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Sample records for oleracea var costata

  1. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F.; Valentão, P.; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L.; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  2. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  3. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  4. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  5. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  6. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  7. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  8. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  9. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of the ς-carotene desaturase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zheng, Aihong; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata ZDS (BocZDS) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocZDS gene mapped to Scaffold000363, and contains an open reading frame of 1,686 bp that encodes a 561-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.00 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.2. Subcellular localization predicted the BocZDS gene was in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocZDS protein is PLN02487, indicating that it belongs the member of zeta-carotene desaturase. Homology analysis indicates that the ZDS protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution and is most closely related to B. oleracea var. oleracea, B. napus, and B. rapa. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of ZDS gene function in cabbage.

  11. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  12. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  13. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  14. Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC.) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Karaoglu, S.A.; Grúz, Jiří; Valentová, K.; Ulrichová, J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2008), s. 19-25 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Black cabbage * Kale * Brassica oleraceae var. acephala Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2008

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of the phytoene synthase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zheng, Aihong; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    Phytoene Synthase (PSY) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata PSY (BocPSY) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocPSY1, BocPSY2 and BocPSY3 genes mapped to chromosomes 2,3 and 9, and contains an open reading frame of 1,248 bp, 1,266 bp and 1,275 bp that encodes a 415, 421, 424 amino acid protein, respectively. Subcellular localization predicted all BocPSY genes were in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocPSY protein is PLN02632. Homology analysis indicates that the levels of identity among BocPSYs were all more than 85%, and the PSY protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of PSY gene function in cabbage.

  16. Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of green and red kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Yun Ji; Kim, Sun Ju; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Sang Un

    2018-02-15

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes. HPLC analysis revealed 14 glucosinolates, 20 anthocyanins, 3 phenylpropanoids, and 6 carotenoids in the kale seedlings that were examined. Red kale contained more glucosinolates, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids than green kale, whereas the carotenoid contents were much higher in green kale than in red kale. Ultimately, our data will be a valuable resource for future research on kale bio-engineering and will provide basic information to define gene-to-metabolite networks in kale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) as a superfood: Review of the scientific evidence behind the statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamec, Dunja; Urlić, Branimir; Salopek-Sondi, Branka

    2018-03-20

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidences support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous. It is questionable if this statement about kale is triggered by scientific evidence or by some other factors. Our review aims to bring an overview of kale's botanical characteristics, agronomic requirements, contemporary and traditional use, macronutrient and phytochemical content and biological activity, in order to point out the reasons for tremendous kale popularity.

  18. Structural analysis of an innate immunostimulant from broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Makoto; Kataoka, Keiko; Nishida, Satoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-11-22

    Vegetables are eaten as part of a healthy diet throughout the world, and some are also applied topically as a traditional medicine. We evaluated the innate immunostimulating activities of hot water extracts of various vegetables using the silkworm muscle contraction assay system, and found that broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, contains a strong innate immunostimulant. We purified the innate immunostimulant from broccoli, and characterized the chemical structure by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. The innate immunostimulant comprised galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, arabinose, and rhamnose, and had a pectic-like polysaccharide structure. To determine the structural motif involved in the innate immunostimulating activity, we modified the structure by chemical and enzymatic treatment, and found that the activity was attenuated by pectinase digestion. These findings suggest that a pectic-like polysaccharide purified from broccoli has innate immune-stimulating activity, for which the polygalacturonic acid structure is necessary.

  19. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarla, N.

    1988-01-01

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  1. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-04

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  2. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  3. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  4. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  5. The chromoplasts of Or mutants of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, D J; Garvin, D F; Parthasarathy, M V

    2004-12-01

    The Or mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) leads to abnormal accumulations of beta-carotene in orange chromoplasts, in tissues in which leucoplasts are characteristic of wild-type plants. Or chromoplasts were investigated by light microscopy of fresh materials and electron microscopy of glutaraldehyde- and potassium permanganate-fixed materials. Carotenoid inclusions in Or chromoplasts resemble those found in carrot root chromoplasts in their optical activity and angular shape. Electron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are made up of parallel, membrane-bound compartments. These stacks of membranes are variously rolled and folded into three-dimensional objects. We classify Or chromoplasts as "membranous" chromoplasts. The Or mutation also limits plastid replication so that a single chromoplast constitutes the plastidome in most of the affected cells. There are one to two chromoplasts in each cell of a shoot apex. The ability of differentiated chromoplasts to divide in the apical meristems of Or mutant plants resembles the ability of proplastids to maintain plastid continuity from cell to cell in meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which plastid replication is drastically limited. The findings are used to discuss the number of levels of regulation involved in plastid replication.

  6. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  7. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  8. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvio J; Yuan, Youxi; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Li, Li

    2011-04-27

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here, we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expresion. We found that the total Se content varied with over 2-fold difference among the leaf tissues of broccoli accessions when the plants were treated with 20 μM Na(2)SeO(4). Approximately half of total Se accumulated in leaves was Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethionine. Transcriptional regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfurylase and selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene expression might contribute to the different levels of Se accumulation in broccoli. Total glucosinolate contents were not affected by the concentration of selenate application for the majority of broccoli accessions. Essential micronutrients (i.e., Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) remained unchanged among half of the germplasm. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity was greatly stimulated by selenate in over half of the accessions. The diverse genotypic variation in Se, glucosinolate, and antioxidant contents among accessions provides the opportunity to breed broccoli cultivars that simultaneously accumulate Se and other health benefit compounds.

  9. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  10. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  11. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Hui, Maixia; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Pan, Siyi; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S) and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica ) growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  12. Antioxidative and antitumor properties of in vitro-cultivated broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Jasmina; Parić, Adisa; Maksimović, Milka; Bajrović, Kasim

    2012-02-01

    Broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)] contains substantial quantities of bioactive compounds, which are good free radical scavengers and thus might have strong antitumor properties. Enhancing production of plant secondary metabolites could be obtained with phytohormones that have significant effects on the metabolism of secondary metabolites. In that manner, in vitro culture presents good model for manipulation with plant tissues in order to affect secondary metabolite production and thus enhance bioactive properties of plants. Estimation of the antioxidative and antitumor properties of broccoli cultivated in different in vitro conditions. In vitro germinated and cultivated broccoli seedlings, as well as spontaneously developed calli, were subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Antioxidative activity of the herbal extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical method. Antitumor properties of the extracts were determined using crown-gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. Three, 10, 20, and 30 days old broccoli seedlings, cultivated in vitro on three different Murashige-Skoog media, two types of callus, and seedlings from sterile filter paper were used for extraction. In total, 15 aqueous extracts were tested for antioxidative and antitumor potential. Three day-old seedlings showed the highest antioxidative activity. Eleven out of 15 aqueous extracts demonstrated above 50% of crown-gall tumor inhibition in comparison with the control. Tumor inhibition was in association with types and concentrations of phytohormones presented in growing media. It is demonstrated that phytohormones in plant-growing media could affect the bioactive properties of broccoli either through increasing or decreasing their antioxidative and antitumor potential.

  13. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  15. Preliminary Study of the Characteristics of Several Glossy Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics and potential practical applications of glossy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. mutants, five different glossy mutants were studied. The amount of epicuticular wax covering the mutant leaves was only approximately 30% that of the wild-type (WT leaves. The wax crystals of WT plants were columnar and linear, while they were granular and rod-shaped in the mutants. Additionally, in WT cabbage, the primary wax components were alkanes, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes. There was a significant decrease in the abundance of alkanes and ketones in the wax of the mutants. The glossy-green trait of the mutants may be the result of an inhibited alkane-forming pathway. Higher rates of chlorophyll leaching and water loss demonstrate that the mutant leaves were more permeable and sensitive to drought stress than the WT leaves. Growth curve results indicated that the growth rate of mutant-1 and mutant-3 was slower than that of the corresponding WT cabbage, resulting in shorter plants. However, the growth rate of mutant-2 was not influenced by the lack of coating wax. An investigation of the agronomic traits and heterosis of the glossy cabbage mutants indicated that all five mutants had glossy-green leaves, which was a favorable characteristic. The F1 plants derived from crosses involving mutant-2 exhibited obvious heterosis, suggesting the observed glossy-green trait is controlled by a dominant gene. Therefore, mutant-2 may be useful as a source of genetic material for future cabbage breeding experiments.

  16. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  17. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  18. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  19. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) raw and cooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Bodziarczyk, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F(1) and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F(1) variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m.), vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m.), alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m.) and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.). The average amounts of nitrites (III) and (V) were 3.36 mg NaNO(2)/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO(3)/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Winterbor F(1) variety of kale has a great nutritive value and high

  20. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  1. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  2. Purple head broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), a functional food crop for antioxidant and anticancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Choudhary, Sonika; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2018-05-01

    Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant potential was explored employing different assays like molybdate ion reduction, DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging and plasmid nicking assay. Inspired by antioxidant activity results, we further explored these extracts for antiproliferative potential by morphological changes, cell cycle analysis, measurement of intracellular peroxides and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. Current study provides the scientific basis for the use of broccoli as easily affordable potent functional food.

  3. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os portugueses são dos maiores apreciadores mundiais de brássicas. A couve Tronchuda é cultivada em Portugal em área superior a 1000 ha. O seu consumo é sobretudo apreciado na quadra natalícia. Neste trabalho reportam-se resultados da fertilização com azoto e boro, na forma de adubos convencionais, e da utilização de Dix10 (com ˜10 % N total, um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em agricultura biológica. Plantas de raiz protegida foram transplantadas a 29 de Agosto de 2005 num compasso 0,8x0,5 m. O solo, de textura franca, continha 0,83 % matéria orgânica, 5,2 pH(H2O e teores em P e K médios e altos, respectivamente. Foram estabelecidas seis modalidades: sem adubação (SAd; Dix10, em dose equivalente a 80 kg N/ha; modalidades com 80 (NB e 160 (N+ kg N/ha, na forma de ureia; e modalidades sem B (B- e com aplicação de 2,2 (NB e 4,4 (B+ kg B/ha. Todas as modalidades de B foram fertilizadas com 80 kg N/ha e as de N com 2,2 kg B/ha, coincidindo na modalidade NB as doses médias de N e B. As plantas SAd produziram 13,7 Mg biomassa/ha e exportaram 33,9 kg N/ha e 40,9 g B/ha, valores significativamente inferiores às modalidades fertilizadas. Dix10 produziu 18,0 Mg de biomassa/ha e exportou 45,1 kg N/ha e 51,3 g B/ha. A modalidade NB originou maior produção de biomassa (38,6 Mg/ha e N exportado (107,9 kg/ha que as modalidades SAd e Dix10. A modalidade N+ não registou aumento de produção nem de N exportado comparativamente com NB. B+ não influenciou a produção de biomassa mas aumentou a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado. N+ reduziu significativamente a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado, sugerindo um efeito de antagonismo da aplicação de N sobre a absorção de B. As produções obtidas e a recuperação aparente de nutrientes mostraram que a redução de produção de biomassa nas modalidades SAd e Dix10 se deveu à reduzida disponibilidade de N no solo durante a estação de crescimento.The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  4. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  5. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Stansell, Zachary J; Couillard, David M; Farnham, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Five quantitative trait loci and one epistatic interaction were associated with heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli evaluated in three summer field trials. Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yield. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season but breeding efficiency is constrained by limited genetic information. A doubled haploid (DH) broccoli population segregating for heat tolerance was evaluated for head quality in three summer fields in Charleston, SC, USA. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of 1,423 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing identified five QTL and one positive epistatic interaction that explained 62.1% of variation in heat tolerance. The QTL identified here can be used to develop markers for marker-assisted selection and to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying plant response to heat stress.

  6. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  7. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  8. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  9. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2015-11-11

    Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4), methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1) and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1), were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g(-1) DW (dry weight). Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative-reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  10. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  11. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

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    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  12. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  13. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  14. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) accessions from two ex situ genebanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Eltohamy A A; Müller, Thomas; Börner, Andreas; Schmid, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS). They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees. Genetic diversity was higher in the USDA collection and significant phenotypic differences between the two genebanks were found in three out of six traits investigated. GBS data have a high proportion of missing data, but we observed that the exclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with missing data or the imputation of missing SNP alleles produced very similar results. The results indicate that the composition and type of accessions have a strong effect on the structure of genetic diversity of ex situ collections, although regeneration procedures and local adaptation to regeneration conditions may also contribute to a divergence. Fst-based outlier tests of genetic differentiation identified only a small proportion (cauliflower genebank material and our results suggest that it may be useful to incorporate routine genotyping into accession management and seed regeneration to monitor the diversity present in ex situ collections and to reduce the loss of genetic diversity during seed regeneration.

  16. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  17. Impact of cadmium on forage kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover") after 3-,10- and 56-day exposure to a Cd-spiked field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Dumez, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Platel, Anne; Nesslany, Fabrice; Deram, Annabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Cuny, Damien

    2018-03-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg -1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied. Metal accumulation was quantified, as well as DNA damage, by means of the comet assay and immunodetection of 8-OHdG levels. Globally, B. oleracea was relatively tolerant to those Cd exposures. However, comet assay and detection of 8-OHdG revealed some DNA damage but which are not significant. According to metal accumulation analysis, B. oleracea var. viridis cv Prover could be a good candidate for alternative growing in contaminated areas.

  18. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  19. Genetics and fine mapping of a purple leaf gene, BoPr, in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Bao-Zhen; Han, Feng-Qing; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Li-Mei; Zhuang, Mu; Lv, Hong-Hao; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Zhan-Sheng; Cai, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yong

    2017-03-14

    Due to its variegated and colorful leaves, ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) has become a popular ornamental plant. In this study, we report the fine mapping and analysis of a candidate purple leaf gene using a backcross population and an F 2 population derived from two parental lines: W1827 (with white leaves) and P1835 (with purple leaves). Genetic analysis indicated that the purple leaf trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we named BoPr. Using markers developed based on the reference genome '02-12', the BoPr gene was preliminarily mapped to a 280-kb interval of chromosome C09, with flanking markers M17 and BoID4714 at genetic distances of 4.3 cM and 1.5 cM, respectively. The recombination rate within this interval is almost 12 times higher than the usual level, which could be caused by assembly error for reference genome '02-12' at this interval. Primers were designed based on 'TO1000', another B. oleracea reference genome. Among the newly designed InDel markers, BRID485 and BRID490 were found to be the closest to BoPr, flanking the gene at genetic distances of 0.1 cM and 0.2 cM, respectively; the interval between the two markers is 44.8 kb (reference genome 'TO1000'). Seven annotated genes are located within the 44.8 kb genomic region, of which only Bo9g058630 shows high homology to AT5G42800 (dihydroflavonol reductase), which was identified as a candidate gene for BoPr. Blast analysis revealed that this 44.8 kb interval is located on an unanchored scaffold (Scaffold000035_P2) of '02-12', confirming the existence of assembly error at the interval between M17 and BoID4714 for reference genome '02-12'. This study identified a candidate gene for BoPr and lays a foundation for the cloning and functional analysis of this gene.

  20. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Ekrem; Gülçin, Ilhami

    2008-01-01

    Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; donor: hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase) are part of a large group of enzymes. In this study, peroxidase, a primer antioxidant enzyme, was purified with 19.3 fold and 0.2% efficiency from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-25 purification steps. The substrate specificity of peroxidase was investigated using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), 1,2,3-trihyidroxybenzene (pyrogallol) and 4-methylcatechol. Also, optimum pH, optimum temperature, optimum ionic strength, stable pH, stable temperature, thermal inactivation conditions were determined for guaiacol/H(2)O(2), pyrogallol/H(2)O(2), ABTS/H(2)O(2), catechol/H(2)O(2) and 4-methyl catechol/H(2)O(2) substrate patterns. The molecular weight (M(w)) of this enzyme was found to be 44 kDa by gel filtration chromatography method. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was performed for isoenzyme determination and a single band was observed. K(m) and V(max) values were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk graph for each substrate patterns.

  1. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a J domain protein that interacts with ARC1 from ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xingguo; Yang, Jia; Cao, Mingming; Wang, Yanhong; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    A novel J domain protein, JDP1, was isolated from ornamental kale. The C-terminus of JDP1 specifically interacted with ARC1, which has a conserved role in self-incompatibility signaling. Armadillo (ARM)-repeat containing 1 (ARC1) plays a conserved role in self-incompatibility signaling across the Brassicaceae and functions downstream of the S-locus receptor kinase. Here, we identified a J domain protein 1 (JDP1) that interacts with ARC1 using a yeast two-hybrid screen against a stigma cDNA library from ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). JDP1, a 38.4-kDa protein with 344 amino acids, is a member of the Hsp40 family. Fragment JDP1(57-344), originally isolated from a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library, interacted specifically with ARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. The N-terminus of JDP1 (JDP1(1-68)) contains a J domain, and the C-terminus of JDP1 (JDP1(69-344)) contains an X domain of unknown function. However, JDP1(69-344) was required and sufficient for interaction with ARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro binding assays. Moreover, JDP1(69-344) regulated the trafficking of ARC1 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane by interacting with ARC1 in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Finally, Tyr(8) in the JDP1 N-terminal region was identified to be the specific site for regulating the interaction between JDP1 and BoARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Possible roles of JDP1 as an interactor with ARC1 in Brassica are discussed.

  3. RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome and glucosinolate metabolism in seeds and sprouts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjun; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Fengming; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. A total of ∼85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide

  4. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  5. Evaluation of various soaking agents as a novel tool for pesticide residues mitigation from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asghar, Ali; Pasha, Imran; Usman, Rabia; Shamoon, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Arslan; Irshad, Muhammad Asim; Ahmad, Naveed

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up. Eluents were first evaporated and then completely dried under gentle stream of Nitrogen. Finally, the residues were determined using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results revealed the highest reduction of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues with acetic acid (10 %) was 1.133 ± 0.007 (41 %), 0.870 ± 0.022 (60 %) and 0.403 ± 0.003 (75 %), respectively among the tested solutions. However, simple tap water treatment also resulted in 0.990 ± 0.02 (12 %), 1.323 ± 0.015 (14 %) and 1.274 ± 0.002 (21 %) elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively. Moreover, among various solutions, acetic acid depicted maximum reduction potential followed by citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions. The percent reduction by various solutions ranged from 12 to 41, 14 to 60 and 21 to 75 % for the elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively.

  6. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28 was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate

  7. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28 , the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology ( BoaMYB28 ) was identified in Chinese kale ( Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in

  8. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis accessions from two ex situ genebanks.

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    Eltohamy A A Yousef

    Full Text Available Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS. They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees. Genetic diversity was higher in the USDA collection and significant phenotypic differences between the two genebanks were found in three out of six traits investigated. GBS data have a high proportion of missing data, but we observed that the exclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with missing data or the imputation of missing SNP alleles produced very similar results. The results indicate that the composition and type of accessions have a strong effect on the structure of genetic diversity of ex situ collections, although regeneration procedures and local adaptation to regeneration conditions may also contribute to a divergence. Fst-based outlier tests of genetic differentiation identified only a small proportion (<1% of SNPs that are highly differentiated between the two genebanks, which indicates that selection during seed regeneration is not a major cause of differentiation between genebanks. Seed regeneration procedures of both genebanks do not result in different levels of genetic drift and loss of genetic variation. We therefore conclude that the composition and type of accessions mainly influence the level of genetic diversity and explain the strong genetic differentiation between the two ex situ collections. In summary, GBS is a useful method for characterizing genetic diversity in cauliflower

  9. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

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    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  10. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

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    Wang Wanxing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186 was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99 was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps.

