a specific design of a PAR which is in an advanced stage of engineering development and has been proposed for ALWR designs. Sandia National laboratories (SNL), under the sponsorship and the direction of the USNRC, is conducting an experimental program to evaluate the performance of PARs. The PAR will be tested at the SURTSEY facility at SNL. The test plan currently includes the following experiments: experiments will be conducted to define the startup characteristics of PARs (i.e., to define what is the lowest hydrogen concentration that the PAR starts recombining the hydrogen with oxygen); experiments will be used to define the hydrogen depletion rate of PARs as a function of hydrogen concentration; and experiments will be used to define the PAR performance in the presence of high concentrations of steam. (author)

  12. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia S Lioy

    Full Text Available In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2 and ParB-like (ω2 proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell's nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems.

  13. Procédés électrochimiques d'oxydation avancée pour l'élimination des composés pharmaceutiques de l'eau : Etude des performances d'une anode d'oxyde de titane sous-stoechiométrique et feutre de carbone modifie par double couche d'hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu, Soliu

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals residues as emerging pollutants have become a major concern due to their persistence and continuous accumulation in various environmental compartments and their removal is one the major challenges of this century. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) such as anodic oxidation (AO) and electro-Fenton (EF) have shown to be efficient techniques for complete degradation and mineralization of this class of pollutants. A substoichiometric titanium oxide (Ti4O7) deposi...

  14. Frequent loss and alteration of the MOXD2 gene in catarrhines and whales: a possible connection with the evolution of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Seon; Wang, Yao; Oh, Hye Ji; Lee, Kangseok; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2014-01-01

    The MOXD2 gene encodes a membrane-bound monooxygenase similar to dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and has been proposed to be associated with olfaction. In this study, we analyzed MOXD2 genes from 64 mammalian species, and identified loss-of-function mutations in apes (humans, Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, and five gibbon species from the four major gibbon genera), toothed whales (killer whales, bottlenose dolphins, finless porpoises, baijis, and sperm whales), and baleen whales (minke whales and fin whales). We also identified a shared 13-nt deletion in the last exon of Old World cercopithecine monkeys that results in conversion of a membrane-bound protein to a soluble form. We hypothesize that the frequent inactivation and alteration of MOXD2 genes in catarrhines and whales may be associated with the evolution of olfaction in these clades.

  15. Fixation à haute et moyenne température de l'hydrogène sulfuré par des masses de captation régénérables Hydrogen-Sulfide Fixation At High and Medium Temperature by Regenerable Capture Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotier G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt de la désulfuration haute température comparée à la même opération conduite à basse température est renforcé quand la désulfuration a lieu entre deux opérations de niveau thermique élevé comme la gazéification du charbon et la production d'électricité par cycles combinés turbine à gaz-turbine à vapeur. Les masses absorbantes à base d'oxyde de fer peuvent réaliser une bonne désulfuration mais résistent mal aux chocs thermiques. Un agent de régénération particulièrement efficace est le dioxyde de soufre qui peut réoxyder le sulfure de fer par une réaction légèrement endothermique. Un des principaux avantages de cette réaction est la production directe de soufre élémentaire. Ses désavantages sont une faible conversion par passe et la sulfatation de l'oxyde de calcium (une des nombreuses impuretés des boues rouges qui composent la masse. Lorsque l'on emploie de la vapeur pour diluer le SO2 deux autres réactions ont lieu. La production de soufre est augmentée et la sulfatation disparaît. Les productions principales du procédé sont du soufre élémentaire et de la vapeur haute pression. On rencontre deux zones de réactions (l'une de captation, l'autre de régénération séparées par un tampon de gaz inerte et une circulation de la masse. Aucune autre unité de traitement de soufre n'est requise sur le site. Une évaluation économique préliminaire montre que ce procédé est compétitif lorsqu'on le compare à un lavage des gaz par solvant, à froid. The interest of a high temperature unit compared to a low temperature one is enhanced when desulphurization takes place between two hotoperations like coal gasification and power generation by combined cycles. Iron oxide based sorbents such as redmuds can achieve good desulphurization but cannot withstand high temperature gradients. An efficient regenerating agent is sulphur dioxide. SO2 can regenerate iron sulphide with a slightly endothermic

  16. ¡París!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caballero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.

  17. Donovanose no Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Silva

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 259 casos de donovanose registrados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Departamento de Medicina Tropical/UFPA entre 1954-1990. Observa-se que no período 1954-1974 existiam nos arquivos apenas 56 prontuários da doença, enquanto que no último quinquénio estudado (1986-1990 foram identificados 133 casos. Para os autores esse crescimento está ligado a excessiva liberalidade sexual, ao homossexualismo e as precárias condições sócio-econômicas, acentuada nos últimos tempos.From 1954 to 1990 granuloma inguinale was diagnosed in 259 patients al the dermatology service of the Universidade Federal do Pará in Belém, Brazil. Among them, 56 cases had ocurred in the twenty-year period 1954-1974 and as many as 133 cases were seen during the last five years only. Greater sexual liberty, poor social and economic conditions, and especially increasing homosexual behavior were implicated by the authors as chief determinants for this augmented incidence of the disease.

  18. Role of olfaction in the foraging behavior and trial-and-error learning in short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Guangjian; Tan, Liangjing; Yang, Jian; Chen, Yi; Liu, Qi; Shen, Qiqi; Chen, Jinping; Zhang, Libiao

    2014-03-01

    We observed the foraging behavior of short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx, in captivity. The role of olfaction in their foraging behavior was examined using real fruit, mimetic fruit, and mimetic fruit soaked in the juice of real fruit. The results showed that C. sphinx visited the real fruit more often than the mimetic fruit, but they had no preference between real fruit and treated mimetic fruit. Our experiment indicates that this bat has the ability to find and identify fruit by olfaction. We also tested for behavior of trial-and-error learning. Our observations revealed that the bats could form a sensory memory of the olfactory cue (cedar wood oil) after five days of training because they responded to the olfactory cues. Our results provide the evidence that C. sphinx can establish the connection between the fruit and a non-natural odor through learning and memory with the assistance of olfaction, and can thus recognize a variety of odors by trial-and-error learning. This behavioral flexibility based on olfactory cues will be beneficial for the short-nosed fruit bat in foraging.

  19. Olfaction and environment: Tsimane' of Bolivian rainforest have lower threshold of odor detection than industrialized German people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensitivity varies between individuals. However, data regarding cross-cultural and inter-group differences are scarce. We compared the thresholds of odor detection of the traditional society of Tsimane' (native Amazonians of the Bolivian rainforest; n = 151 and people living in Dresden (Germany; n = 286 using "Sniffin' Sticks" threshold subtest. Tsimane' detected n-butanol at significantly lower concentrations than the German subjects. The distribution of thresholds of the Tsimane' was very specific, with 25% of Tsimane' obtaining better results in the olfactory test than any member of the German group. These data suggest that differences in olfactory sensitivity seem to be especially salient between industrialized and non-industrialized populations inhabiting different environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the possible sources of such differences are: (i the impact of pollution which impairs the olfactory abilities of people from industrialized countries; (ii better training of olfaction because of the higher importance of smell in traditional populations; (iii environmental pressures shaping olfactory abilities in these populations.

  20. Olfaction variation in mouse husbandry and its implications for refinement and standardization: UK survey of animal scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Salesansky, Noelia; Mazlan, Nur H; Whitfield, Lucy E; Wells, Dominic J; Burn, Charlotte C

    2016-10-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in mouse communication, providing information about genetic identity, physiological status of conspecifics and alerting mice to potential predators. Scents of animal origin can trigger physiological and behavioural responses that could affect experimental responses and impact positively or negatively on mouse welfare. Additionally, differing olfactory profiles could help explain variation in results between laboratories. A survey was sent to animal research units in the UK to investigate potential transfer of scents of animal origin during routine husbandry procedures, and responses were obtained from animal care workers and researchers using mice in 51 institutions. The results reveal great diversity between animal units regarding the relevant husbandry routines covered. Most [71%] reported housing non-breeding male and female mice in the same room, with 76% reporting that hands were not washed and gloves not changed between handling male and female mice. The most commonly reported species housed in the same facility as mice was the rat (91%), and 41% of respondents were aware that scents from rats could affect mice. Changing of gloves between handling mice and other species was reported by 79% of respondents. Depending on the aspect considered, between 18 and 33% of respondents believed human and non-human animal odours would strongly affect mouse physiology, behaviour or standardization, while approximately 32-54% believed these effects would be weak. This indicates uncertainty regarding the significance of these factors. Understanding and controlling these practices could reduce unwanted variability in experimental results and maximize welfare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  2. Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Advanced Coats’ Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gulipek Muftuoglu; Gokhan Gulkilik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report 5 cases of advanced Coats’ disease managed with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Methods: Five patients with advanced Coats’ disease and serous or tractional retinal detachment underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade. One patient had combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy surgery. Of the 5 patients, 1 had intravitreal hemorrhage and a retinal macrocyst and 1 had a retinal cyst. Follow-up...

  3. Reactive turbulent flow CFD study in supercritical water oxidation process: application to a stirred double shell reactor; Etude par simulation numerique des ecoulements turbulents reactifs dans les reacteurs d'oxydation hydrothermale: application a un reacteur agite double enveloppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussiere, S

    2006-12-15

    Supercritical water oxidation is an innovative process to treat organic liquid waste which uses supercritical water properties to mix efficiency the oxidant and the organic compounds. The reactor is a stirred double shell reactor. In the step of adaptation to nuclear constraints, the computational fluid dynamic modeling is a good tool to know required temperature field in the reactor for safety analysis. Firstly, the CFD modeling of tubular reactor confirms the hypothesis of an incompressible fluid and the use of k-w turbulence model to represent the hydrodynamic. Moreover, the EDC model is as efficiency as the kinetic to compute the reaction rate in this reactor. Secondly, the study of turbulent flow in the double shell reactor confirms the use of 2D axisymmetric geometry instead of 3D geometry to compute heat transfer. Moreover, this study reports that water-air mixing is not in single phase. The reactive turbulent flow is well represented by EDC model after adaptation of initial conditions. The reaction rate in supercritical water oxidation reactor is mainly controlled by the mixing. (author)

  4. Radiolytic oxidation of tamoxifen using the free radicals {sup .}OH and (or) HO{sub 2}{sup .}; Oxydation radiolytique du tamoxifene par les radicaux libres {sup .}OH et (ou) HO{sub 2}{sup .}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguene, C. [Lab. de Chimie-Physique, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Clavere, P. [Service de Radiotherapie et d' Oncologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire, CHU, Dupuytren, Limoges (France); Jore, D.; Gardes-Albert, M. [Lab. de Chimie-Physique, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Tamoxifen is the most widely used antiestrogen in the treatment of breast cancer. In this work, we have studied its antioxidant properties. We have investigated the ability of tamoxifen to scavenge, in vitro, {sup .}OH and (or) HO{sub 2}{sup .} free radicals that are produced by water radiolysis. Aqueous solutions of tamoxifen of concentrations ranging between 10{sup -5} and 2.5 x 10{sup -5} M have been irradiated ({gamma} {sup 137}Cs) in aerated acidic medium (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} 10{sup -3} M or HCOOH 10{sup -1} M). The results show that tamoxifen reacts quantitatively with {sup .}OH free radicals but does not react with HO{sub 2}{sup .} free radicals under our experimental conditions. (author)

  5. AdBlue: the solution retained by Total to reduce the nitrogen oxides releases of heavy lorries; AdBlue: la solution retenue par Total pour reduire les emissions d'oxydes d'azote des poids lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, A.

    2005-09-15

    On the 15 of June 2005, Total has inaugurated, near Lyon, the first French gasoline service station delivering AdBlue to heavy-duty cars. Adblue is an aqueous solution of urea which, injected in exhaust systems, allows to reduce the nitrogen oxides releases. In this technology, called SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), nitrogen oxides are converted into nitrogen and steam by the mean of a catalytic converter of AdBlue pulverized in the hot exhaust gas. The releases are abated of about 85%. (O.M.)

  6. Study of Pd-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by an oxide colloidal route; Etude de catalyseurs Pd-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepares par voie colloidale oxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdier, St.

    2001-09-01

    The oxide colloidal route, developed in the laboratory for mono-metallic catalysts, consists in preparing a metallic oxide hydro-sol which leads to the supported catalyst after deposition onto a support and an activation stage. In this work, this method has been adapted to the preparation of alumina supported bimetallic Pd-Sn catalysts to determine its interest for the control of the properties of the bimetallic phase (size, composition and structure). In the preliminary study concerning tin oxide sols, SnO{sub 2} (size=2,3 nm) and Sn{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} (size = 25 nm) nano-particles were synthesized by neutralization respectively for tin(IV) and tin(H). The control through the pH of the aggregation of the PdO and SnO{sub 2} particles revealed that increasing oxide solubility promotes integral re-dispersion of the oxide particles. To synthesize oxide bimetallic sols, three strategies were defined. Copolymerization (formation of a mixed oxide nano-sol by cross condensation of both metals) does not lead to a mixed oxide Pd-Sn phase. Surface precipitation (neutralization of the second metal in the presence of the first oxide sol) yields nano-particles of both oxides in close interaction. Adsorption (adsorption of the second metal onto the first oxide sol) significantly occurs when contacting tin with a basic PdO sol (hydrolytic adsorption). The characterization and the assessment of the catalytic properties (selective hydrogenation of buta-1,3-diene) of the catalysts prepared by deposition of oxide bimetallic sols showed that the oxide colloidal route allows the control of the properties of the supported bimetallic phase. Moreover, our results display that both Pd-Sn alloy formation and,aggregation of the metallic particles contribute to increase the selectivity for this reaction. (author)

  7. Chemical lumping of mechanisms generated by computer. Application to the modelling of normal butane oxidation; Globalisation chimique de mecanismes generes par ordinateur. Application a la modelisation de l`oxydation du n-butane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounaceur, R.; Warth, V.; Glaude, P.A.; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Scacchi, G.; Come, G.M. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France); Faravelli, T.; Ranzi, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of well validated and reliable models to represent the combustion phenomena in spark ignited engines, in order to formulate gasolines which present optimal octane number properties and which lead to a minimal pollutants formation. These models require the development of chemical mechanisms, to reproduce the combustion reactions, which can be embedded in three dimensional computational fluid dynamic codes in order to be employed to model the reactive flows found in real combustion devices. At the moment, a complete mechanism for modelling the combustion of organic compounds includes several thousands of elementary reactions and thus cannot be incorporated in such codes due to the present limitations of computer hardware. This lead to an urgent need of techniques to reduce the size of complex chemical mechanisms. This paper describes a technique which permits to drastically reduce comprehensive primary mechanisms which can be obtained by computer aided design in the case of the gas-phase oxidation of alkanes. This procedures has been tested by reducing a primary mechanism which has been automatically generated in the case of the normal-butane oxidation by the software EXGAS which is developed in Nancy. The reduced mechanism thus obtained permits to obtain results very close to those computed by using the complete mechanism in the case of the modelling of the normal-butane oxidation both at low temperature between 554 and 737 K, in the negative temperature coefficient field, and at higher temperature at 937 K. In fact, the normal-butane oxidation is rather an academic example to test this method as the global number of reaction is only reduced from 1149 reactions to 971 reactions with the CO-C2 reaction base containing 781 reactions. This method will be really useful to reduce bigger mechanism contains 2141 reactions and could be reduced to around 150 reactions. The further problem will also to be able to reduce the CO-C2 reaction base. (authors) 18 refs.

  8. Synthèse de nanoparticules d’oxydes de titane par pyrolyse laser - Etude des propriétés optiques et de la structure électronique

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Pardis,

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis is studied in this work. This original gas phase technique is a versatile method which allows us to obtain a one-step synthesis of nanoparticles of controlled size, chemical composition and crystalline structure.In this study, two approaches have been proposed to synthesize titanium oxides nanoparticles with absorption in the visible range. In the first place, the synthesis of nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) and second, t...

  9. Etude Ab initio des mécanismes réactionnels dans la phase initiale du dépôt par couches atomiques des oxydes à moyenne et forte permittivité sur silicium

    OpenAIRE

    Jeloaica, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    This work attempts to bring a new light on the understanding of some critical aspects of the physicochemical processes that control Alumina, Zirconia and Hafnia ALD growth, yet not sufficiently understood. These materials are addressed as potentially best candidates to replace gate dielectric SiO2 in the near future electronic applications. Most accurate ab initio correlated methods, like couple-cluster CCSD(T) and CISD(T), with different basis sets functions, as well as the available experim...

  10. Modification des propriétés redox de particules de cobalt supportées sur des oxydes par insertion d’une couche de graphène

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The metal-support interaction (MSI) plays an important role in heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding and tuning the MSI are essential steps for developing catalysts with high performance. In this thesis, a new concept, which is coating the oxide supports with a single layer graphene, was introduced to modify the MSI. The influence of graphene layer on the metal (Co and Co-Pt) – oxide (ZnO and SiO2) interactions and on the redox properties of metal particles were evaluated through model catal...

  11. Study and fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells through tape casting and co-sintering; Etude et realisation par coulage en bande et co-frittage de cellules de pile a combustible a oxydes solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, A

    2004-11-15

    This work is dedicated to the devising of a low-cost fabrication process of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Technical requirements impose the shaping method: stripe casting as well as the materials used: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), nickel and lanthanum manganite doped with strontium (LSM). In order to comply with environmental requirements the developed process uses an aqueous barbotine solvent. We get electrodes and the electrolyte separately, the use of an absorbent drying process has enabled us to join 3 layers to form an elementary cell with great interfacial homogeneity. The resistance of the cell to sintering has been improved through the symmetrization of the deformations of the cell. In order to interpret the low electrical properties of the cell and its quick damaging, transmission microscopy studies have been performed. These studies have shown 2 facts. First, 2 isolating phases appear at the cathode (at the LSM/YSZ interface) because of a too high sintering temperature and secondly, a quick clustering of nickel grains appears during cell operation that leads to a local loss of the nickel grid percolation. This problem has been solved by increasing the size of nickel oxide grains from 0.5 {mu}m to 3 {mu}m) to stabilize the microstructure. The issue of the reactivity at the LSM/YSZ interfaces was tackled in 2 different ways, we have tried to lower the sintering temperature by using a zirconia nano-powder first and then by replacing zirconia in the electrolyte by gadolinium-doped ceria. The use of zirconia nano-powder has failed to decrease sintering temperature while preserving the electrolyte density and the use of ceria has triggered instabilities that have not yet been solved. Despite all these drawbacks, this process allows the fabrication of an excellent anode/electrolyte interface. (A.C.)

  12. Treatment of organic micro-pollutants in aqueous medium by advanced oxidation process; Traitement des micropolluants organiques dans l'eau par des procedes d'oxydation avancee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oturan, M.A.; Oturan, N. [Universite Marne la Vallee, Lab. des Geomateriaux, 77 (France); Aaron, J.J. [Paris-7 Univ., Itodys, CNRS UMR 7086, 75 (France)

    2004-09-01

    The principles and development of catalytic electrochemical and photochemical advanced oxidation processes for the decontamination of waters containing significant concentrations of organic micro-pollutants are described. The electrochemical method is based on the electro-Fenton process, i.e. the simultaneous reduction of O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. Hydroxy (OH{sup .}) radicals are electro-synthesized in aqueous solutions, followed by complete mineralization of the initial pollutants. The photochemical methods involve either direct photolysis of pollutants by UV or visible light, or indirect photo-degradation processes, including H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photolysis and photo-Fenton reaction (H{sub 2O}2/Fe{sup 2+}), and subsequent mineralization of the pollutants. Examples of application of these methods to pesticides and phenols in aqueous media are given. (authors)

  13. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  14. Device for contaminating laboratory animals by inhalation of radioactive aerosols; Description d'un dispositif permettant la contamination d'animaux de laboratoire par inhalation d'aerosols radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M.; Rouvroy, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The contamination enclosure is made up of a sphere to which are attached an aerosol generator, containers adapted to the animals to be used, and the atmospheric sampling system. The sphere is placed in a protective glove-box, the latter being itself protected by an introduction chamber fitted with locking access lids. A detailed description is given of the working principle. As an example, some results are given concerning the contamination of rats by a plutonium oxide aerosol: characteristics of the powder (mean diameter 0.50 {mu} - standard deviation: 1.4), examination and evolution of the atmospheric activity as a function of time, evaluation of the retention by the lungs by means of histological and autoradiographic examinations. (authors) [French] L'enceinte de contamination est constituee par une 'sphere' a laquelle sont associes un generateur d'aerosols, des conteneurs adaptes aux animaux utilises et le systeme d'echantillonnage d'atmosphere; la sphere est contenue dans une boite a gants de protection; elle-meme munie de sas d'introduction a systeme de couvercles verrouillables. Les principes de fonctionnement sont detailles. A titre d'exemple, quelques resultats concernant l'empoussierage de rats par de l'oxyde de plutonium sont donnes: caracteristiques de la poudre (diametre moyen 0,50 {mu} - ecart type: 1,4), etude et evolution de l'activite atmospherique en fonction du temps, mise en evidence de la retention pulmonaire par examens histologique et autoradiographique. (auteurs)

  15. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steed, Chad A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thornton, Peter E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  16. Functional imaging of olfaction by CBV fMRI in monkeys: insight into the role of olfactory bulb in habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Holahan, Marie A; Houghton, Andrea K; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Williams, Donald S

    2015-02-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) as contrast agent was used to investigate the odorant-induced olfaction in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. fMRI data were acquired in 24 axial slices covering the entire brain, with isoamyl-acetate as the odor stimulant. For each experiment, multiple fMRI measurements were made during a 1- or 2-h period, with each measurement consisting of a baseline period, a stimulation period, and a recovery period. Three different stimulation paradigms with a stimulation period of 1 min, 2 min, or 8 min, respectively, were used to study the olfactory responses in the olfactory bulb (OB). Odorant-induced CBV increases were observed in the OB of each individual monkey. The spatial and temporal activation patterns were reproducible within and between animals. The sensitivity of CBV fMRI in OB was comparable with the sensitivities reported in previous animal fMRI studies. The CBV responses during the 1-min, 2-min, or 8-min odor stimulation period were relatively stable, and did not show attenuation. The amplitudes of CBV response to the repeated stimuli during the 1- or 2-h period were also stable. The stable CBV response in the OB to both continuous and repeated odor stimuli suggests that the OB may not play a major role in olfactory habituation. The technical approach described in this report can enable more extensive fMRI studies of olfactory processing in OB of both humans and non-human primates.