  11. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. Convar. acephala Var. sabellica) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

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    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2009-04-08

    Kale is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, a group of vegetables including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, with a high content of health-promoting phytochemicals. The flavonoids and hydroxycinammic acids of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), a variety of kale, were characterized and identified primarily through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Thirty-two phenolic compounds including glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid were tentatively identified, providing a more complete identification of phenolic compounds in curly kale than previously reported. Moreover, three hydroxycinnamic acids and one flavonoid with an unusual high grade of glycosylation, quercetin-3-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-diglucoside, have been tentatively identified for the first time. The influence of different extraction conditions (extraction method, solvent type, solvent/solid ratio, and duration of extraction) was investigated. The total flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents in curly kale determined as rutin equivalents (RE) were 646 and 204 mg of RE/100 g of fresh weight (fw), respectively. The contents of individual flavonoids ranged from 2 to 159 mg of RE/100 g of fw, with main compounds kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (18.7%) and quercetin-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (16.5%). After acidic hydrolysis, two flavonol aglycones were identified in curly kale, quercetin and kaempferol, with total contents of 44 and 58 mg/100 g of fw, respectively.

  12. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

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    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  13. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

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    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  14. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

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    Onyango, M.O.A.; Onyango, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha -1 , 8kgP.ha -1 ), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha -1 and 30kgP.ha -1 ), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha -1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  15. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

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    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  16. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

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    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  17. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

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    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  18. PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF DAN PRODUKTIVITAS BERBAGAI KULTIVAR BROKOLI (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. INTRODUKSI DI DESA BATUR, KECAMATAN KINTAMANI, KABUPATEN BANGLI, BALI

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    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family.  Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity.  Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’,‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control.  Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar.  This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot.  Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level.  Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest. Keywords: Brassica, field trial, cultivar

  19. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

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    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-04

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment.

  20. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

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    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  2. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  3. Characterization of industrial broccoli discards (Brassica oleracea var. italica) for their glucosinolate, polyphenol and flavonoid contents using UPLC MS/MS and spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Minty; Badr, Ashraf; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, Andre; Angers, Paul

    2018-04-15

    The agrifood industry produces tons of waste and substandard products that are discarded at great expense. Valorization of industrial residues curbs issues related to food security and environmental problems. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is associated with varied beneficial health effects, but its production yields greater than 25% rejects. We aimed to characterize and quantify industrial broccoli by-products for their glucosinolate and polyphenol contents as a first step towards industrial bio-refining. Broccoli segments and rejected lots of 10 seed cultivars were analyzed using UPLC MS/MS. Variability in the contents of bioactive molecules was observed within and between the cultivars. Broccoli by-products were rich in glucosinolates (0.2-2% dry weight sample), predominantly glucoraphanin (32-64% of the total glucosinolates), whereas the polyphenolic content was less than 0.02% dry weight sample. Valorization of industrial residues facilitates the production of high value functional food ingredients along with socio-economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  5. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  6. Curd development associated gene (CDAG1) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) could result in enlarged organ size and increased biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qingli; Qin, Erjun; Jin, Chuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Shen, Guangshuang; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The curd is a specialized organ and the most important product organ of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of curd formation and development remains largely unknown. In the present study, a novel homologous gene containing the Organ Size Related (OSR) domain, namely, CDAG1 (Curd Development Associated Gene 1) was identified in cauliflower. Quantitative analysis indicated that CDAG1 showed significantly higher transcript levels in young tissues. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ectopic overexpression of CDAG1 in Arabidopsis and cauliflower could significantly promote organ growth and result in larger organ size and increased biomass. Organ enlargement was predominantly due to increased cell number. In addition, 228 genes involved in the CDAG1-mediated regulatory network were discovered by transcriptome analysis. Among these genes, CDAG1 was confirmed to inhibit the transcriptional expression of the endogenous OSR genes, ARGOS and ARL, while a series of ethylene-responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were found to increased expression in 35S:CDAG1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This implies that CDAG1 may function in the ethylene-mediated signal pathway. These findings provide new insight into the function of OSR genes, and suggest potential applications of CDAG1 in breeding high-yielding crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  9. Caracterización y optimización de las operaciones de procesado y conservación de la berza gallega ("Brassica oleracea" L. var. "acephala" cv. Galega)

    OpenAIRE

    Armesto Barge, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El cultivo de la berza gallega (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega) está ampliamente distribuido por todo el noroeste de España, formando esta hortaliza parte importante de la dieta tradicional de la población. Se cultivan y comercializan dos fenotipos diferenciados, uno de hoja rizada y otro de hoja lisa, cuyas características y diferencias composicionales se encuentran todavía por estudiar. Este vegetal se consume siempre tras un proceso de cocción que repercute de forma directa o i...

  10. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli)

    OpenAIRE

    Berenice García Reyes; María del Carmen Montes Horcasitas; Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez; Armando Ariza Castolo; Josefina Pérez Vargas; Octavio Gómez Guzmán; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli) para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del corresp...

  11. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

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    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  12. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  13. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DA ESPESSURA E INTEGRIDADE DE COBERTURA PLÁSTICA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE Brassica oleracea var. capitata

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    Amanda Duim Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da espessura e integridade de coberturas plásticas na germinação de sementes de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cultivadas principalmente na região serrana do Espírito Santo.  O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Sementes no Campus São Mateus da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, com quatro repetições em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos consistiram de duas espessuras de cobertura dos recipientes (0,06 mm - plástico fino; 0,10 mm - plástico grosso e a ausência ou presença de furos centralizados na secção superior dos recipientes. As contagens foram feitas do primeiro ao sétimo dia, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação, coeficiente de velocidade de germinação e perda de água diária. Verificou-se que não há influência significativa da integridade da cobertura plástica sobre a germinação e é preferível o uso de coberturas plásticas com menor espessura de modo a possibilitar as trocas gasosas.

  15. Microbiological analysis and evaluation of Good Manufacturing Practices during the processing of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba served in a self-service restaurant

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    Jhonathan Campos do Couto Beltrão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The consumption of meals outside the home has become an increasingly common practice in the life of the Brazilian population and of everyone. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba, served in an institutional self-service restaurant, in the different stages of processing (reception, sanitation, slicing, cooling and distribution. In addition, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP were evaluated through a checklist. Method: Total coliform, Escherichia coli and total aerobic bacteria were counted and Salmonella spp. was searched. Results: A sample collected at the reception stage showed Salmonella spp. Sanitization eliminated Salmonella spp. and reduced total coliforms and E. coli to undetectable numbers. The environment, the equipment and the manipulation strongly influenced the microbiological quality of food. Samples collected on day 4, after slicing, showed 3.2 log CFU of E. coli per g and at distribution 4.1 log CFU/g, which indicates unsatisfactory hygienic conditions. The restaurant had 55.75% compliance with GMP items, being classified as regular (Group 2, in accordance with RDC n° 275/2002. Conclusions: The non-conformities (37.00% observed in the exposure to prepared food consumption may be influencing the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage salad served. In this way we highlight the importance of the application of GMP in the production process to obtain a safe food and the compliance with the four POP required by RDC n° 216/2004.

  16. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  17. Low and moderate photosynthetically active radiation affects the flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) dependent on two low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) contains a large number of naturally occurring structurally different non-acylated and acylated flavonol glycosides as well as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low and moderate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and how these levels interact with low temperature in these phenolic compounds. Juvenile kale plants were treated with PAR levels from 200 to 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 5 and 10 °C under defined conditions in climate chambers. Of the investigated 20 compounds, 11 and 17 compounds were influenced by PAR and temperature, respectively. In addition, an interaction between PAR and temperature was found for eight compounds. The response of the phenolic compounds to PAR was structure-dependent. While quercetin triglycosides increased with higher PAR at 5 and 10 °C, the kaempferol triglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1). In contrast, kaempferol diglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at increased PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10 °C. However, key genes of flavonol biosynthesis were influenced by temperature but remained unaffected by PAR. Furthermore, there was no interaction between the PAR level and the low temperature in the response of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale with the exception of caffeoylquinic acid, which decreased with higher PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a lower temperature. In conclusion, PAR and its interaction with temperature could be a suitable tool for modifying the profile of phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future climatic change environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-01-30

    The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased N fertilisation regimes (NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2 ] under non-saline (0 mmol L(-1) NaCl) and saline (80 mmol L(-1) NaCl) conditions. Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. In NH4(+) -fed broccoli plants, a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4(+) toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] - ameliorating adverse effects of salinity--was only observed when N was supplied as NO3(-). Under reduced N fertilisation, the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3(-)/NH4 (+) ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3(-)/NH4(+) (50:50) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4(+) toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolate content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica Plenck and Cassia absus L. extracts reduce oxidative stress, alloxan induced hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Tipu, M.K.; Ali, H.

    2018-01-01

    The nature's endowment of medicinal plants in successful management of diabetes necessitates their further exploration. Therefore, the present study was designed to comprehend ameliorating role of Brassica oleracea var. italic (BO) and Cassia absus (CA) in oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications. Among all the extracts of BO and CA, aqueous extract was the most proficient in terms of extract recovery (9.0 and 10.2%) and DPPH radical scavenging efficiency (IC50 = 11.90 +- 1.70 and 8.26 +- 1.20 mu g/ml) respectively. Maximum phenolic content [BO = 184.0 +- 0.17 and CA = 406.7 +- 0.08 mu g gallic acid equivalent/mg extract (E)], flavonoid content (BO = 160.9 +- 0.1 and CA = 361.9 +- 0.09 mu g quercetin equivalent/mg E) and total antioxidant capacity (BO = 223.7 +- 0.20 and CA = 257.2 +- 3.30 mu g ascorbic acid equivalent/mg E) was recorded in their ethanol extract. Highest reducing power potential was quantified in BO ethanol and CA aqueous extractsas 427.9 +- 0.10 and 480.0 +- 2.10mu g ascorbic acid equivalent/mg E respectively. Brine shrimp assay expounded petroleum ether extract of BO and CA to have some cytotoxicity (LC50 = 200+- 2.3 and 86.6 +- 3.1 mu g/ml respectively). In vivo studies established their aqueous extract as proficient in reducing the serum glucose (BO = 142.3 +- 7.10 and CA = 161.5 +- 4.40 mg/dl at day 21) as well as blood cholesterol, ALT and urea levels. Findings of the present study prospects BO and CA a useful treatment of diabetes and its escorting complications. (author)

  20. Effect of biologically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles on metabolism and antioxidant activity to the crop plants Solanum lycopersicum and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani

    2017-11-20

    Study on the ecological effect of metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs) has quickly amplified over the precedent years because it is assumed that these NMs will sooner or later be released into the environment. The present study deals with biologically oriented process for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) by using Morus alba leaf extract as reducing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed the monoclinic phase and 20-40nm size respectively. The presence of reducing and capping agents revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to 10, 50, 100, and 500mgL -1 concentrations of CuO NPs in the sand medium. Bioaccumulation of Cu was also investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Plant exposure to 100 and 500mgL -1 of CuO NPs has resulted in significant reduction of total chlorophyll and sugar content in the two test plants while 10mgL -1 of NPs slightly increased the pigment and sugar content in tomato plants only. Augmentation of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activity was observed in a dose dependent manner upon plants exposure to CuO NPs. Deposition of lignin in roots of both plants treated with the highest concentration of CuO NPs was observed. Histochemical analysis of leaves of treated plant with nitroblue tetrazolium and 3 ' 3 ' diaminobenzidine showed a concentration dependent increase in superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in leaves. The green synthesis of CuO NPs was carried out by using Morus alba leaf extract. Accumulation of NPs more actively by tomato plants as compared to cauliflower was possibly due to the difference in root morphology. The histochemical visualization highlights the spatial organization of oxidant biochemistry occurring in response to metal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of miRNAs in the hypocotyl and cotyledon of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Meijuan; Li, Hui; Jin, Chuan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that have key regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and other biological processes. Hypocotyl and cotyledon are the two major tissues of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) seedlings. Tissue culture experiments have indicated that the regenerative abilities of these two tissues are significantly different. However, the characterization of miRNAs and their roles in regulating organ development in cauliflower remain unexplored. In the present study, two small RNA libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing technology. 99 known miRNAs belonging to 28 miRNA families were identified, in which 6 miRNA families were detected only in Brassicaceae. A total of 162 new miRNA sequences with single nucleotide substitutions corresponding to the known miRNAs, and 32 potentially novel miRNAs were also first discovered. Comparative analysis indicated that 42 of 99 known miRNAs and 17 of 32 novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression between hypocotyl and cotyledon, and the differential expression of several miRNAs was further validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. In addition, 235 targets for 89 known miRNAs and 198 targets for 24 novel miRNAs were predicted, and their functions were further discussed. The expression patterns of several representative targets were also confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. The results identified that the transcriptional expression patterns of miRNAs were negatively correlated with their targets. These findings gave new insights into the characteristics of miRNAs in cauliflower, and provided important clues to elucidate the roles of miRNAs in the tissue differentiation and development of cauliflower.

  2. [Construction of genetic linkage map and localization of NBS-LRR like resistance gene analogues in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Zhao, Qian-Cheng; Sun, De-Ling; Song, Wen-Qin

    2007-06-01

    Nucleotide binding site (NBS) profiling, a new method was used to map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). This method allows amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. AFLP was also performed to construct the cauliflower intervarietal genetic map. The aim of constructing genetic map was to identify potential molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits that would be particularly useful for development and improving the species. Using 17 AFLP primer combinations and two degeneration primer/enzyme combinations, a total of 234 AFLP markers and 21 NBS markers were mapped in the F2 population derived from self-pollinating a single F1 plant of the cross AD White Flower x C-8. The markers were mapped in 9 of major linkage groups spanning 668.4 cM, with an average distance of 2.9 cM between adjacent mapped markers. The AFLP markers were well distributed throughout the linkage groups. The linkage groups contained from 12 to 47 loci each and the distance between two consecutive loci ranged from 0 to 14.9 cM. NBS markers were mapped on 8 of the 9 linkage groups of the genetic map. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. This result demonstrates the feasibility of the NBS-profiling method for generating NBS markers for resistance loci in cauliflower. The clustering of the markers mapped in this study adds to the evidence that most of them could be real RGAs.

  3. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal

    2010-08-18

    Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls--from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye

  4. Agronomic parameters in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica in convencional, organic and natural crop systems/ Parâmetros agronômicos em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica em sistema convencional, orgânico e natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic parameters were assessed in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica, cv. Legacy, in different cultivation systems: Natural 1 [incorporation of elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Conventional (NPK in the planting + bórax + dressing N]; Organic [organic compost (1 kg/plant]. Plants high were assessed 30, 45 and 60 days after planting; cycle; fresh weight; shelf life and dried weight were also evaluated. Fresh weight of leaves and stems in conventional was higher then in organic treatment. Inflorescence fresh weight, leaves and stems dried weight and shelf life were similar among treatments. The inflorescence fresh and dried weight from conventional were higher than those from Organic and Natural 1. Cycle found in Natural 1 was longer than the other treatments.Parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L . var. italica, cv. Legacy, em quatro sistemas de cultivo: Natural 1 [incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [incorporação de composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Convencional [NPK no plantio + bórax + N em cobertura]; Orgânico [aplicação de composto (1 kg/planta]. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplantio; duração do ciclo, peso fresco, período de conservação pós-colheita e peso seco. O peso fresco da parte vegetativa obtido no sistema convencional foi superior ao sistema orgânico. O peso fresco e seco da inflorescência obtido no sistema convencional, foi superior àquele obtido nos sistemas Orgânico e Natural 1. O ciclo no sistema Natural 1 foi mais longo do que nos outros tratamentos.

  5. The impact of global warming on the range distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güizado-Rodríguez, Martha Anahí; Ballesteros-Barrera, Claudia; Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Barradas-Miranda, Victor Luis; Téllez-Valdés, Oswaldo; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazarmabeth

    2012-12-01

    The ectothermic nature of reptiles makes them especially sensitive to global warming. Although climate change and its implications are a frequent topic of detailed studies, most of these studies are carried out without making a distinction between populations. Here we present the first study of an Aspidoscelis species that evaluates the effects of global warming on its distribution using ecological niche modeling. The aims of our study were (1) to understand whether predicted warmer climatic conditions affect the geographic potential distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata and (2) to identify potential altitudinal changes of these groups under global warming. We used the maximum entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt) to project the potential distributions expected for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 under a single simulated climatic scenario. Our analysis suggests that some climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata will exhibit reductions and in others expansions in their distribution, with potential upward shifts toward higher elevation in response to climate warming. Different climatic groups were revealed in our analysis that subsequently showed heterogeneous responses to climatic change illustrating the complex nature of species geographic responses to environmental change and the importance of modeling climatic or geographic groups and/or populations instead of the entire species' range treated as a homogeneous entity.

  6. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  7. Estudo comparativo das alterações de processamento no brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) submetido a diferentes processos de congelamento e períodos de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Damian, Andréa Clara Spoladore

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Amostras de brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) foram congeladas por 3 métodos diferentes e armazenadas com a finalidade de analisar a textura e a microestrutura (rompimento da parede celular) do brócoli. O brócoli foi selecionado e separado de acordo com o diâmetro de caule (@ 5 mm), branqueado e congelado em freezer a -18°C pelo método lento, a -50°C em congelador de placas pelo método r...

  8. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien Jean Yves; Torp, Anna Maria; Holme, I.B.

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...

  9. A study on the GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and pancreato-protective effect of methanolic extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Sadanandan; Geetha, Arumugam; Ganesan Kripa, Kavasseri

    2017-09-01

    The ever-increasing problem of pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse demands evaluation of novel drugs of plant origin. This study explores the therapeutic effects of the methanolic extract of Brassica oleraceae (MEBO) on ethanol and cerulein induced pancreatitis in rats. The MEBO was subjected to GC-MS and HPLC analysis. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into various groups, fed with alcohol (36% of total calories for 5 weeks) and cerulein (20 μg/kg b.wt i.p, weekly thrice for last three weeks) with or without MEBO (40 mg/kg b.wt). Serum lipase, amylase, IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, lipid peroxides, oxidative stress index and antioxidant status were assessed in pancreas. Six compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis. Co-administration of MEBO reduced the pancreatic marker enzymes in serum, IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 and increased the antioxidant status of pancreas. The pancreato-protective effect of Brassica oleraceae may be attributed to well-known anti-inflammatory flavonoids, luteolin, quercetin and myricetin.

  10. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  11. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopy method (NIRS) for fast analysis of total, indolic, aliphatic and individual glucosinolates in new bred open pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibration to determine individual and total glucosinolates (GSLs) content of 12 new-bred open-pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica). Six individual GSLs were identified using high-performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC). The NIRS calibration was established based on modified partial least squares regression with reference values of HPLC. The calibration was analyzed using coefficient of determination in prediction (R 2 ) and ratio of preference of determination (RPD). Large variation occurred in the calibrations, R 2 and RPD due to the variability of the samples. Derived calibrations for total-GSLs, aliphatic-GSLs, glucoraphanin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were quantitative with a high accuracy (RPD=1.36, 1.65, 1.63, 1.11) while, for indole-GSLs, glucosinigrin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin and 1-methoxyglucobrassicin were more qualitative (RPD=0.95, 0.62, 0.67, 0.81, 0.56). Overall, the results indicated NIRS has a good potential to determine different GSLs in a large sample pool of broccoli quantitatively and qualitatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genotoxicity studies of organically grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its interactions with urethane, methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres-Pulido, María Eugenia; Dueñas-García, Irma; Castañeda-Partida, Laura; Santos-Cruz, Luis Felipe; Vega-Contreras, Viridiana; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Gómez-Luna, Juan Carlos; Durán-Díaz, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) has been defined as a cancer preventive food. Nevertheless, broccoli contains potentially genotoxic compounds as well. We performed the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in treatments with organically grown broccoli (OGB) and co-treatments with the promutagen urethane (URE), the direct alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses with inducible and high levels of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), respectively. Larvae of both crosses were chronically fed with OGB or fresh market broccoli (FMB) as a non-organically grown control, added with solvents or mutagens solutions. In both crosses, the OGB added with Tween-ethanol yielded the expected reduction in the genotoxicity spontaneous rate. OGB co-treatments did not affect the URE effect, MMS showed synergy and 4-NQO damage was modulated in both crosses. In contrast, FMB controls produced damage increase; co-treatments modulated URE genotoxicity, diminished MMS damage, and did not change the 4-NQO damage. The high dietary consumption of both types of broccoli and its protective effects in D. melanogaster are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) commonly consumed in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye-Jin; Lee, Hye-Min; Shin, MinJung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chung, Doug Young; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S) supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin) and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin) respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW) and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW) were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs). Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  14. Effect of different proportion of sulphur treatments on the contents of glucosinolate in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala commonly consumed in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Jin Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kale (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin respectively. Analysis of these distinct levels of S supplementation revealed that the accumulation of individual and total GLSs was directly proportional to the S concentration. The maximum levels of total GLSs (26.8 µmol/g DW and glucobrassicin (9.98 µmol/g DW were found in lower and upper parts of the leaves supplemented with 1 mM and 2 mM S, respectively. Interestingly, aliphatic GSLs were noted predominant in all the parts (50.1, 59.3 and 56% of total GSLs. Among the aliphatic and indolyl GSLs, sinigrin and glucobrassicin account 35.3 and 30.88% of the total GSLs. From this study, it is concluded that supply of S enhance the GSLs accumulation in kale.

  15. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE IN CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: teflubenzuron, nas doses de 25 mL, 30 mL e 40 mL de produto comercial (p.c./100 L de água; chlorfenapyr, nas doses de 30 mL, 50 mL e 100 mL de p.c./100 L de água; deltamethrin, na dose de 30 mL de p.c./100 L de água; e testemunha. Para cada tratamento realizaram-se aplicações semanais após o transplantio. As avaliações foram realizadas na colheita, contando-se o número de furos causados pela traça, em cinco cabeças comerciais de repolho, tomadas ao acaso, por parcela. Pôde-se concluir que os inseticidas teflubenzuron e chlorfenapyr foram mais eficientes que deltamethrin no controle da traça-das-crucíferas P. xylostella nas doses testadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; traça; controle químico.

    The research was carried out in an area under continuous cabbage cropping (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil, from September to November 1996. The aim was to compare insecticides for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella control. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were teflubenzuron in the doses of 25 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL of commercial product (c.p. / 100 L of water; chlorfenapyr in the doses of 30 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL of c.p./ 100 L of water; deltamethrin in the dose of 30 mL of c.p. / 100 L of water; and control. Treatments were applied weekly

  16. Atividade antioxidante e teor de fenólicos em couve-manteiga (brassica oleracea l. var. acephala submetida a diferentes sistemas de cultivo e métodos de preparo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Duarte Junger Rigueira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a influência de sistemas de cultivo e de métodos de preparo na atividade antioxidante e no teor de fenólicos de folhas e talos da couve manteiga (Brassica Oleracea L. var. acephala. Amostras de couve cultivadas pelo sistema convencional e orgânico foram pesadas, higienizadas e os talos separados das folhas. Foram submetidas aos modos de preparo: cru (couve in natura; calor seco (refogada e calor úmido (imersa em água fervente. Avaliou-se à atividade antioxidante e os compostos fenólicos pelo método espectrofotométrico. A verificação de compostos fenólicos e compostos com atividade antioxidante foi realizada por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD. O sistema de cultivo orgânico e o preparo em calor seco foram os tratamentos que obtiveram os maiores percentuais de antioxidantes e teores de compostos fenólicos, principalmente, em folhas de couve.  A atividade antioxidante variou de 38 a 87% nas folhas e de 13 a 56% nos talos de couve. Quanto aos compostos fenólicos os teores médios estiveram entre 173 e 244 mg EAG/100g nas folhas e 86 e 180 mg EAG/100g nos talos. As análises por CCD revelaram que todos os extratos de folhas e talos de couve apresentaram compostos fenólicos bem como componentes com ação antioxidante, mas nem todos com correlação. Conclui-se que a combinação de sistema de cultivo orgânico e cocção em calor seco pode ser eficiente para preservação e ou aumento do teor de compostos fenólicos e da atividade antioxidante em talos e, principalmente, em folhas de couve.

  17. Isatinones A and B, New Antifungal Oxindole Alkaloids from Isatis costata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Afza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oxindole alkaloids isatinone A (1 and B (2 have been isolated from Isatis costata, along with the known trisindoline. Their structures have been assigned on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical studies. Both new compounds showed significant antifungal activity.

  18. Functional molecular analysis of a circadian clock gene timeless promoter from the drosophilid fly Chymomyza costata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobelková, Alena; Bajgar, Adam; Doležel, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), s. 399-409 ISSN 0748-7304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/08/P579; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1032; GA AV ČR IAA500960802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : timeless promoter * E-box * Chymomyza costata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2010

  19. Early development of Costaria costata (C. Agardh) Saunders and cultivation trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gang; Liu, Jidong; Wang, Gaoge; Yao, Jianting; Wang, Xiuliang; Duan, Delin

    2010-07-01

    Costaria costata (C. Agardh) Saunders is one of common kelps distributed in many coastal areas worldwide; however, in China, no reports have been made on cultivation of the genus. To investigate potential cultivation of the species in the northern part of China, trials on isolation and preservation of the gametophytes were conducted using C. costata from Korea; growth and development of the gametophytes were observed. We showed that at 10±1°C, 60 μmol m-2s-1 and 12:12 h (L:D), freshly released zoospores settled down within 1 hour, and then developed into the primary cell during the following 2 days. After a vegetative growth phase lasting 6-8 days, female gametophytes became 3-4 times larger in diameter than that of the primary cell, but still remained at a unicellular stage, while male gametophytes divided into 4-10 cells with only a slight change in size. Fertilization occurred within 10 days after the zoospores were released from the sporangia, and the apical and basal tissues of the juvenile sporophyte divided and differentiated into the blade and stipe. Temperature and irradiance influenced gametophytic vegetative growth and developmental patterns. Generally, low irradiance (15 μmol m-2s-1 and 30 μmol m-2s-1) was unfavorable to the induction of fertility, but it enhanced female gametophyte division. The optimal conditions for vegetative growth were 15°C and 30 μmol m-2s-1. After transplantation of the juvenile seedlings and after eight months cultivation, the harvested mature blade reached 194 cm in length and 32.7 cm in width. Our study proves that it is feasible to implement propagation and large scale cultivation of C. costata in northern China.

  20. Hyperprolinemic larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, survive cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostál, Vladimír; Zahradnícková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2011-08-09

    The larva of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, is probably the most complex metazoan organism that can survive submergence in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) in a fully hydrated state. We examined the associations between the physiological and biochemical parameters of differently acclimated larvae and their freeze tolerance. Entering diapause is an essential and sufficient prerequisite for attaining high levels of survival in liquid nitrogen (23% survival to adult stage), although cold acclimation further improves this capacity (62% survival). Profiling of 61 different metabolites identified proline as a prominent compound whose concentration increased from 20 to 147 mM during diapause transition and subsequent cold acclimation. This study provides direct evidence for the essential role of proline in high freeze tolerance. We increased the levels of proline in the larval tissues by feeding larvae proline-augmented diets and found that this simple treatment dramatically improved their freeze tolerance. Cell and tissue survival following exposure to liquid nitrogen was evident in proline-fed nondiapause larvae, and survival to adult stage increased from 0% to 36% in proline-fed diapause-destined larvae. A significant statistical correlation was found between the whole-body concentration of proline, either natural or artificial, and survival to the adult stage in liquid nitrogen for diapause larvae. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested that high proline levels, in combination with a relatively low content of osmotically active water and freeze dehydration, increased the propensity of the remaining unfrozen water to undergo a glass-like transition (vitrification) and thus facilitated the prevention of cryoinjury.

  1. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  2. Local cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... kraut is one of the best known traditional foods (Jevšnik et al, 2009). As in other ... harvested, stored in barrels of salt water, and left to ferment. On the ... In order to determine the genetic variability of cabbage grown in Serbia ...

  3. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  4. Pharmacognostical studies of Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagepalli Srinivasa Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea Linn, belongs to family Portulaceae and is a widely distributed weed. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as diuretics, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. This paper deals with the microscopic study of leaf; stem and root of Portulaca oleracea, along with the physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical analyses that were also studied.

  5. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  6. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE EMBALAGENS NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E COMPOSIÇÃO GASOSA DE BRÓCOLIS (Brassica oleracea L. var Itálica ORGÂNICOS MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADOS E ARMAZENADOS SOB REFRIGERAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. PADULA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes tipos de embalagens na vida útil de brócolis (Brassica oleracea orgânicos minimamente processados e armazenados sob refrigeração. As amostras foram selecionadas e higienizadas, centrifugadas e acondicionados em embalagens de polipropileno (PP, câmara de acrílico hermeticamente selada e com canais abertos à 10ºC por doze dias. Para avaliar a vida útil do produto foram realizadas análises físico-químicas a cada três dias e de composição gasosa, em função de O2 e CO2, diariamente durante dez dias, por cromatografia gasosa. Os resultados mostraram que a umidade das amostras não foi afetada significativamente pelo período de armazenamento. O pH, acidez total titulável e o conteúdo de sólidos solúveis aumentaram ao longo do período de armazenamento. A perda de massa durante o armazenamento foi inferior a 1% em todas as amostras analisadas. A embalagem que melhor preservou a textura dos brócolis ao longo do período de armazenamento foi a de acrílico selado. A degradação das clorofilas a e b, e a síntese de carotenóides foram mais acentuadas nas flores das amostras acondicionadas em acrílico com canais abertos. A composição gasosa apresentou comportamento similar ao observado na literatura. Os dados experimentais de concentração apresentaram bom ajuste aos dados da literatura.

  7. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses.

  8. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  9. Development of Brassica oleracea-nigra monosomic alien addition lines: genotypic, cytological and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-12-01

    We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) to dissect the Brassica B genome. Brassica nigra (2n = 16, BB) represents the diploid Brassica B genome which carries many useful genes and traits for breeding but received limited studies. To dissect the B genome from B. nigra, the triploid F 1 hybrid (2n = 26, CCB) obtained previously from the cross B. oleracea var. alboglabra (2n = 18, CC) × B. nigra was used as the maternal parent and backcrossed successively to parental B. oleracea. The progenies in BC 1 to BC 3 generations were analyzed by the methods of FISH and SSR markers to screen the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) with each of eight different B-genome chromosomes added to C genome (2n = 19, CC + 1B 1-8 ), and seven different MAALs were established, except for the one with chromosome B2 which existed in one triple addition. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. nigra differently and at variable extents. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in 86.24% pollen mother cells at diakinesis or metaphase I, and formed a trivalent with two C-genome chromosomes in 13.76% cells. Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules (averagely 14.40%) than the pollen (2.64%). The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates (22.38-30.00%) than the other four (B3, B6, B7, B8) (5.04-8.42%). The MAALs should be valuable for exploiting the genome structure and evolution of B. nigra.

  10. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  11. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  13. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  14. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  15. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  16. Polysaccharides and their depolymerized fragments from Costaria costata: Molecular weight and sulfation-dependent anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ningning; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yingjie; Sun, Zhongmin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides from Costaria costata were extracted by hot water and further fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into three polysaccharide fractions. Three low molecular weight fragments were then prepared by degradation of the polysaccharides with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The structural features of the polysaccharides and their low molecular weight fragments were elucidated for the first time based on the HGPC, FT-IR, NMR, MS, monosaccharide composition, and other chemical analyses. Their anticoagulant and FGF-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -10/FGFR1c signaling activation activities in BaF3 cells were also examined. Our studies showed that the polysaccharides were sulfated at different positions of galactose and fucose residues. The APTT-, PT- and TT-based anticoagulant assay results indicated that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for their anticoagulant activities. In contrast, not only the polysaccharides but also the depolymerized fragments showed significant FGF/FGFR signal activating activities in a FGF-, molecular weight-, and sulfation-dependent manner. The results presented in current study demonstrated the potential use of the polysaccharides and their fragments as anticoagulants and FGF signal regulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ce-jia; Liu, Dian-yu; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Wen; Shao, Ning-ning

    2009-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and identified on the basis of physicochemical and spectral data. Five compounds were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of this plant and their structures were elucidated as cyclo (Phe-Ile) (1), cycle (Tyr-Ala) (2), adenine (3), friedelin (4) and isoselachoceric acid (5). Compounds 1-5 are isolated from Portulaca oleracea for the first time.

  18. Energy efficient drying strategies to retain nutritional components in broccoli broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the combined optimization of the retention of bioactive components and energy efficiency during drying of broccoli. Kinetics for the degradation of glucosinolates, vitamin C and drying of broccoli are used to calculate optimal drying trajectories for the control variables air flow

  19. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  20. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  1. Composition of lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Gustaw, Klaudia; Waśko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, Lb. brevis R413, Lb. curvatus 154), two as Weissella spp. (W. hellenica 152, W. cibaria G44), two as Pediococcus spp. (P. pentosaceus 45AN, P. acidilactici 2211), one as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 153, and one as Lactococcus lactis 37BN. The functional properties of isolates, i.e. acid, NaCl and bile salt tolerance, enzyme activities, adhesion to hydrocarbons, and antibiotic resistance, were examined. Among the tested strains, Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, P. pentosaceus 2211, and Lb. brevis R413 exhibited the best hydrophobicity value and high tolerance to bile salts, NaCl, and low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  3. Ultrasound assisted immersion freezing of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ying; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to research the ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) of broccoli. CaCl2 solution was used as freezing medium. The comparative advantage of using UAF over normal freezing on the freezing time, cell-wall bound calcium to total calcium ratio, textural properties, color, drip loss and L-ascorbic acid contents was evaluated. The application of UAF at selected acoustic intensity with a range of 0.250-0.412 W/cm(2) decreased the freezing time and the loss of cell-wall bound calcium content. Compared to normal freezing, the values of textural properties, color, L-ascorbic acid content were better preserved and the drip loss was significantly minimized by the application of UAF. However, when outside that range of acoustic intensity, the quality of the ultrasound-assisted frozen broccoli was inferior compared to that of the normally frozen samples. Selected the appropriate acoustic intensity was very important for the application of UAF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium-induced toxicity is counteracted by sulfur in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se ...

  5. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  6. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) on soil ogranisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  7. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Fei, Zhangjun; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2011-11-23

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5) was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  9. The role of BoFLC2 in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Stephen; Brown, Philip H; Hecht, Valérie; Driessen, Ronald G; Weller, James L

    2015-01-01

    In agricultural species that are sexually propagated or whose marketable organ is a reproductive structure, management of the flowering process is critical. Inflorescence development in cauliflower is particularly complex, presenting unique challenges for those seeking to predict and manage flowering time. In this study, an integrated physiological and molecular approach was used to clarify the environmental control of cauliflower reproductive development at the molecular level. A functional allele of BoFLC2 was identified for the first time in an annual brassica, along with an allele disrupted by a frameshift mutation (boflc2). In a segregating F₂ population derived from a cross between late-flowering (BoFLC2) and early-flowering (boflc2) lines, this gene behaved in a dosage-dependent manner and accounted for up to 65% of flowering time variation. Transcription of BoFLC genes was reduced by vernalization, with the floral integrator BoFT responding inversely. Overall expression of BoFT was significantly higher in early-flowering boflc2 lines, supporting the idea that BoFLC2 plays a key role in maintaining the vegetative state. A homologue of Arabidopsis VIN3 was isolated for the first time in a brassica crop species and was up-regulated by two days of vernalization, in contrast to findings in Arabidopsis where prolonged exposure to cold was required to elicit up-regulation. The correlations observed between gene expression and flowering time in controlled-environment experiments were validated with gene expression analyses of cauliflowers grown outdoors under 'natural' vernalizing conditions, indicating potential for transcript levels of flowering genes to form the basis of predictive assays for curd initiation and flowering time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ying, Zheming; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Cuiyu; Jiang, Mingyue; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    A novel alkaloid named oleraciamide C (1), with six known compounds, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), uracil (3), catechol (4), 4-aminophenol (5), vanillic acid (6) as well as 3-hydroxypyridine (7), were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Additionally, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), 4-aminophenol (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (7) were obtained from the plant for the first time. Structure of the new compound was determined using spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Others were elucidated through 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra and comparison with literature data. Notably, Compound 1 possessed an unusual bis-substituted eight-membered ring linked with the β-glucopyranose moiety. The cytotoxicity of compound 1 was evaluated against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  11. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  13. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  14. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  15. Utilization of Portulaca Oleracea L. to Improve Quality of Yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.; Anwar, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the possibility of using Portulaca Oleracea L. as a source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids as well as high vitamins and minerals, to improve the quality of yoghurt. Also, the microbial characteristics the treated yoghurt were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the replacement of milk fat by dry leaves of P. Oleracea had no effect on the chemical composition and the sensory properties of the treated yoghurt with 50 and 100% P. Oleracea L. leaves oil as milk fat substitute compared to the untreated one. In conclusion, manufacturing yoghurt is suitable as a rich nutrient food stuff for people suffering from blood hypertension, high blood cholesterol, liver and heart diseases

  16. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC₅₀ value of 1.6 μg/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC₅₀ 13.0 μg/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  18. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  19. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  20. Effects of Crude Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea at various doses (25mg/kg BW, 50mg/kgBW and 75mg/kgBW) on haematological and plasma biochemical parameters of albino rats were investigated. The extracts were administered on daily basis for 30 days and ...

  1. Effects of Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Reproductive Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea were investigated on estrous cycle and histopathology of the ovaries and uteri in female albino rats. Treatments of rats for 21 days with 75mg/kg BW AEPO produced no significant (P>0.05) change in the duration of all the phases of ...

  2. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase from Spinacea oleracea: purification and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Di Salvo, C.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.; Ficarra, S.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Leuzzi, U.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2002), s. 533-538 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine carbomoyltransferase * Spinacea oleracea Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  3. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  4. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of

  5. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary; Anusha Meruva; Naresh K; Ranjith Kumar A. Elumalai

    2013-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new form...