  17. Characterization of TRPC2, an essential genetic component of VNS chemoreception, provides insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in secondary-adapted marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Jin, Wei; Wang, Jia-xin; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Meng-meng; Zhu, Zhou-hai; Lee, Hang; Lee, Muyeong; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Pheromones are chemical cues released and sensed by individuals of the same species, which are of major importance in regulating reproductive and social behaviors of mammals. Generally, they are detected by the vomeronasal system (VNS). Here, we first investigated and compared an essential genetic component of vomeronasal chemoreception, that is, TRPC2 gene, of four marine mammals varying the degree of aquatic specialization and related terrestrial species in order to provide insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in the mammalian transition from land to water. Our results based on sequence characterizations and evolutionary analyses, for the first time, show the evidence for the ancestral impairment of vomeronasal pheromone signal transduction pathway in fully aquatic cetaceans, supporting a reduced or absent dependence on olfaction as a result of the complete adaptation to the marine habitat, whereas the amphibious California sea lion was found to have a putatively functional TRPC2 gene, which is still under strong selective pressures, reflecting the reliance of terrestrial environment on chemical recognition among the semiadapted marine mammals. Interestingly, our study found that, unlike that of the California sea lion, TRPC2 genes of the harbor seal and the river otter, both of which are also semiaquatic, are pseudogenes. Our data suggest that other unknown selective pressures or sensory modalities might have promoted the independent absence of a functional VNS in these two species. In this respect, the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in marine mammals appears to be more complex and confusing than has been previously thought. Our study makes a useful contribution to the current understanding of the evolution of pheromone perception of mammals in response to selective pressures from an aquatic environment.

  18. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride; Corrosion du cuivre par le trifluorure de chlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    chlore a ete effectuee, et controlee par chromatographie gazeuse, microsublimation et spectrographie infra-rouge. Les essais ont porte sur des cuivres de differentes puretes, principalement sur le cuivre a 99,999, sous forme de monocristaux. Ils ont comporte des cinetiques et la caracterisation des produits de corrosion dans differentes conditions de temperature et de pression. Les cinetiques ont montre des reactions du meme ordre de grandeur que celles obtenues avec le fluor-element. A pression atmospherique, il se forme du fluorure cuivrique et du chlorure cuivreux. La presence de ce compose permet d'ecarter definitivement l'assimilation du ClF{sub 3} a un simple agent fluorant. Aux basses pressions, un compose inconnu a ete caracterise. Il existe une tres forte presomption pour qu'il s'agisse du fluorure cuivreux instable, qui n'a pas pu etre encore isole. Un phenomene de germination a ete mis en evidence, montrant les analogies des phases initiales de fluoration avec celles de l'oxydation. Des effets importants resultant de la dissociation des fluorures de cuivre et de la solubilite du chlore dans ce metal ont ete mis en evidence. En dernier lieu, des essais ont montre l'influence considerable de la purete de la phase gazeuse et de la nature des parois sur les vitesses de corrosion qui peuvent dans certains cas etre multipliees par plusieurs puissances de dix. (auteur)

  19. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA...... and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition....

  20. Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy for refractory glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M Kolomeyer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Pars plana Baerveldt tube implantation with PPV can preserve vision, reduce IOP, and decrease the number of glaucoma medications necessary to achieve target IOP in patients with recalcitrant glaucoma.

  1. PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

    1995-11-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation.

  2. Defects in neural stem cell proliferation and olfaction in Chd7 deficient mice indicate a mechanism for hyposmia in human CHARGE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, W S; McEwen, D P; Beyer, L A; Lalani, S R; Fernbach, S D; Oh, E; Swaroop, A; Hegg, C C; Raphael, Y; Martens, J R; Martin, D M

    2009-06-01

    Mutations in CHD7, a chromodomain gene, are present in a majority of individuals with CHARGE syndrome, a multiple anomaly disorder characterized by ocular Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia and Ear anomalies. The clinical features of CHARGE syndrome are highly variable and incompletely penetrant. Olfactory dysfunction is a common feature in CHARGE syndrome and has been potentially linked to primary olfactory bulb defects, but no data confirming this mechanistic link have been reported. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that loss of Chd7 disrupts mammalian olfactory tissue development and function. We found severe defects in olfaction in individuals with CHD7 mutations and CHARGE, and loss of odor evoked electro-olfactogram responses in Chd7 deficient mice, suggesting reduced olfaction is due to a dysfunctional olfactory epithelium. Chd7 expression was high in basal olfactory epithelial neural stem cells and down-regulated in mature olfactory sensory neurons. We observed smaller olfactory bulbs, reduced olfactory sensory neurons, and disorganized epithelial ultrastructure in Chd7 mutant mice, despite apparently normal functional cilia and sustentacular cells. Significant reductions in the proliferation of neural stem cells and regeneration of olfactory sensory neurons in the mature Chd7(Gt/+) olfactory epithelium indicate critical roles for Chd7 in regulating neurogenesis. These studies provide evidence that mammalian olfactory dysfunction due to Chd7 haploinsufficiency is linked to primary defects in olfactory neural stem cell proliferation and may influence olfactory bulb development.

  3. 昆虫嗅觉在监测物质开发上的应用%Application of insect olfaction in exploitation of monitoring substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艳雪; 曹逸霞; 张俊华; 马菲

    2011-01-01

    The application of insect olfaction in exploitation of monitoring substance was reviewed. First proteins involved in the process of olfaction transduction were introduced, and lack of the key proteins, OBPs and Ors, influenced the behavior of insect. Secondly the monitoring instrument and the efficient, sensitive lure would be developed in view of the mechanism of insect chemoreception, which would improve the level of monitoring of pests.%本文对昆虫嗅觉传导信息化合物的机理在监测物质开发方面的应用前景进行了综述.首先介绍了参与昆虫嗅觉传导的多种蛋白组分、关键组分OBPs和Ors缺失后对昆虫行为的影响;其次对昆虫嗅觉及其关键组分在害虫监测仪器的开发和高效诱集物质研发上的应用进行了阐述,以期提高害虫监测水平.

  4. 基于改进遗传算法的机器人主动嗅觉研究%Research on Robots Active Olfaction Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志标; 孙江波

    2011-01-01

    在基于遗传算法机器入主动嗅觉研究中,为了使机器人小车在特定的烟羽环境中,能够更快、更准确地寻找到气味源,通过对遗传算法交叉算子和变异箅子的改进,形成一种新的改进遗传算法.在5个假设前提下,将改进遗传算法应用到机器入主动嗅觉研究中.仿真结果表明:与传统的遗传算法相比,采用改进遗传算法,机器人小车能够更快速、更准确地寻找到烟羽中的气味源.%In the research of robots active olfaction based on genetic algorithm, in order to make the robot car in a specific plume environment, can be faster and more accurate to find the odor source, through improving the genetic algorithm crossover operator and mutation operator, a new improved genetic algorithm was formed. Based on five assumptions, the improved genetic algorithm was applied to the robot active olfaction study. Simulation results show that comparing with the traditional algorithm, the robot car can be faster and more accurate in finding the odor plume source using the improved genetic algorithm.

  5. Bases scientifiques de la préparation des catalyseurs constitués d'oxydes mixtes massiques Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Bulk Mixed Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude de la préparation des oxydes mixtes massiques et de leur mise en régime dans le milieu réactionnel concerne les différentes méthodes de synthèse utilisées et précise quelles sont les lois générales qui régissent chaque étape unitaire de la préparation (séparation d'un précurseur hydraté, lavage, transformations hydrothermiques, séchage, activation thermique, addition d'autres éléments, mise en forme. De nombreux exemples révèlent la diversité des transformations observées. L'oxyde mixte activé thermiquement est lui-même le précurseur d'autres oxydes mixtes, de métaux ou d'alliages divisés, de sulfures, de nitrures ou de carbures simples ou mixtes. Ces composés se forment lors de la stabilisation du catalyseur dans le milieu réactionnel, au cours d'une transformation complexe et spécifique du type de réaction envisagé. Divers exemples (oxydation ménagée, déshydrogénation, synthèse d'alcools sont donnés. Une caractérisation systématique et rigoureuse de chaque intermédiaire réactionnel est finalement nécessaire pour préciser les lois plus ou moins empiriques qui régissent l'évolution des propriétés superficielles et massiques de texture, de structure et de composition, au cours des transformations successives du solide ; le procédé de préparation et de mise en régime optimisé qui en résulte doit enfin satisfaire aux impératifs techniques et économiques du procédé catalytique correspondant. This study of the preparation of bulk mixed oxides and of their stabilization into the reaction medium deals with the different synthesis methods used and gives some general laws governing each specific type of preparation (separation of a hydrated precursor, washing, hydrothermal transformations, drying, thermal activation, addition of other elements, shaping. Numerous examples reveal the diversity of the transformations observed. The thermally activated mixed oxide becomes itself the

  6. I-Aromatisation de n-hexane et d'essence sur zéolithe ZSM-5. II-Oxydation catalytique en voie humide du phenol sur charbon actif

    OpenAIRE

    Suwanprasop, Somsaluay

    2005-01-01

    I - L'aromatisation de n-hexane et d'essence brute sur Zéolithe ZSM-5 au Palladium est étudiée en réacteur tubulaire. Les meilleures conditions ont été obtenues à 400°C, 0,4 mL/min d’alimentation en réactifs, avec une Zéolite ZSM-5 (à 0,5% de Pd). Dans ces conditions les conversions en n-hexane et en essence sont respectivement de 99,7% et 94,3%, avec des sélectivité respectives de 92,3 et 92,6%. II - L'oxydation catalytique en voie humide du phénol est étudiée en réacteur à lit fixe de charb...

  7. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D' Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  8. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  9. A combined global and local approach to elucidate spatial organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS partition assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark R; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2011-03-22

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  10. Host response biomarker in sepsis: suPAR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of our group have shown that suPAR may complement APACHE II score for risk assessment in sepsis. suPAR may be measured in serum of patients by an enzyme immunosorbent assay developed by Virogates (suPARnostic™). Production of suPAR from circulating neutrophils and monocytes may be assessed after isolation of neutrophils and monocytes and ex vivo culture. This is followed by measurement of suPAR in culture supernatants.

  11. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  12. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  13. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. Transcriptional program induced by factor VIIa-tissue factor, PAR1 and PAR2 in MDA-MB-231 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrektsen, T; Sørensen, B B; Hjortø, G M

    2007-01-01

    -regulated genes was also regulated by a PAR1 agonist peptide suggesting extensive redundancy between FVIIa/PAR2 signaling and thrombin/PAR1 signaling. The FVIIa regulated genes encode cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and the gene repertoire induced by FVIIa in MDA-MB-231 cells is consistent...... with a role for TF-FVIIa signaling in regulation of a wound healing type of response. Interestingly, a number of genes regulated exclusively by FVIIa/PAR2-mediated cell signaling in MDA-MB-231 cells were regulated by thrombin and a PAR1 agonist, but not by FVIIa, in the TF-expressing glioblastoma U373 cell...

  15. The actinobacterial signature protein ParJ (SCO1662) regulates ParA polymerization and affects chromosome segregation and cell division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditkowski, Bartosz; Troć, Paulina; Ginda, Katarzyna; Donczew, Magdalena; Chater, Keith F; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2010-12-01

    Bacterial chromosome segregation usually involves cytoskeletal ParA proteins, ATPases which can form dynamic filaments. In aerial hyphae of the mycelial bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA filaments extend over tens of microns and are responsible for segregation of dozens of chromosomes. We have identified a novel interaction partner of S. coelicolor ParA, ParJ. ParJ negatively regulates ParA polymerization in vitro and is important for efficient chromosome segregation in sporulating aerial hyphae. ParJ-EGFP formed foci along aerial hyphae even in the absence of ParA. ParJ, which is encoded by sco1662, turned out to be one of the five actinobacterial signature proteins, and another of the five is a ParJ paralogue. We hypothesize that polar growth, which is characteristic not only of streptomycetes, but even of simple Actinobacteria, may be interlinked with ParA polymer assembly and its specific regulation by ParJ.

  16. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  17. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hoed P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  18. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  19. Diffractométrie de poudres d'alliages de tungstène nanostructurées par mécanosynthèse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Taillard, R.; Dhers, J.; Parmentier, Ph.; Foct, J.

    2002-07-01

    High energy ball milling carried out in a planetary ball mill is generally used to alloy elementary powders and to obtain nanostructures. The latter advantages urge us to elaborate pure tungsten or blends of tungsten and yttria powders by means of this process. The obtained powders are then sintered in order to achieve creepproof materials at high temperature. The ball-to-powder ratio is constant during the experiments. The effects of different milling parameters (number of balls: 2, 16, 92 ; milling time: 5mn, 20mn, 40mn, 80mn, rotational speed: 200 or 300 or 400rpm, nature of the milling system: stainless steel or tungsten carbide system) and of the composition of blends (volumetric content of second phase) are examined. The results concern nanocrystals in the powder particles, the strain level of powder particles, the formation of alloys and the oxide particles dispersion. The difficulties and advantages of the characterization techniques are developed. The consequences of structural changes are outlined and the mechanisms of the alloy evolution discussed. Le broyage à haute énergie effectué dans un broyeur planétaire de type Fritsch Pulvérisette 6 permet à la fois de mettre en alliage des poudres élémentaires mais aussi d'obtenir une nanostructure. Ces avantages privilégient l'emploi de cette technique pour l'élaboration de poudres à partir de particules de tungstène pur, ou de mélanges de particules de tungstène et d'oxyde d'yttrium. Les poudres obtenues sont ensuite frittées dans le but d'obtenir des matériaux à forte résistance au fluage à haute température. Le rapport entre la masse des billes et celle de la poudre déformée, a été maintenue constante au cours des expériences. Les effets des différents paramètres de broyage (nombre de billes : 2, 16, 92 ; durée de broyage: 5 mn, 20 mn, 40 mn, 80 mn ; vitesse de broyage: 200, 300, 400 tours par minute ; nature du système de broyage système en acier inoxydable ou en carbure de

  20. Transcriptional program induced by factor VIIa-tissue factor, PAR1 and PAR2 in MDA-MB-231 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrektsen, Tatjana; Sørensen, B B; Hjortø, G M

    2007-01-01

    -activated receptor 1 (PAR1) or PAR2 agonists using MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells that constitutively express TF, PAR1 and PAR2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 8500 genes, FVIIa stimulation induced differential regulation of 39 genes most of which were not previously recognized as FVIIa regulated. All genes...... regulated genes encode cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and the gene repertoire induced by FVIIa in MDA-MB-231 cells is consistent with a role for TF-FVIIa signaling in regulation of a wound healing type of response. Interestingly, a number of genes regulated exclusively by FVIIa/PAR2-mediated cell...... signaling in MDA-MB-231 cells were regulated by thrombin and a PAR1 agonist, but not by FVIIa, in the TF-expressing glioblastoma U373 cell line....

  1. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  2. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  3. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ′disinhibits′ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

  4. Radio-induced oxidation of n-paraffins for obtaining biodegradable detergents; L'oxydation radioinduite des n-paraffines pour l'obtention de detergents biodegradables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, J.R.; Laizier, J.; Blin, M.F.; Marchand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    N-paraffins oxidation is a feasible way to obtain biodegradable detergents. This reaction can be radio-initiated and it proceeds by a branched chain mechanism, with an induction pseudo-period. A suitable analysis of the reaction is allowed by the semi-logarithmic plot of its evolution. Influence of the different parameters of the reaction is studied, results show that the use of radiation for initiating the reaction is of no economical interest. (authors) [French] L'oxydation des n-paraffines est une voie possible d'obtention des detergents biodegradables. Cette reaction, qui peut etre radioinitiee, procede d'un mecanisme en chaine branchee et presente une pseudoperiode d'induction. La representation semi-logarithmique de l'avancement de la reaction permet une analyse commode de celle-ci. L'influence des differents parametres est etudiee. Les resultats montrent que l'utilisation du rayonnement pour l'initiation de la reaction est sans interet economique. (auteurs)

  5. Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn

    1998-07-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

  6. Regulatory cross-talk in the double par locus of plasmid pB171

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Ebersbach, Gitte; Borch, Jonas;

    2007-01-01

    partition and promoter repression complexes. Surprisingly, ParB repressed transcription of the noncognate par operon, indicating cross-talk and possibly epistasis between the two systems. The par promoters, P1 and P2, affected each other negatively. The DNA binding activities of ParR and ParB correlated...

  7. Bacterial mitosis: partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2004-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells w...

  8. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  9. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Antonio A

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  10. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly......, those with the highest suPAR level at time of smoking were also those with the highest level of suPAR after smoking cessation. In contrast, smoking or smoking cessation had no influence on CRP levels. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the suPAR level may aid to personalize the risk of smoking...... by identifying those smokers with the highest risk of developing disease and who may have the most benefit of smoking cessation....

  11. [Around Ambroise Paré: his pupils and friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaître, P

    1996-01-01

    The most important pupil of Paré was Jacques Guillemeau (1550-1613), a famous surgeon from Montpellier. He lived at Paré's during eight years and wrote there his first work "Traité des maladies des yeux" (1585) and was really his "spiritual son". The barber-surgeon Martin Boursier, husband of the famous midwife Louise Bourgeois stayed twenty years with Paré and she learned her practice in his works. Attracted by Paré's fame, Melchior Sebiz (1539-1625) who shall become a famous professor of medicine in Strasbourg attended Paré's lessons and "was with him in great friendship". Among his friends, Thierry de Héry (ca. 1505-ca. 1560), companion of his youth as a barber-surgeon and author of the first French book on syphilis seems to have been the dearest and the nearest to his heart.

  12. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels

    2004-01-01

    processes involve a highly organized interplay between proteases and their cellular binding sites as well as specific substrates and internalization receptors. This review article is focused on two components, the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP, also...

  13. Effects of thrombin, PAR-1 activating peptide and a PAR-1 antagonist on umbilical artery resistance in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott John T

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-thrombotic effects of thrombin in cardiovascular tissues, as mediated via the protease activated receptors (PARs, and particularly PAR-1, have been the focus of much recent research. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of thrombin, a specific PAR-1 activating peptide (PAR1-AP, and a PAR-1 antagonist on human umbilical artery tone in vitro. Methods Human umbilical artery samples were obtained from 17 women at term. Arterial rings were suspended under physiologic conditions for isometric recording. The in vitro effects of thrombin (0.5 units/mL to 3 units/mL, PAR1-AP TFLLR-NH2 [10(-9 to 10(-6 M], and PAR-1 antagonist (N-trans cinnamoyl- p-fluoroPhe-p-guanidinoPhe-Leu-Arg-Orn-NH2 [10(-9 M to 10(-5 M] on umbilical artery tone were measured. Results Both thrombin and TFLLR-NH2 exerted a potent cumulative vasodilatory effect on human umbilical artery resistance (P 0.05. Conclusion These findings highlight a potential role for thrombin and PAR-1 receptors in vascular regulation of feto-placental blood flow in normal pregnancy, and in association with the vascular lesions associated with IUGR and pre-eclampsia.

  14. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes.

  15. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    over the nucleoid. ParB ribbon-helix-helix dimers bind cooperatively to direct repeats in parC1 and parC2. Using four different assays we obtain solid evidence that ParB can pair parC1- and parC2-encoding DNA fragments in vitro. Convincingly, electron microscopy revealed that ParB mediates binary...... pairing of parC fragments. In addition to binary complexes, ParB mediated the formation of higher order complexes consisting of several DNA fragments joined by ParB at centromere site parC. N-terminal truncated versions of ParB still possessing specific DNA binding activity were incompetent in pairing...

  16. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS Based Machine Olfaction (Electronic Nose for Monitoring of Banana Ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanaeifar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is one of the most important sensory properties of fruits and is particularly sensitive to the changes in fruit compounds. Gases involved in aroma of fruits are produced from the metabolic activities during ripening, harvest, post-harvest and storage stages. Therefore, the emitted aroma of fruits changes during the shelf-life period. The electronic nose (machine olfaction would simulate the human sense of smell to identify and realize the complex aromas by using an array of chemical sensors. In this research, a low cost electronic nose based on six metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were designed, developed and implemented and its ability for monitoring changes in aroma fingerprint during ripening of banana was studied. The main components are used in the e-nose system include sampling system, an array of gas sensors, data acquisition system and an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA technique was used for classification of the extracted features of e-nose signals. Based on the results, the classification accuracy of 97/3% was obtained. Results showed the high ability of e-nose for distinguishing between the stages of ripening. It is concluded that the system can be considered as a nondestructive tool for quality control during banana shelf-life.

  18. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  19. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

  20. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is released in response to inflammatory stimuli, and plasma levels are associated with long-term outcomes. The ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation triggers an inflammatory response...... analysis shoved an AUC of 0.76 at 6 hours. In the subgroup of CA of cardiac cause, the AUC was 0.84. CONCLUSION: suPAR levels at 6 and 36 hours after CA were significantly higher in nonsurviving patients compared with survivors; however, the overlap in suPAR levels between the outcome groups...

  1. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  2. A turquesa de Itacupim, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na ilha de Itacupim, localizada na região costeira do nordeste do Pará, foram encontrados veios de fosfatos de alumínio contendo turquesa, além de quartzo e argilominerais. A ilha é sustentada por espesso perfil laterítico maturo desenvolvido sobre complexo alcalino-ultramáfico mineralizado em apatita. Os veios e vênulas são de espessura centimétrica, normalmente constituídos de wavellita fibro-radial, onde pode ser observada turquesa verde-azulada, em massas subesferolíticas, microcristalinas, intercrescidas com caulinita e oxi-hidróxidos de Mn, além de quartzo. A identificação mineral foi realizada por DRX, microscopia óptica, análises químicas de rocha total, MEV/SED. Os teores de CuO são inferiores aos das turquesas em geral, compensados por Fe2O3 e ZnO. Os subesferolitos de turquesa contêm inúmeras inclusões micrométricas de goyazita ou svanbergita. A ocorrência da turquesa, na forma de veios e vênulas, seu aspecto porcelanado e a conhecida relação desse mineral com ambiente hidrotermal sugerem que a turquesa de Itacupim também seja de origem hidrotermal, reforçada pela sua associação com wavellita, goyazita ou svanbergita, quartzo e argilominerais. Ela não foi encontrada no perfil laterítico. Seu aspecto compacto e sua cor esverdeada abrem perspectivas para seu uso como mineral de gema.Veins and veinlets of aluminum phosphates with turquoise occur at the Itacupim Island in the coastal plain northeast the state of Pará. A thick mature lateritic iron crust rich in aluminum phosphates developed an apatite-bearing alkaline-ultramafic complex which constitutes the Island. The veins and veinlets are cm-thick, usually constituted by wavellite, fibrous to radialfibrous, with bony or porcelaneous aspect, and can turquoise. Pebbles of these phosphates inside of apatite-bearing ultramafic rocks are very common at the base of the hang wall, and locally form expressive agglomerates. Turquoise forms half spheroids and

  3. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  4. Das uPAR-System: Identifizierung neuer uPAR-Interaktionspartner und ihre Relevanz beim triple-negativen Brustkrebs

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit führte die dauerhafte Reduzierung der Proteinexpression von uPAR kombiniert mit uPA bzw. IGF-1R zu einem reduzierten Tumorverhalten in vitro und könnte einen Ansatz für eine bessere TNBC-Therapie darstellen. IGF-1R wurde als direkter Interaktionspartner von uPAR bestätigt. Darüber hinaus wurden Cyr61, YB-1 und Caprin-1 als neue Interaktionspartner von uPAR und als potentielle Therapieziele identifiziert. Die Expression von Cyr61 und YB-1 korrelierte signifikant mit der Expre...

  5. The use of statistical techniques in par-level management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, W B

    1994-02-01

    The total quality management movement has allowed the reintroduction of statistics in the materials management workplace. Statistical methods can be applied to the par level management process with significant results.

  6. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...

  7. PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Beverly A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs, members of G-protein-coupled receptors, are activated by proteolytic activity of various proteases. Activation of PAR1 and PAR2 triggers innate immune responses in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs, but the signaling pathways downstream of PAR activation in HOKs have not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to determine if PAR1- and PAR2-mediated signaling differs in the induction of innate immune markers CXCL3, CXCL5 and CCL20 via ERK, p38 and PI3K/Akt. Results Our data show the induction of innate immunity by PAR1 requires both p38 and ERK MAP kinases, while PAR2 prominently signals via p38. However, inhibition of PI3K enhances expression of innate immune markers predominantly via suppressing p38 phosphorylation signaled by PAR activation. Conclusion Our data indicate that proteases mediating PAR1 and PAR2 activation differentially signal via MAP kinase cascades. In addition, the production of chemokines induced by PAR1 and PAR2 is suppressed by PI3K/Akt, thus keeping the innate immune responses of HOK in balance. The results of our study provide a novel insight into signaling pathways involved in PAR activation.

  8. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  9. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain.

  10. Olfaction-based Detection Distance: A Quantitative Analysis of How Far Away Dogs Recognize Tortoise Odor and Follow It to Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindee Valentin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of detector dogs has been demonstrated to be effective and safe for finding Mojave desert tortoises and provides certain advantages over humans in field surveys. Unlike humans who rely on visual cues for target identification, dogs use primarily olfactory cues and can therefore locate targets that are not visually obvious. One of the key benefits of surveying with dogs is their efficiency at covering ground and their ability to detect targets from long distances. Dogs may investigate potential targets using visual cues but confirm the presence of a target based on scent. Everything that emits odor does so via vapor-phase molecules and the components comprising a particular scent are carried primarily though bulk movement of the atmosphere. It is the ability to search for target odor and then go to its source that makes dogs ideal for rapid target recognition in the field setting. Using tortoises as targets, we quantified distances that dogs detected tortoise scent, followed it to source, and correctly identified tortoises as targets. Detection distance data were collected during experimental trials with advanced global positioning system (GPS technology and then analyzed using geographic information system (GIS modeling techniques. Detection distances ranged from 0.5 m to 62.8 m for tortoises on the surface. We did not observe bias with tortoise size, age class, sex or the degree to which tortoises were handled prior to being found by the dogs. The methodology we developed to quantify olfaction-based detection distance using dogs can be applied to other targets that dogs are trained to find.

  11. Une terreur par l’image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie DULONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Si d’autres événements — Hiroshima, la découverte des camps de concentration, la chute du mur de Berlin — ont, au cours du XXe siècle, marqué suffisamment l’imaginaire pour trouver leur réponse dans des œuvres d’art, le 11 septembre 2001 pose la question de la fictionnalisation autrement : il ne s’agit plus tant de combler les manques de la représentation, liés à l’absence d’images ou au délai dans leur dévoilement, mais bien de composer avec l’omniprésence d’une représentation martelée à la télévision et sur Internet. Que cette représentation soit partielle, tronquée et qu’il lui manque la présence des corps, ces grands absents des photographies et des images tournées par les journalistes, ne change rien au fait que c’est avec le trop-plein que les artistes doivent maintenant négocier.Cet article s’intéresse aux romans qui traitent l’événement de front au lieu de l’aborder sur un mode mineur, et a pour objectif de tracer un portrait de la représentation des médias dans les romans du 11 septembre 2001. Ces romans, outre le fait qu’ils traitent des événements de New York, ont comme point commun un personnage, ou décor : les médias, représentés par la télévision, l’Internet, les photographies de presse, interviennent dans les récits d’une manière significative et témoignent de la force brute des images. À travers une étude de certains des mécanismes à l’œuvre dans The Writing on the Wall (Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Jonathan Safran Foer, Falling Man (Don DeLillo et A Disorder Peculiar to the Country (Ken Kalfus, il s’agira de proposer des réponses à ces quelques questions : quel rôle les médias jouent-ils, et comment participent-ils au récit ? Quelle pression les images exercent-elles sur les personnages ? Que révèlent les personnages enfants dans leur rapport aux médias ? Quelle critique, finalement, les romans

  12. Pars planitis: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management and visual prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cakar Ozdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease.

  13. 用“望、闻、问、切”法点检诊断液压设备故障%Hydraulic Equipment Fault Diagnosis by "Auscultation, Olfaction, Interrogation, and Palpation"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路荣杰

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic equipment faults are diagnosed at the spot inspection by the "Chinese medical techniques of auscultation, olfaction, interrogation and palpation". This fault diagnosis method is feasible and practicable, and plays positive roles in the equipment management.%介绍了用中医诊断病症的“望、闻、问、切”方法点检诊断液压设备故障,具有很好的可行性和实用性,在设备管理中发挥了积极的作用。

  14. Novel Application of FTIR Spectroscopy for the Passive Standoff Detection of Radiological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    ii DRDC Valcartier TM 2004-365 Sommaire La télédétection passive par interférométrie infrarouge à transformée de Fourier (FTIR) est une...l’oxyde de strontium (SrO), l’oxyde de lanthane de l’oxyde d’iode (I2O5) (La2O3) et le ”yellow cake”, ont des signatures infrarouges détaillées

  15. Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Treatment of Lens Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Avcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lens injury due to traumas may present as loss of capsule integrity, cataract, lens subluxation, or lens luxation. In addition, lens subluxation and lens luxation may occur in pseudophakic patients due to trauma. Clear corneal, scleral or sclero-corneal phacoemulsification surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, pars plana vitrectomy with phaco-fragmentation, or pars plana vitrectomy with removal through corneal incision techniques are used in the treatment of lens injury due to traumas. Intraocular lens can be implanted in the bag, sulcus, or anterior chamber during the surgery. Depending on the circumstances, scleral fixated intraocular lenses or iris-claw lenses may also be preferred. Rehabilitation of such patients is not of a great concern today, with the advanced level of vitreoretinal surgery and cataract surgery techniques and with the current state of technology. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 51-4

  16. The bacterial chromosome segregation protein Spo0J spreads along DNA from parS nucleation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Ferreira, Henrique; Errington, Jeff

    2006-09-01

    Regulation of chromosome inheritance is essential to ensure proper transmission of genetic information. To accomplish accurate genome segregation, cells organize their chromosomes and actively separate them prior to cytokinesis. In Bacillus subtilis the Spo0J protein is required for accurate chromosome segregation and it regulates the developmental switch from vegetative growth to sporulation. Spo0J is a DNA-binding protein that recognizes at least eight identified parS sites located near the origin of replication. As judged by fluorescence microscopy, Spo0J forms discrete foci associated with the oriC region of the chromosome throughout the cell cycle. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms utilized by Spo0J to facilitate productive chromosome segregation, we have investigated the DNA binding activity of Spo0J. In vivo we find Spo0J associates with several kilobases of DNA flanking its specific binding sites (parS) through a parS-dependent nucleation event that promotes lateral spreading of Spo0J along the chromosome. Using purified components we find that Spo0J has the ability to coat non-specific DNA substrates. These 'Spo0J domains' provide large structures near oriC that could potentially demark, organize or localize the origin region of the chromosome.

  17. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  18. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    PAR on the cell surface and/or by direct inhibition of the catalytic activity of uPA. Both strategies have been pursued and inhibition of these functions has shown effect in xenogenic cancer models. Pericellular proteolysis has also been inhibited in vivo in mouse models of wound healing and hepatic fibrinolysis......, and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...

  19. Ejercicios activos en la parálisis facial

    OpenAIRE

    Bohoyo Aramburu, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Diseño: Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica en la que se incluyen revisiones sistemáticas y artículos sobre el tratamiento de la parálisis facial mediante ejercicios faciales, que en su conjunto engloban lo que se denomina la “mímicoterapia”. Objetivos: el objetivo principal es determinar la eficacia de los ejercicios faciales activos en el tratamiento de la parálisis de Bell. El objetivo secundario es describir dichos ejercicios. Métodos: se ha realizado una búsqueda mediante la base d...

  20. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...... par-encoded ATPases belong to one of two protein superfamilies, Walker-type and actin-like ATPases. This property was recently used to divide par loci into Types I and II loci. We show here that the Escherichia coli virulence factor pB171 encodes a double par locus that consists of one Type I and one...

  1. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal. Reporte de caso.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Valdivia, Miguel; Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Ortiz Torres, Milagros; Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Villena Chávez, Jaime; Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.

    2012-01-01

    Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con área...

  2. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat, Tanmay A. M.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Active segregation of E. coli low-copy number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments 1-6 . ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments 3,7-9 . Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles 9,10 . Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods we have investigated the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro an...

  3. Den eneste ene - hvordan etniske minoritetsunge i Danmark danner par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Rapporten handler om etniske unges måde at danne par på. Rapporten er baseret på en større empirisk undersøgelse gennemført af forfatteren i 2003 og er desuden inspireret af forfatterens egen ph.d.-afhandling: "Ungdom, etnicitet og psychosocial intervention" (2000, Københavns Universitet). Rappor...

  4. O gênero da parábola

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MARCO ANTÔNIO; DOMINGUES SANT’ANNA

    2010-01-01

    Este livro pretende demonstrar que o Novo Testamento bíblico é o contexto da constituição da parábola como gênero literário. Mesmo que essa modalidade seja mencionada em outros universos, temos como proposta mostrar...

  5. Radiative Transfer Code: Application to the calculation of PAR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Emmanuel; D Phillippe; C Malik

    2000-12-01

    The production of carbon in the ocean, the so-called primary production, depends on various physico- biological parameters: the biomass and nutrient amounts in oceans, the salinity and temperature of the water and the light available in the water column. We focus on the visible spectrum of the solar radiation defined as the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). We developed a model (Chami et al. 1997) to simulate the behavior of the solar beam in the atmosphere and the ocean. We first describe the theoretical basis of the code and the method we used to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE): the successive orders of scattering (SO). The second part deals with a sensitivity study of the PAR just above and below the sea surface for various atmospheric conditions. In a cloudy sky, we computed a ratio between vector fluxes just above the sea surface and spherical fluxes just beneath the sea surface. When the optical thickness of the cloud increases this ratio remains constant and around 1.29. This parameter is convenient to convert vector flux at the sea surface as retrieved from satellite to PAR. Subsequently, we show how solar radiation as vector flux rather than PAR leads to an underestimate of the primary production up to 40% for extreme cases.

  6. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag

    2016-06-01

    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  7. Two cases of malignant glaucoma unresolved by pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoda Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoshikatsu Hosoda, Tadamichi Akagi, Nagahisa YoshimuraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: Malignant glaucoma, which is characterized by a shallow or flat anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure, can usually be resolved by pars plana vitrectomy with anterior hyaloidectomy. We describe two cases in which malignant glaucoma was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy. Case one an 88-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy and subsequently developed malignant glaucoma. Four months after transient recovery by pars plana vitrectomy, the malignant glaucoma recurred. She underwent peripheral iridectomy and local zonulectomy with successful control of her intraocular pressure. In case two, an 85-year-old man had a history of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Seven months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, he developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent peripheral iridectomy, goniosynechialysis and trabectome surgery resulting in the successful control of his intraocular pressure. In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy with or without local zonulectomy is a reasonable and minimally invasive surgical procedure.Keywords: malignant glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy

  8. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions a...

  9. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  10. Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-11-16

    The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics.

  11. Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ietswaart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable.

  12. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  13. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoraba HH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hammouda H Ghoraba,1,2 Ali Ahmed Ghali,3 Hosam Othman Mansour2,3 1Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 2Magrabi Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt; 3Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO injection.Materials and methods: Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP.Results: This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional. After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy.Conclusion: Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. Keywords: malignant glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy, silicone oil

  14. Design of the fuel element 'snow-flake' in uranium oxide, canned with aluminium, for the experimental reactor EL 3 (1960); Etude d'un element combustible en oxyde d'uranium gaine d'aluminium, type ''cristal de neige'' pour la pile EL 3 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M.; Guibert, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report sums up the main studies have been carried out on the fuel element 'Snowflake' (uranium oxide, canned with aluminium), designed to replace the present element of the experimental reactor EL3 in order to increase the reactivity without modifying the neutron flux/thermal power ratio. (author) [French] Ce rapport resume les principales etudes qui ont ete faites sur l'element combustible 'Cristal de Neige' (a oxyde d'uranium, gaine d'aluminium) destine a remnlacer l'element actuel du reacteur experimental EL3, afin d'en augmenter la reactivite sans modifier le rapport flux neutronique-puissance thermique. (auteur)

  15. Contamination des eaux de puits traditionnels par les nitrates sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... Objectif : La contamination des eaux souterraines par les nitrates ... Methodology and Results: the origin of nitrate water from traditional wells of Lobo's watershed was ..... avec celles faites par Hudak (1999) au Texas et Liu et.

  16. How to Understand Descartes's Morale par Provision%如何理解笛卡尔的“Morale par Provision”?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施璇

    2016-01-01

    笛卡尔在《谈谈方法》一书的第三部分中提出了一套道德准则,即morale par provision.最近,一些笛卡尔哲学的研究者们对这一概念提出了三种不同的解读.第一种解读是传统且主流的解读,主张将morale par provision理解为“临时的道德”,它是笛卡尔为了保障自己或他人在贯彻“普遍的方法”的第一步“怀疑的方法”或“方法论怀疑”时所采取的一种权宜之计.第二种解读是将morale par provision理解为“先决的道德”,强调这种道德的先决性与无条件性.第三种对morale par provision的解读是将之理解为“完美道德的一阶近似”.笛卡尔在《谈谈方法》一书中所做的“建筑的比喻”十分清楚地表明了他提出morale par provision的用意及其真正的含义,他将morale par provision比作为了实施房子重建计划而预先准备的临时的房子.因此,Morale par provision其实是笛卡尔为了保障自己或他人在贯彻“普遍的方法”的第一条准则时仍能够不影响日常生活所采纳的一种策略.在这个意义来说,将morale par provision译作“临时的道德”是合适的,换句话说,三种解读中的第一种解读有其合理的依据.《谈谈方法》是morale par provision的出处,因此它无疑是对这一表述进行解释所要依据的最重要的文本.另外两种解读尽管有其合理的地方且具有创新性,但是,只要它们无法强力地否定《谈谈方法》的文本证据,那么它们就无法真正地驳倒第一种解读.此外,关于morale par provision的另外两种解读的支持理由与证据也并非无懈可击.

  17. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  18. 鼻内镜手术中中鼻甲不同处理方法对嗅觉功能的影响%Effects on olfaction of different treatments to middle turbinate by endoscopic sinus surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静波; 刘继丽; 廖志苏; 彭建华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of different treatments to middle turbinate by endo-scopic sinus surgery (ESS) on olfaction in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. Methods ESS was performed on 74 cases of chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. Proper treatments divided into the group of retaining middle turbinate, the group of forming middle turbinate and the group of partial endonasal middle turbinectomy which were applied to different pathological changes of middle turbinates. The olfactory function of the 74 patients was tested through the CCCRC olfactory testing method pre-operation and twenty-four weeks post-operation. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results The olfaction after treat-ment of the three groups was significantly better than that of pre-operation (P 0.05). Conclusion Different treatments to middle turbinate by ESS is no obvious effects on olfaction.%目的 探讨慢性鼻窦炎鼻息肉患者鼻内镜手术中中鼻甲的不同处理方法对嗅觉功能的影响.方法 为74例慢性鼻窦炎鼻息肉患者进行鼻内镜手术,对不同病变的中鼻甲进行适当的处理.分为中鼻甲保留组(20例)、中鼻甲成形组(28例)和中鼻甲部分切除组(26例),采用美国康涅狄格化学感觉临床研究中心(CCCRC)嗅觉测试法在鼻内镜手术前和术后第24周进行嗅觉测试,将结果进行方差分析.结果 三组患者的嗅觉均较术前有所改善,中鼻甲保留组的CCCRC得分较术前提高0.84分,中鼻甲成形组较术前提高0.85分,中鼻甲部分切除组较术前提高0.87分.三组患者术后嗅觉与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 鼻内镜手术中中鼻甲的不同处理方法对嗅觉无明显影响.

  19. 脑功能磁共振成像在人类嗅觉研究中的应用%Application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in human olfaction studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 吴瑞琪; 李安安; 徐富强

    2011-01-01

    在人类的5种主要感觉中,嗅觉是最广泛、古老、直接和内在的感觉.这些特性使人们对人类嗅觉的研究异常艰难,以致于直到今天人们对嗅觉的功能仍不清楚,而对大脑的功能机制所知更少.与其他基于物理原理的方法一样,磁共振成像技术的广泛应用极大地推动了整个生命科学的发展.脑功能磁共振成像的优势(高分辨率、高对比度、无损性和无放射性等)为人们研究嗅觉高级中枢以及与嗅觉相关行为的脑机制等提供了强有力的技术手段.文章在简单介绍嗅觉知识的基础上,着重讨论了近十年来,脑功能磁共振成像技术在人类嗅觉研究中所取得的成果.%Among the five major senses, olfaction is the most common, ancient, direct and intrinsic. The special characteristics of the olfaction system have made its study so difficult that up to now we are still unclear about the olfactory functions in human beings and the mechanisms in the brain. As in the cases of other technologies based on physical principles, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and related methods have greatly advanced our understanding of the entire field of life science. Functional MRI, a non-invasive and non-radioactive imaging method with high spatial resolution and contrast, provides us with a powerful tool to investigate the brain mechanisms for a variety of olfactory functions and behavior. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction to the olfactory system, then focus on the major findings in human olfaction revealed by the application of functional MRI in the past decade.

  20. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. Par

  1. Evangelizar em mundo plural: paróquias evangelizadoras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleto Caliman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A missão da Igreja é evangelizar: anunciar ao mundo a boa-nova do Reino de Deus, levando adiante a missão de Jesus. O presente artigo parte da pergunta: em que condições, no mundo pluralista de hoje, a paróquia é uma estrutura que ajuda a evangelização? O mundo em que vivemos não é mais homogêneo, como era o da cristandade. Ele é pluralista. Temos que contar com ele no século XXI. Pretendemos focalizar, especificamente, a paróquia, confrontando-a com a nossa pergunta: ela tem condições de ser evangelizadora? A resposta não pode ser simples. Ela está em algumas teses: cinco são sobre a história da paróquia. Outras cinco sobre as condições para que a paróquia atual seja evangelizadora. O autor finaliza enunciando algumas alternativas à paróquia tradicional, a fim de que ela continue a ser, de modo criativo, um instrumento de evangelização, deixando de ser simplesmente territorial, administrativa, clerical, para ser um laboratório de rede de comunidades, grupos, movimentos. Palavras-chave: Paróquia; Evangelização; Pluralismo.Abstract The Church mission is to evangelize: to announce to the world the good news of God's Kingdom, carrying out Jesus' mission. This article starts with a question: under what conditions, in today's pluralist world, is the parish a structure that fosters evangelization? The world we live in is no longer homogeneous, as that of Chrsitinanity. It is pluralist. We must count on it in the 21st century. . The article focuses specifically on the parish, confronting it with our question: does it have the conditions to be an evangelizing agent? The answer cannot be simple. It is contained in some theses: five about the history of the parish, and another five on the conditions for current parishes to be capable of evangelizing. The author finishes by proposing some alternatives to the traditional parish, so that it may continue to be, in a creative way, an instrument of evangelization: no

  2. Protective effect of a PAR2-activating peptide on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig

    OpenAIRE

    Cicala, C; Spina, D.; Keir, S D; Severino, B.; Meli, R; Page, C. P.; Cirino, G.

    2001-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a seven transmembrane domain G protein coupled receptor proteolytically activated. PAR2, together with other PARs, can be also activated by peptides mimicking the sequence of the receptor tethered ligand. We have evaluated the effect of systemic administration of a peptide activating PAR2 (PAR2-AP, SLIGRL) on histamine-induced increase in lung resistances in the guinea-pig.Intravenous administration of PAR2-AP (1 mg kg−1) significantly inhibited histami...

  3. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J.W.R.; Bijlsma, M.F.; van der Windt, G.J.W.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Boukens, B.J.D.; Coumou, J.; Oei, A.; de Beer, R.; de Vos, A.F.; van 't Veer, C.; van Dam, A.P.; Wang, P.; Fikrig, E.; Levi, M.M.; Roelofs, J.J.T.H.; van der Poll, T.

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also

  4. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  5. Five-Port Combined Limbal and Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Infectious Endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunyong  Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pars plana vitrectomy for acute infectious endophthalmitis can be challenging due to severe inflammation in the anterior chamber creating significant media opacity. We describe a surgical technique combining limbal based vitrectomy and pars plana vitrectomy to manage acute infectious endophthalmitis. Limbal based vitrectomy facilitates removal of anterior chamber fibrin and inflammatory membranes for safe and optimal posterior pars plana vitrectomy.

  6. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA-conjugated vers...

  7. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  8. Cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.A.; Pryor, D.V. [Superconducting Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Frock, C.K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In a signal processing environment, cross ambiguity functions are often used to detect when one signal is a time and/or frequency shift of another. They consist of multiple cross-correlations, which can be computed efficiently using complex valued FFTs. This paper discusses the implementation of cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2, a SIMD processor array. Two different implementations are developed. The first computes each cross ambiguity function serially, using FFT code that parallelizes across the complete set of processors. The second uses the MasPar IORAM to realign the data so that the cross ambiguity functions can be computed in parallel. In this case, multiple FFTs are executed in parallel on subsets of the processors, which lowers the overall amount of communication required.

  9. Algorithmique et contrôle en vision par ordinateur

    OpenAIRE

    Lux, Augustin

    1985-01-01

    Cette thèse traite de la Vision par Ordinateur - VO - et de sa relation avec l'Intelligence Artificielle - IA. Elle est composée de trois parties. La partie I "La Vision par Ordinateur - présentation et réflexions" donne, après une définition des deux domaines, un aperçu des approches théoriques et des réalisations existantes en VO utilisant des concepts de l'IA. Nous développons ensuite notre approche qui intégre 1e concept de structures de contrôle au sens de l'IA dans un système algorithmi...

  10. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  11. Intraoperative raster photogrammetry--the PAR Corneal Topography System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, M W

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system that uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The CTS determines distortion in a projected two-dimensional grid. Unlike Placido-disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS produces a true topographic map (elevation map) and requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. Because the system uses two noncoaxial optical paths, it can be integrated into other optical devices. A modified CTS was integrated into an experimental erbium: YAG photoablative laser. The CTS successfully imaged corneas before, after, and during laser photoablation. Its ability to image nonreflective surfaces and to be integrated into other optical systems may make it suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring.