  6. The hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Hozeifi, Soroush

    2018-03-30

    Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) has been used in traditional medicine against hepatic injury, alt-hough its actual efficacy has not been fully understood. In addition, few studies have indicated that Portulaca oleracea L. possess protective effects against hepatotoxic agents. However, due to lack of information in human, more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of Portulaca oleracea L. as a hepato-protective agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from 1990 to 2017 regarding the hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. and its underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  9. Apoptotic role of natural isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) in experimental chemical lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana Deepa Priya, D; Gayathri, R; Gunassekaran, G R; Murugan, S; Sakthisekaran, D

    2013-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)]. Since it is among the most potent bioactive components with antioxidant and antitumor properties, it has received intense attention in the recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present work determined the rehabilitating role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to biomolecules and the apoptotic cascade mediated by orally administered isothiocyanate-SFN (9 µmol/mouse/day) against B(a)P (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Oxidative damage was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, glycoprotein components, protein carbonyl levels and DNA-protein crosslinks. DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and caspase-3 activity by ELISA proved apoptotic induction by SFN along with the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Cyt c. SFN treatment was found to decrease the H2O2 production (p < 0.001) in cancer induced animals, proving its antioxidant potential. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the release of Cyt c (p < 0.001) from mitochondria, decreasing and increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.001), respectively. Caspase-3 activity was also enhanced (p < 0.001) which leads to DNA fragmentation in SFN treated groups. Our results reflect the rehabilitating role of SFN in B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  10. Portulaca oleracea L.: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countrie...

  11. NEW ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA OLERACEA L. IN VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of Brassica oleracea L. are widespread and favorite crops, where among them the head cabbage and cauliflower are the most economically important. Russia takes third place after India and Chine among countries with largest production areas and gross yield for the crop. In Russia, the area sown to cabbage is about 27 thousand hectares. 728 cultivars and hybrids of eight cabbage crops including 528 hybrids have been added in State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation in 2017. The collection of Brassica oleracea L. totally contains of 2421 accessions and takes first place at number of collected items among the world’s plant genbanks. The phenotyping, genotyping, passportization, development of core collection and trait collection as well as initial breeding accessions, covering all genetic diversity have been carried out at department of genetic resources of vegetables and melons at VIR. Selection of most promising accessions is performed to find genes and sources for economically valuable traits to develop proper lines and hybrids. There are the enrichment of the collection by means of ordering and gathering in expeditions, the improvement of methods of phenotyping and development of database for all biological accessions studied at the department. In 2007-2016, 255 accessions of Brassica oleracea L. have been included into collection to be used in different national breeding programs.

  12. Separation and Identification of Four New Compounds with Antibacterial Activity from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery to some extent. To date, however, the therapeutic basis of P. oleracea treating on bacillary dysentery remains unknown. We determined the antibacterial effective fraction of P. oleracea in a previous study. The current study, which is based on our previous study, was first designed to isolate, identify and screen antibacterial active constituents from P. oleracea. As a result, four new compounds (1–4, portulacerebroside B (1, portulacerebroside C (2, portulacerebroside D (3 and portulaceramide A (4 along with five known compounds (5–9 were isolated, and structures were established by their physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities against common enteropathogenic bacteria were evaluated for all compounds and the new compounds 1–4 showed significant antibacterial effect on enteropathogenic bacteria in vitro, which might contribute to revealing the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery.

  13. Separation and Identification of Four New Compounds with Antibacterial Activity from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Haiyang

    2015-09-10

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery to some extent. To date, however, the therapeutic basis of P. oleracea treating on bacillary dysentery remains unknown. We determined the antibacterial effective fraction of P. oleracea in a previous study. The current study, which is based on our previous study, was first designed to isolate, identify and screen antibacterial active constituents from P. oleracea. As a result, four new compounds (1-4), portulacerebroside B (1), portulacerebroside C (2), portulacerebroside D (3) and portulaceramide A (4) along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated, and structures were established by their physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities against common enteropathogenic bacteria were evaluated for all compounds and the new compounds 1-4 showed significant antibacterial effect on enteropathogenic bacteria in vitro, which might contribute to revealing the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery.

  14. Chemical weed control in Spinach (Spiniacia oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modhej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spinach (Spinacia oleracea is an annual plant of family Chenopodiaceae. It is cultivated in temperate and cold regions in Khouzestan in autumn and winter. Weeds are the main problems that limit the production of vegetables. Competition ability of spinach against weeds is very low and weeds cause the loss of quality and quantity in this plant. Weeds reduce germination and establishment and growth of spinach. Weed management in spinach should be done at the beginning of the season. Hand weeding is the best way to control weeds spinach, although due to the high cost it is not cost effective, but is steel common in large areas. Weed control spinach, using chemical methods, the number of weeds are kept below the threshold of economic damage. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 15 treatments and three replications. Treatments included pre-plant application of EPTC at 5 and 6 lit ha-1, pre-plant application of Trifluralin at 2 lit ha-1, pre-plant and pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin at 3 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 300 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 400 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 0.7 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 1 lit ha-1, weedy and weed free checks. Each plot the size of 2.5 × 2 meters and 10 row cultivation with distances between rows of 15 cm and the distance between the plants 25 cm and the sowing depth was 3 cm. The herbicide treatments were applied to the back sprayer with Flat fan nozzle with volume of consumption of 240 lit ha-1 solution. The final harvest was about 50 days after emergence. Sampling of weeds 10 days before harvest was performed with using quadrate 0.5 ×0.5. Results Discussion Important broad-leaf and narrow leaf weeds observed in the field, included field bindweed

  15. Selenium treatment differentially affects sulfur metabolism in high and low glucosinolate producing cultivars of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Leung, Susanna; Joshi, Srishti; Rippon, Paula E; Joyce, Nigel I; McManus, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar. Also no significant change was observed in the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, EC 2.7.7.4) or O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC 2.5.1.47) with increased Se application. However, in the first investigation of APS kinase (APSK, EC 2.7.1.25) expression in response to Se fertilisation, an increase in transcript abundance of one variant of APS kinase 1 (BoAPSK1A) was observed in both cultivars, and an increase in BoAPSK2 transcript abundance was observed in the low GSL producing cultivar. A mechanism by which increased APSK transcription may provide a means of controlling the content of S-containing compounds, including GSLs, following Se uptake is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Or mutation leads to photo-oxidative stress responses in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) seedlings during de-etiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Xiao; Dong, Kang

    2013-11-01

    The Orange (Or) gene is a gene mutation that can increase carotenoid content in plant tissues normally devoid of pigments. It affects plastid division and is involved in the differentiation of proplastids or non-colored plastids into chromoplasts. In this study, the de-etiolation process of the wild type (WT) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Or mutant seedlings was investigated. We analyzed pigment content, plastid development, transcript abundance and protein levels of genes involved in the de-etiolation process. The results showed that Or can increase the carotenoid content in green tissues, although not as effectively as in non-green tissues, and this effect might be caused by the changes in biosynthetic pathway genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There was no significant difference in the plastid development process between the two lines. However, the increased content of antheraxanthin and anthocyanin, and higher expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (VDE) suggested a stress situation leading to photoinhibition and enhanced photoprotection in the Or mutant. The up-regulated expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genes, ZAT10 for salt tolerance zinc finger protein and ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2), suggested the existence of photo-oxidative stress in the Or mutant. In summary, abovementioned findings provide additional insight into the functions of the Or gene in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

  17. Two new similar alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiyu; Ying, Zheming; Gao, Mingzhe; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Xu, Liang; Tao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Two novel alkaloids named oleraciamide A (1) and oleraciamide B (2) were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer spectrometry techniques are employed to determine their structures. Oleraciamide A (1) was evaluated no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 80 μM over 72 h against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  18. Adsorption of heavy metals ions on portulaca oleracea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the ability of portulaca oleracea (Fershi in Urdu) biomass grown in uncontaminated soils to adsorb or uptake lead, cadmium, arsenic, cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions. In order to help understand the metal binding mechanism, laboratory experiments performance to determine optimal binding, and binding capacity for each of the above mentioned metals. These experiments were carried out for the mass of crushed portulaca stems. Portulaca is a plant that grows abundantly in temperature climate in the area of Quetta Balochistan. It has reddish stem and thick succulent leaves. This plant has been found to be good adsorbent for heavy metals ions. (author)

  19. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  20. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  1. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  3. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  4. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  5. Pemanfaatan Antosianin dari Ekstrak Kol Merah (Brassica oleracea var sebagai Pewarna Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinasti Dwi Pratiwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC utilizing anthocyanin extract from red cabbage was fabricated. This study aims to determine the wavelength absorption of dye contributed in highest efficiency. The sandwich structure of DSSC consists of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, anthocyanin dye as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The absorbance of dye was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V Meter Keithley, and the quantum efficiency was characterized using IPCE Measurement System. The absorption of dye anthocyanin of red cabbage is 450 nm–580 nm wavelengths, I-V characteristic curves resulted efficiency of 0,029%, and IPCE characteristic resulted highest efficiency at wavelength of 420 nm with efficiency of 0,099%.

  6. Intra-specific Differences in Root and Shoot Glucosinolate Profiles among White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot glucosinolate profiles of Brassicaceae are known to vary within species, across environmental conditions, and between developmental stages. Here we study whether root profiles follow the intra-specific, environmental, and developmental variation observed for aerial parts in white cabbage

  7. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Different Culture Media on Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Yield Components and Mineral Elements Concentration in Soilless Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ghasemi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Broccoli is one of the valuable vegetables among brassicas which has received great attention throughout the world and is cultivated both in soil and soilless culture. Currently, we face restriction in high quality of the soils and water resources as two essential inputs in agriculture. Like other parts of the world, Iran is losing hundred hectares of its arable and fertile land annually due to salinity, alkalinity and waterlogging. One of the important strategies to overcome these adverse conditions is soilless culture systems. Among the different methods of soilless culture, substrate culture is more common and cheaper than others. Different kinds of organic and inorganic substances are used in soilless culture system, but the optimum mixture of growing medium is still a challenging issue. Physical and chemical characteristics of growing media can potentially affect the yield and product quality in direct and indirect ways. A good medium for soilless culture should have easy drainage, appropriate aeration, high water holding capacity and low price, as well as no weed seeds and pathogens. Therefore, this research was aimed to evaluate different prevalent growing media in broccoli soilless culture system. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as an outdoor soilless culture system in outdoor hydroponic site in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Recourses University (SANRU. To begin with, broccoli seeds were sown in transplanting tray, and after five weeks, the developed transplants were cultivated in growing bags in a soilless system. In this work, different mixtures of culture media were evaluated for yield component and mineral elements of broccoli. Ten kinds of different media comprising of cocopeat, perlite, sand, sawdust, sand+sawdust, sand+vermicompost, cocopeat+perlite, cocopeat+LECA, cocopeat+ pumice, and cocopeat+perlite+ vermicompost were compared in completely randomized design with tree replications. At the end of the growing season, vegetative growth and yield components of broccoli were measured. The macro nutrients including nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (k, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca and sulfur (S were then analyzed in the harvested broccoli. Four important micro elements such as Iron (Fe, cooper (Cu, boron (B and zinc (Zn were measured as well. A statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance in Statistical Analysis System (SAS software (version 9.1 and means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels. Results and Discussion: According to the results, culture medium showed no significant effect on plant height, dry matter and the number of auxiliary heads, while it significantly affected diameter and weight of main head (p≤0.01. The highest head diameter was seen in sand+vermicompost mixture which had no significant difference from cocopeat, cocopeat+LECA, and prlite+cocopeat+vemicompost. The mixture of sand+vermicompost resulted in the heaviest broccoli heads that were significantly greater than all other growing media used in the experiment. Since vermicompost contains some mineral elements like calcium, magnesium and phosphorus and some growth stimulators as well, mixing this substrate with sand can create an appropriate and ideal culture for root growth and development. Pure perlite and sawdust media contributed to the lowest yield with no significant differences from each other. The macro and micro nutrients of broccoli head were not significantly affected by growing medium, except for nitrogen and zinc. The highest concentration of nitrogen in broccoli head was recorded for pure perlite and sawdust which was significantly more than other media. The highest zinc concentration in broccoli head was observed in Sawdust medium (p≤0.05. A significant negative correlation was observed between plant height and three main macro nutrients (N, P and K. The negative correlation between some macro nutrients and plant growth can be related to the excessive amount of these elements in nutrient solution. Positive and significant correlation was also seen among plant height, head diameter and head weight. In other word, the tallest plants could produce bigger and heavier head. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that a mixture of organic and inorganic substances can be better than a single substance medium. On the other hand, our results showed that role of medium substances and composition is not as important as nutrient solution, so an appropriate nutrient solution with a proper rate can potentially provide all plant's needs regardless of media composition.

  9. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  10. Heterologous expression of AtMYB12 in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leads to high flavonol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lännenpää, Mika

    2014-08-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis AtMYB12 transcription factor greatly increases the total phenolic and flavonol content in transgenic kale leaves. Flavonoids are a diverse group of plant secondary metabolites exhibiting a number of health-promoting effects. There has been a growing interest to develop biotechnological methods for the enhanced production of flavonoids in crop plants. AtMYB12 is an Arabidopsis transcription factor which specifically activates flavonol synthesis and its overexpression has led to increased flavonol accumulation in several transgenic plants. In the present study, AtMYB12 was overexpressed in a commercial cultivar of kale and the transgenic plants were tested both in in vitro and in semi-field conditions in cages under natural light. Using this method, a severalfold increase in both total phenolics content and flavonol accumulation was achieved. This study provides a reliable and efficient transformation protocol for kale and suggests the potential of this flavonol-enriched vegetable for the production of kaempferol.

  11. Efficacy of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chinrasri, Orawan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on performance, carcass characteristics, tissue Se concentration, and physiological responses of broilers in comparison to that of Se from Se-enriched yeast and sodium selenite. Three hundred and sixty male broilers, 10 days of age, were assigned to 6 groups, 4 replicates of 15 broilers each, according to the completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were the following: T1: control diet; T2: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast; and T4, T5, and T6: control diet plus 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results found that dietary Se supplementation did not (p > 0.05) alter performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Se supplementation increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the liver and kidney of broilers. Heart tissue Se concentration of broilers fed Se from sodium selenite was lower (p < 0.05) than that of broilers fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast. Selenium from HPSeKS increased higher (p < 0.05) GSH-Px activity when compared to Se from sodium selenite and Se-enriched yeast. The results indicated that the efficacy of Se from HPSeKS was comparable in increasing tissue Se concentration, but higher in improving GSH-Px activity in Rbc when compared to those of Se from Se-enriched yeast.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast.

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    Pacheco-Cano, R D; Salcedo-Hernández, R; López-Meza, J E; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against micro-organism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Proteus vulgaris), phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Asperigillus niger) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.). It was shown that samples treated with proteolytic enzymes had a reduction of approximately 60% in antibacterial activity against Staph. xylosus, suggesting that proteinaceous compounds might play a role in the inhibitory effect. Antimicrobial components in crude extracts were thermoresistant and the highest activity was observed under acidic conditions. It was shown that antifungal activity of broccoli's crude extracts might not be attributed to chitinases. Organic broccoli cultivar Avenger has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and phytophatogenic fungi. Data suggest that this effect is partially due to AMPs. Broccoli's crude extracts have activity not only against pathogenic bacteria but also against phytophatogenic fungi of importance in agriculture. We suggest for first time that the inhibitory effect is probably due to AMPs. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Effect of time of day for harvest and postharvest treatments on the sugar metabolism of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica

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    Joaquin Hasperue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available     Loss of sugars contributes to accelerate postharvest senescence of broccoli. Several treatments have been developed to delay senescence, but in many cases their effects on sugar metabolism were not analyzed. We studied the effect of harvest at different times of day (08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h and of several postharvest treatments as heat treatment (HT, modified atmosphere (MA and 1-methylcylcopropene (1-MCP on sugar levels and activities of enzymes related to sucrose and starch degradation. Harvesting at the end of day delayed the loss of chlorophylls and caused the lowest decrement in sugars, although no differences in invertase, sucrose synthase and β-amylase activities were detected among samples. Treatments of MA and 1-MCP caused a lower loss of glucose and fructose, while HT caused a lower decrement of sucrose. Treated samples maintained higher levels of chlorophylls. The treatments reduced the activity of invertase and sucrose synthase and induced higher levels of β-amylase activity. Harvesting at the end of day and performing simultaneously a MA treatment could be a good combination to maintain the green color of the inflorescence and sugar levels during postharvest of broccoli.

  14. Thermal stability of L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

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    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Makule, Edna Edward; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of vitamin C (including l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] and dehydroascorbic acid [DHAA]) in crushed broccoli was evaluated in the temperature range of 30 to 90 degrees C whereas that of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was evaluated in the temperature range of 20 to 95 degrees C. Thermal treatments (for 15 min) of crushed broccoli at 30 to 60 degrees C resulted in conversion of l-AA to DHAA whereas treatments at 70 to 90 degrees C retained vitamin C as l-AA. These observations indicated that enzymes (for example, AAO) could play a major role in the initial phase (that is, oxidation of l-AA to DHAA) of vitamin C degradation in broccoli. Consequently, a study to evaluate the temperature-time conditions that could result in AAO inactivation in broccoli was carried out. In this study, higher AAO activity was observed in broccoli florets than stalks. During thermal treatments for 10 min, AAO in broccoli florets and stalks was stable until around 50 degrees C. A 10-min thermal treatment at 80 degrees C almost completely inactivated AAO in broccoli. AAO inactivation followed 1st order kinetics in the temperature range of 55 to 65 degrees C. Based on this study, a thermal treatment above 70 degrees C is recommended for crushed vegetable products to prevent oxidation of l-AA to DHAA, the onset of vitamin C degradation. The results reported in this study are applicable for both domestic and industrial processing of vegetables into products such as juices, soups, and purees. In this report, we have demonstrated that processing crushed broccoli in a temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C could result in the conversion of l-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic (DHAA), a very important reaction in regard to vitamin C degradation because DHAA could be easily converted to other compounds that do not have the biological activity of vitamin C.

  15. Thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and model systems.

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    Hanschen, Franziska S; Platz, Stefanie; Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W

    2012-03-07

    Processing reduces the glucosinolate (GSL) content of plant food, among other aspects due to thermally induced degradation. Since there is little information about the thermal stability of GSL and formation of corresponding breakdown products, the thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL was studied in broccoli sprouts and with isolated GSL in dry medium at different temperatures as well as in aqueous medium at different pH values. Desulfo-GSL have been analyzed with HPLC-DAD, while breakdown products were estimated using GC-FID. Whereas in the broccoli sprouts structural differences of the GSL with regard to thermal stability exist, the various isolated sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL degraded nearly equally and were in general more stable. In broccoli sprouts, methylsulfanylalkyl GSL were more susceptible to degradation at high temperatures, whereas methylsulfinylalkyl GSL were revealed to be more affected in aqueous medium under alkaline conditions. Besides small amounts of isothiocyanates, the main thermally induced breakdown products of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL were nitriles. Although they were most rapidly formed at comparatively high temperatures under dry heat conditions, their highest concentrations were found after cooking in acidic medium, conditions being typical for domestic processing.

  16. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  17. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. KAJIAN SAAT PEMBERIAN PUPUK DASAR NITROGEN DAN UMUR BIBIT PADA TANAMAN BROKOLI (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica Planck

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    Catur Wasonowati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research to know the influence of nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seedling after transplanting to growth and harvest of broccoli. The research was done Sumber Brantas Batu. It is a factorial experiment using plot design. There are two factor with three times replications. Factor I (main terrace is nitrogen base fertilizer timing consist of N0, N1 and N2 where nitrogen  fertilizer given at 0, 7th and  14th day after plant. Factor II  is broccoli seed age consist of  B1, B2, B3 and B4 where seed age are 3, 4, 5 and 6 week. The result of this experiment shows that nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seed can increase growth and harvest of broccoli.  Seed age  5 and 6 give plant height, leave quantity and stem diameter higher  than other age observation. Seed age 3 and 4 week give fresh weight of flower plant 414.53 g/plant. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing at 7th day after planting and seed age at 5th  week give leave width, leave width index, total dry weight and harvest higher than other observation. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing and seed age at 5th  week cause plant quick flowering (52th day and harvest (72th day. While  combination treatment  nitrogen base fertilizer timing 14th after flowering  and seed age at 4th week give the highest fresh weight flower that is 2855 g/m2.

  19. Atmospheric carbon dioxide changes photochemical activity, soluble sugars and volatile levels in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbein, Angelika; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Schonhof, Ilona; Schreiner, Monika

    2010-03-24

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased qP values in leaves by up to 100% and 89% in heads, while glucose and sucrose in leaves increased by about 60%. Furthermore, in broccoli heads elevated CO(2) concentration induced approximately a 2-fold increase in concentrations of three fatty acid-derived C(7) aldehydes ((E)-2-heptenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal), two fatty acid-derived C(5) alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-2-pentenol), and two amino acid-derived nitriles (phenyl propanenitrile, 3-methyl butanenitrile). In contrast, concentrations of the sulfur-containing compound 2-ethylthiophene and C(6) alcohol (E)-2-hexenol decreased. Finally, elevated CO(2) concentration increased soluble sugar concentrations due to enhanced photochemical activity in leaves and heads, which may account for the increased synthesis of volatiles.

  20. KEMAMPUAN ADAPTASI, PENGARUH PUPUK DAN KANDUNGAN GIZI BERBAGAI KULTIVAR BROKOLI (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUKSI DI KOPANG, LOMBOK TENGAH

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    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of  eight introduced  broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design (RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B-106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers. Key word: broccoli cultivars, adaptation, heat tolerance

  1. Effect of Gossypium hirsutum and Ricinus comunis meals in growth and yield of Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck

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    Juan Francisco Avendaño Mora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of broccoli in Equador uses high doses of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, which cause problems in the soil, the environment and the crop yield itself. In this work organic amendments were applied to Haplustolls soil by implementing the following trial treatments: castor bean meal (270 kg N ha-1, 202.5 kg N ha-1, 152 kg N ha-1, cotton seed meal (270 kg N ha-1, 202.5 kg N ha-1, 152 kg N ha-1, and control without organic fertilization. Results confirmed that applications of organic meals made from cotton seed and castor bean had a favorable effect on growth and yield of Broccoli in the canton Riobamba, Chimborazo province, Ecuador. Result gets into the hands of broccoli farmers give new alternatives of organic fertilization to restore physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and will increase crop yields and help environmental preservation.

  2. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) evaluated under organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany). Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (pbroccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable yield and proportion of marketable heads.

  3. Evaluation of different cooking conditions on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to improve the nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongoni, Radhika; Verkerk, Ruud; Steenbekkers, Bea; Dekker, Matthijs; Stieger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in 'high', 'medium', 'low' firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17%). Boiling-hot start (-41%) and boiling-cold start (-50%) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at 'high' and 'medium' firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at 'medium' firmness, and flavour at 'medium' and 'low' firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.

  4. Variation in bioactive content in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) grown under conventional and organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Juan; Reilly, Kim; Villacreces, Salvador; Gaffney, Michael; Grant, James; Brunton, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular glucosinolates and polyphenols, which are proposed to confer health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is at least partly based on a perception that organic crops may contain higher levels of bioactive compounds; however, insufficient research has been carried out to either support or refute such claims. In this study we examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total and individual glucosinolates in two varieties of broccoli grown over 2 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation but were not significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. In contrast, levels of the indolyl glucosinolates glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were significantly higher (P broccoli florets; however, other investigated compounds were unaffected by production practices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, T; Verkerk, R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Dekker, M

    2014-11-15

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC) and temperature on MYR inactivation in broccoli was investigated. Broccoli was freeze dried obtaining batches with WC between 10% and 90% (aw from 0.10 to 0.96). These samples were incubated for various times at different temperatures (40-70°C) and MYR activity was measured. The initial MYR inactivation rates were estimated by the first-order reaction kinetic model. MYR inactivation rate constants were lower in the driest samples (10% WC) at all studied temperatures. Samples with 67% and 90% WC showed initial inactivation rate constants all in the same order of magnitude. Samples with 31% WC showed intermediate initial inactivation rate constants. These results are useful to optimise the conditions of drying processes to produce dried broccoli with optimal MYR retention for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Heavy Metal Ions and Carbohydrates on the Activity of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea Var. botrytis Myrosinase

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    Prakash, Om

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase is an enzyme of cruciferous vegetables, hydrolyse glucosinolates. The breakdown products are involved in plant defence against insect and also have anti-fungal property. Myrosinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from 5 days old germinated cauliflower seedlings having a specific activity of 12.71 units/mg proteins with 54.6 % recovery, using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Effect of some metal ions and carbohydrates on the activity of partially purified cauliflower myrosinase was studied. Sr+2 at 4 mM concentration exhibited marked activating effect on the activity up to 2.7 fold while Fe+2 significantly inhibited. However, Sn+2 and Ba+2 increased the activity to a certain extent and then suppressed. On the other hand, some metal ions [Fe+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Zn+2] strongly inhibited the activity even at lower concentrations. Several carbohydrates viz., glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and sorbitol even at comparatively higher concentrations had little detectable inhibitory effects. Activation kinetics of myrosinase in presence of Sn+2 and Sr+2 were studied between 0- 20min. The rate of reaction was almost constant till 15 min and then slight deactivation was recorded at various concentrations used.

  7. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica evaluated under organic farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sahamishirazi

    Full Text Available In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany. Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (p< 0.0001 higher biomass fresh weight. Some experimental lines had significant lower head fresh weight in spring in comparison to the fall season. The high temperature during the harvest period for the spring season affected the yield negatively through decreasing the firmness of broccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable yield and proportion of marketable heads.

  8. [Isolation and identification of specific sequences correlated to cytoplasmic male sterility and fertile maintenance in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun Guo; Chen, Xiao Qiang; Li, Hui; Zhao, Qian Cheng; Sun, De Ling; Song, Wen Qin

    2008-02-01

    Analysis of ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat) and DDRT-PCR (Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction) was performed between cytoplasmic male sterility cauliflower ogura-A and its corresponding maintainer line ogura-B. Totally, 306 detectable bands were obtained by ISSR using thirty oligonucleotide primers. Commonly, six to twelve bands were produced per primer. Among all these primers only the amplification of primer ISSR3 was polymorphic, an 1100 bp specific band was only detected in maintainer line, named ISSR3(1100). Analysis of this sequence indicated that ISSR3(1100) was high homologous with the corresponding sequences of mitochondrial genome in Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana,which suggested that ISSR3(1100) may derive from mitochondrial genome in cauliflower. To carry out DDRT-PCR analysis, three anchor primers and fifteen random primers were selected to combine. Totally, 1122 bands from 1 000 bp to 50 bp were detected. However, only four bands, named ogura-A 205, ogura-A383, ogura-B307 and ogura-B352, were confirmed to be different display in both lines. This result was further identified by reverse Northern dot blotting analysis. Among these four bands, ogura-A205 and ogura-A383 only express in cytoplasmic male sterility line, while ogura-B307 and ogura-B352 were only detected in maintainer line. Analysis of these sequences indicated that it was the first time that these four sequences were reported in cauliflower. Interestingly, ogura-A205 and ogura-B307 did not exhibit any similarities to other reported sequences in other species, more investigations were required to obtain further information. ogura-A383 and ogura-B352 were also two new sequences, they showed high similarities to corresponding chloroplast sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. So we speculated that these two sequences may derive from chloroplast genome. All these results obtained in this study offer new and significant information to investigate the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertile maintenance in cauliflower.

  9. Dissipation kinetics of spinosad on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. L.) under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

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    Mandal, Kousik; Jyot, Gagan; Singh, Balwinder

    2009-12-01

    Residues of spinosad were estimated in cauliflower curds using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Following three application of spinosad (Success 2.5 SC) at 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, the average initial deposits of spinosad were observed to be 0.57 and 1.34 mg kg−1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg−1 after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T 1/2) of spinosad were worked out to be 1.20 and 1.58 days, respectively, at recommended and double the recommended dosages. Thus, a waiting period of 6 days is suggested for the safe consumption of spinosad treated cauliflower.

  10. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KUBIS MERAH (Brassica oleraceae var. TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN PADA BISKUIT TEPUNG BIJI RAMBUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ristiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seed flour could be utilized as a food especially as source of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Red cabbage could be used as natural food color because of their anthocyanin content. The aims of the research were to investigate the effect of red cabbage to the antioxidant activity and consumer preference of rambutan seed flour biscuit. This research was use completed randomized design with 9 combinations and 2 replications. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was biscuit made by 50 g of rambutan seed flour addition and 20% of red cabbage extract, e.i 19.48 % radical scavenging activity (RSA of DPPH. But biscuit which was most prefere by panel test was only 25 g of rambutan seed flour without any addition of red cabbage extract. Rambutan seed flour and red cabbage addition to the biscuit did affect the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of the biscuit.

  11. Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

    2015-05-01

    The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 μg g(-1)) > stems (16.4 μg g(-1)) > roots (15.5 μg g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 μg g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Correction to Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Stien, Didier; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Oleracimine and oleracimine A were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and described in the J. Agric. Food Chem, but the alternative structures of the two compounds are proposed on the basis of NMR analyses.

  13. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation by Portulaca oleracea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea against hyperglycemic, oxidative damage and inflammation in the serum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the rats were divided into the following groups of 8 animals each: control, untreated diabetic, 3 Portulaca oleracea (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/d)-treated diabetic groups. At the end of the 4-week period, glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured. STZ caused an elevation in the serum levels of glucose, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α with reduction in the levels of GSH and TAS ( P Portulaca oleracea ameliorated glucose, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, GSH, and TAS levels in diabetic groups versus to the untreated groups ( P Portulaca oleracea prevented hyperglycemia by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation.

  14. A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahy, Milad; Javadi, Behjat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Mahyari, Saman; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-06-09

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a widespread medicinal plant that is used not only as an edible plant, but also as a traditional medicine for alleviating a wide spectrum of diseases. It is a well-known plant in the European Traditional Medicine. PA is mentioned by Dioscorides (40-90 CE), with the name of "andrachne". In this study, we provide detailed information on botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological uses, pharmacokinetics and safety of P. oleracea. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, conference papers, local herbal encyclopedias, articles, books (in English, French, Arabic, Persian, etc.) and also a number of unpublished handwritten manuscripts was done to find articles have been published between 1956 and 2015 on pharmacology and phytochemistry of P. oleracea. P. oleracea has been addressed in De Materia Medica as an astringent, and a remedy for headaches, inflammation of the eyes and other organs, burning of the stomach, erysipela, disorders of the bladder, numbness of the teeth, excessive sexual desire, burning fevers, worms, dysentery, hemorrhoids, eruptions of blood, and bites. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant a wide range of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and organic acids. The most important pharmacological activities are renoprotective activities and effects on metabolism. P. oleracea could successfully decrease blood glucose and lipid profile of patients with metabolic syndrome. The safety of P. oleracea has been reported in many clinical trials. Modern pharmacological studies have now proven many traditional uses of P. oleracea, including anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic, renoprotective and hepatoprotective effects. In addition, in many clinical trials P. oleracea showed no adverse effects and constipation was reported as the most frequent adverse effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  15. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  16. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  17. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  18. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  19. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  20. Conformational changes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea leaves chloroplasts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Godziemba-Czyż

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the surface area of chloroplasts from intact cells of spinach leaves (\tSpinacia oleracea induced by blue (370—500 nm and red (600- 850 nm light of various intensity (102 - 5x105 erg cm-1s-1 were investigated. The changes are deseribed in terms of mean surface area in , μm2 and frequency of oocurrence of surface size classes. Low intensity blue light caused enlargement of the chloroplast surface (as compared with that in darkness, whereas high intensity light markedly reduced it. Exposure of chloroplasts to red light produces an increase of the surface in proportion to the intensity of the light and irradiation time.

  1. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two new alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Long; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Li, Dan-Qi; Sun, Qian; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Two new alkaloids named (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone (1) and 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one (2), together with two known compounds (7'R)-N-feruloyl normetanephrine (3) and N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (4) were isolated from the air-dried aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea L. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-MS techniques. In addition, compounds 1-4 were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung (K562 and A549) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435) cancer cell lines.

  3. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  4. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  5. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  6. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  8. Hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-11

    Diabetes is a major public health concern. In spite of continuous new drug development to treat diabetes, herbal remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Portulaca oleracea has been traditionally used to manage several diseases due to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic effects it imparts. To better understand the mechanisms associated with potential protective effect of P. oleracea extract against diabetes, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used in this study. Forty Wistar rats (male, 7-8-wk-old, 140-160 g) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): Group I (control), Group II (P. oleracea-treated; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks), Group III (diabetic control; daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days) and Group IV (P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks and then daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days). Body weight, food consumption, blood (serum) levels of glucose, C peptide, Hb A1C, insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined for all groups. The results indicated that while Hb A1C, serum levels of glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 were all significantly decreased in the P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic rats, these hosts also had significant increases in C peptide and insulin compared to levels in the counterpart diabetic rats. These results were confirmed by the histopathological assessments which showed marked improvement of the destructive effect on pancreatic islet cells induced by alloxan. P. oleracea extract is a general tissue protective and regeneartive agent, as evidenced by increasing β-cell mass and therefore improved the glucose metabolism. Thus, stimulation of Portulaca oleracea signaling in β- cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes prevention.

  9. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  10. Herbicide effects on cuticle ultrastructure in Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpassi, Rosana N

    2006-04-01

    Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea are two common weeds in peanut crops in southern Córdoba. Two chemicals are frequently used to control them, quizalofop for grasses and lactofen for dicots. The objective is to study the effects of quizalofop and lactofen on cuticle ultrastructure in E. indica and P. oleracea, respectively. In the lab, quizalofop was applied on E. indica and lactofen on P. oleracea. Three plant categories were analyzed in each species: 3, 1-2, and no tiller in E. indica, and 8, 6, and 2 nomophylls in P. oleracea. Leaf samples from both species were collected at 7 and 16 days post-application and were treated for scanning electron microscopy. E. indica cuticle treated with lethal dose shows areas where epicuticular waxes disappear, specially in the youngest individuals. These areas are located predominantly on periclinal walls of typical epidermic cells and subsidiary cells. On the other hand, P. oleracea shows cuticle discontinuities that may be caused by lactofen entry. They are smaller and less frequent in plants having 8 or more nomophylls. The remaining waxes act as a herbicide accumulation compartment and, therefore, would partially prevent the active ingredient entry to epidermic cells.

  11. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  12. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  13. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, P.; Tu, Y.; Lin, C.; Chang, H.; Chen, L.; Litfu, A

    2014-01-01

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  14. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater.

  15. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  16. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  17. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  18. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  19. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  20. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  1. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  2. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  4. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  5. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  6. Phytoremediation of fluoride with garden ornamentals Nerium oleander, Portulaca oleracea, and Pogonatherum crinitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Desai, Shaileshkumar B; Bhujbal, Sourabh S; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Biradar, Shivtej P; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2017-03-01

    Nursery grown plants of Nerium oleander, Pogonatherum crinitum, and Portulaca oleracea were observed to remove fluoride up to 92, 80, and 73%, respectively, from NaF solution at the concentration of 10 mg L -1 within 15 days. Concentration range of 10-50 mg L -1 of fluoride revealed a constant decrease of removal from 92 to 51% within 15 days by N. oleander, while the biomass (one to five plants) showed enhancement in removal from 74 to 98% in 10 days. Translocation and bioaccumulation factors calculated after fluoride contents in roots and leaves of N. oleander, P. crinitum, and P. oleracea were 1.85, 1.19, and 1.43, and 9.8, 3.6, and 2.2, respectively. P . oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander showed reductions in chlorophyll contents by 40, 57 and 25 and 8%, carbohydrates by 50, 44, and 16%, and proteins by 38, 53, and 15%, respectively. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the roots of P. oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander were observed to be induced by 400, 383, and 500%; 80, 105, and 424%; and 153, 77, and 71%, respectively, while the leaves showed induction in SOD, CAT, and GPX activities by 550, 315, and 165%; 196, 227, and 243%; and 280, 242, and 184%, respectively. Results endorsed the superiority of N. oleander for fluoride removal over other plant species.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, M.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Prabhakaran, V.; Taj, S. Shareen; Kumari, B. Pushpa; Ranganayakulu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days). The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w) was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST), alanine transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P), total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP) and total cholesterol (TC)], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST) and histopathological studies of liver. Results: Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions: The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:22022001

  8. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzón, G.A.; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray

  9. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) Root Endophyte, Pseudomonas sp. Strain C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugraud, Aurelie; Young, Sandra; Gerard, Emily; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven

    2017-04-13

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C9 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from the root tissue of Brassica oleracea L. grown in soil from Marlborough, New Zealand. Its draft genome of 6,350,161 bp contains genes associated with plant growth promotion and biological control. Copyright © 2017 Laugraud et al.