  12. Exploration of a new series of PAR1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planty, Bruno; Pujol, Chantal; Lamothe, Marie; Maraval, Catherine; Horn, Clemens; Le Grand, Bruno; Perez, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Two series of new PAR1 antagonists have been identified. The first incorporates a cinnamoylpiperidine motif and the second a cinnamoylpyridine pattern. The synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationship of these compounds are presented. In each series, one analog showed potent in vivo antithrombotic activity in a rat AV shunt model, with up to 53% inhibition at 1.25mpk iv for compound 30.

  13. Tonic Pupil Following Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Endolaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Ebrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tonic pupil was observed in a 67 year-old patient following a retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy, endolaser and silicone oil tamponade performed under retrobulbar anesthesia. The probable location of disturbance is the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves along their course to the pupil in the suprachoroidal space. A likely explanation for this phenomenon is injury to short ciliary nerves by endolaser treatment.

  14. La parálisis cerebral en el contexto escolar /

    OpenAIRE

    González Vara, Azucena

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de parálisis cerebral, los diferentes tipos y sus características. También las adaptaciones que se deben realizar a nivel de centro, de aula, y a nivel individual para estos alumnos, conocer los diferentes sistemas alternativos y aumentativos de comunicación y aplicar las ayudas técnicas que precisa este alumnado

  15. The 2010 Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science (PARS) Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) Research Station at Gakona, Alaska. The 2010 PARS Summer School, conducted over the period July 12 – 22, 2010...included a total of 21 students and 14 advisors or visiting scientists representing 12 universities. During the research period at the HAARP facility... HAARP , Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  16. Design Studies and Commissioning Plans for PARS Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, O; Xia, G; Dover, M; Wigram, M; Wright, J; Zhang, J; Smith, J

    2015-01-01

    PARS (Plasma Acceleration Research Station) is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for VELA/CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In order to optimise various operational configurations, 2D numerical studies were performed by using VSIM for a range of parameters such as bunch length, radius, plasma density and positioning of the bunches with respect to each other for the two-beam acceleration scheme. In this paper, some of these numerical studies and considered measurement methods are presented.

  17. Evaluation of Pork Freshness Using Olfaction Visualization Detection Technique%基于嗅觉可视化技术的猪肉新鲜度等级评判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星奕; 周芳; 蒋飞燕

    2011-01-01

    The olfaction visualization detection technique was used to detect the freshness of pork. The images before and after the colorimetric sensor array interacted with pork' s volatile flavors were collected, then image processing techniques was used to get digital signals which reflected the characteristics of pork flavors. Those signals were processed by principle components analysis ( PCA) , and the former 10 principal components were used as inputs of the BP neural networks to distinguish the freshness of pork. Its discrimination rate was 84. 62% . The research results show that olfaction visualization detection technique is useful in the rapid evaluation of pock freshness.%利用嗅觉可视化技术对猪肉新鲜度等级进行评判.提取猪肉的挥发性气体与可视化传感器阵列进行反应,用图像处理技术分析反应前后传感器阵列的颜色变化,获取反映新鲜度的气味特征信息.通过主成分分析,选取前10个主成分作为所建立的BP神经网络的输入变量,构建猪肉新鲜度等级判别模型,模型的预测正确率为84.62%.研究结果表明:嗅觉可视化技术可用于猪肉新鲜度等级的快速评价.

  18. de larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V\\u00EDctor \\u00C1lvarez C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los parásitos gastrointestinales juegan un papel importante en los sistemas de producción animal, particularmente en los ovinos. El desarrollo de resistencia a los productos químicos ha creado un enorme problema para la producción. En busca de nuevas alternativas para el control integrado de parásitos, se utilizó aserrín de: pochote (Bombacopsis quinata, melina (Gmelina arborea, ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica y teca (Tectona grandis en coprocultivos de larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales de ovinos. Se recolectó muestras fecales directamente del recto de los animales en una finca en San José, Costa Rica y se determinó la carga parasitaria. Posteriormente se realizó los coprocultivos, utilizando como control aserrín de laurel (Cordia alliodora. El análisis de la eficacia de cada uno de los aserrines demostró que redujeron el crecimiento de las larvas entre un 65,4 y un 98,0% con relación al control.

  19. Accuracy of the PAR corneal topography system with spatial misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, M W; Zloty, P

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System is a computerized corneal imaging system which uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. Raster photogrammetry is a standard method of extracting object information by projecting a known pattern onto an object and recording the distortion when viewed from an oblique angle. Unlike placido disc based videokeratoscopes, the PAR system requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. We studied both the accuracy of the system with purposeful misalignment (defocusing) of the test object and determined the ability to image freshly deepithelialized, keratectomized, and photoablated corneas. The PAR system was both accurate and reproducible in imaging calibrated spheres within a defined zone in space. Whole cadaver eyes were imaged both before and immediately after removal of the epithelium, lamellar keratectomy, and laser photoablation. The system demonstrated the ability to image irregular, deepithelialized, and keratectomized corneas. The ability to maintain accuracy without precise alignment and the facility to image freshly deepithelialized and keratectomized corneas may make the system suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring.

  20. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    , respectivement : NCO + NO -> N2O + CO (1 N2O + H -> N2 + OH (2 Une élévation de la température favorise la transformation du précurseur CNO en NO et NH, tout en intensifiant la réaction (2 par l'accroissement de la concentration en radicaux H; une augmentation de l'excès d'oxygène par contre diminue cette concentration. 2. Formation de N2O lors de l'injection d'ammoniac (NCSR Dans cette partie de l'étude, la fraction F2 est de l'argon dopé avec de l'ammoniac ou avec un mélange d'ammoniac et de NO. Il est à remarquer que l'ammoniac à lui seul se transforme partiellement en NO et en N2O (fig. 7 et 8; l'acide cyanhydrique présente le même comportement de manière encore plus accentué en ce qui concerne la formation de N2O (fig. 9. Dans ces figures, Fn->no désigne la fraction d'atomes d'azote transformés en NO, Fn->n2o la fraction d'atomes d'azote transformés en N2O, tandis que Fm désigne la fraction de l'espèce azoté M décomposée. L'injection de NO seul ne forme pas de N2O (fig. 10; l'injection de N2O seul ne forme que des quantités négligeables de NO (fig. 11. La figure 12 résume ces observations et donne également la valeur des températures au point d'injection (Tx en fonction de la distance X. Le NO apparaît comme un produit primaire formé à partir de NH3, tandis que le protoxyde d'azote est formé à partir d'une réaction entre NH3 et NO. Lors de l'injection de NH3 en présence de NO, il faudra donc s'attendre à une compétition de (1 la réduction de NO par l'ammoniac et (2 la formation de NO à partir de l'ammoniac. Ceci est confirmé par les expériences (fig. 14 et 15. 3. Formation et destruction de N2O pendant la réduction catalytique de NO (SCR. Cette partie de l'étude a été effectuée en lit fixe sur un grand nombre d'oxydes métalliques. L'identification des voies réactionnelles est illustrée par les figures 16 à 22, avec le vanadium pentoxyde comme catalyseur. Une vue schématique du mécanisme réactionnel global est pr

  1. L'exraction par micro-ondes: un choix de qualité

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdani, M.; Ghazi, Z.; Fadel, O.; Mouni, L.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est de comparer l’extraction faite par chauffage classique (CC) avec celle réalisée sous micro-ondes (MO). Deux modes d’extraction ont été réalisés : - L’hydro-distillation par chauffage classique (extraction par entraînement à la vapeur d’un solvant) et, - L’hydro-distillation activée par micro-ondes. Les MO permettent un gain de temps considérable. Par exemple, dans le cas du lavandula dentata : on note une cinétique 3 fois plus rapide, de plus le rendement ...

  2. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Funnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs spread; that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding nonspecific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and nonspecific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites.

  3. Specific and non-specific interactions of ParB with DNA: implications for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A; Pastrana, Cesar L; Butterer, Annika; Pernstich, Christian; Gwynn, Emma J; Sobott, Frank; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of many bacterial chromosomes is dependent on the interactions of ParB proteins with centromere-like DNA sequences called parS that are located close to the origin of replication. In this work, we have investigated the binding of Bacillus subtilis ParB to DNA in vitro using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques. We observe tight and specific binding of a ParB homodimer to the parS sequence. Binding of ParB to non-specific DNA is more complex and displays apparent positive co-operativity that is associated with the formation of larger, poorly defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Experiments with magnetic tweezers demonstrate that non-specific binding leads to DNA condensation that is reversible by protein unbinding or force. The condensed DNA structure is not well ordered and we infer that it is formed by many looping interactions between neighbouring DNA segments. Consistent with this view, ParB is also able to stabilize writhe in single supercoiled DNA molecules and to bridge segments from two different DNA molecules in trans. The experiments provide no evidence for the promotion of non-specific DNA binding and/or condensation events by the presence of parS sequences. The implications of these observations for chromosome segregation are discussed.

  4. Effect of PAR-2 Deficiency in Mice on KC Expression after Intratracheal LPS Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease activated receptors (PAR have been shown to play a role in inflammation. PAR-2 is expressed by numerous cells in the lung and has either proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, or no effect depending on the model. Here, we examined the role of PAR-2 in a model of LPS-induced lung inflammation. We found that PAR-2-deficient mice had significantly less KC expression in bronchial lavage fluid compared with wild-type mice but there was no difference in MIP-2 or TNF-α expression. We also found that isolated alveolar and resident peritoneal macrophages lacking PAR-2 showed a similar deficit in KC after LPS stimulation without differences in MIP-2 or TNF-α. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lung following LPS administration was not affected by an absence of PAR-2. Our results support the notion that PAR-2 plays a role in LPS activation of TLR4 signaling in macrophages.

  5. NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in an oxidizing medium; Elimination des NO{sub x} par le coke depose sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} en milieu oxydant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunati, S.

    1997-12-12

    NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in excess oxygen. Continuous analysis of the effluent was performed with a mass spectrometer. The coking reaction was carried out under reducing conditions with two different coking agents: cyclopentane and heptanal. In general, NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurs in a wide temperature range (200 deg C

  6. Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) production in a liquid fuel-oil diffusion flame by acoustic excitation; Reduction de la production des oxydes d`azote (NO{sub x}) dans une flamme de diffusion a fioul liquide par excitation acoustique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabroy, O.; Haile, E.; Veynante, D.; Lacas, F.; Candel, S. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    The control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions will become a major challenge in the forthcoming years, in the domain of automotive industry or industrial burners. Pulsed combustion offers an imaginative solution which does not affect the combustion efficiency. In this paper, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated using the burner of a 20 kW domestic boiler. The actuator is simply installed on the air intake. Two types of actuators have been tested successfully: a loudspeaker and a rotative valve. Both can produce 100 to 1000 Hz frequencies and can lead to a reduction of 20% of NO{sub x} emissions. The feasibility of the concept is also demonstrated on a 840 kW liquid fuel-oil burner. The mechanisms involved during an excitation are explained using the CH{sup *} radical imaging. Results show an important reorganization of the flow and of the flame structure. During each excitation cycle, an annular swirl occurs at the leading edge of the flame catching and develops during downflow convection. These results give precious information on this new concept of nitrogen oxides reduction using acoustic excitation. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  7. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  8. Sol-gel chemistry applied to the synthesis of polymetallic oxides including actinides reactivity and structure from solution to solid state; Synthese par voie douce d'oxydes polymetalliques incluant des actinides: reactivite et structure de la solution au solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonnier, St

    2006-02-15

    Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am{sup III} YII Zriv)Or{sub x} is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)

  9. A contribution to the study of the extraction of mineral acids and of actinide (IV) and (VI) cations by N,N-dialkylamides; Contribution a l'etude de l'extraction d'acides mineraux et de cations actinides aux degres d'oxydation (IV) et (VI) par des N,N-dialkylamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condamines, N.

    1990-03-15

    N,N-dialkylamides are alternate extractants to tributylphosphate, TBP, for the actinides separation in nuclear fuel reprocessing. N,N-di (2-ethyl hexyl) butyramide and N,N-di (2 ethyl hexyl) isobutyramide are selected for their sufficient extraction and partition ability towards actinides (IV) and (VI) without coextracting fission products. Mechanisms of HNO{sub 3}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Pu{sup 4+}, Th{sup 4+} are investigated. Nitric acid extraction is due to the competitive formation of the species (HNO{sub 3})L{sub 2}, (HNO{sub 3})L, (HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}L (L: DOBA or DOiBA). An hydrogen bond is the driving force of the transfer. For low acidity media, amides are neutral extractants. Physical interactions, between free ligand and metallic complex, arise for high amide concentrations. Taking into account the non-ideality of the organic medium by a hard spheres mixture model, we estimate that such interactions are far from negligible and very specific to the amide group. Unlike TBP, when increasing acidity, amides behave as anionic extractants. DOBA and DOiBA appear to be satisfactory extractants for fuel reprocessing.

  10. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties; Alliages ferritiques 14/20% de chrome renforces par dispersion d`oxydes. Effets des procedes de mise en forme sur les textures de deformation, la recristallisation et les proprietes de traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regle, H.

    1994-12-31

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Etudes de traitement des lixiviats des déchets urbains par les procédés d’oxydation avancée photochimiques et électrochimiques : application aux lixiviats de la décharge tunisienne "Jebel Chakir"

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pas de résumé en anglais; L'installation de décharges sanitaires représente la seule méthode de stockage des déchets ménagers solides dans plusieurs pays. Les lixiviats générés à partir de ces décharges présentent une grande toxicité aigüe et chronique. Lorsqu'ils ne sont pas traités, ces lixiviats peuvent pénétrer dans la nappe phréatique ou contaminer les eaux de surface et donc contribuer à la pollution des eaux. Divers procédés biologiques ont été appliqués au traitement des lixiviats de ...

  12. Study of top reflooding in case of severe accident and in particular oxidation of Uranium, Zirconium, Oxygen melts; Etude du renoyage par le haut en cas d'accident grave et en particulier oxydation des melanges (U,Zr,O)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet-Thibault, E

    2006-12-15

    In 1979, the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident occurred in United States and accelerated research activities in the field of severe accidents. Severe accident management procedures imply massive water injections to flood the core. The work of this thesis bent principally over this reflooding. The first part of the study concerns the core oxidation enhancement during the reflooding phase which leads to a rough increase of the concentration of burnable hydrogen in the containment. This is why the study carried on the analysis of the contribution of the oxidation of U-Zr-O mixtures, towards the total production of hydrogen during reflooding. In the second part, the study concerns top flooding modelling i.e.: with injection of water in the hot legs. Here, we attempted to define bases and realize a model allowing to describe this type of reflooding. These models were validated on the simulation of the parameter with MAAP4 code. (author)

  13. Analytical study, by modelling methods, of the alkali and alkaline earth cations influence on the stability and the reactivity of aluminium (III) oxides or halides complexes; Etude analytique, par des techniques de modelisation, de l`influence de cations alcalins ou alcalino-terreux sur la stabilite et la reactivite de complexes de l`aluminium(III) avec des ions halogenures ou oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, F.

    1995-10-05

    The electric power consumption in aluminium production and electrorefining processes is high. A study of the electrochemical processes can be very useful for a better understanding of phenomena in electrolytic baths and then for reducing the production costs. A structural and vibrational analysis of species which exist in ionic solutions has been carried out with software based on the functional density theory. Concerning the electrolyte used for the aluminium refining, the anions study has shown that the aluminium chloro-fluoride complexes are preferentially tetrahedral. Moreover, the aluminium oxyfluoride complexes structures (which come from the alumina dissolution in cryolitic media) have been analyzed in the same way and the preferential coordination numbers for aluminium and oxygen have been shown clearly. The anionic model (which is limited to the nearest aluminium neighbours) does not allow to account for the thermodynamics of the cryolitic media. A more elaborated model has then been found to obtain the cryolite structure. The reactions enthalpies have been estimated and have lead to the calculus of species concentration gradients in liquid phase. The counterions effects as for instance sodium and calcium have been investigated. A model for the gaseous phase allowing to know the preferential species has been given. At last, a statistic thermochemistry program has been conceived and developed. It gives the thermodynamical functions at all temperature for the different complexes and allows to reckon the reactions coefficients in gaseous phase as well as the partial pressures profiles with those of calcium and sodium fluorides. (O.M.) 204 refs.

  14. Decrease of the use temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (by deposition of ultra thin electrolyte layers); Reduction de la temperature de fonctionnement des piles a combustible a oxyde solide 'SOFC' (par depots de couches ultra minces d'electrolyte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassir, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, URM 7575, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are nowadays very technologically studied. The decrease of the use temperature (800 to 1000 degrees Celsius) of these cells is one of the main current stake. The question is to essentially formulate lower temperature electrolyte materials. The yttriated zirconia, the most usual electrolyte, could be appropriate if the thickness was drastically diminished. A new vapor phase deposition technique (the atomic layer epitaxy: ALE) could be carried out to achieve this goal. In the same way, the decrease of the temperature could allow the use of the SOFC in the field of vehicles as power auxiliary. (O.M.)

  15. Etudes cinétiques et mécanistiques des processus d'oxydation des composés organiques volatils d'importance atmosphérique induits par le radical nitrate en atmosphères simulées.

    OpenAIRE

    Doussin, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    To study the chemical transformations of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, the physico-chemist requires some results that can be easily interpreted and, on the other hand, that can be extrapolated to the atmospheric conditions. These constraints imply the variability and complexity of the atmosphere needs to be simplified in laboratory experiments while keeping experimental conditions as close as possible of the atmospheric ranges of pressure, temperature and concentrations. This ...

  16. Split C-V measurements: a new approach to characterize the oxide degradation in power VDMOSFETs in radiation environment; Mesures par split C-V: une nouvelle approche pour caracteriser la degradation de l'oxyde des VDMOSFET en environnement radiatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predrag, Habas [Philips Semiconductors, MOS4YOU, Device Eng. Dept., Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mileusnic, S.; Zivanov, M. [Novi Sad Univ., Faculty of Technical Sciences, Inst. for Power and Electronics (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    A new approach to characterize oxide degradation in VDMOSFETs exposed to irradiation is proposed, which bases on monitoring changes in the split C-V characteristics: gate-drain C{sub gd}(V{sub g}) and gate-source C{sub gs}(V{sub g}) capacitance. (authors)

  17. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1996-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  18. Catalysts for the abatement of the chlorine aromatics VOCs, part 2: dope of the VO{sub x} on TiO{sub 2} catalyst by different transition metals oxides; Catalyseurs pour l'abattement des COVs aromatiques chlores, Partie 2: dopage du catalyseur VO{sub x} sur TiO{sub 2} par differents oxydes de metaux de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertinchamps, F.; Gregoire, C.; Gaigneaux, E.M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de catalyse et chimie des materiaux divises, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the VO{sub x} on TiO{sub 2} catalyst has been doped by different transition metals oxides such as CrO{sub x}, MnO{sub x}, NbO{sub x}, MoO{sub x}, TaO{sub x} or WO{sub x}. Three samples series have been prepared by double impregnation: a series in which the first step concerns the impregnation of the vanadium oxide alone following by a second step concerning the impregnation of the doping metal oxide alone; a second series in which the impregnation order is inversed and at last, a third series with the joint impregnation of the vanadium oxide and of the doping oxide. This research has revealed the importance of carrying out the impregnation of the doping oxide and of the vanadium oxide phase in a only one step. Moreover, the study has shown in one hand the important doping effect of the molybdenum and tungsten oxides and of niobium in a least extent, and in another hand, the inhibiting effect of the chromium and manganese oxides. The physico-chemical characterizations have revealed the influence of the acidity of the catalyst and the reducibility of the VO{sub x} phase on the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. (O.M.)

  19. Validation of MODIS and GEOV1 fPAR Products in a Boreal Forest Site in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titta Majasalmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of the fraction of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR has become a timely option to monitor forest productivity. However, only a few studies have had ground reference fPAR datasets containing both forest canopy and understory fPAR from boreal forests for the validation of satellite products. The aim of this paper was to assess the performance of two currently available satellite-based fPAR products: MODIS fPAR (MOD15A2, C5 and GEOV1 fPAR (g2_BIOPAR_FAPAR, as well as an NDVI-fPAR relationship applied to the MODIS surface reflectance product and a Landsat 8 image, in a boreal forest site in Finland. Our study area covered 16 km2 and field data were collected from 307 forest plots. For all plots, we obtained both forest canopy fPAR and understory fPAR. The ground reference total fPAR agreed better with GEOV1 fPAR than with MODIS fPAR, which showed much more temporal variation during the peak-season than GEOV1 fPAR. At the chosen intercomparison date in peak growing season, MODIS NDVI based fPAR estimates were similar to GEOV1 fPAR, and produced on average 0.01 fPAR units smaller fPAR estimates than ground reference total fPAR. MODIS fPAR and Landsat 8 NDVI based fPAR estimates were similar to forest canopy fPAR.

  20. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C; Lee, Rebecca D; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P; Esserman, Denise A; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3-induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1(-/-) mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1(-/-) mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection.

  1. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  2. A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

  3. Décontamination nucléaire par laser UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

    2003-06-01

    Le développement et l'utilisation de procédés propres pour le nettoyage ou la préparation de surfaces est l'une des priorités du milieu industriel. Cet intérêt est d'autant plus grand dans le domaine du nucléaire pour lequel la réduction des déchets est un axe de recherche important. Un dispositif de décontamination nucléaire par laser UV impulsionnel a été développé et testé. Il est composé. d'un laser à excimères de 1kW, d'un faisceau de fibres optiques et d'un dispositif de récupération des particules. Les essais réalisés en milieu actif ont démontré sa capacité à nettoyer des surfaces métalliques polluées par différents radioéléments avec des facteurs de décontamination généralement supérieurs à 10. Ce dispositif permet de décontaminer de grandes surfaces de géométrie simple en réduisant fortement la génération de déchets secondaires. Il est, à ce jour et dans ces conditions d'utilisations, le procédé de décontamination par voie sèche le plus efficace.

  4. GESTION "PAR" LES COMPETENCES ET POSITIONNEMENT DU CONTROLE DE GESTION ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rouby, Evelyne; Solle, Guy

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Cet article a pour but de contribuer à une définition des contours du concept de "gestion par les compétences". De notre point de vue, ce concept relèverait des mêmes principes que la compétence organisationnelle à savoir les principes "systémique, de finalité, de spécificité, de visibilité et de reconnaissance, dynamique et cumulatif". Il consisterait à en assurer l'interaction dynamique entre les niveaux stratégiques et opérationnels et selon des cycles temporels dif...