  11. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  12. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  13. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  14. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  15. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  16. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  17. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Raman

    Full Text Available Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC region (82,805 bp, with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19 was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23 genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  18. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were

  19. A rapid extraction and analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 26 bioflavonoids in Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Li, Lingzhi; Tian, Jinlong; Wu, Yingying; Gao, Pinyi; Li, Danqi; Zhang, Qingyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea, purslane) is an edible plant that is widely distributed around the world, and flavonoids are its main bioactive constituents. Therefore, the detection of flavonoids is very important for a better understanding of its pharmacological actions and to monitor the product quality control of P. oleracea. To develop a rapid method to extract and determine 26 bioflavonoids in P. oleracea, based on microwave extraction (MWE) and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions of MWE for the extraction of flavonoids from P. oleracea involved the use of methanol as the extraction solvent, a microwave power of 300 W, an extraction time of 450 s, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The samples were analysed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) system. The calibration curves of all 26 analytes showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999) and the intra- and interday precisions and repeatability were all within required limits. The mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were higher than 94.2%, with RSDs lower than 2.94% for the targets. The established MWE/UPLC-MS/MS method is a rapid and effective method for quality evaluation of P. oleracea from different production regions and different harvest periods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  1. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  3. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  4. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  6. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  7. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  8. The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J. Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848

  9. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  10. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  11. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of lung inflammation and immune markers in asthmatic rats treated by Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mahsa; Eidi, Akram; Nemati, Ali; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicated anti-inflammatory effects for Portulaca oleracea in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, the effects of P. oleracea on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of total protein (TP), Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IgE in sensitized rats were examined. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into six groups namely, control (group C), sensitized rats (group S), sensitized animal treated with three concentrations of the extract of P. oleracea and dexamethasone (n = 8 for each group). The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE in BALF were measured. Results: The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE were significantly increased in the BALF of group S compared to group C (p<0.001 for all cases). However, treatment of S rats with all concentrations of the extract, resulted in a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE compared to group S (p<0.001 for all cases except for the effect of the low extract concentration on TP). Dexamethasone treatment also led to significant reduction of TP, PLA2 and IgE (p<0.001 for all cases). The effect of dexamethasone treatment on PLA2 was significantly higher than the effects of all extract concentrations (p<0.001 for all cases). However, the effect of high extract concentration on TP and IgE was significantly higher than that of dexamethasone (p<0.001 both cases). Conclusion: The results indicated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of P. oleracea in sensitized rats (as an animal model of asthma) which was equal or more marked than dexamethasone at studied concentrations. PMID:29062802

  14. Attività chemioprotettiva di estratti di spinacio (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and chemoprotective activity, but little is known about the modulation of secondary metabolites induction by abiotic stress (i.e. hypoxia) and it’s correlation to human health. In this study I demonstrate that 24 h hypoxia alter the production of secondary metabolites in spinach. In vitro studies on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line of different spinach aqueous extracts,show ...

  15. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALESKA B. MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waleska B; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Silva, Hatamy K; Dantas, Camila G; Júnior, Waldecy DE Lucca; Filho, Lauro Xavier; Cardoso, Juliana C; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2016-09-01

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  17. Antitumor activity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides against cervical carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Cai, Yaping; Shao, Xingyue; Jia, Guiyan; Huang, Yulan; Qin, Xuegong; Wang, Jingwei; Zheng, Xiaoliang

    2013-07-25

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as folk medicine in different countries to treat different ailments in humans. P. oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P), extracted from P. oleracea L., is found to have bioactivities such as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (POL-P3b) was successfully purified from Galium verum L. by DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. To evaluate the anticancer efficacy and associated mechanisms of POL-P3b on cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo, we showed that treatment of HeLa cell with POL-P3b inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, POL-P3b significantly inhibited tumor growth in U14-bearing mice. Further analysis indicated that POL-P3b possesses the activity of inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo at a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the mechanisms were associated with Sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest, triggering DNA damage and inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  19. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Ana; Stulen, Ineke; De Kok, Luit J.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l -1 NH 3 (2.8 mg m -3 ), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH 3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH 3 . NH 3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH 3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH 3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH 3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH 3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brassica oleracea germplasm in Ireland using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important Brassica oleracea species is endangered in Ireland, with no prior reported genetic characterization studies. This study assesses the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of B. oleracea germplasm in Ireland using microsatellite (SSRs) markers. A total of 118 individuals from 25 accessions of Irish B. oleracea were genotyped. The SSR loci used revealed a total of 47 alleles. The observed heterozygosity (0.699) was higher than the expected one (0.417). Moreover, the average values of fixation indices (F) were negative, indicating excess of heterozygotes in all accessions. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR loci ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, with an average of 0.571, and classified 10 loci as informative markers (PIC>0.5) to differentiate among the accessions studied. The genetic differentiation among accessions showed that 27.1% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 72.9% of the variation resided within accessions. The averages of total heterozygosity (H(T)) and intra-accession genetic diversity (H(S)) were 0.577 and 0.442, respectively. Cluster analysis of SSR data distinguished among kale and Brussels sprouts cultivars. This study provided a new insight into the exploitation of the genetically diverse spring cabbages accessions, revealing a high genetic variation, as potential resources for future breeding programs. SSR loci were effective for differentiation among the accessions studied. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypnotic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hasan; Arian, Amirali

    2018-03-08

    In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF:); n-Hexane fraction (n-HF); water fraction (WF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of Portulaca oleracea extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Besides, 30 min after administration of hydro alcoholic extract (HAE) motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and n-HF at 25 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE and NHF but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. HAE and its fractions did not show neurotoxic effect in cultured PC12-cell line, also HAE did not affect the animals' performance on the rotarod test. The present data demonstrated that Portulaca oleracea potentiates sleeping behaviors. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in n-HF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  4. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  5. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  6. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  7. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  8. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  9. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  12. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  14. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  15. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  16. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  17. Expresión de la hormona de crecimiento humano en cultivos de raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar García López; Octavio Gómez Gúzman; Emma Gloria Ramos-Ramírez; Armando Ariza-Castolo; Josefina Pérez-Vargas; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    Debido al crecimiento de la población humana mundial, las compañías farmacéuticas enfrentan una creciente demanda de proteínas terapéuticas, como anticuerpos, enzimas y hormonas; no obstante, las instalaciones y tecnologías existentes, como los cultivos de células animales y bacterianos pueden no resultar suficientes para cubrir esa demanda. Una alternativa es la utilización de la biotecnología vegetal para producir proteínas heterólogas. En este trabajo se presentan resultados del estudio de...

  18. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  19. Proposed Method for Estimating Health-Promoting Glucosinolates and Hydrolysis Products in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Using Relative Transcript Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-18

    Due to the importance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in human nutrition and plant defense, optimizing the content of these compounds is a frequent breeding objective for Brassica crops. Toward this goal, we investigated the feasibility of using models built from relative transcript abundance data for the prediction of glucosinolate and hydrolysis product concentrations in broccoli. We report that predictive models explaining at least 50% of the variation for a number of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products can be built for prediction within the same season, but prediction accuracy decreased when using models built from one season's data for prediction of an opposing season. This method of phytochemical profile prediction could potentially allow for lower phytochemical phenotyping costs and larger breeding populations. This, in turn, could improve selection efficiency for phase II induction potential, a type of chemopreventive bioactivity, by allowing for the quick and relatively cheap content estimation of phytochemicals known to influence the trait.

  20. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  1. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo, Hernando; Lagos, Tulio; Piarpuezan, Edwin; Pérez, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three...

  2. Uji Efektifitas Beberapa Konsentrasi Larutan Daun Kirinyuh (Choromolaena odorata (L. King & Robinson Terhadap Ulat Tritip (Plutella xylostella L Pada Tanaman Kubis (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata Di Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulat tritip, Plutella xylostella, merupakan hama cosmopolitan yang memiliki kecendrungan tinggi untuk resisten terhadap insektisida konvensional.  Oleh karenanya perlu terus dikaji bahan alternative yang berpotensi insektisidal untuk hama ini.  Kirinyuh, Chromolaena odorata, merupakan gulma invasive yang memiliki kandungan senyawa dengan  potensi insektisidal.   Penelitian ini  telah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Islam Riau, Jalan Kaharudin Nasution, Kelurahan Simpang Tiga, Kecamatan Bukit Raya, Pekanbaru KM 11; dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi konsentrasi filtrate daun kirinyuh dengan dua cara aplikasi (metoda tetes/topical dan metoda celup daun/pakan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap ( RAL faktorial, dimana faktor pertama adalah berbagai tingkat konsentrasi larutan daun kirinyuh ( D terdiri dari 5 taraf perlakuan yaitu : kontrol, 150 gr/liter air, 300 gr/liter air, 450 gr/liter air dan 600 gr/liter air dan faktor kedua adalah cara aplikasi ( A yang terdiri dari 2 taraf perlakuan dimana  cara pertama yaitu larutan yang ditetesi secara topikal ketubuh larva dan bahan makan larva yang dicelupkan kedalam larutan. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah : persentase mortalitas larva Plutella xylostella, persentase larva menjadi pupa, persentase pupa menjadi imago dan dampak perlakuan terhadap progeni.Dari hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian berbagai tingkat konsentrasi filtrat kirinyuh dan cara aplikasi larutan daun kirinyuh secara interaksi berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap parameter pengamatan persentase mortalitas larva, persentase larva menjadi pupa, dan persentase pupa menjadi imago. Kombinasi perlakuan terbaik yaitu pada konsentrasi tertinggi yang di uji 600 g bahan per liter air dan metode celup daun.  Sedangkan perlakuan utama tingkat konsentrasi larutan kirinyuh berpengaruh nyata terhadap seluruh parameter pengamatan. Pengaruh konsentrasi semakin besar dengan semakin tinggi konsentrasi. Sedangkan untuk perlakuan utama cara aplikasi larutan kirinyuh berpengaruh nyata terhadap parameter pengamatan persentase mortalitas larva, persentase larva menjadi pupa, dan persentase pupa menjadi imago, dengan perlakuan terbaik dengan cara metoda celup daun/pakan.

  3. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) and cabbage (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar, Hernando Artemio; Lagos Burbano, Tulio Cesar; Piarpuezan, Edwin; Perez, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three...

  4. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio; Lagos Burbano Tulio Cesar; Piarpuezan Edwin; Perez Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, part...

  5. In vitro shoot organogenesis and comparative analysis of endogenous phytohormones in kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes): effects of genotype, explant type and applied cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cosić, T.; Motyka, Václav; Raspor, M.; Savić, J.; Cingel, A.; Vinterhalter, B.; Vinterhalter, D.; Trávníčková, Alena; Dobrev, Petre; Bohanec, B.; Ninković, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2015), s. 741-760 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Kohlrabi * Cytokinin * Auxin Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2015

  6. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  7. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont): Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alibas, Ilknur; Koksal, Nezihe

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA) were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2) – (0:21) control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC) were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflo...

  8. The dose-dependent influence of zinc and cadmium contamination of soil on their uptake and glucosinolate content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Anna; Huk, Anna; Manikowska, Anna; Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between the ability to accumulate heavy metals (represented by Cd and Zn) and to synthesize bioactive compounds (represented by glucosinolates [GLS]) was investigated in two cabbage cultivars. Plants were grown in the greenhouse of a phytotron under controlled conditions in soils spiked with two different Zn or Cd concentrations. The measurements of Cd and Zn contents in soil and cabbage (leaf) samples were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas GLS levels in cabbage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranges of metal contents in soil were 80 to 450 mg/kg dry weight for Zn and 0.3 to 30 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, whereas the levels of accumulated Zn and Cd in cabbage amounted to 15 to 130 and 0.02 to 3 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. After initial symptoms of toxicity, during a later stage of growth, the plants exhibited very good tolerance to both metals. Enhanced biosynthesis of GLS was observed in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to the heavy metals. The GLS content in Zn-exposed cabbage rose from 3.2 to 12 µmol/g dry weight, and the corresponding values for Cd-treated plants were 3.5 to 10 µmol/g dry weight. Thus, the increased soil contamination by metals caused greater accumulation in cabbage, as well as stimulation of GLS biosynthesis. The results obtained point to the high phytoremediation and biofumigation potential of white cabbage. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  10. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  11. Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-05-07

    Kale has a high number of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study we investigated the interaction of moderate UV-B radiation and temperature on these compounds. Kale plants were grown at daily mean temperatures of 5 or 15 °C and were exposed to five subsequent daily doses (each 0.25 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of moderate UV-B radiation at 1 d intervals. Of 20 phenolic compounds, 11 were influenced by an interaction of UV-B radiation and temperature, e.g., monoacylated quercetin glycosides. Concomitantly, enhanced mRNA expression of flavonol 3'- hydroxylase showed an interaction of UV-B and temperature, highest at 0.75 kJ m(-2) and 15 °C. Kaempferol glycosides responded diversely and dependent on, e.g., the hydroxycinnamic acid residue. Compounds containing a catechol structure seem to be favored in the response to UV-B. Taken together, subsequent exposure to moderate UV-B radiation is a successful tool for enhancing the flavonoid profile of plants, and temperature should be considered.

  12. Effect of technological processing and preservation method on amino acid content and protein quality in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the level of amino acids and quality of protein in raw and processed kale leaves. In all samples the dominant amino acids in g kg⁻¹ raw matter were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and proline. In raw kale leaves the limiting amino acids were lysine, isoleucine and cystine with methionine, and in the remaining products also valine and leucine. Blanched kale leaves contained 88% of the amino acid content in raw leaves, 76% in cooked leaves, and 69-77% and 71-72% of initial levels in frozen and canned products, respectively. In raw, blanched and cooked leaves essential amino acids comprised 44%, 44% and 47%, respectively, of total amino acids; in frozen and canned leaves the proportions were 46% and 44%, respectively. The essential amino acid index was 97 for canned products, 100-109 for frozen leaves, and 117 for raw kale leaves. Raw and processed (blanched or cooked) kale leaves are a good source of amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  14. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  15. Influence of cultivar and fertilizer approach on curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). 1. Genetic diversity reflected in agronomic characteristics and phytochemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2014-11-26

    The objectives were to investigate if genetic diversity among field-grown traditional and F1 hybrid kale cultivars was reflected in different agronomic characteristics and consequently glucosinolate (GLS) and flavonoid glycoside concentration. This study evaluated how nitrogen and sulfur supply and biomass allocation modified phytochemicals in two experiments with combinations of three cultivars and four N and two S application levels. Results showed less growth, and higher N concentration in the traditional cultivar 'Tiara' was associated with increased indole and total GLSs compared to traditional 'Høj Amager Toftø' and F1 hybrid 'Reflex' cultivars, which exhibited higher yield, lower N concentration, and different biomass allocation. S application increased total GLS concentration, whereas aliphatic GLS percentage decreased when N application increased. Decrease of six 'Reflex' GLSs besides quercetin glycosides and total flavonoid glycosides with increased N indicated higher N responsiveness for 'Reflex'. In conclusion, differences in agronomic characteristics were reflected in diverse phytochemical composition.

  16. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening and identification of major phytochemical compounds in seeds, sprouts and leaves of Tuscan black kale Brassica oleracea (L.) ssp acephala (DC) var. sabellica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Lucia; Giorgi, Gianluca; Cherubini, Edoardo; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Della Croce, Clara Maria; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza

    2018-07-01

    We report the spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity in seeds, seedlings and leaves of Tuscan black kale. The highest content of phytochemicals was observed in 10 days sprouts and antioxidant activity was maximum in 2, 4 days seedlings. Identification and characterisation of phytochemicals were performed by mass spectrometry (MS), high resolution and tandem MS with electrospray ionisation mode. Low-molecular-weight metabolites were evidenced in seeds while metabolites at high m/z range were detected in cotyledons and leaves. MS spectra evidenced different phenolic compounds (flavonoid caffeoyl glucose, hydroxycinnamic acid sinapine) and glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin) in function of developmental stage; galactolipids ω3 and ω6 were observed in leaves. Identification of stages with the highest phytochemicals content encourages the consumption of black kale sprouts and young leaves. Our research can support food and pharmaceutical industries for production of health promoting products from black kale.

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey) by using rapid amplified polymorphic DNA and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, L G

    2014-02-14

    Chinese kale is an original Chinese vegetable of the Cruciferae family. To select suitable parents for hybrid breeding, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese kale. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity across 21 Chinese kale accessions from AVRDC and Guangzhou in China. A total of 104 bands were detected by 11 RAPD primers, of which 66 (63.5%) were polymorphic, and 229 polymorphic bands (68.4%) were observed in 335 bands amplified by 17 SRAP primer combinations. The dendrogram showed the grouping of the 21 accessions into 4 main clusters based on RAPD data, and into 6 clusters based on SRAP and combined data (RAPD + SRAP). The clustering of accessions based on SRAP data was consistent with petal colors. The Mantel test indicated a poor fit for the RAPD and SRAP data (r = 0.16). These results have an important implication for Chinese kale germplasm characterization and improvement.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction of phenolics from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) inflorescences and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Yang, Long; Wang, Ran; Wang, Chengrong

    2015-06-01

    An efficient ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction technique was applied to extracting phenolics from broccoli inflorescences without organic solvents. The synergistic model of enzymolysis and ultrasonication simultaneously was selected, and the enzyme combination was optimized by orthogonal test: cellulase 7.5 mg/g FW (fresh weight), pectinase 10 mg/g FW, and papain 1.0 mg/g FW. The operating parameters in ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction were optimized with response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power, 440 W; liquid to material ratio, 7.0:1 mL/g; pH value of 6.0 at 54.5 ℃ for 10 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of phenolics achieved 1.816 ± 0.0187 mg gallic acid equivalents/gram FW. The free radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl·assay with EC50 values of 0.25, and total antioxidant activity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay with ferric reducing antioxidant power value of 0.998 mmol FeSO4/g compared with the referential ascorbic acid of 1.184 mmol FeSO4/g. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorensen, Jens C; Sorensen, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael

    2014-01-30

    Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Identification and expression pattern analysis of BoMYB51 involved in indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingyue; Hao, Guodong; Zhou, Jianxin; Wang, Jingying; Evivie, Ejiroghene Ruona; Li, Jing

    2018-06-22

    Glucosinolates are a class of amino acid-derived specialized metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order. Trp derived indolic glucosinolates are essential for the effective plant defense responses to a wide range of pathogens and herbivores. In Arabidopsis, MYB51 is the key transcription factor positively regulates indolic glucosinolate production by activating certain biosynthetic genes. In this study, we report the isolation and identification of a MYB51 from broccoli designated as BoMYB51. Overexpression of BoMYB51 in Arabidopsis increased indolic glucosinolate production by upregulating biosynthetic genes and resulted in enhanced flagellin22 (Flg22) induced callose deposition. The spatial expression pattern and responsive expression of BoMYB51 to several hormones and stress treatments were investigated by expressing the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by BoMYB51 promotor in Arabidopsis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis in broccoli. Our study provides information on molecular characteristics of BoMYB51 and possible physiological process BoMYB51 may involve. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae . However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca 2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  4. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  5. Effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. Botrytis) under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jilani, Muhammad Saleem; Waseem, Kashif

    2007-12-15

    A research project to evaluate the effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower was conducted at Horticulture Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. Six different plant spacing viz., 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 cm were used. The results revealed significant variations in all the parameters and amongst various plant spacing, 45 cm spacing showed the best response for all the parameters. Maximum plant height (49.33 cm), curd diameter (19.13 cm), maximum curd weight (1.23 kg plant(-1)) and yield (30.77 t ha(-1)) were recorded in the plots where the plants were spaced 45 cm apart.

  6. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: part I. determination of precooling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to precool cauliflower using forced-air, vacuum and high and low flow hydro cooling methods. The weight of the precooled cauliflower heads (5000±5 g was measured before they were placed in standard plastic crates. Cauliflower heads, whose initial temperature was 23.5 ± 0.5 ºC, were cooled until the temperature reached at 1 ºC. During the precooling process, time-dependent temperature and energy consumption were measured, and during vacuum precooling, the decreasing pressure values were recorded, and a curve of time-dependent pressure decrease (vacuum was built. The most suitable cooling method to precool cauliflower in terms of cooling time and energy consumption was vacuum, followed by the high and low flow hydro and forced-air precooling methods, respectively. The highest weight loss was observed in the vacuum precooling method, followed by the forced-air method. However, there was an increase in the weight of the cauliflower heads in the high and low flow hydro precooling method. The best colour and hardness values were found in the vacuum precooling method. Among all methods tested, the most suitable method to precool cauliflower in terms of cooling and quality parameters was the vacuum precooling method.