  5. SYNTHESE DES DIENAMINES CYCLIQUES A CONJUGAISON CROISEE PAR THERMOLYSE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosez, L.; Universidad Católica de Louvain, Laboratorio de Química Orgánica Síntesis Edificio Lavoiser, Lugar Louis Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain la Neuve-Bélgica; Grimaldo-Moron, J. T.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Av. Venezuela s/n, Lima-Perú

    2014-01-01

    Triénamines acycliques a conjugaison Croisée donnent lieu a des réactions électrocycliques par thermolyse classique en phase gazeose. Diénamines cycliques a conjugaison croisée sont obtenus avec d'excellents rendements. Trienaminas acíclicas con conjugación cruzada dan lugar a reacciones electrocíclicas por termólisis clásica en fase gaseosa. Dienaminas cíclicas con conjugación cruzada son sintetizadas con excelentes rendimientos.

  6. Reconnaissance coloniale chez des fourmis se reproduisant par bouturage

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinose, K.; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim

    2002-01-01

    Certaines fourmis se reproduisant par bouturage, comme les Aphaenogaster senilis, sont peu agressives envers les individus d¿autres colonies proches de la même espèce. Dans ce cas, il est difficile d¿apprécier les relations entre colonies. Nous avons cherché à mettre au point une méthode qui permette de discriminer deux colonies différentes. Nous avons effectué des rencontres entre individus de colonies élevées au laboratoire depuis plus d¿un an, et de nids collectés récemment. Quatre catégor...

  7. Hemangioma capilar de la parótida. Abordaje transoral

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Domingo Sarra; Juan Carlos Rodríguez; Julio Alberto San Martino

    2014-01-01

    Los hemangiomas de la parótida son frecuentes en niños, representando aproximadamente el 50% de los tumores de dicha glándula durante el primer año de vida. Como contrapartida, estos tumores vasculares son extremadamente raros en pacientes adultos y solo se publican unos pocos casos aislados en la literatura, donde se mencionan las dificultades en el diagnóstico diferencial con los tumores primarios de las glándulas salivales. Presentamos un caso en una paciente adulta que consultó por una...

  8. PROTECTION ET DEPROTECTION D’ALCOOLS PAR REDUCTION ELECTROCHIMIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    A FIALA; A CHIBANI; F LOUAFI

    2007-01-01

    Le groupement ortho-nitrobenzoyle a été utilisé comme groupe protecteur dans le cas d'amino-acétophénones et de plusieurs amino-acides ou esters. Dans le cas des alcools, la déprotection d’esters correspondants, par voie électrochimique, nécessite un faible potentiel cathodique pour l’obtention d'hydroxylamine ; en milieu acide, cette dernière se cyclise quantitativement pour donner la benzisoxazolone avec libération de l'alcool de départ.

  9. Puesta en marcha del sensor fuerza-par JR3

    OpenAIRE

    Hoz Najarro, Carlos de la

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio se engloba dentro de los proyectos realizados por el grupo de trabajo Robotic Lab de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid para el desarrollo del nuevo Humanoide RH-2. Concretamente, implementaremos sobre software libre (Linux) una aplicación C++ que nos permita obtener de la tarjeta de adquisición de datos de 4 puertos PCI P/N 1593 de JR3 inc., en tiempo real, los valores de fuerza/par del sensor industrial Force Moment Sensor 85M35A3-I40-DH12, de la compañía JR3 inc., que llevará...

  10. Caso práctico parálisis cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Gómez, Sergio; Queimadelos Navarro, Sofía; Rodríguez Martín, Samuel; Sañudo Herrero, Alba

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo está enfocado al área psicomotor, siguiendo las bases de la intervención de Atención Temprana, desde el campo de la Terapia Ocupacional en la afectación de Parálisis Cerebral Infantil (PCI). El tratamiento empleado está dirigido a potenciar la funcionalidad del miembro afecto, para facilitar al paciente su desempeño en las Actividades de la Vida Diaria, Ocio y Tiempo Libre. Tras llevar a cabo la intervención, se realizó una recogida de datos y se analizó si los objet...

  11. Etiología en parálisis cerebral.

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,Patricia; Bancalari, Ernesto; Castañeda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar las causas mas frecuentes de parálisis cerebral (PC). Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia y el Hogar Clínica San Juan de Dios (Lima-Perú), entre noviembre 1990 y mayo de 1992. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 102 pacientes con diagnósticos de PC y se revisó las etiologías. Resultados: En relación a edad gestacional hubieron 15 casos de prematuros (14.7%), 67(65%) a término y un postmaduro, en 19 no se tuvo la edad ...

  12. Photogrammétrie et vision par ordinateur

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Mahzad; Kasser, Michel

    2008-01-01

    National audience; Une comparaison est effectuée entre les façons employées en photogrammétrie et en vision par ordinateur pour traiter les problèmes liés à l'acquisition de la 3D à partir d'images stéréoscopiques. Le formalisme adopté, assez différent, est présenté, et quelques perspectives d'évolution en sont déduites.

  13. La couleur en vision par ordinateur : 1.une revue

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Quang-Tuan

    1990-01-01

    L'utilisation de la couleur en vision par ordinateur est un sujet de recherche qui suscite un interet recent et croissant. Ce papier fait le point dans ce domaine, en essayant de repondre aux questions : Qu'est-ce que la couleur ? Quelles en sont les representations adequates ? Comment la determiner ? Que peut-on en faire ? Pour cela, nous faisons une revue approfondie et tres a jour de l'ensemble de la litterature consacree a ce sujet en cernant les axes de recherche et les problematiques im...

  14. Cartographie par carroyage et précision spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice LANGLOIS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d'une cartographie par carroyage, on étudie la désagrégation de variables zonales, en revenant sur l'hypothèse de l'équirépartition spatiale des populations. L'objectif est d'approcher des règles différenciées de désagrégation des variables en fusionnant des plans d'information de nature morphologique, topologique et environnementale.

  15. The Par3 polarity protein is an exocyst receptor essential for mammary cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Mukhtar; Macara, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    The exocyst is an essential component of the secretory pathway required for delivery of basolateral proteins to the plasma membranes of epithelial cells. Delivery occurs adjacent to tight junctions (TJ), suggesting that it recognizes a receptor at this location. However, no such receptor has been identified. The Par3 polarity protein associates with TJs but has no known function in membrane traffic. We now show that, unexpectedly, Par3 is essential for mammary cell survival. Par3 silencing causes apoptosis, triggered by phosphoinositide trisphosphate depletion and decreased Akt phosphorylation, resulting from failure of the exocyst to deliver basolateral proteins to the cortex. A small region of PAR3 binds directly to Exo70 and is sufficient for exocyst docking, membrane-protein delivery and cell survival. PAR3 lacking this domain can associate with the cortex but cannot support exocyst function. We conclude that Par3 is the long-sought exocyst receptor required for targeted membrane-protein delivery. PMID:28358000

  16. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  17. Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential for Tumor Cell Apoptosis and Inhibition of Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ, is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings indicate that CQ induces p53- and Rab8b-dependent Par-4 secretion from normal cells for Par-4-dependent inhibition of metastatic tumor growth.

  18. På sviktende kunnskapsgrunnlag? Assistert befruktning for lesbiske par

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Saur Stiklestad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen drøfter i hvilken grad den norske loven om assistert befruktning for lesbiske par vektlegger forskningsbasert kunnskap om barnas oppvekstvilkår. En kunnskapsteoretisk diskusjon om forholdet mellom forskning og politikk er sentral i denne drøftingen. Artikkelens empiriske grunnlag er i hovedsak dokumenter om lovprosessen, resultater fra forskningsfeltet generelt og tilsva­rende lovprosess i Sverige. Dessuten drøftes kritikken rettet mot forskningsfel­tet. Artikkelen viser at forskningsbasert kunnskap er gitt så lav prioritet i det norske lovarbeidet at det har skapt tvil om kunnskapsstatus på området. Sam­tidig synliggjør artikkelen at det foreligger mer forskning på aktuelle forsk­ningsfelt, som samlet sett går i favør av assistert befruktning for lesbiske par.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i2.1720

  19. Four cases of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutoh T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Koji Kadoya, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report our recent experience with four cases of endophthalmitis (one male, three females after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. One was a case of persistent cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion, whereas the remaining three were cases of epiretinal membrane. Preoperative antibiotics before the first PPV procedure were not administered in three of the four cases. Endophthalmitis occurred 2–4 days after the first procedure in all cases, for which ceftazidime 2.0 mg/0.1 mL and vancomycin 1.0 mg/0.1 mL were injected into the vitreous cavity. This was followed by emergent 20-gauge PPV and intraocular lens removal using an infusion fluid containing ceftazidime and vancomycin. After the second PPV procedure, progress was good in three cases while retinal detachment occurred in the remaining case one month after surgery; this case required a third PPV procedure. Final best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/25 for the four cases. Bacterial cultures were negative after the second PPV procedure in all cases. In conclusion, postoperative endophthalmitis occurred in four of 502 cases (0.80% that underwent 25-gauge PPV at our hospital. It is important to minimize the incidence of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV.Keywords: 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, endophthalmitis, incidence

  20. Pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Schwartz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stephen G Schwartz, Harry W Flynn JrDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV is growing in popularity for the treatment of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD. PPV achieves favorable anatomic and visual outcomes in a wide variety of patients, especially in pseudophakic RD. A growing number of clinical series, both retrospective and prospective, have demonstrated generally comparable outcomes comparing PPV and scleral buckling (SB under a variety of circumstances. The Scleral Buckling Versus Primary Vitrectomy in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment (SPR study is a multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial comparing SB versus PPV. This study should provide useful guidelines in the future. At this time, the choice of SB versus PPV should be based on the characteristics of the RD, the patient as a whole, and the experience and preference of the individual retinal surgeon.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, rhegmatogneous retinal detachment, scleral buckling

  1. Spectral analysis by correlation; Analyse spectrale par correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [French] La densite spectrale d'un signal qui represente la repartition de sa puissance sur l'axe des frequences est une fonction de premiere importance, constamment utilisee dans tout ce qui touche le traitement du signal (identification de processus, analyse de vibrations, etc...). Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de calcul de cette fonction, la methode par correlation (calcul de la fonction de correlation + transformation de Fourier) est tres seduisante par sa simplicite et ses performances. L'etude qui est faite ici va deboucher sur la realisation d'un appareil qui, couple a un correlateur, constituera un ensemble d'analyse spectrale en temps reel couvrant la gamme de frequence 0 a 5 MHz. (auteur)

  2. Alpine grassland fPAR change over the Northern Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Xiong Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods including Digital Camera and Reference Panel (DCRP and traditional in situ fPAR observation for measuring the in situ point fPAR of very short alpine grass vegetation were compared, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS fPAR products were evaluated and validated by in situ point data on the alpine grassland over the Northern Tibetan Plateau, which is sensitive to climate change and vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. Results showed that the MODIS alpine grassland fPAR product, examined by using DCRP, and traditional in situ fPAR observation had a significant relationship at the spatial and temporal scales. The decadal MODIS fPAR trend analysis showed that, average growing season fPAR increased by 1.2 × 10−4 per year and in total increased 0.86% from 2002 to 2011 in alpine grassland, when most of the fPAR increments occurred in southeast and center of the Northern Tibetan Plateau, the alpine grassland tended to recover from degradation slightly. However, climatic factors have influenced the various alpine grassland vegetation fPAR over a period of 10 years; precipitation significantly affected the alpine meadow fPAR in the eastern region, whereas temperature considerably influenced the alpine desert steppe fPAR in the west region. These findings suggest that the regional heterogeneity in alpine grassland fPAR results from various environmental factors, except for vegetation characteristics, such as canopy structure and leaf area.

  3. The two Cis-acting sites, parS1 and oriC1, contribute to the longitudinal organisation of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The segregation of bacterial chromosomes follows a precise choreography of spatial organisation. It is initiated by the bipolar migration of the sister copies of the replication origin (ori. Most bacterial chromosomes contain a partition system (Par with parS sites in close proximity to ori that contribute to the active mobilisation of the ori region towards the old pole. This is thought to result in a longitudinal chromosomal arrangement within the cell. In this study, we followed the duplication frequency and the cellular position of 19 Vibrio cholerae genome loci as a function of cell length. The genome of V. cholerae is divided between two chromosomes, chromosome I and II, which both contain a Par system. The ori region of chromosome I (oriI is tethered to the old pole, whereas the ori region of chromosome II is found at midcell. Nevertheless, we found that both chromosomes adopted a longitudinal organisation. Chromosome I extended over the entire cell while chromosome II extended over the younger cell half. We further demonstrate that displacing parS sites away from the oriI region rotates the bulk of chromosome I. The only exception was the region where replication terminates, which still localised to the septum. However, the longitudinal arrangement of chromosome I persisted in Par mutants and, as was reported earlier, the ori region still localised towards the old pole. Finally, we show that the Par-independent longitudinal organisation and oriI polarity were perturbed by the introduction of a second origin. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par system is the major contributor to the longitudinal organisation of chromosome I but that the replication program also influences the arrangement of bacterial chromosomes.

  4. The two Cis-acting sites, parS1 and oriC1, contribute to the longitudinal organisation of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ariane; Demarre, Gaëlle; Muresan, Leila; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, François-Xavier; Possoz, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The segregation of bacterial chromosomes follows a precise choreography of spatial organisation. It is initiated by the bipolar migration of the sister copies of the replication origin (ori). Most bacterial chromosomes contain a partition system (Par) with parS sites in close proximity to ori that contribute to the active mobilisation of the ori region towards the old pole. This is thought to result in a longitudinal chromosomal arrangement within the cell. In this study, we followed the duplication frequency and the cellular position of 19 Vibrio cholerae genome loci as a function of cell length. The genome of V. cholerae is divided between two chromosomes, chromosome I and II, which both contain a Par system. The ori region of chromosome I (oriI) is tethered to the old pole, whereas the ori region of chromosome II is found at midcell. Nevertheless, we found that both chromosomes adopted a longitudinal organisation. Chromosome I extended over the entire cell while chromosome II extended over the younger cell half. We further demonstrate that displacing parS sites away from the oriI region rotates the bulk of chromosome I. The only exception was the region where replication terminates, which still localised to the septum. However, the longitudinal arrangement of chromosome I persisted in Par mutants and, as was reported earlier, the ori region still localised towards the old pole. Finally, we show that the Par-independent longitudinal organisation and oriI polarity were perturbed by the introduction of a second origin. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par system is the major contributor to the longitudinal organisation of chromosome I but that the replication program also influences the arrangement of bacterial chromosomes.

  5. Oxydation des huiles de bases minérales d'origine pétrolière. Relation entre leur composition chimique, l'épaississement et la composition de leur produits de dégradation Oxidation of Mineral Base Stocks of Petroleum Origin. Relationship Between Chemical Composition, Thickening and Oxidized Degradation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude est basée sur la compréhension des problèmes liés à l'oxydation à haute température des huiles de base utilisées dans la formulation des lubrifiants pour moteurs automobiles. Les huiles étudiées sont d'origines différentes : huile Moyen-Orient et huile mer du Nord, respectivement à fortes et faibles teneurs en composés aromatiques et en soufre, huile hydroisomérisée et polyalphaoléfine, exemptes de ces composés, et huile hydrocraquée de composition intermédiaire. L'influence de la teneur et de la composition en produits aromatiques et en soufre des huiles sur la dégradation thermo-oxydante est montrée. Ces composés protègent naturellement les huiles de base contre l'oxydation, mais deviennent des précurseurs de dépôts dans des conditions d'oxydation sévères, en présence d'un catalyseur, tel le fer, qui est toujours présent dans un moteur. L'action des additifs antioxydants, inhibiteurs radicalaires et décomposeurs d'hydroperoxydes, est étudiée à l'aide d'essais d'oxydation en couche mince et en volume. Les produits d'oxydation sont identifiés, ce qui a permis d'améliorer la connaissance des processus de dégradation des composés en cours d'oxydation, et de montrer l'influence de ces processus sur la formation d'espèces oxydées volatiles, l'augmentation de la viscosité de l'huile et la formation d'espèces oxydées de haute masse molaire qui, en se condensant, participent à la formation de composés insolubles et de dépôts. This survey is based on an understanding of problems linked to the high-temperature oxidation of base stocks used for the formulation of lubricants for automotive engines. The oils investigated are of different origins : Middle East (MO and the North Sea (MDN, which respectively have high and low aromatics and sulfur contents, hydroisomerized oil (HYDI and polyalphaolefins (PA06, which are exempt from these compounds, and hydrocracked oil (HYDC, which has an intermediate

  6. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels...... of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable...

  7. SuPAR Predicts Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Patients With Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an inflammatory marker associated with subclinical cardiovascular damage and cardiovascular events. Whether suPAR is of prognostic value in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS) remains unknown. METHODS: Plasma su......PAR levels were measured in 1503 patients with a mean age of 68 years who were recruited in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations between suPAR and the composite end points of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICEs), aortic...

  8. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking.

  9. Tryptase-PAR2 axis in experimental autoimmune prostatitis, a model for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Murphy, Stephen F; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS.

  10. TRIM21 is a novel regulator of Par-4 in colon and pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey Q.; Irby, Rosalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor that has been shown to induce cancer-cell selective apoptosis in a variety of cancers. The regulation of Par-4 expression and activity is a relatively understudied area, and identifying novel regulators of Par-4 may serve as novel therapeutic targets. To identify novel regulators of Par-4, a co-immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cells, and co-precipitated proteins were identified by mass-spectometry. TRIM21 was identified as a novel interacting partner of Par-4, and further shown to interact with Par-4 endogenously and through its PRY-SPRY domain. Additional studies show that TRIM21 downregulates Par-4 levels in response to cisplatin, and that TRIM21 can increase the resistance of colon cancer cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, forced Par-4 expression can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to cisplatin. Finally, we demonstrate that TRIM21 expression predicts survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Our work highlights a novel mechanism of Par-4 regulation, and identifies a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27830973

  11. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Cheryl L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR. Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

  12. Tryptase - PAR2 axis in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis, a model for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Murphy, Stephen F.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia lead to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

  13. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  14. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  15. 电子鼻鼻腔结构对嗅觉能力影响的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of the Effect of the Nasal Cavity Structure of Electronic Nose on Olfaction Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志标; 黄川; 张学进; 田原嫄

    2012-01-01

    To research the electronic nose performance affected by the nasal cavity structure of electronic nose and the arrangement of sensor array, by using the Fluent module in ANSYS Workbench, this paper made the numerical simulation of fluid characteristics during the gas transferred in different nasal cavity structure. The paper analyzed the odor concentration distribution in the sensor sensitive element when it was in different nasal cavity structure and in different location of sensor array. Then the paper discussed the ways how to increase the odor concentration in the sensor sensitive element, so as to improve the olfaction ability of electronic nose. The results indicate that both the nasal cavity structure and the sensor location have the influence on the olfaction ability of electronic nose. The results also indicate that the method which using ANSYS to make the optimization design for the nasal cavity structure of electronic nose is effective and feasible.%为了研究电子鼻鼻腔结构和传感器阵列的布置对电子鼻工作性能的影响,利用ANSYS Workbench中Fluent模块,对电子鼻不同鼻腔结构气体传输过程中的流体特性进行了数值模拟,分析不同鼻腔结构和传感器阵列的位置对传感器敏感元件处的气味浓度分布情况,讨论了如何提高传感器敏感元件处气味浓度,以便提高电子鼻的嗅觉能力.结果表明:电子鼻鼻腔结构和传感器位置对电子鼻嗅觉能力均有影响;利用ANSYS对电子鼻鼻腔结构进行优化设计的方法是有效、可行的.

  16. 基于嗅觉可视化的鲳鱼TVB-N预测模型%Total volatile basic nitrogen prediction models of Pampus argenteus based on olfaction visualization detection technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星奕; 蒋飞燕; 穆丽君; 孙宗保

    2013-01-01

    采用半微量凯氏定氮法对4℃恒温下储藏的冰鲜鲳鱼的TVB-N进行检测,同时利用嗅觉可视化技术提取其挥发性气味信息,将嗅觉可视化传感器阵列与鲳鱼挥发性气体发生反应前后的RGB颜色变化值作为传感器响应值,分别建立TVB-N的偏最小二乘法(PLS)、遗传偏最小二乘法(GA-PLS)预测模型.经比较,GA-PLS模型预测效果更优,预测集相关系数达到0.851 7;可视化传感器阵列响应信号与TVB-N之间存在较高的相关性,可以快速预测出鱼储藏期间TVB-N变化,从而无损评价鱼的新鲜度.%TVB-N contents of Pampus argenteus samples stored in refrigerator at constant temperature of 4 ℃ were measured by semimicro-fixation of nitrogen method. The headspace volatile gases of Pampus argenteus samples were extracted by olfaction visualization detection system. The RGB value changes of the colorimetric sensor array before and after exposure to the headspace gas were obtained as the sensor array responses. Partial least squares (PLS) model and genetic algorithm-partial least square (GA-PLS) model were established and compared. The GA-PLS model is good with the correlation coefficient (RP) between actual value and predicted TVB-N content of 0. 851 7 for the validation dataset. There exists a good correlation between the colorimetric sensor array responses and TVB-N content. The olfaction visualization detection technique can be used as a rapid way to predict TVB-N content and to evaluate fish freshness with non-destructive test.

  17. IGF-II receptors in luminal and basolateral membranes isolated from pars convoluta and pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian; Jessen, H; Flyvbjerg, A

    1995-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-II (125I-IGF-II) to luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from pars convoluta and the straight part (pars recta) of rabbit proximal tubule was investigated. Analyses of the binding data by use of the general stoichiometric binding...... equation revealed, that in all preparations IGF-II was bound to one high-affinity binding site and other sites with lower affinities. The specificity of the high-affinity 125I-IGF-II binding to the membrane vesicles assessed by displacement by unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I and insulin showed that IGF-I displaced...... 125I-IGF-II in the range 22.5-47.9 nM (IC50) whereas insulin did not effect 125I-IGF-II binding at all. beta-Galactosidase inhibited the 125I-IGF-II binding with half-maximal inhibition of 20-30 nM beta-galactosidase. D-Mannose 6-phosphate increased the binding of 125I-IGF-II and reversed...

  18. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Lardeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  19. «Interpréter Aristote par Aristote.»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bianchi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On peut remettre en question plusieurs schémas conceptuels utilisés par les historiens de l’herméneutique si l’on tient compte de l’histoire de traditions philosophiques qui ne devraient pas être négligées par ceux qui s’attachent à reconstruire le développement des notions et des méthodes herméneutiques. Centré sur la tradition aristotélicienne, cet article a pour but de montrer : 1 qu’entre le Moyen Âge et la Renaissance, le sens du terme latin interpretatio a sensiblement changé ; 2 que l’approche humaniste du corpus aristotélicien se base sur le principe que tout auteur est le meilleur interprète de lui-même ; 3 que ce principe était formulé et discuté dans certains traités, négligés, qui portaient sur l’optima ratio interpretandi Aristotelem et furent publiés par Nuñez en 1554, Pascual en 1591 et Piccart en 1605.Several conceptual schemes generally used by historians of hermeneutics can be challenged if one takes into consideration the history of philosophical traditions, which should not be neglected by those interested in reconstructing the development of hermeneutical notions and methods. Focusing on the Aristotelian tradition, this article aims at showing : 1 that between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance the meaning of the Latin term interpretatio shifted significantly ; 2 that the humanists’ approach to the Aristotelian corpus is based on the principle that every author is the best interpreter of himself ; 3 that this principle was formulated and discussed in some neglected treatises dealing with the optima ratio interpretandi Aristotelem, published by Nuñez in 1554, by Pascual in 1591, and by Piccart in 1605.