  7. Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John

    2014-04-16

    Cauliflower waste contains high amounts phenolic compounds, but conventional solvent extraction misses high amounts of nonextractable phenolics (NEP), which may contribute more to the valorization of these waste streams. In this study, the NEP content and composition of cauliflower waste were investigated. The ability of alkaline hydrolysis, sonication, and their combination to release NEP was assessed. Alkaline hydrolysis with sonication was found to extract the highest NEP content (7.3 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry waste), which was higher than the extractable fraction. The highest yield was obtained after treatment of 2 M NaOH at 60 °C for 30 min of sonication. Quantification and identification were done using U(H)PLC-DAD and U(H)PLC-ESI-MS(E). Kaempferol and quercetin glucosides along with several phenolic acids were found. The results of the study show that there are higher amounts of valuable health-promoting compounds from cauliflower waste than what is currently described in the literature.

  8. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  9. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the leaf extract of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis) in the blood elements labelling using Technetium-99m: possible consequences for the radiation dose modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, E.A.C.; Dire, G.; Mattos, D.M.M.; Gomes, M.L.; Freitas, R.S.; Bernardo Filho, M.; Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2001-01-01

    The radiation dose that a patient receives is also associated with the number of expositions to radiation sources. The labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m can be reduced by vegetable extracts and it can determine the repetition of the exam. The labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride is used. We have evaluated the influence of an extract of cauliflower (leaf) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m the and the results showed that this extract was not capable to alter the labeling procedure, suggesting that the studied extract does not have redox activity sufficiently to oxidize the stannous ions. Moreover, although, other natural extracts might alter this labeling, increasing the radiation dose to the patient, this fact would not occur to the cauliflower. (author)

  11. Effect of organic manure on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen use efficiency and apparent nitrogen recovery of cauliflower (Braccica oleracea L., var. Botrytis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beah, A.A.; Norman, P.E.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Lantinga, E.A.; Conteh, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The main aim of the study was to assess the effects of organic manure on nitrogen mineralization, uptake, use and recovery of cauliflower.
    Methodology: Nitrogen is one of the major yield limiting nutrients in cauliflower production. However, organic manure is applied to supplement soil

  12. Análisis sustentable de las fincas de brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) en Santa Rosa de Quives, Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Alvarado, Cristina Karina

    2017-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en la provincia de Canta, (Lima, Perú), con el objetivo de caracterizar los sistemas de cultivo de brócoli y determinar la sustentabilidad de los mismos. Se confeccionaron indicadores de tipo económico, social y ecológico adecuados a los sistemas bajo estudio. La evaluación de la sustentabilidad mediante el empleo de indicadores permitió detectar de manera simple, clara y objetiva algunos puntos críticos de los sistemas de producción. Los resultados indican que el aspect...

  13. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  14. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  15. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  17. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  18. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  19. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123

  20. The anti-inflammation and pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yihan; Ying, Zheming; Xiang, Zheng; Hao, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang

    2016-03-01

    This study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid, 6-acetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-dihydrocyclohepta[b]pyrrol-8(1H)-one, named oleracone isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and to examine the anti-inflammatory ability with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. The novel alkaloid, oleracone, was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The activity of anti-inflammation was assayed via the test with RAW 264.7 activated by LPS, and the pharmacokinetics of oleracone in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration at dose of 2.5 mg/kg was, respectively, investigated by a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with bergapten as internal standard. Oleracone was a novel alkaloid first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and possessed unique structure in natural products, whose anti-inflammatory effecting on nitrite oxide production and several pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines was found at the concentration of 50 μm, and the pharmacokinetic results indicated that oleracone was rapidly distributed with Tmax of 15.7 min after oral administration and presented a higher oral absolute bioavailability to be 74.91 ± 10.7%. Oleracone as novel alkaloid presented remarkably anti-inflammatory effect, which was rapid distributed in rat with high bioavailability of 74.91 ± 10.7%. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  1. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  2. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  4. Ácidos grasos, actividad antioxidante y antibacterial en extractos de verdolaga. (Portulaca Oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Moncayo Espín, Cristian Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehistóricos las plantas medicinales han sido utilizadas para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones. Estas plantas han sido objeto de un sin número de investigaciones con el fin de encontrar propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y antimutagénicas. Portulaca oleracea o verdolaga, es una hierba nativa, rica en ácidos grasos omega3 y vitaminas, que ha sido usada con fines medicinales. En el Ecuador, un país rico en biodiversidad, se han encontrado dos especies endémicas perte...

  5. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  6. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  7. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  8. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to

  9. A theoretical model for explaining the effect of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    terSteege, MW; Stulen, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito) plants in which net nitrate uptake rate (NNUR) and nitrate influx and efflux were measured showed that handling the plants affected the results considerably. Both nitrate influx and efflux changed after physical manipulation of the plants,

  10. Phylogeny-dominant classification of J-proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Han-Lin; Qu, Dong-Hai; Ruan, Ying; Chen, Dong-Hong

    2018-04-05

    Hsp40s or DnaJ/J-proteins are evolutionarily conserved in all organisms as co-chaperones of molecular chaperone HSP70s that mainly participate in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis, such as protein folding, assembly, stabilization, and translocation under normal conditions as well as refolding and degradation under environmental stresses. It has been reported that Arabidopsis J-proteins are classified into four classes (types A-D) according to domain organization, but their phylogenetic relationships are unknown. Here, we identified 129 J-proteins in the world-wide popular vegetable Brassica oleracea, a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis, and also revised the information of Arabidopsis J-proteins based on the latest online bioresources. According to phylogenetic analysis with domain organization and gene structure as references, the J-proteins from Arabidopsis and B. oleracea were classified into 15 main clades (I-XV) separated by a number of undefined small branches with remote relationship. Based on the number of members, they respectively belong to multigene clades, oligo-gene clades, and mono-gene clades. The J-protein genes from different clades may function together or separately to constitute a complicated regulatory network. This study provides a constructive viewpoint for J-protein classification and an informative platform for further functional dissection and resistant genes discovery related to genetic improvement of crop plants.

  11. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide. Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FINS, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Role of phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, N; Lopez-Perez, L; Hernandez, M; Olmos, E

    2009-01-01

    Phi cell layers were discovered in the 19th century in a small number of species, including members of the Brassicaceae family. A mechanical role was first suggested for this structure; however, this has never been demonstrated. The main objective of the present work was to analyse the ultrastructure of phi cells, their influence on ion movement from the cortex to the stele, and their contribution to salt stress tolerance in Brassica oleracea. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis studies were used to analyse the subcellular structure and distribution of ions in phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress. Ion movement was analysed using lanthanum as an apoplastic tracer. The ultrastructural results confirm that phi cells are specialized cells showing cell wall ingrowths in the inner tangential cell walls. X-ray microanalysis confirmed a build-up of sodium. Phi thickenings were lignified and lanthanum moved periplasmically at this level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the possible role of the phi cells as a barrier controlling the movement of ions from the cortex to the stele. Therefore, the phi cell layer and endodermis seem to be regulating ion transport in Brassica oleracea under salt stress.

  13. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zang, Xueli; Ma, Jinshu; Xu, Guangyu

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Anti-hypoxic activity of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wan-Yin; Wang, Xiao-Li; Dong, Li-Wei; Yue, Yi-Tian; Xin, Hai-Liang; Ling, Chang-Quan; Li, Min

    2009-07-15

    To investigate the effects of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea (EEPO) on hypoxia models mice and to find the possible mechanism of its anti-hypoxic actions so as to elucidate the anti-hypoxia activity and provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea. EEPO was evaluated on anti-hypoxic activity in several hypoxia mice models, including closed normobaric hypoxia and sodium nitrite or potassium cyanide toxicosis. To verify the possible mechanism(s), we detected the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mice cortices. Given orally, the EEPO at doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg could dose-dependently enhance the survival time of mice in both of the normobaric and chemical hypoxia models. The activity of the glycolysis enzymes and the level of ATP were higher than those of the control. In the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time test and the open-field test, EEPO neither significantly enhanced the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time nor impaired the motor performance, indicating that the observed anti-hypoxic activity was unlikely due to sedation or motor abnormality. These results demonstrated that the EEPO possessed notable anti-hypoxic activity, which might be related to promoting the activity of the key enzymes in glycolysis and improving the level of ATP in hypoxic mice.

  15. Evaluation of Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for phytoremediation of Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Nasser; Al Chami, Ziad; Al Bitar, Lina; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Suitable plant species are able to accumulate heavy metals and to produce biomass useful for non-food purposes. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species, Atriplex halimus, Portulaca oleracea and Medicago lupulina were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solutions separately spiked with 5 concentrations of Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1)), and 3 concentrations of Ni (1, 2 and 5 mg L(-1)). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals contents. A. halimus and M. lupulina gave high shoot biomass with relatively low metal translocation to the above ground parts. Metals uptake was a function of both metals and plant species. It is worth noting that M. lupulina was the only tested plant able to grow in treatment Pb50 and to accumulate significant amount of metal in roots. Plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea. Due to its high biomass production and the relatively high roots metal contents, A. halimus and M. lupulina could be successfully used in phytoremediation, and in phytostabilization, in particular.

  16. Anti-fatigue effects of polysaccharides extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongxin; Shan, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as a food and medicinal plant for thousands of years in China. Polysaccharides extracted from P. oleracea L. (POP) are its main bioactive compound and have multiple pharmacological activities. However, anti-fatigue effects of POP have not yet been tested. This study was designed to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of POP in mice using the rotarod and forced swimming tests. The mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely normal control group, low-dose POP supplementation group, medium-dose POP supplementation group and high-dose POP supplementation group. The normal control group received distilled water and the supplementation groups received different doses of POP (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). The POP or distilled water was administered orally and daily for 30 day. After 30 days, the rotarod and forced swimming tests were performed and then several biochemical parameters related to fatigue were determined. The data showed that POP prolonged the riding times and exhaustive swimming times of mice, decreasing blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen levels, as well as increasing the liver and muscle glycogen contents. These results indicated that POP had the anti-fatigue effects.

  17. Identification of genes involved in the drought adaptation and recovery in Portulaca oleracea by differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Triassi, Agustina; Casas, María Isabel; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Portulaca oleracea is one of the richest plant sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and other compounds potentially valuable for nutrition. It is broadly established in arid, semiarid and well-watered fields, thus making it a promising candidate for research on abiotic stress resistance mechanisms. It is capable of withstanding severe drought and then of recovering upon rehydration. Here, the adaptation to drought and the posterior recovery was evaluated at transcriptomic level by differential display validated by qRT-PCR. Of the 2279 transcript-derived fragments amplified, 202 presented differential expression. Ninety of them were successfully isolated and sequenced. Selected genes were tested against different abiotic stresses in P. oleracea and the behavior of their orthologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana was also explored to seek for conserved response mechanisms. In drought adapted and in recovered plants changes in expression of many protein metabolism-, lipid metabolism- and stress-related genes were observed. Many genes with unknown function were detected, which also respond to other abiotic stresses. Some of them are also involved in the seed desiccation/imbibition process and thus would be of great interest for further research. The potential use of candidate genes to engineer drought tolerance improvement and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Kolinski Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD and schizophrenia (SCZ, have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy.

  20. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  1. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  2. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Embriogênese somática em embriões zigóticos de Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as diferentes respostas morfogenéticas de embriões zigóticos de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submetidos a várias condições de cultura in vitro. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, com material vegetal coletado de plantas de açaí da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, Brasil. Foi possível verificar a expressão de um modelo de embriogênese somática direto, repetitivo e assincronizado em embriões zigóticos maduros cultivados em meio primário MS, suplementado com 339,36 miM de 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, e transferidos para meio secundário MS na presença de 0,537 miM de ácido 1-naftalenoacético (ANA e 12,30 miM de 2-isopenteniladenina (2iP. A conversão de embriões somáticos em plântulas foi alcançada aos 210 dias da inoculação com a transferência das culturas para um terceiro meio com a concentração de sais e sacarose reduzida pela metade e ausência de reguladores de crescimento.

  3. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  4. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  6. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flávio Gonçalves

    (Sinapis arvensis), wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower. (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Chinese ..... seeds: Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant potential. Food Chem. 101: 549-558. Filgueira FAR (2008). Novo manual de olericultura: Agrotecnologia.

  7. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  8. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  9. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  10. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Sultana, B.; Ali, S.; Rehman, K.U.

    2013-01-01

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  11. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  12. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cong; Guo Jiangfeng

    2008-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134 Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134 Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134 Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134 Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134 Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  13. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage B rassica oleracea a nd silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  14. Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2016-07-27

    Three novel carbon skeleton alkaloids, named oleracimine (1), oleracimine A (2), and oleracone A (3), with one novel azulene carbon skeleton compound, oleracone B (4), and one known compound, β-carboline (5), were first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. In addition, oleracimine (1) was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that oleracimine (1) remarkably inhibited nitric oxide production and could dose-dependently decrease the secretions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 in cell culture supernatants as well as the mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  16. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  17. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2007-01-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  18. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification...

  19. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total......After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... of lutein and neoxanthin varied significantly between genotypes, and the highest content was found in the dark green genotype (76.0 and 25.4 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten respectively). The total flavonoid content and the relative content of individual flavonoids were found to vary between the six...

  20. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC. Twelve flavonoid peaks were detected. The main flavonoid, making up on average 43% of the total flavonoid concentration, was identified as 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Four other flavonoids each contributed 7......The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  1. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  2. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  3. Fruto de naidi (Euterpe oleracea y su perspectiva en la seguridad alimentaria colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Montenegro-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palma originaria de Suramérica, su distribución es netamente tropical y subtropical. Su fruto es altamente aprove - chado en Brasil, donde se conoce como açai. Comercializado tanto dentro como fuera del país, sus niveles de exportación han aumentado debido a resultados científicos que indican altas propiedades antioxidantes y nutritivas. Es considerado alimento funcional y de impor - tancia en el sostenimiento de la seguridad alimentaria. En Colombia, E. oleracea hace presencia en la región pacífica, principalmente en valles medios de los ríos Atrato y Magdalena, su fruto conocido como naidí se aprovecha en los departamentos de Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca y Chocó. Habitantes del Pacífico valoran su fruto por sus cualidades nutritivas y por ser fuente de ingresos para muchas familias que comercializan en mercados locales. Su aprovechamiento se ve afectado debido a que las cosechas abundantes se dan solamente en dos épocas del año, originando priorización por el aprovechamiento del palmito (cogollo sobre el fruto, comprometiéndose el uso sustentable del recurso y la seguridad alimentaria, ya que la extracción de palmito, primero afecta la fructificación, y segundo no favorece la economía de la región, porque su explotación la hacen empresas extranjeras exportadoras. Por lo tanto, este recurso fitogenético requiere atención de entes gubernamentales e instituciones que contribuyan en el fortalecimiento de la comercialización del fruto teniendo como base sus bondades nutritivas y saludables.

  4. Toxic action of Acmella oleracea extract on the male reproductive system of Amblyomma cajennense ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholeto, Luís Adriano; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Ferreira, Allan Roberto Fernandes; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-09-15

    The present study evaluated through morphohistological and histochemical techniques the effects of different concentrations of crude ethanolic extract of A. oleracea (EEAO) (Jambu) on the male reproductive system of Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto (s.s.) ticks. The toxicity of this natural chemical was stablished, signalizing the promising potential of the compound as a strategy to control ectoparasites in the near future. For the experiment, 100 males fed on host rabbits with homogeneous weight (p>0.05) were used. The ticks were divided into five groups (10 animals each): Control 1-exposed to distilled water; Control 2-exposed to ethanol 50% and DMSO 1%; Treatment 1-3-exposed to the concentrations of 6.2, 12.5 and 25mg/mL of the EEAO, respectively, diluted in ethanol 50% and DMSO 1%, with exposure by immersion. After exposure, the males were dissected for the removal of the reproductive system and subjected to routine histological analysis with HE staining and histochemical techniques (PAS for the detection of neutral polysaccharides and Bromophenol blue to detect total proteins). The exposed individuals showed alterations in the glandular complex cells; however, the testes remained intact. The secretory cells of the multilobulated accessory glands presented intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Additionally, the synthesis and secretion were reduced in the secretion granules, mainly concerning the polysaccharides, glyco- and lipoprotein elements, substances that will constitute the seminal fluid and enable the capacitation of spermatozoa in the female genital tract and also necessary for the formation of the spermatophore, which will encapsulate the mature spermatids. The alterations were dose-dependent, i.e., more intense and severe as the concentration of the product increased. .This experiment confirmed the cytotoxic potential of A. oleracea ethanolic extract in the concentrations of 6.2, 12.5 and 25mg/mL on the reproductive system of A. cajennense s.s. male

  5. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  6. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  8. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  9. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  10. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  11. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  12. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  13. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  14. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  15. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Corrêa de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes para o estudo morfológico em microscopia óptica. O presente trabalho contém descrições, comentários, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos novos registros para o Brasil. Como resultados deste estudo foram identificados 45 táxons de hifomicetos. Todos são novos registros para a área de estudo, destes 11 representam novos registro para o Brasil e 12 para a Amazônia brasileira.The objective of this study was look for conidial fungi (hyphomycetes associated with decomposing, dead vegetative material of Euterpe oleracea Mart. collected on Combu Island (Belém, Pará, an environmentally protected area. From August 2008 to April 2009, decomposing parts of E. oleracea were collected and kept in a moist chamber for seven days. Somatic and reproductive fungal structures were extracted from the substrate and mounted on semi-permanent slides for morphological study using optical microscopy. This paper includes descriptions, comments, geographical distributions and illustrations of new records for Brazil. All these records are new for the study area, 11 are new records for Brazil, and 12 are new for the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  17. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  19. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  20. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  1. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  2. Characterization of bisphenol A metabolites produced by Portulaca oleracea cv. by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ippei; Harada, Kazuo; Matsui, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Kato, Ko; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    The garden plant portulaca (Portulaca oleracea cv.) efficiently removes bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, from a hydroponic solution, but the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA metabolism by portulaca remain unclear. In this study, BPA metabolites converted by portulaca were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We observed the hydroxylation of BPA and the oxidization of it to quinone. Polyphenol oxidases are likely to contribute to BPA degradation by portulaca.

  3. Clinical effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds on dyslipidemia in obese adolescents: a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Jelokhanian, Hadi; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Badri, Shirinsadat

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern worldwide while the current epidemic may be secondary to over consumption of high-fat, energy-rich foods. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has been traditionally used in medicine for several antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. In this study the anti-dyslipidemic effects of Poleracea was evaluated in obese adolescents. In this triple-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was done from July 2011 to June 2012, obese adolescent patients whom were referred to the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute (Iran) were randomly allocated to the two arms of cases and controls. The cases group was asked to take one capsule containing powdered P. oleracea seeds (500 milligrams) two times a day for one month, and the controls group were asked to take identical but placebo (lactose) capsules in the same way. Biochemical parameters including 12-hours fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured before the initiation and after the completion of the study protocol. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG showed statistically significant changes over time (one month) in the P. oleracea group (p < 0.05). However, between-group analysis using general linear model (multivariate) test revealed that the differences in the mentioned parameters between two study groups were statistically significant just for LDL-C and TG, while others did not differ significantly. P. oleracea L. may have positive effects on serum lipids profile which may be attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds. This herbal drug seems to be well-tolerated in adolescent population as well. Further studies are recommended.