  20. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  1. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  2. Mapping transmembrane residues of proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) that influence ligand-modulated calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, J Y; Adams, M N; Lim, J; Madala, P K; Xu, W; Cotterell, A J; He, Y; Yau, M K; Hooper, J D; Fairlie, D P

    2017-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in metabolism, inflammation, and cancers. It is activated by proteolysis, which exposes a nascent N-terminal sequence that becomes a tethered agonist. Short synthetic peptides corresponding to this sequence also activate PAR2, while small organic molecules show promising PAR2 antagonism. Developing PAR2 ligands into pharmaceuticals is hindered by a lack of knowledge of how synthetic ligands interact with and differentially modulate PAR2. Guided by PAR2 homology modeling and ligand docking based on bovine rhodopsin, followed by cross-checking with newer PAR2 models based on ORL-1 and PAR1, site-directed mutagenesis of PAR2 was used to investigate the pharmacology of three agonists (two synthetic agonists and trypsin-exposed tethered ligand) and one antagonist for modulation of PAR2 signaling. Effects of 28 PAR2 mutations were examined for PAR2-mediated calcium mobilization and key mutants were selected for measuring ligand binding. Nineteen of twenty-eight PAR2 mutations reduced the potency of at least one ligand by >10-fold. Key residues mapped predominantly to a cluster in the transmembrane (TM) domains of PAR2, differentially influence intracellular Ca(2+) induced by synthetic agonists versus a native agonist, and highlight subtly different TM residues involved in receptor activation. This is the first evidence highlighting the importance of the PAR2 TM regions for receptor activation by synthetic PAR2 agonists and antagonists. The trypsin-cleaved N-terminus that activates PAR2 was unaffected by residues that affected synthetic peptides, challenging the widespread practice of substituting peptides for proteases to characterize PAR2 physiology.

  3. Hemangioma capilar de la parótida. Abordaje transoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Domingo Sarra

    2014-10-01

    Presentamos un caso en una paciente adulta que consultó por una masa en la región parotídea y parálisis facial periférica con el mayor componente tumoral que se manifestaba en la cavidad oral. La ecografía mostró una masa sólida. La punción aspiración con aguja fina fue negativa con material hemático en 2 oportunidades. No tuvimos sospecha de la presencia de un tumor de origen vascular, por lo que no fue solicitada una RMN. El caso fue resuelto a través de un abordaje quirúrgico poco utilizado, tras obtener una biopsia por congelación negativa.

  4. Optimisation de contrôleurs par essaim particulaire

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, Jérémy; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    http://cap2012.loria.fr/pub/Papers/10.pdf; National audience; Trouver des contrôleurs optimaux pour des systèmes stochastiques est un problème particulièrement difficile abordé dans les communautés d'apprentissage par renforcement et de contrôle optimal. Le paradigme classique employé pour résoudre ces problèmes est celui des processus décisionnel de Markov. Néanmoins, le problème d'optimisation qui en découle peut être difficile à résoudre. Dans ce papier, nous explorons l'utilisation de l'o...

  5. Cancro em mogno africano no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas de cancro foram observados em plantios de mogno africano, no município de Dom Eliseu, Pará. Os fungos associados aos tecidos sintomáticos foram identificados como Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium subglutinans. Culturas puras desses fungos foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em mudas de mogno africano sadias. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro, por meio de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir das plantas inoculadas em casa de vegetação, concluindo a primeira verificação do postulado de Koch para esse patossistema.

  6. Parálisis cerebral. Tratamiento ortopodológico

    OpenAIRE

    Querol Martínez, Esther; Crespo Martínez, Artur; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Sacristan Valero, Sergi; Concustell Fargas, Olga; Carrera Casanova, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Después de varios años de experiencia en la aplicación de las férulas estabilizadoras del sistema aquileocalcáneo plantar FESAP) en pacientes con parálisis cerebral, creemos que deberían ser el tratamiento ortopodológico de elección del pie equino en niños con miopatías y lesiones neurológlcas de la unidad motora, del sistema piramidal o extrapiramidal, tanto por su perfecta adaptación a la morfología de la extremidad inferior como por sus caracteristicas funcionales y sus acciones fisio1ógic...

  7. Usinage des Composites par Jet d'eau Abrasif

    OpenAIRE

    Cénac, François; Collombet, Francis; Zitoune, Rédouane; Déléris, Michel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Le protocole expérimental de fraisage par jet d'eau abrasif obtenu sur aluminium est adapté aux matériaux composites. On met en exergue deux différences majeures liées à l'effet du JEA entre les composites et l'aluminium que sont l'usinabilité et les variabilités. L'usinabilité des matériaux composites étant plus grande que celle de l'aluminium pour le JEA, on propose des plages de paramètres différentes pour les composites, du fait des limitations des machines standar...

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING IN COMPANY PARS KOMPONENTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Klega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status of production planning in company Pars Komponenty s.r.o., proposes a new method of planning based on application of the principle of MRP. It is a discrete type of production with high complexity of BOM and MTO (Make-to-Order and ETO (Engineering-to-Order from the point of decoupling point. The original planning system plans according to production capacity backward without collisions, but for a given type of production does not work in practice. Planning system was analyzed and the main problems were identified, which were high work in progress and material stocks. This article target is to propose a new planining system based on the inclusion of time reserves of purchased material items. New planning system was tested in practise with benefit in reducing both the material inventory and work in progress.

  9. Pierre Vilar Frontinhan 1906 - París 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En el pasado mes de agosto falleció en París el historiador y maestro de tantas generaciones Pierre Vilar. Aunque había mantenido una intensa actividad de reflexión sobre los sucesos contemporáneos, ésta se vio afectada en 1991 luego que una grave enfermedad le negó la visión. Fue entonces cuando decidió con la ayuda de Rosa Congost escribir sus reflexiones y recuerdos, especie de memoria de juventud. Pensar Históricamente (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica, 1997, el libro que reúne estos ejercicios, es una obra de sumo interés para conocer la infancia, adolescencia y juventud de este connotado historiador.

  10. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  11. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.

  12. Effect of pre-drying and par-frying conditions on the crispness of French fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Visser, J.E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Somsen, D.J.; Klok, H.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental design was used to study the effect of pre-drying (to 10, 15 and 20% weight loss) and par-frying conditions (160, 170 and 180 °C) on the crispness of French fries. Par-frying time was adjusted with a software program to obtain equal moisture content and internal texture for all sampl

  13. 12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...

  14. Comparison of Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods for Estimating Daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Liu, X.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which are indispensable for simulating plant growth and productivity, are generally very scarce. This study aimed to compare two extrapolation and one interpolation methods for estimating daily PAR reaching the earth surface within the Poyan

  15. Elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predicts mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mölkänen, T; Ruotsalainen, E; Thorball, C W

    2011-01-01

    are scarce. To elucidate the role of suPAR in a common bacteremic infection, the serum suPAR levels in 59 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA assay and associations to 1-month mortality and with deep infection focus were analyzed. On day three, after...

  16. A deficiency of uPAR alters endothelial angiogenic function and cell morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsara Rashna D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The angiogenic potential of a cell requires dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeletal architecture that involves the interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR with the extracellular matrix. This study focuses on the effect of uPAR deficiency (uPAR-/- on angiogenic function and associated cytoskeletal organization. Utilizing murine endothelial cells, it was observed that adhesion, migration, proliferation, and capillary tube formation were altered in uPAR-/- cells compared to wild-type (WT cells. On a vitronectin (Vn matrix, uPAR-/- cells acquired a "fried egg" morphology characterized by circular actin organization and lack of lamellipodia formation. The up-regulation of β1 integrin, FAK(P-Tyr925, and paxillin (P-Tyr118, and decreased Rac1 activation, suggested increased focal adhesions, but delayed focal adhesion turnover in uPAR-/- cells. This accounted for the enhanced adhesion, but attenuated migration, on Vn. VEGF-enriched Matrigel implants from uPAR-/- mice demonstrated a lack of mature vessel formation compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results indicate that a uPAR deficiency leads to decreased angiogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  17. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms...

  18. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  19. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    OpenAIRE

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; M.A. Ennouhi; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécia...

  20. PAR Interception and Utilization in Different Maize and Soybean Intercropping Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Rahman, Tanzeelur; Yang, Feng; Song, Chun; Yong, Taiwen; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    The crop intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) vary markedly in different intercropping systems. The HHLA (horizontally homogeneous leaf area) and ERCRT (extended row crop radiation transmission) models have been established to calculate the intercepted PAR for intercrops. However, there is still a lack of study on the intercepted PAR and RUE under different intercropping configurations using different models. To evaluate the intercepted PAR and RUE in maize and soybean under different intercropping systems, we tested different strip intercropping configurations (SI1, SI2, and SI3 based on ERCRT model) and a row intercropping configurations (RI based on HHLA model) in comparison to monoculture. Our results showed that the intercepted PAR and RUE of intercropping systems were all higher than those of monoculture. The soybean intercepted PAR in strip intercropping was 1.35 times greater than that in row intercropping. In row intercropping (RI), the lack of soybean intercepted PAR resulted in a significant reduction of soybean dry matter. Therefore, it is not the recommended configuration for soybean. In strip intercropping patterns, with the distance between maize strip increased by 0.2 m, the intercepted PAR of soybean increased by 20%. The SI2 (maize row spacing at 0.4 m and the distance between maize strip at 1.6 m) was the recommended configuration to achieve the highest value of intercepted PAR and RUE among tested strip intercropping configurations. The method of dry matter estimation using intercepted PAR and RUE is useful in simulated experiments. The simulated value was verified in comparison with experimental data, which confirmed the credibility of the simulation model. Moreover, it also provides help in the development of functional-structural plant model (FSPM). PMID:28056056

  1. Spectrographic determination of traces of halogens; Dosage de traces d'halogenes par la methode spectrographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Hollow cathode source is employed for determining traces of halogens (fluorine - chlorine) in the uranium oxide U{sub 3}O{sub 8} qualitatively, detection of at least 40 ppm of fluorine, as alkali fluoride and 125 ppm of chlorine, is possible. (author) [French] Un tube a decharge a cathode creuse a ete utilise pour la determination spectrographique des halogenes (fluor - chlore) presentes a l'etat de traces dans un oxyde d'uranium U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. On a pu deceler qualitativement des teneurs de 40 ppm de fluor sous forme de fluorures alcalins. En ce qui concerne le chlore, la plus faible teneur decelee a ete de 125 ppm. (auteur)

  2. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  3. La limitation de l’ontologie par la logique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Drummond

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article maintient que l’intérêt de Husserl pour le développement d’une logique pure en tant que théorie de la science limite sa conception de l’ontologie. L’ontologie formelle est, pour Husserl, une théorie formelle des objets de connaissance, dont les catégories fondamentales sont celles de substance, propriété et relation. En outre, les ontologies régionales évoluent au sein des limites catégorielles définies par l’ontologie formelle. Mais une telle ontologie laisse de côté les activités et les processus de tout genre, parmi lesquels le plus important est celui de l’ « avoir à l’esprit ». La phénoménologie transcendantale, en revanche, s’occupe de l’être-conscient-du-monde, un être-conscient qui est cependant inséparable de l’être-dans-le-monde. Cette phénoménologie se situe sur le même terrain ontologique que l’ontologie fondamentale de Heidegger. Mais alors, bien que la notion husserlienne d’ontologie soit limitée par le rôle dominant attribué à la logique en tant que théorie de la science et à la connaissance vraie qui lui est propre, il y a plus d’ontologie chez Husserl que dans son « ontologie ».This paper argues that Husserl’s concern with the development of pure logic as a theory of science limits his conception of ontology. Formal ontology is, for Husserl, a formal theory of the objects of cognition, and its fundamental categories are substantiality, property, and relation. Moreover, regional ontologies work within the categorial boundaries defined by formal ontology. Lost from view in this ontology are activities and processes of various kinds, of which “minding” is the most significant. Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology is an account of being-conscious-of-the-world, a being-conscious, however, that is inseparable from being-in-a-world.  This phenomenology is aimed at the same ontological terrain as Heidegger’s fundamental ontology. Hence, while

  4. Effets antibacteriens des nanoparticules de cuivre, oxyde de cuivre et oxyde de fer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantikit, Myriam

    Population longevity tends to increase in occidental countries inducing an increment in medical implants use. Resistant bacteria may contaminate those implants causing nosocomial infections. Common treatment for bacteria is antibiotic, used mainly for their speed and efficacy. An overuse of antibiotics induced bacteria to be resistant to them. Adding to this issue, when bacteria are in a certain environment, bacteria tend to communicate between themselves and create a biofilm (protective layer). Polysaccharides forming the biofilm don't allow antibiotics to penetrate inside the biofilm. Bacteria in a biofilm are extremely hard to kill. An alternative to resolve all those issues is to use nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents. They are known to have antibacterial effect. But the. The main objective is to study the effects develop "nano-biotics" that can prevent nosocomial infections due to surgical implants. In this project, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial effects of some nanoparticles (copper, copper oxide, superparamagnetic iron oxide, and superparamagnetic iron oxide coupled with nitric oxide (NO) on bacteria. Nanoparticles and microparticles characterizations have been done to determine their size, their composition and their surface chemistry using TEM and FTIR. Different parameters play a crucial role in antibacterial toxicity of particles. First, we adapted microbiological tests to elucidate nanoparticles biotoxicity. Then, pure copper and copper oxide nanoparticles have been studied to determine the importance of nanoparticles composition in toxicity. Size is another important parameter, explaining our interest to study both copper micro and nanoparticles on bacteria (S.aureus and E.coli). Bacterial toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, used as a magnetic vehicle to deliver NO (antibacterial molecule), has been studied. Once NO is delivered, iron oxide nanoparticles still react with bacteria. Finally, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were in contact with S.aureus biofilm to see their effect and the difference with planktonic bacteria. Our nanoparticles characterizations of copper shows that these nanoparticles are not completely pure but a thin oxide layer at their surface forms, which can lower their toxicity. Our results on the importance of particles size, confirm what was seen in the literature. Nanoparticles seems to be more toxic than microparticles. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results, alone, don't show a big antibacterial effect. Preliminary tests were done on NO coupled nanoparticles, and it seems there is an antibacterial effect. However, NO results are not conclusive because of some technical difficulties during NO attachment on nanoparticles. These studies allowed us to show that copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were a good antibacterial but the dose used might be too important for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have a low antibacterial effect but are biocompatible. They are an excellent candidate as vehicle for NO delivery to a specific site. These studies are the first effort made to the development of new antimicrobial agents based on metallic nanoparticles. Key words: nanoparticles, copper, oxide copper, biofilm, antibacterial, iron oxide, nitric oxide.

  5. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  6. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mark Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1 can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS- induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1 the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2 the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10 compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor.

  7. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 and immunomodulatory effects of a PAR1-activating peptide in a mouse model of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M Mark; Nelson, Lisa K; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D; Buret, Andre G; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor.

  8. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, H.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Weiss, W.R. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  9. PAR1 activation induces rapid changes in glutamate uptake and astrocyte morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Amanda M.; Fleming, Kelsey E.; McCauley, John P.; Rodriguez, Marvin F.; Martin, Elliot T.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Leapman, Richard D.; Scimemi, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    The G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a membrane protein expressed in astrocytes. Fine astrocytic processes are in tight contact with neurons and blood vessels and shape excitatory synaptic transmission due to their abundant expression of glutamate transporters. PAR1 is proteolytically-activated by bloodstream serine proteases also involved in the formation of blood clots. PAR1 activation has been suggested to play a key role in pathological states like thrombosis, hemostasis and inflammation. What remains unclear is whether PAR1 activation also regulates glutamate uptake in astrocytes and how this shapes excitatory synaptic transmission among neurons. Here we show that, in the mouse hippocampus, PAR1 activation induces a rapid structural re-organization of the neuropil surrounding glutamatergic synapses, which is associated with faster clearance of synaptically-released glutamate from the extracellular space. This effect can be recapitulated using realistic 3D Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion simulations, based on axial scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography reconstructions of excitatory synapses. The faster glutamate clearance induced by PAR1 activation leads to short- and long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission. Together, these findings identify PAR1 as an important regulator of glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus and a possible target molecule to limit brain damage during hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:28256580

  10. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu QiNan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Characterization and function of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Kong & Jong Hoon Park*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Ly-6/uPAR molecules are a superfamily composed oftwo subfamilies; one is the membrane bound proteins with aGPI-anchor and the other are secreted proteins without theGPI-anchor. Ly-6/uPAR molecules have remarkable amino acidhomology through a distinctive 8-10 cysteine-rich domain thatis associated predominantly with O-linked glycans. Thesemolecules are encoded by multiple tightly linked genes locatedon Chr. 8q23, and have a conserved genomic organization.Ly-6/uPAR molecules have an interesting expression patternduring hematopoiesis and on specific tumors indicating thatLy-6/uPAR molecules are associated with development of theimmune system and carcinogenesis. Thus, Ly-6/uPAR moleculesare useful antigens for diagnostic and therapeutic targets.This review summarizes our understanding of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules with regard to molecular structure as well aswhat is known about their function in normal and malignanttissues and suggest Ly-6/uPAR molecules as target antigens forcancer immunotherapy.

  12. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  13. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-05-23

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001.

  14. PAR-1/MARK: a kinase essential for maintaining the dynamic state of microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ohno, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase, PAR-1, is an essential component of the evolutionary-conserved polarity-regulating system, PAR-aPKC system, which plays indispensable roles in establishing asymmetric protein distributions and cell polarity in various biological contexts (Suzuki, A. and Ohno, S. (2006). J. Cell Sci., 119: 979-987; Matenia, D. and Mandelkow, E.M. (2009). Trends Biochem. Sci., 34: 332-342). PAR-1 is also known as MARK, which phosphorylates classical microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and detaches MAPs from microtubules (Matenia, D. and Mandelkow, E.M. (2009). Trends Biochem. Sci., 34: 332-342). This MARK activity of PAR-1 suggests its role in microtubule (MT) dynamics, but surprisingly, only few studies have been carried out to address this issue. Here, we summarize our recent study on live imaging analysis of MT dynamics in PAR-1b-depleted cells, which clearly demonstrated the positive role of PAR-1b in maintaining MT dynamics (Hayashi, K., Suzuki, A., Hirai, S., Kurihara, Y., Hoogenraad, C.C., and Ohno, S. (2011). J. Neurosci., 31: 12094-12103). Importantly, our results further revealed the novel physiological function of PAR-1b in maintaining dendritic spine morphology in mature neurons.

  15. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma,Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.; Bray, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    White individuals have a high frequency of the common PAR4 gene (F2RL3) variant Ala120; blacks have a high frequency of Thr120.PAR4 Thr120 induces greater signaling and is associated with greater platelet aggregation and reduced inhibition by a PAR4 antagonist.

  16. Hunger amidst plenty along the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Nascimento

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work one analyzes some referring questions to the new significações of the temporality constructed socially enters the artisan fishing of the coast, in the city of Maracanã, using as boundary-maker the concepts the concepts of abundance and famitura the one that they send themselves to the speech in way of life of the past and the gift. It will see as the typical way of life of the rescued past of the memory of old and the meaning of the abundance in the time of the fishing-farmer, the counterpoint with the concept of famitura of the fishing-exclusive of the gift, where the loss surpasses the scope of the strict survival reaching the proper way of life with the weakness of solidarity. This analysis will be given mecanicamente in the conceptual field of the time measured for the tasks and of the time chronometered for the clock. The intensive field work ocurred on Fortaleza of the Mocooca community incorporating data gotten a long the author's experience in the fish artisan thematic of the Pará coast.

  17. Triamcinolone-assisted Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Retinal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuping Zheng; Naixue Sun; Quanchen Xiong; Xiaohua Wang; Yanlong Quan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide (TA)staining facilitates posterior hyaloid removal in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal disease.Methods: A triamcinolone acetonide(TA)-assisted vitrectomy was performed on patients with the following disease: proliferative diabetic retionpathy(5eyes), central retinal vein occlusion(5eyes), macuar hole (3eyes), and epiretinal membrane(2eyes). Eyes without apparent preoperative posterior vitreous detachment were enrolled in this study. After a core PPV, TA aqueous suspension (40 mg/ml) was injected into the mid vitreous cavity to visualize the posterior hyaloid, thus allowing a complete posterior hyaloid separation and removal. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), tamponade, corneal pathology, after-cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, and necessity for reoperation were thereafter examined for at least 3 months after surgery.Results: In all patients, the vitreous body was clearly seen by means of triamcinolone during surgery, and complete removal of posterior hyaloid was facilitated and confirmed.Retina was attached in 14 of 15 eyes, and vision acuity was improved in 9 of 15 eyes.Two eyes showed transient postoperative IOP elevation, 2 eyes had after cataract formation and 1eye had cataract progression. Vitreous hemorrhage occurred in 1 eye. No eye had corneal pathology.Conclusion: Triamcinolone improved the visibility of the hyaloid and the safety of surgical procedures during PPV. No obvious adverse effect due to toxicity of TA accrued in TA-assisted PPV.

  18. Photometric monitoring of the young star Par 1724 in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Koeltzsch, A.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Mugrauer, M.; Young, N.; Bertoldi, F.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Vaňko, M.; Ginski, C.; Rammo, W.; Moualla, M.; Broeg, C.

    2009-05-01

    We report new photometric observations of the ˜ 200 000 year old naked weak-line run-away T Tauri star Par 1724, located north of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We observed in the broad band filters B, V, R, and I using the 90 cm Dutch telescope on La Silla, the 80 cm Wendelstein telescope, and a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena in Großschwabhausen near Jena. The photometric data in V and R are consistent with a ˜ 5.7 day rotation period due to spots, as observed before between 1960ies and 2000. Also, for the first time, we present evidence for a long-term 9 or 17.5 year cycle in photometric data (V band) of such a young star, a cycle similar to that to of the Sun and other active stars. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University; a telescope of the University Observatory Munich on Mount Wendelstein, the 0.9m ESO-Dutch telescope on La Silla, Chile, and with the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) project (www.astrouw.edu.pl/asas).

  19. Envenimation mortelle par morsure de serpent chez une femme enceinte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkarim Shimi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En Afrique, la prise en charge des envenimations vipérines demeure un problème majeur de santé publique avec un taux de mortalité qui reste élevé.La survenue d’une envenimation vipérine au cours de la grossesse est un événement rare, et grave du fait des conséquences maternelles et fatales qui en découlent. Les auteurs rapportent un cas de morsure de serpent au niveau de la face chez une femme enceinte, dont l’évolution a été marquée par l’installation d’un œdème cervico-facial nécessitant une trachéotomie en urgence, et une mort fatale in utero avec troubles de l’hémostase responsable du décès maternel dans un tableau de choc hémorragique.

  20. Le Web pour enseigner par projets et favoriser la collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Ratté

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation du Web présentée dans cet article vient appuyer une démarche pédagogique fondée sur le partage des savoirs. Dans le contexte d’une simulation industrielle, les étudiants d’un cours de programmation avancée doivent apprendre à partager leur expertise, à communiquer clairement leurs questions, à décrire des problèmes et à faire face à des retournements inattendus. Le Web devient un espace de collaboration pour diffuser les requêtes d’un client fictif, les directives, les travaux préliminaires et les ententes. Les résultats obtenus tendent à suggérer que cette approche globale force l’étudiant à mieux planifier, l’invite à mieux formuler et décrire les problèmes, augmente le niveau de collaboration et facilite la production d’analogies. Un système facilitant la logistique entourant la revue par les pairs (récupération des travaux, construction d’une grille d’évaluation et diffusion des résultats est également présenté.

  1. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  2. A Comprehensive Model of the Dry Desulphurisation Process Une modélisation non empirique du procédé de désulfuration par voie sèche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament P.

    2006-11-01

    humide des fumées, le procédé de désulfuration par voie sèche reste un moyen attractif pour éliminer le dioxyde de soufre lorsque le taux de réduction souhaité ne dépasse pas 90 %. Dans cette technique, l'élimination du SO2 se fait en injectant directement dans les produits de combustion de très fines particules d'un absorbant calcique tel que le calcaire (CaCO3 ou la chaux (Ca(OH². L'absorbant est tout d'abord transformé en oxyde de calcium (CaO avant de réagir avec le SO2 pour former un composé stable : le sulfate de calcium (CaSO4. Bien que les réactions globales soient extrêmement simples, une description complète des mécanismes nécessite de connaître à la fois, les propriétés physiques initiales de l'absorbant et leur évolution durant la réaction. De plus, les conditions d'injection des particules jouent un rôle prépondérant dans le procédé de désulfuration par voie sèche. Tous ces aspects sont traités dans ce papier. Le modèle de désulfuration a d'abord été testé seul par comparaison avec les données cinétiques de la Fondation Internationale de Recherches sur les Flammes (FRIF, puis, couplé avec le code KIVA, il a été utilisé pour simuler la désulfuration dans un nouveau type de chaudière développée par Babcock Entreprise et l'Institut Français du Pétrole (chaudière 'AUDE'. Dans ce dernier cas, l'objectif poursuivi était de déterminer la meilleure configuration à donner au système d'injection des particules pour obtenir un taux de désulfuration maximum. La dispersion des particules étant un paramètre important du procédé de désulfuration, un exemple de validation du modèle de dispersion est également traité. L'injection de particules dans une couche de mélange a été choisie comme cas test. L'accord entre les valeurs expérimentales de Ando et al. (1990 et les calculs effectués avec KIVA est satisfaisant.

  3. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9% and 58 (68.2% tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883 and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881 as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  4. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo [Department of Oncology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2011-11-18

    The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  5. The urokinase receptor (uPAR facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joppe W R Hovius

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR; however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1beta mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system.

  6. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem C.; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; El-Naccache, Darine W.; Singh, Rajnish K.; Sahu, Sushil K.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  7. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem C Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

  8. Identification of uPAR-positive chemoresistant cells in small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gutova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its receptor (uPAR/CD87 are major regulators of extracellular matrix degradation and are involved in cell migration and invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. The uPA/uPAR system has been of great interest in cancer research because it is involved in the development of most invasive cancer phenotypes and is a strong predictor of poor patient survival. However, little is known about the role of uPA/uPAR in small cell lung cancer (SCLC, the most aggressive type of lung cancer. We therefore determined whether uPA and uPAR are involved in generation of drug resistant SCLC cell phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We screened six human SCLC cell lines for surface markers for putative stem and cancer cells. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, fluorescence microscopy and clonogenic assays to demonstrate uPAR expression in a subpopulation of cells derived from primary and metastatic SCLC cell lines. Cytotoxic assays were used to determine the sensitivity of uPAR-positive and uPAR-negative cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The uPAR-positive cells in all SCLC lines demonstrated multi-drug resistance, high clonogenic activity and co-expression of CD44 and MDR1, putative cancer stem cell markers. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that uPAR-positive cells may define a functionally important population of cancer cells in SCLC, which are resistant to traditional chemotherapies, and could serve as critical targets for more effective therapeutic interventions in SCLC.

  9. Provenance of the oil in par-fried French fries after finish frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Gordon, Michael H; Lovegrove, Julie A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Frozen par-fried French fries are finish-fried either by using the same type of oil used for par frying, or a different type. The nutritive quality of the final oil contained in the product depends on the relative amounts and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oils used for par frying and finish frying. With the aim of understanding the provenance of the oil in the final product, par-fried French fries-either purchased ready or prepared in the laboratory-were finish fried in oils different from the ones used for par frying. The moisture content, oil content, and FA compositions of the par-fried and finish-fried products were experimentally determined, and the relative amounts of each of the oils present in the final product were calculated using the FAs as markers and undertaking a mass balance on each component FA. The results demonstrate that 89% to 93% of the total oil in the final product originates from the finish-frying step. The study also shows that a significant proportion of the oil absorbed during par frying is expelled from the product during finish frying. Further, the expulsion of par-frying oil was found to occur in the early stages of the finish-frying step. Experiments involving different combinations of par-frying and finish-frying oils showed that the relative proportions of the 2 oils did not depend on the individual fatty acid profiles. This study concludes that any positive health benefits of using an oil having a favorable FA profile for par frying, can potentially be lost, if the oil used for finish frying has a less favorable composition. This paper estimates the relative amounts of oil in French fries that have been fried in 2 stages-a par-frying step and a finish-frying step-which is commonly practiced in food service establishments as well as homes. The 2 key conclusions are: (1) nearly 90% of the oil content of the final product is the one used for finish frying; that is, a processor may use very good oil for par frying but if the

  10. Classification structurée pour l'apprentissage par renforcement inverse

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Edouard; Piot, Bilal; Geist, Matthieu; Pietquin, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    http://cap2012.loria.fr/pub/Papers/13.pdf; National audience; Cette contribution traite du problème de l'apprentissage par imitation par le biais de l'apprentissage par renforcement inverse (ARI). Dans ce contexte, un expert accomplit une tâche qu'un agent artificiel doit essayer de reproduire. L'ARI part du postulat que l'expert optimise avec succès une fonction de récompense ; le problème consiste à deviner cette fonction à partir de traces du comportement de l'expert. Les algorithmes d'ARI...

  11. Características morfológicas da pars de C2 de humanos

    OpenAIRE

    CARAZZO, Charles André; Guirado,Vinícius Monteiro de Paula; Meluzzi,Alexandre; Edson Aparecido LIBERTI; Dias,Mario Rubem Pena; Fontes,Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcelos; Taricco,Mario Augusto

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a morfometria da pars da segunda vértebra cervical, verificar as variações existentes e predizer sua segurança para a colocação de parafusos por meio de uma abordagem cervical posterior. MÉTODOS: 58 vértebras foram obtidas para estudo anatômico (116 pars de C2) e foram medidas a altura e largura da pars, além do comprimento eixo-pedículo, largura e comprimento do pedículo, angulação sagital e medial. Todas as medidas foram separadas quanto aos seus lados direito e esquerdo; ...

  12. Pars plana cicatrization of sewn-in posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M L; Puklin, J E

    1997-03-01

    The authors describe the unexpected finding of cicatrization of posterior chamber lens haptics to the pars plana. This was found during removal of a secondary, transscleral sewn-in pseudophakos during a retinal reattachment procedure. Ophthalmic history and intraoperative photography revealed pars plana cicatrization of haptics. Despite removal of trans-scleral prolene fixation sutures and application of gentle traction, the posterior chamber lens haptics remained firmly adherent to pars plana retina. The haptics were amputated to prevent significant chorioretinal damage. The conventional belief that all sewn-in posterior chamber intraocular lenses cause little or no scarring response around the haptics may be unfounded.

  13. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centrales termoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto al parámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas de monitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados para este estudio.This work show the study in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative with statistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements. Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parameters for this study.

  14. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR), thereby exploring the possibility of replacing the blood sample with an easy obtainable urine sample. We enrolled 1,007 adults, older than 15 years of age, with a negative TB diagnosis between April 2004 and December 2006. Levels of U-suPAR and P-suPAR were available in 863 individuals. U......-suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  15. Contribution à la durabilité des câbles de Génie Civil vis-à-vis de la fatigue par un dispositif amortisseur à base de fils NiTi

    OpenAIRE

    HELBERT, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) have many interesting properties due to solid-solid phase transformations (usually between austenite and martensite), such as super-elasticity and/or shape memory effects. More particularly, Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) based SMA are currently used in many industrial fields for their oxydation resistance and their fatigue resistance. Furthermore, their dissipation capacities make them particularly suitable for using as dampers dedicated to Civil Engineering issues. Indeed,...

  16. La relecture du romancero par les vihuelistes de la Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Martel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Les romances espagnols de la Reconquête relataient sur le mode épique des faits passés sur une mélodie récurrente qui servait surtout d’outil mnémotechnique pour réciter de longues narrations. Lorsque Diego Pisador reprend un romance, il n’en prend que quelques vers : du coup, le rapport entre les mots et les notes se fait plus étroit. D’un poème épique, il élabore une amplification lyrique, une véritable composition musicale, opère un véritable changement d’esthétique : le passage de la longue narration sur un thème musical bref et récurrent qui caractérisait le romance médiéval de la Reconquista, à une forme musico-littéraire plus brève mais plus élaborée, propre à introduire la vibration lyrique dans la matière épique. Familier de la Cour, il entend ainsi servir les desseins politiques de Philippe Il à qui il dédie son œuvre : le compositeur vihueliste qu’était Pisador en effet participe à l’effort de l’intégration du Maure poursuivi par la politique de la Maison d’Autriche. Mais les noces n’eurent pas lieu et les Maures furent au contraire expulsés en 1609. L’analyse de cette chanson nous donne l’occasion de découvrir les moyens employés par le musicien pour se livrer à une véritable amplification lyrique d’un simple récit par la musique. La chanson savante n’est pas non plus une composition dans laquelle la mélodie traduirait simplement en musique le texte poétique de façon tout à fait parallèle : la musique n’est pas qu’une répétition, sous une autre forme, de la parole, ou bien l’image sonore d’un texte. Musique et poésie constituent deux moyens autonomes d’expression mais qui, dans une chanson, concourent à un même but : ces deux moyens d’expression tantôt se rejoignant, tantôt s’émancipant l’un de l’autre, de sorte que le propre de la chanson réside justement dans cette tension constante entre ses deux composantes. La mise en musique

  17. Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Intravitreal Phacoemulsification for Dropped Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification in patients with dropped nuclei/nuclear fragments following complicated cataract surgery. Methods: In this retrospective case series, charts of patients who had undergone PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification for removal of dislocated nuclei/lens fragments were reviewed. After standard PPV, a conventional phacoemulsification probe with an amputated sleeve was used for grasping and emulsifying the nucleus/nuclear fragments in mid/anterior vitreous cavity. Pre- and postoperative visual acuity, and intra- and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: A total of 22 patients with mean age of 71.1΁8.2 years were studied. Mean interval between complicated cataract surgery and PPV was 26.6΁36.5 (range: 0-120 days. Patients were followed for a mean of 105.5΁57.5 days. Preoperatively, best corrected visual acuity was 2.4΁0.6 logMAR which was improved to 1.4΁0.6 logMAR at final follow-up (P<0.001. Intraoperative complications included iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks in three eyes. Postoperative complications consisted of epiretinal membrane formation in one eye, hypotony in one eye, and medically-controlled glaucoma in 2 eyes. Conclusion: In this series, PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification using a conventional phacoemulsification probe in patients with dropped nuclei/nuclear fragments following complicated cataract surgery resulted in visual improvement without any complications directly attributable to the probe.

  18. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  19. 大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力和脑组织抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Allicin on learning memory ability and anti-oxydation potential of brain tissue by lead poisoned mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱红; 周鸣鸣; 张洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the memory disorders and anti-oxydation potential of brain tissue treating efficacy and the relations of Allicin for treating lead poisoning in mice. Methods 50 mice were divided in 5 groups :3 Allicin curing, signal lead poisoned and control groups. Besides control group,lead actate solution was applied to inject the mouse in belly for 30 days,2 g/L,per day. After the 15 days,the mice were treated with Allicin in Allicin curing groups for 15 days. The ability of leaning and memory of the mice was measured by Y maze, malondialdehyde ( MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of brain tissue were measured. Results Allicin could enhance the memory capability of lead poisoned mice, increase the contents of SOD of brain tissue and decrease the contents of MDA of brain tissue ( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions There is a significant efficacy of Allicin on clearing free radical and anti-oxydation injury. Allicin can improve the spatial learning and memory ability injury of lead poisoned mice.%目的 观察大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力和脑组织抗氧化能力的影响.方法 采用浓度为2 g/L醋酸铅水溶液给予小鼠腹腔注射,每天一次,连续30 d,建立铅中毒动物模型.染毒15 d后大蒜素治疗组在造模的同时按10 ml/kg进行腹腔注射大蒜素肠溶胶囊提取物高、中、低剂量;铅染毒组和阴性对照组给予相同剂量的生理盐水,连续15d.通过Y迷宫实验观察大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力的影响;测定各组脑组织中丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性.结果 模型组与阴性对照组、大蒜素治疗组比较,小鼠记忆功能明显减退;大蒜素高、中治疗组和阴性对照组的丙二醛( MDA)含量较模型组显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01),SOD活性明显高于模型组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 大蒜素在清除自由基和抗氧化损伤方面有显著功效,可以有效改善铅染毒小鼠空间学习记忆能力损害.

  20. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  1. PAR-Aware Large-Scale Multi-User MIMO-OFDM Downlink

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We investigate an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based downlink transmission scheme for large-scale multi-user (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. The use of OFDM causes a high peak-to-average (power) ratio (PAR), which necessitates expensive and power-inefficient radio-frequency (RF) components at the base station. In this paper, we present a novel downlink transmission scheme, which exploits the massive degrees-of-freedom available in large-scale MU-MIMO-OFDM systems to achieve low PAR. Specifically, we propose to jointly perform MU precoding, OFDM modulation, and PAR reduction by solving a convex optimization problem. We develop a corresponding fast iterative truncation algorithm (FITRA) and show numerical results to demonstrate tremendous PAR-reduction capabilities. The significantly reduced linearity requirements eventually enable the use of low-cost RF components for the large-scale MU-MIMO-OFDM downlink.

  2. Inmunidad frente a infecciones: bacterias, virus, hongos y parásitos

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Fernández, María Luz de la; Sempere Ortells, José Miguel; Marco de la Calle, Francisco Manuel; Vázquez Araujo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Respuesta inmune frente a la infección: Bacterias extracelulares, bacterias intracelulares, hongos, virus, parásitos. Inmunidad innata, inmunidad adaptativa, mecanismos de evasión, consecuencias perjudiciales de la respuesta inmune.

  3. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    with age, admission time, admission to intensive care unit and Charlson score. CONCLUSIONS: In this large unselected population of acute medical patients, suPAR is strongly associated with disease severity, readmission and mortality after adjusting for all other risk factors, indicating that suPAR adds....... METHODS: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included 4343 consecutively admitted patients from the Acute Medical Unit at a large Danish university hospital. Time to readmission and death were analysed by multiple Cox regression. Results were reported as HRs for 30-day and 90-day follow......OBJECTIVE: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an inflammatory biomarker associated with presence and progression of disease and with increased risk of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the unspecific biomarker suPAR as a prognostic marker in patients admitted to acute care...

  4. Urokinase receptor (uPAR) ligand based recombinant toxins for human cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Silvestris, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) exerts essential functions in the pathophysiology of cancers and therefore constitutes an important drug target. In order to generate efficient drugs against uPAR, a new approach includes chimeric proteins associating one molecular address to specifically target uPAR and one bacterial or plant toxin that will eventually kill the tumoural cell. Using this frame, several recombinant toxins have been designed namely DTAT, DTAT13, EGFATFKDEL 7 mut, and ATF-SAP. As molecular address, all of these fusion proteins use the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase that binds with high affinity to uPAR through its growth factor domain (GFD). The various toxin moieties were derived from either diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38), or saporin. In this review, we describe the rational, design, production and therapeutic anti-cancer potential of these chimeric toxins.

  5. Efectos biológicos de la terapia del par biomagnético

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis está centrada a comprobar el efecto de los imanes según la técnica del Par Biomagnético sobre el cuerpo, midiendo el efecto que tienen sobre la excitabilidad neuromuscular. El Par biomagnético es un método creado por el Dr Goiz Durán basado en la impactación de imanes estáticos de 1000 gaus sobre el cuerpo. Según el Dr Goiz el Par Biomagnético tiene la capacidad de estudiar, detectar, clasificar, medir y corregir las alteraciones funcionales del pH de los órganos vivos. El Par biom...

  6. Soudage par explosion thermique sous charge de cermets poreux à base de TiC-Ni sur substrat en acier-comportement tribologique Welding of porous TiC–Ni based cermets on substrate steel by thermal explosion under load-tribological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemboub Samia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons à l'élaboration de cermets à base de TiC-Ni par dispersion de particules de carbures, oxydes ou borures dans une matrice de nickel, grâce à la technique de l'explosion thermique sous une charge de 20 MPa. La combustion de mélanges actifs (Ti-C-Ni-An où An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2, WC, basée sur la réaction de synthèse de TiC (ΔHf298K = −184 kJ/mole, génère des cermets complexes. Un court maintien sous charge du cermet à 1373 K, après l'explosion thermique, permet son soudage sur un substrat en acier XC55. Les cermets obtenus dans ces conditions demeurent poreux et conservent une porosité de l'ordre de 25–35 %. La densité relative du cermet, sa dureté et son comportement tribologique, dépendront de la nature de l'addition dans les mélanges de départ. Porous TiC-Ni based cermets were obtained by dispersion of carbides, oxides or borides particles in a nickel matrix thanks to the thermal explosion technique realized under a load of 20 MPa. The combustion of active mixtures (Ti-C-Ni-An where An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2 or WC based on the titanium carbide reaction synthesis (ΔHf = −184 kJ/mol, generates porous complex cermets. After the thermal explosion, a short maintenance under load at 1373 K of the combustion product, allows at the same time the cermets welding on a carbon steel substrate. The obtained cermets under these conditions preserve a porosity of about 25–35%. The relative density, hardness and tribological behaviour of the complex cermets depend on the additions nature (An in the starting mixtures.

  7. Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2013-03-27

    Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA-Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation.

  8. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  9. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes physico-chimiques des surfaces modifiees par traitement laser. Application a l'amelioration de la resistance a la corrosion localisee des aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-11-25

    integrite sur des periodes de plus en plus longues. L'objectif de ce travail de these est d'evaluer le potentiel d'un traitement de refusion laser pour ameliorer la resistance a la corrosion d'un acier inoxydable de type 304L; l'utilisation du laser dans le domaine des traitements de surface constituant un procede en pleine evolution a cause des changements recents dans la technologie des lasers. Dans le cadre de ce travail, le choix du laser s'est porte sur un laser nano-impulsionnel a fibre dopee ytterbium dont les caracteristiques permettent la fusion quasiinstantanee sur quelques microns de la surface traitee, immediatement suivie d'une solidification ultra-rapide avec des vitesses de refroidissement pouvant atteindre 1011 K/s. La combinaison de ces processus favorise l'elimination des defauts surfaciques, la formation de phases hors equilibre, la segregation d'elements chimiques et la formation d'une nouvelle couche d'oxyde dont les proprietes sont gouvernees par les parametres laser. Afin de les correler avec la reactivite electrochimique de la surface, l'influence de deux parametres laser sur les proprietes physicochimiques de la surface a ete etudiee: la puissance du laser et le taux de recouvrement des impacts laser. Pour clarifier ces relations, la resistance a la corrosion par piquration des surfaces traitees a ete determinee par des tests electrochimiques. Pour des parametres laser specifiques, le potentiel de piquration d'un acier inoxydable de type 304L augmente de plus de 500 mV traduisant ainsi une meilleure tenue a la corrosion localisee en milieu chlorure. L'interdependance des differents phenomenes resultant du traitement laser a rendu complexe la hierarchisation de leur effet sur la sensibilite de l'alliage teste. Cependant, il a ete montre que la nature de l'oxyde thermique forme au cours de la refusion laser et ses defauts sont du premier ordre pour l'amorcage des

  10. Características morfológicas da pars de C2 de humanos Características morfológicas de la pars de C2 de humanos Morphologic characteristics of C2 humans pars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André Carazzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a morfometria da pars da segunda vértebra cervical, verificar as variações existentes e predizer sua segurança para a colocação de parafusos por meio de uma abordagem cervical posterior. MÉTODOS: 58 vértebras foram obtidas para estudo anatômico (116 pars de C2 e foram medidas a altura e largura da pars, além do comprimento eixo-pedículo, largura e comprimento do pedículo, angulação sagital e medial. Todas as medidas foram separadas quanto aos seus lados direito e esquerdo; foi realizado o cálculo da média, variação, desvio padrão e a médica foi comparada com os estudos prévios. RESULTADOS: a largura média da pars de C2 foi de 9,5 mm; a altura, 9,5 mm; não houve diferença significativa entre os lados esquerdo e direito. O comprimento médio do pedículo foi de 10,5 mm; a medida média encontrada para o comprimento eixo-pedículo foi de 24,9 mm; a largura do pedículo foi de 2,8 mm. A angulação sagital encontrada foi de 19,6º e a horizontal foi de 28,5º. CONCLUSÕES: este estudo demonstra a viabilidade para a colocação de parafuso na pars de C2 em uma população caucasiana, destacando-se, porém, a grande variabilidade anatômica encontrada nas referidas medidas.OBJETIVO: evaluar la morfometría de la pars de la segunda vértebra cervical, verificar las variaciones existentes y predecir su seguridad para la colocación de los tornillos por un abordaje cervical posterior. MÉTODOS: 58 vértebras fueron obtenidas para el estudio anatómico (116 pars de C2 y fueron medidas su altura y el ancho de las pars, además de la largura eje-pedículo, ancho y largura del pedículo, ángulo sagital y medial. Todas las medidas fueron separadas según sus lados derecho e izquierdo, se realizó el cálculo de la media, variación, desvío estándar y comparados los valores con estudios previos. RESULTADOS: el ancho promedio de la pars de C2 fue de 9.5 mm, la altura de 9.5 mm, sin diferencia significativa entre los

  11. Ambroise Paré IV: The early history of artificial limbs (from robotic to prostheses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    One of the earliest written references to prosthetics is found in a book published in France in 1579. That year, French surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) published his complete works, part of which described some of the artificial limbs he fitted on his amputees. As a military surgeon, Paré had removed many a soldier's shattered arm or leg, and he eventually began designing and building artificial limbs to help the men who had been maimed.

  12. ON THE PAR REDUCTION OF MB-OFDM ULTRA-WIDEBAND SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Peak to Average power Ratio (PAR) of a Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multi-plexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) signals can be substantially larger than that of single carrieror carrier-less ultra-wideband signals. In this letter, a novel PAR reduction scheme for the MB-OFDM UWBsystem based on spreading and interleaving is proposed. By spreading the coded bits over each subcarrier incorresponding band and interleaving the spread symbols across all bands, the PAR statistics of theMB-OFDM signals can be improved and the PAR is reduced obviously. In the PAR reduction scheme, there isno loss in transmission data rate or Bit Error Rate (BER) performance decreasing. Since the spreading andinterleaving operation are implemented by unitary Hadamard sequences and used for an approach to providethe robustness of the UWB system to narrowband interference, there is no additional implementation burden.Simulation results show that the investigated scheme gives the PAR reduction of 3dB compared with that ofthe original MB-OFDM signals.

  13. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9° (SD = 6.5°) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1° (SD = 6.4°) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8°, Student's t test: P lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis.

  14. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  15. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Razia; Mansoor, Samina

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Comparative cross-sectional study. Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver.

  16. Direito autoral na produção publicitária: o caso das paródias e paráfrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques Carriço Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute os direitos autorais nas criações publicitárias que se valem das paródias e paráfrases para sua formulação. Segundo a lei que rege as normas relativas à proteção intelectual, paráfrases e paródias ficam isentas da necessidade de autorização e licença dos autores das obras referenciadas no material publicitário. Na construção do discurso publicitário, entretanto, as práticas imitativas acabam por tomar rumos que não necessariamente são identificadas como tais, e como isso, demandas jurídicas são incitadas. A proposta deste artigo é apresentar como o material publicitário construído a partir de associações de ideias, alusões, adaptações, mistura de materiais discursivos, têm sido interpretadas pelos profissionais da área legal. Casos reais são trazidos ao texto para ilustrar como a produção publicitária vem se valendo deste método criativo e como os ditames legais têm tratado a questão.

  17. Ocular trauma treated with pars plana vitrectomy: early outcome report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Kiarudi, Mohammad Yaser; Molaei, Saber; Rouzbahani, Mehdi; Mireshghi, Meysam; Zaeferani, Mohsen; Ghasempour, Mehrbod

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate demographic variables and visual outcomes, among patients with ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, managed with pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS The records of patients were studied retrospectively from March to September 2010, to determine the age, gender, place of occurrence of trauma, visual acuity, anatomical site, nature of injury, wound length, the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, and the timing of vitrectomy. The Ocular Trauma Score was measured. The minimum follow-up from presentation was 6mo. RESULTS Ninety patients (77 males, 13 females), with a mean age of 32.7±15.8y were included over the 6-month period. The majority of cases occurred in the workplace (47 patients), followed by home (14 patients). The mean visual acuity (logMAR) of patients significantly improved from 2.36±0.72 preoperatively to 1.50±1.14 postoperatively. Twenty-three patients had preoperative vision better than 2.0 logMAR, the postoperative visual acuity was significantly better among these patients than patients with worse than 2.0 logMAR (P7d) was not significantly different (P=0.66). Postoperative visual acuity was not significantly different between patients with injury in Zone I and II (P=0.64), but patients with injury in Zone III had significantly poorer visual acuity (P=0.02). Patients with relative afferent pupillary defect had significantly poorer postoperative visual acuity (P=0.02). Preoperative visual acuity, the difference of preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, and postoperative visual acuity were significantly different between groups with different ocular trauma scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Trauma is more likely to occur in men under 40y of age and in the workplace. The favorable final visual outcome is associated with the absence of afferent pupillary defect, ocular trauma score and presenting visual acuity as well as the zone of injury, and not associated with the timing of vitrectomy. PMID:27275432

  18. Etiología en parálisis cerebral.

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    Patricia Campos

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las causas mas frecuentes de parálisis cerebral (PC. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia y el Hogar Clínica San Juan de Dios (Lima-Perú, entre noviembre 1990 y mayo de 1992. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 102 pacientes con diagnósticos de PC y se revisó las etiologías. Resultados: En relación a edad gestacional hubieron 15 casos de prematuros (14.7%, 67(65% a término y un postmaduro, en 19 no se tuvo la edad gestacional. El peso al nacer fue adecuado en 56(54.9%, bajo en 17(16.7% y muy bajo en 7(6.9%. Se identificó la causa de PC en 73/102 casos (70%, siendo las causas más frecuentes las perinatales (59.3%, seguidas de las prenatales con 29.1% y las postnatales con 11.6%. En el grupo de causas prenatales, la mitad fueron malformaciones cerebrales congénitas entre las que destaca el quiste porencefálico, presente en la mitad de estos casos. En el grupo perinatal, la más frecuente fue asfixia (83% asociada o no a otro factor metabólico. Hubieron además en este grupo 4 casos de hipoglicemia severa y 2 con encefalopatía hiperbilirrubinémica y PC distónica. Las causas postnatal más frecuente fue la meningoencefalitis bacteriana, en menores de un año de edad. Al correlacionar etiología y momento del daño, peso al nacer y tipo de PC se observa que, en los recién nacidos PT de bajo o muy bajo peso al nacer es mas frecuente la PC de tipo dipléjica y en todos el antecedente fue asfixia perinatal. Conclusiones: La baja frecuencia de PC dipléjica y la elevada frecuencia de causas perinatales (asfixia, marca nuestra diferencia con otras series y obedece en nuestra opinión, a los escasos recursos tecnológicos y las deficiencias en la atención a las gestantes y recién nacidos de nuestro sistema nacional de salud. (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 114-118.

  19. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  20. A Dual Mechanism Controls Nuclear Localization in the Atypical Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix Protein PAR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anahit Galstyan; Jordi Bou-Torrent; Irma Roig-Villanova; Jaime F. Martínez-García

    2012-01-01

    PAR1 is an atypical basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that negatively regulates the shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis thaliana acting as a transcriptional cofactor.Consistently with this function,PAR1 has to be in the nucleus to display biological activity.Previous structure-function analyses revealed that the N-terminal region of PAR1 drives the protein to the nucleus.However,truncated forms of PAR1 lacking this region still display biological activity,implying that PAR1 has additional mechanisms to localize into the nucleus.In this work,we compared the primary structure of PAR1 and various related and unrelated plant bHLH proteins,which led us to suggest that PAR1 contains a non-canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal region.By overexpressing truncated and mutated derivatives of PAR1,we have also investigated the importance of other regions of PAR1,such as the acidic and the extended HLH dimerization domains,for its nuclear localization.We found that,in the absence of the N-terminal region,a functional HLH domain is required for nuclear localization.Our results suggest the existence of a dual mechanism for PAR1 nuclear localization:(1) one mediated by the N-terminal non-consensus NLS and (2) a second one that involves interaction with other proteins via the dimerization domain.

  1. Combination with CK19 Might Increase the Prognostic Power of Hep Par 1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Xun; Zhou, Li

    2017-07-31

    Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 (Hep Par 1) and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were shown to be associated with post-surgical prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, further validation might be needed. Besides, their combined evaluation has not been reported. The present study was designed to address the issues. Expressions of Hep Par 1 and CK19 were detected using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining in 79 patients with HCC underwent curative hepatectomy. Their associations with cliniopathologic variables, overall and recurrence-free survival were analyzed. Hep Par 1 was highly expressed in 61 patients (77.2%), whereas CK19 was positive in 8 patients (10.1%). Moreover, expressions of these two proteins were all associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and vascular invasion. It was found that high Hep Par 1 expression was univariately associated with good overall and recurrence-free survival, while CK19 was marginally prognostic. Also in univariate analyses, combination of the two markers more effectively predicted for long-term prognosis in HCC than Hep Par 1 did. However, neither Hep Par 1 nor Hep Par 1/CK19 was multivariately significant. Finally, Hep Par 1/CK19 combined with TNM stage might obtain more satisfactory outcome prediction, especially for overall survival. Combination of CK19 with Hep Par 1 might have higher prognostic power, which might be further improved by adding TNM stage, than Hep Par 1 alone, in resected HCC. Of course, subsequent confirmation is necessary.

  2. Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Yun-Il; Shin, Joo-Ho; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Chi, Zhikai; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Yunjong; Ko, Han Seok; Lee, Byoung Dae; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna’s PAR binding and Iduna’s E3 ligase activity. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna’s PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair. PMID:21825151

  3. ParA2, a Vibrio cholerae chromosome partitioning protein, forms left-handed helical filaments on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Monica P; Galkin, Vitold E; Yu, Xiong; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stasiak, Andrzej; Waldor, Matthew K; Egelman, Edward H

    2010-03-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes contain homologs of plasmid partitioning (par) loci. These loci encode ATPases called ParA that are thought to contribute to the mechanical force required for chromosome and plasmid segregation. In Vibrio cholerae, the chromosome II (chrII) par locus is essential for chrII segregation. Here, we found that purified ParA2 had ATPase activities comparable to other ParA homologs, but, unlike many other ParA homologs, did not form high molecular weight complexes in the presence of ATP alone. Instead, formation of high molecular weight ParA2 polymers required DNA. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ParA2 formed bipolar helical filaments on double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These filaments had a distinct change in pitch when ParA2 was polymerized in the presence of ATP versus in the absence of a nucleotide cofactor. Fitting a crystal structure of a ParA protein into our filament reconstruction showed how a dimer of ParA2 binds the DNA. The filaments formed with ATP are left-handed, but surprisingly these filaments exert no topological changes on the right-handed B-DNA to which they are bound. The stoichiometry of binding is one dimer for every eight base pairs, and this determines the geometry of the ParA2 filaments with 4.4 dimers per 120 A pitch left-handed turn. Our findings will be critical for understanding how ParA proteins function in plasmid and chromosome segregation.

  4. Clathrin and LRP-1-independent constitutive endocytosis and recycling of uPAR.

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    Katia Cortese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urokinase receptor (uPAR/CD87 is highly expressed in malignant tumours. uPAR, as a GPI anchored protein, is preferentially located at the cell surface, where it interacts with its ligands urokinase (uPA and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, thus promoting plasmin generation, cell-matrix interactions and intracellular signalling events. Interaction with a complex formed by uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 induces cell surface down regulation and recycling of the receptor via the clathrin-coated pathway, a process dependent on the association to LRP-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have found that along with the ligand-induced down-regulation, uPAR also internalizes and recycles constitutively through a second pathway that is independent of LRP-1 and clathrin but shares some properties with macropinocytosis. The ligand-independent route is amiloride-sensitive, does not require uPAR partitioning into lipid rafts, is independent of the activity of small GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and does not require PI3K activity. Constitutively endocytosed uPAR is found in EEA1 positive early/recycling endosomes but does not reach lysosomes in the absence of ligands. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the presence of uPAR in ruffling domains at the cell surface, in macropinosome-like vesicles and in endosomal compartments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that, in addition to the ligand-induced endocytosis of uPAR, efficient surface expression and membrane trafficking might also be driven by an uncommon macropinocytic mechanism coupled with rapid recycling to the cell surface.

  5. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  6. ParsEval: parallel comparison and analysis of gene structure annotations

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    Standage Daniel S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate gene structure annotation is a fundamental but somewhat elusive goal of genome projects, as witnessed by the fact that (model genomes typically undergo several cycles of re-annotation. In many cases, it is not only different versions of annotations that need to be compared but also different sources of annotation of the same genome, derived from distinct gene prediction workflows. Such comparisons are of interest to annotation providers, prediction software developers, and end-users, who all need to assess what is common and what is different among distinct annotation sources. We developed ParsEval, a software application for pairwise comparison of sets of gene structure annotations. ParsEval calculates several statistics that highlight the similarities and differences between the two sets of annotations provided. These statistics are presented in an aggregate summary report, with additional details provided as individual reports specific to non-overlapping, gene-model-centric genomic loci. Genome browser styled graphics embedded in these reports help visualize the genomic context of the annotations. Output from ParsEval is both easily read and parsed, enabling systematic identification of problematic gene models for subsequent focused analysis. Results ParsEval is capable of analyzing annotations for large eukaryotic genomes on typical desktop or laptop hardware. In comparison to existing methods, ParsEval exhibits a considerable performance improvement, both in terms of runtime and memory consumption. Reports from ParsEval can provide relevant biological insights into the gene structure annotations being compared. Conclusions Implemented in C, ParsEval provides the quickest and most feature-rich solution for genome annotation comparison to date. The source code is freely available (under an ISC license at http://parseval.sourceforge.net/.

  7. uPA/uPAR system activation drives a glycolytic phenotype in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Chillà, Anastasia; Luciani, Cristina; Peppicelli, Silvia; Biagioni, Alessio; Bianchini, Francesca; Tenedini, Elena; Torre, Eugenio; Mocali, Alessandra; Calorini, Lido; Margheri, Francesca; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2017-09-15

    In this manuscript, we show the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis of melanoma cells. uPAR over-expression in human melanoma cells controls an invasive and glycolytic phenotype in normoxic conditions. uPAR down-regulation by siRNA or its uncoupling from integrins, and hence from integrin-linked tyrosine kinase receptors (IL-TKRs), by an antagonist peptide induced a striking inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway, resulting into impairment of glucose uptake, decrease of several glycolytic enzymes and of PKM2, a checkpoint that controls metabolism of cancer cells. Further, binding of uPA to uPAR regulates expression of molecules that govern cell invasion, including extracellular matrix metallo-proteinases inducer (EMPPRIN) and enolase, a glycolytyc enzyme that also serves as a plasminogen receptor, thus providing a common denominator between tumor metabolism and phenotypic invasive features. Such effects depend on the α5β1-integrin-mediated uPAR connection with EGFR in melanoma cells with engagement of the PI3K-mTOR-HIFα pathway. HIF-1α trans-activates genes whose products mediate tumor invasion and glycolysis, thus providing the common denominator between melanoma metabolism and its invasive features. These findings unveil a unrecognized interaction between the invasion-related uPAR and IL-TKRs in the control of glycolysis and disclose a new pharmacological target (i.e., uPAR/IL-TKRs axis) for the therapy of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Detecting Plant Photoprotective Response to Water Stress Through Variation In PAR Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.

    2012-12-01

    Published papers over several decades have shown increasing leaf-level optical reflectance with decreasing leaf water content. Our experimental results using maize and sorghum showed this increase consistently, caused by variation in optical absorption, in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions. Relatively smaller response, driven by variation in optical scatter, was observed in near infrared (NIR). The concomitant increasing reflectance in the PAR and MIR regions is perplexing. PAR reflectance is dominated by chlorophyll absorption while MIR reflectance is dominated by water molecule absorption. However, changes in chlorophyll concentration, determined by chemical extraction, were too small to account for the variation in PAR reflectance. PAR and MIR reflectances were also influenced by the strength of incident light. Hence PAR reflectance appears to be modulated not only by pigment concentration, the classical description, but also by the strength of incident light and the severity of water deficit. We previously reported that these findings were consistent with chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which limits light absorption by pigments. We report here our continuing investigation of this phenomenon. In addition to reflectance measurements, time-lapse microscope images of leaves under increasing water deficit conditions were obtained. These show a brightening between veins which strongly supports our assertion that changes in PAR reflectance accompanying water deficit are caused primarily by chloroplast avoidance movement. Our results suggest that leaf, and possibly canopy, reflectance can therefore be used to detect and measure plant stress. These results also indicate that chloroplast avoidance movement may cause poor estimates of leaf chlorophyll content using techniques based on fluoresced, reflected or transmitted light.

  9. Transcription factor network downstream of protease activated receptors (PARs modulating mouse bladder inflammation

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    Hurst Robert E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. Methods For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing 345 different TF consensus sequences. Next, the TF selected was validated by EMSA and IHC. As mast cells seem to play a fundamental role in bladder inflammation, we determined whether c-kit receptor deficient (Kitw/Kitw-v mice have an abrogated response to PAR stimulation. Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB. Results TFEB, a member of the MiTF family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper, was the only TF commonly up-regulated by all PAR-APs. IHC results confirm a correlation between inflammation and TFEB expression in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Kitw/Kitw-v mice did not exhibit inflammation in response to PAR activation. EMSA results confirmed the increased TFEB binding activity in C57BL/6 but not in Kitw/Kitw-v mice. Conclusion This is the first report describing the increased expression of TFEB in bladder inflammation in response to PAR activation. As TFEB belongs to a family of TFs essential for mast cell survival, our findings suggest that this molecule may influence the participation of mast cells in PAR-mediated inflammation and that targeting TFEB/MiTF activity may be a novel approach for the treatment of bladder inflammatory disorders.

  10. Extaraction par solvant du zinc(II) en milieu acetate par le PhDBP, TBP et D2EHPA. Etude de l'extraction synergique du zinc (II) par les melanges.

    OpenAIRE

    GUEZZEN, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Aterme de notre étude , les diverses observations tout au long des expériences effectuées nous ont permis de metre en valeur les principales conclusions qui sont les suiveantes : Concernant la synthèse et la caractérisation du phDBP, on retient que le phényl dibutyl phosphate " phDBP" procède par substitution nucléophile entre le dichlorophényl phosphate et le ....

  11. Early intraplatelet signaling enhances the release of human platelet PAR-1 and -4 amino-terminal peptides in response to thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha C; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Craven, Sharon J

    2009-02-24

    Activation of washed human platelets initiated with alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF invariably results in the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) are amino-terminal peptides generated when PAR-1 and -4 are cleaved in their first extracellular domains after R(41) and R(47), respectively, to expose the tethered ligand domains of PAR-1 and -4. Since soybean trypsin inhibitor decreases generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) and other platelet aggregation-related responses to these three agonists, but does not inactivate alpha-thrombin, a platelet trypsin-like proteinase apparently activates PAR-1 and -4 to propagate PAR-dependent platelet responses. This study identified the signaling pathways implicated in the generation of the platelet proteinase that in turn produces PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47), to thereby drive the subsequent PAR-dependent platelet aggregation-related responses to alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF. Only inhibitors of signaling enzymes that prevented ATP release (forskolin, PGE(1), or BIMI-1) prevented or delayed the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) in response to all three agonists. SBTI prevented platelet aggregation initiated by alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF but did so less effectively when it was added 10 s after each agonist. Thus, the platelet-derived proteinase acts within 10 s of each agonist addition to generate PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). Furthermore, alpha-thrombin may not effectively catalyze PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) generation. We propose that unidentified ATP-dependent phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by PKC help to generate the platelet-derived proteinase that propagates human platelet PAR-1 and -4 activation by the three agonists.

  12. Identification of a new epitope in uPAR as a target for the cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody ATN-658, a structural homolog of the uPAR binding integrin CD11b (αM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.

  13. CFD modelling of hydrogen stratification in enclosures: Model validation and application to PAR performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyes, J.R., E-mail: james.hoyes@hsl.gsi.gov.uk; Ivings, M.J.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The ability of CFD to predict hydrogen stratification phenomena is investigated. • Contrary to expectation, simulations on tetrahedral meshes under-predict mixing. • Simulations on structured meshes give good agreement with experimental data. • CFD model used to investigate the effects of stratification on PAR performance. • Results show stratification can have a significant effect on PAR performance. - Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are maturing into useful tools for supporting safety analyses. This paper investigates the capabilities of CFD models for predicting hydrogen stratification in a containment vessel using data from the NEA/OECD SETH2 MISTRA experiments. Further simulations are then carried out to illustrate the qualitative effects of hydrogen stratification on the performance of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) units. The MISTRA experiments have well-defined initial and boundary conditions which makes them well suited for use in a validation study. Results are presented for the sensitivity to mesh resolution and mesh type. Whilst the predictions are shown to be largely insensitive to the mesh resolution they are surprisingly sensitive to the mesh type. In particular, tetrahedral meshes are found to induce small unphysical convection currents that result in molecular diffusion and turbulent mixing being under-predicted. This behaviour is not unique to the CFD model used here (ANSYS CFX) and furthermore, it may affect simulations run on other non-aligned meshes (meshes that are not aligned perpendicular to gravity), including non-aligned structured meshes. Following existing best practice guidelines can help to identify potential unphysical predictions, but as an additional precaution consideration should be given to using gravity-aligned meshes for modelling stratified flows. CFD simulations of hydrogen recombination in the Becker Technologies THAI facility are presented with high and low PAR positions

  14. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

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    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  15. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Arata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  16. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  17. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G.; Brøgger, Anna L.; Frøhling, Kasper B.; Sonne Alstrøm, Tommy; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Boisen, Anja

    2013-11-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody-antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform.

  18. "It was like reading a detective novel": Using PAR to work together for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Darla; McKeown, Janet; Dupuis, Sherry; de Witt, Lorna

    2015-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR), with its focus on engagement and collaboration, is uniquely suited to enhancing culture change initiatives in dementia care. Yet, there is limited literature of its application to culture change approaches in care settings, and even less in dementia specific care contexts. To address these gaps in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine the complexities of a PAR project aimed at changing the culture of dementia care in two diverse dementia care settings, including a long term care (LTC) and community care setting. Drawing from data gathered throughout the PAR process, we unpack the challenges experienced by participants working together to guide culture change within their respective care settings. These challenges include: overextending selves through culture change participation; fluctuating group membership; feeling uncertainty, confusion and apprehension about the process; frustratingly slow process; and seeking diverse group representation in decision making. We also highlight the potential for appreciative inquiry (AI) to be integrated with PAR to guide a process whereby participants involved in culture change initiatives can develop strategies to mitigate challenges they experience. We view the challenges and strategies shared here as being constructive to would-be culture change agents and hope this paper will move others to consider the use of PAR when engaging in culture change initiatives.

  19. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W

    2014-08-15

    The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5-Ndr-Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity.

  20. Effect of a physical activity intervention on suPAR levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Andersen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    : suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined in blood samples from a previous randomized controlled trial with Pakistani immigrants in Norway, 2008. The study included physically inactive men that were randomized to an intervention group (supervised group exercises) or a control group...... and followed for 5 months. A linear regression model was used and adjusted for age, inactivity level at baseline, and mean difference in CRP levels. RESULTS: Overall, 80 and 53 participants were included in the intervention and control group, respectively. Obesity and smoking were associated with higher su......PAR levels at baseline. The intervention group had a mean suPAR level of 2.65 (95% CI=2.48-2.78)ng/mL at baseline compared to 2.80 (95% CI=2.65-2.95)ng/mL at post-test, and thereby significantly increased suPAR levels after intervention (p=0.02). In the control group, mean suPAR level significantly increased...