  4. Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2015-06-01

    Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristic of purslanes ( Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated. Drying times were determined as 31, 24 and 9 h for natural, salted and blanched, respectively. The higher "L" value and lower "-a/b" ratio values were obtained in natural dried purslane. The Aghbashlo et al. model gave a better fit to drying data.

  5. Portulaca oleracea extract can inhibit nodule formation of colon cancer stem cells by regulating gene expression of the Notch signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heiying; Chen, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Chao, Deng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether Portulaca oleracea extract affects tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and its chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, to analyze associated genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 cancer stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and note its characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The effects of P. oleracea extract on the expression of β-catenin, Notch1, and Notch2 in the HT-29 cells were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The tumor volume of the HT29 cells was two times larger than that of HT29 cancer stem cells. Treatment with P. oleracea extract inhibited the proliferation of both HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells at doses from 0.07 to 2.25 µg/mL. Apoptosis of HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells was assessed by flow cytometry; it was enhanced by the addition of P. oleracea extract. Finally, treatment with P. oleracea extract significantly downregulated the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes in both cell types. The results of this study show that P. oleracea extract inhibits the growth of colon cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it inhibits the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes. Taken together, this suggests that it may elicit its effects through regulatory and target genes that mediate the Notch signal transduction pathway.

  6. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  8. The Effect of Sugar Beet Broadleaf Herbicides on Fluorescence Induction Curves in Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar CHITBAND

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is a simple and rapid method for detecting herbicide effects after a short time following their application in photosynthetic apparatus in plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out against two broad of weeds to describe how the Kautsky curve and its parameters were affected by herbicides. Desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate changed the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve at all time intervals except four hours after spring (HAS in Amaranthus retroflexus L. and at all doses of Portulaca oleracea L. 4 HAS. In contrast, chlorophyll fluorescence inhibition was evident by chloridazon at doses of 650 and 325 g a.i. ha-1 in P. oleracea and A. retroflexus respectively, for all time intervals. Furthermore, chlorophyll fluorescence decays only occurred by clopyralid in A. retroflexus at the highest dose. A biomass effective dose (ED50 and/or ED90 based on log-logistic dose-response curves for A. retroflexus were considerably higher than that of P. oleracea. The maximum quantum efficiency (FV/Fm was stable, whereas the relative changes at the J step (Fvj and area (the area between the Kautsky curve and the maximum fluorescence (Fm was more sensitive to all three herbicides. There was a relatively good correlation between fluorescence parameters taken 24 hours after the spraying and the dry matter taken three weeks later, for both species under study.

  9. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  10. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  11. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  12. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 μM), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 μM) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  14. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  15. Identification of a novel MLPK homologous gene MLPKn1 and its expression analysis in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiguo; Shi, Songmei; Liu, Yudong; Pu, Quanming; Liu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-09-01

    M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A. thaliana SRKb-SCRb plants has remained unknown. Here, in addition to the reported MLPKf1/2, we identified the new MLPKf1 homologous gene MLPKn1 from B. oleracea. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 shared nucleotide sequence identity as high as 84.3 %, and the most striking difference consisted in two fragment insertions in BoMLPKn1. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 had a similar gene structure; both their deduced amino acid sequences contained a typical plant myristoylation consensus sequence and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. BoMLPKn1 was widely expressed in petal, sepal, anther, stigma and leaf. Genome-wide survey revealed that the B. oleracea genome contained three MLPK homologous genes: BoMLPKf1/2, BoMLPKn1 and Bol008343n. The B. rapa genome also contained three MLPK homologous genes, BrMLPKf1/2, BraMLPKn1 and Bra040929. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoMLPKf1/2 and BrMLPKf1/2 were phylogenetically more distant from AtAPK1A than Bol008343n, Bra040929, BraMLPKn1 and BoMLPKn1, Synteny analysis revealed that the B. oleracea chromosomal region containing BoMLPKn1 displayed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B, whereas the B. rapa chromosomal region containing BraMLPKn1 showed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B. Together, these results revealed that BoMLPKn1/BraMLPKn1, and not the formerly reported BoMLPKf1/2 (BrMLPKf1/2), was the orthologous genes of AtAPK1B, and no ortholog of Bo

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  17. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  18. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  19. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  20. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  2. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  3. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  4. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  5. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  6. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  7. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  8. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  11. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  12. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  13. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  14. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  15. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A.; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  16. Development of O/W emulsions containing Euterpe oleracea extract and evaluation of photoprotective efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cecilio Daher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleraceaMart. is a palm tree popularly known as açai, which is primarily found in northern Brazil. The açai's fruits contain anthocyanins, a class of polyphenols to which antioxidant properties have been attributed. The aim of this work was to develop O/W sunscreens emulsions containing açai glycolic extract (AGE and to evaluate both their physical stability and photoprotective efficacy. Emulsions containing AGE and sunscreens were formulated using different types and concentrations of polymeric surfactant (acrylates/C 10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and sodium polyacrylate. The influence of two rheology modifiers (polyacrylamide (and C13-14/isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 and Carbomer on the stability was also investigated. Physical stability was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated studies. Emulsions with 1.0% sodium polyacrylate were stable and exhibited non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy. Photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF and determination of Protection Factor of UVA (PF-UVA. When AGE was added to the sunscreen emulsion, no significant increase in the in vivo SPF value was observed. The emulsion containing AGE showed PF-UVA = 14.97, 1.69 of the SPF/PF-UVA ratio and a critical wavelength value of 378 nm, and may therefore be considered a sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection.

  17. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica Santana; Junior, Ílio Montanari; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Anholeto, Luís Adriano; de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian forests have one of the world's biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela) and Acmella oleracea (jambu) are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu's crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela's essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu's extract and macela's essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5) min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0% ± 12.1) compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment.

  18. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  19. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative Strategies in Response to Saline Stress in Two Varieties of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina R Mulry

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea is a globally-distributed plant with a long history of use in folk medicine and cooking. We have developed purslane as a model system for exploring plant responses to stress. We exposed two varieties of purslane to saline stress with the objective of identifying differences between the varieties in the plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The varieties responded to saline stress with significantly different changes in the measured traits, which included inter alia biomass, flower counts, proline concentrations and betalain pigment concentrations. The alternative responses of the two varieties consisted of complex, simultaneous changes in multiple traits. In particular, we observed that while both varieties increased production of betalain pigments and proline under saline stress, one variety invested more in betalain pigments while the other invested more in proline. Proline and betalain pigments undoubtedly play multiple roles in plant tissues, but in this case their role as antioxidants deployed to ameliorate saline stress appears to be important. Taken holistically, our results suggest that the two varieties employ different strategies in allocating resources to cope with saline stress. This conclusion establishes purslane as a suitable model system for the study of saline stress and the molecular basis for differential responses.

  1. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

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    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  2. Cytotoxicity of hydroxydihydrobovolide and its pharmacokinetic studies in Portulaca oleracea L. extract

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    Liang Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hydroxydihydrobovolide (HDB was for the first time isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and then its cytotoxicity against SH-SYTY cells was studied. Moreover, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC method with bergapten as internal standard (IS was developed and validated to investigate the pharmacokinetics of HDB in rats after intravenous and oral administrations of extract (POE. The UHPLC analysis was performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column, using acetonitrile-water (35:65, v/v as the mobile phase with UV detection at 220 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.2-25 µg/mL in rat plasma. The average extraction recovery was from 90.1 to 98.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.7 and 4.1%, respectively. The results showed that 50 µM HDB had significant cytotoxicity on the SH-SY5Y cells, which was rapidly distributed with a Tmax of 11 min after oral administration and presented a low absolute bioavailability, 4.12%.

  3. Molecular Modeling of Myrosinase from Brassica oleracea: A Structural Investigation of Sinigrin Interaction

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    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with β/α fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase–sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase–sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.

  4. Attenuated RANKL-induced cytotoxicity by Portulaca oleracea ethanol extract enhances RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

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    Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Lee, Hak-Yong; Lee, Choong Hun; Lee, Young-Rae; Kim, Min Seuk

    2015-07-14

    Portulaca oleracea (PO) has been widely used as traditional medicine because of its pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PO on osteoclasts that modulate bone homeostasis are still elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of PO ethanol extract (POEE) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) amplification, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cell (MNC) formation, and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that POEE suppressed RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillations by inhibition of Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores, resulting in reduction of NFATc1 amplification. Notably, POEE attenuated RANKL-mediated cytotoxicity and cleavage of polyadenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP), resulted in enhanced formation of TRAP+ MNCs. These results present in vitro effects of POEE on RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and suggest the possible use of PO in treating bone disorders, such as osteopetrosis.

  5. The Effects of Portulaca oleracea on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice.

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    Yue, Tan; Xiaosa, Wen; Ruirui, Qi; Wencai, Shi; Hailiang, Xin; Min, Li

    2015-03-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is known as "a vegetable for long life" due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. However, the protective activity of the ethanol extract of PO (EEPO) against hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema has not been fully investigated. In this study, we exposed mice to a simulated altitude of 7000 meters for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h to observe changes in the water content and transvascular leakage of the mouse lung. It was found that transvascular leakage increased to the maximum in the mouse lung after 6 h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Prophylactic administration of EEPO before hypoxic exposure markedly reduced the transvascular leakage and oxidative stress, and inhibited the upregulation of NF-kB in the mouse lung, as compared with the control group. In addition, EEPO significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the lungs of mice, as compared with the hypoxia group. Our results show that EEPO can reduce initial transvascular leakage and pulmonary edema under hypobaric hypoxia conditions.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three omega-6 desaturase genes from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Coelho, N; Olsson, M E; Brodelius, P E; Carvalho, I S; Brodelius, M

    2009-07-01

    Two full-length cDNA clones of PoleFAD2 and one full-length cDNA clone of PoleFAD6, encoding omega-6 fatty acid desaturases, the key enzymes for the conversion of oleic into linoleic acid, were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) leaves and seeds. The deduced amino acid sequence of both isoforms of PoleFAD2 showed higher similarities to other microsomal omega-6 desaturases then to PoleFAD6 or other plastidial orthologues, and vice versa. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that all genes are expressed in all tissues of purslane tested, but higher levels of mRNA accumulation were detected in reproductive organs and cells that proliferate rapidly or store lipids. Wounding affected the levels of mRNA accumulation of both, FAD2 and FAD6 genes in purslane leaves, while chilling stress affected only FAD2 transcript level. The expression patterns observed reflect the discrete roles of these genes in membrane synthesis for cell division, thylakoid development, and lipid storage or in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of signaling molecules that influence plant development or defense.

  7. Purification and characterization of an antitumor polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huan; Tang, Guo; Zeng, Guang; Yang, Yongjin; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Dongli; Liu, Hongchen; Zhou, Ningxin

    2013-04-02

    In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component (POP) from Portulaca oleracea and found that it had pronounced anti-tumor effects in vivo model. Tumor weight, immune organ index and T lymphocyte subsets were employed to detect the immunoregulatory and antitumor effects of POP after administration. Hematological and biochemical analyses were also investigated in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to POP treatment. POP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma 180 and potentiate the animal's immune responses including an increase in the number of white blood cell (WBC) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, as well as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). Furthermore the serum aspartate transanimase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels in S180-bearing mice were significantly reversed by POP. Considering all these results, it is suggested that the anti-tumor effect elicited by POP could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Portulaca oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in db/db Mice

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    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with significantly accelerated rates of micro- and macrovascular complications such as diabetic vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (AP), an edible plant used as a folk medicine, on diabetic vascular complications. The db/db mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 weeks, and AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma level of LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, AP significantly increased plasma level of HDL-cholesterol and insulin level. The impairment of ACh- and SNP-induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings were ameliorated by AP treatment in diabetic db/db mice. This study also showed that overexpression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-2, and ET-1 were observed in aortic tissues of untreated db/db mice, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with AP. We also found that the insulin immunoreactivity of the pancreatic islets remarkably increased in AP treated db/db mice compared with untreated db/db mice. Taken together, AP suppresses hyperglycemia and diabetic vascular inflammation, and prevents the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction for the development of diabetes and its vascular complications. PMID:22474522

  9. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Gu, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. PMID:29343942

  10. Screening of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions for high salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Aslani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m(-1) NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9), 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12), 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13), and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  11. Indoline Amide Glucosides from Portulaca oleracea: Isolation, Structure, and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ze-Zhao; Yue, Su; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Jin, Tian-Yun; Wang, Hai-Na; Zhu, Rong-Xiu; Xiang, Lan

    2015-11-25

    A polyamide column chromatography method using an aqueous ammonia mobile phase was developed for large-scale accumulation of water-soluble indoline amide glucosides from a medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea. Ten new [oleraceins H, I, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, S (1-10)] and four known [oleraceins A-D (11-14)] indoline amide glucosides were further purified and structurally characterized by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of oleraceins K (5) and L (6), with EC50 values of 15.30 and 16.13 μM, respectively, were twice that of a natural antioxidant, vitamin C; the EC50 values of the 12 other indoline amides, which ranged from 29.05 to 43.52 μM, were similar to that of vitamin C. Structure-activity relationships indicated that the DPPH radical scavenging activities of these indoline amides correlate with the numbers and positions of the phenolic hydroxy groups.

  12. Alternative Strategies in Response to Saline Stress in Two Varieties of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulry, Kristina R; Hanson, Bryan A; Dudle, Dana A

    2015-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a globally-distributed plant with a long history of use in folk medicine and cooking. We have developed purslane as a model system for exploring plant responses to stress. We exposed two varieties of purslane to saline stress with the objective of identifying differences between the varieties in the plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The varieties responded to saline stress with significantly different changes in the measured traits, which included inter alia biomass, flower counts, proline concentrations and betalain pigment concentrations. The alternative responses of the two varieties consisted of complex, simultaneous changes in multiple traits. In particular, we observed that while both varieties increased production of betalain pigments and proline under saline stress, one variety invested more in betalain pigments while the other invested more in proline. Proline and betalain pigments undoubtedly play multiple roles in plant tissues, but in this case their role as antioxidants deployed to ameliorate saline stress appears to be important. Taken holistically, our results suggest that the two varieties employ different strategies in allocating resources to cope with saline stress. This conclusion establishes purslane as a suitable model system for the study of saline stress and the molecular basis for differential responses.

  13. Portulaca oleracea L. as a Prospective Candidate Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sobia; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Ijaz, Bushra; Iqbal, Shahid; Qamar-ul-Zaman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem affecting about 300 million individuals. HCV causes chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Many side effects are associated with the current treatment options. Natural products that can be used as anti-HCV drugs are thus of considerable potential significance. NS3 serine protease (NS3-SP) is a target for the screening of antiviral activity against HCV. The present work explores plants with anti-HCV potential, isolating possible lead compounds. Ten plants, used for medicinal purposes against different infections in rural areas of Pakistan, were collected. The cellular toxicity effects of methanolic extracts of the plants on the viability of Huh-7 cells were studied through the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Following this, the anti-HCV potential of phytoextracts was assessed by infecting liver cells with HCV-3a-infected serum inoculum. Only the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited more than 70% inhibition. Four fractions were obtained through bioassay-guided extraction of PO. Subsequent inhibition of all organic extract fractions against NS3 serine protease was checked to track the specific target in the virus. The results showed that the PO methanolic crude and ethyl acetate extract specifically abridged the HCV NS3 protease expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Hence, PO extract and its constituents either alone or with interferon could offer a future option to treat chronic HCV.

  14. Salinity Reduction and Biomass Accumulation in Hydroponic Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Laís Pessôa; Lange, Liséte Celina; Costa França, Marcel Giovanni; Zonta, Everaldo

    2015-01-01

    In many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions, the increase in demand for good quality water associated with the gradual and irreversible salinisation of the soil and water have raised the development of techniques that facilitate the safe use of brackish and saline waters for agronomic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the salinity reduction of experimental saline solutions through the ions uptake capability of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), as well as its biomass accumulation. The hydroponic system used contained three different nutrient solutions composed of fixed concentrations of macro and micronutrients to which three different concentrations of sodium chloride had been added. Two conditions were tested, clipped and intact plants. It was observed that despite there being a notable removal of magnesium and elevated biomass accumulation, especially in the intact plants, purslane did not present the expected removal quantity of sodium and chloride. We confirmed that in the research conditions of the present study, purslane is a saline-tolerant species but accumulation of sodium and chloride was not shown as previously described in the literature.

  15. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care

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    Lais Thiemi Yamane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian forests have one of the world’s biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela and Acmella oleracea (jambu are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu’s crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela’s essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu’s extract and macela’s essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5 min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0%±12.1 compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment.

  16. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  18. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  19. Proteomic analysis of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) under high temperature and waterlogging stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Su-Ching; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Lo, Hsiao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The production of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is largely reduced by waterlogging and high temperature stresses. Heat-tolerant and heat-susceptible broccoli cultivars TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75, respectively, were used for physiological and proteomic analyses. The objective of this study was to identify TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75 proteins differentially regulated at different time periods in response to waterlogging at 40 °C for three days. TSS-AVRDC-2 exhibited significantly higher chlorophyll content, lower stomatal conductance, and better H 2 O 2 scavenging under stress in comparison to B-75. Two-dimensional liquid phase fractionation analyses revealed that Rubisco proteins in both varieties were regulated under stressing treatments, and that TSS-AVRDC-2 had higher levels of both Rubisco large and small subunit transcripts than B-75 when subjected to high temperature and/or waterlogging. This report utilizes physiological and proteomic approaches to discover changes in the protein expression profiles of broccoli in response to heat and waterlogging stresses. Higher levels of Rubisco proteins in TSS-AVRDC-2 could lead to increased carbon fixation efficiency to provide sufficient energy to enable stress tolerance under waterlogging at 40 °C.

  20. Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Won; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-04

    Samples prepared from fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts by water distillation or freeze-drying were examined for antioxidant activity using three assays. All samples exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity ranged from 74.48 ± 0.46% (less volatile sample) to 93.2 ± 0.2% (dichloromethane extract sample) at the level of 500 μg/mL. Both dichloromethane extract samples from a water distillate of broccoli sprouts and freeze-dried broccoli sprouts showed potent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of BHT. Among the 43 compounds positively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 5-methylthiopentylnitrile (31.64 μg/g) was found in the greatest concentration, followed by 4-methylthiobutylisothiocyanate (14.55 μg/g), 4-methylthiobutylnitrile (10.63 μg/g), 3-methylthiopropylisothiocyanate (3.00 μg/g), and 4-methylpentylisothiocyanate (2.48 μg/g). These isothiocyanates are known to possess antioxidant properties. Possible phenolic antioxidants found are 4-(1-methylpropyl)phenol (0.012 μg/g), 4-methylphenol (0.159 μg/g), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.009 μg/g). The present study demonstrates that broccoli sprouts are a good source of natural antioxidants.

  1. Effect of visible light treatments on postharvest senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchert, Agustin M; Gómez Lobato, Maria E; Villarreal, Natalia M; Civello, Pedro M; Martínez, Gustavo A

    2011-01-30

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) is a rapidly perishable vegetable crop. Several postharvest treatments have been applied in order to delay de-greening. Since light has been shown to have an effect on pigment accumulation during development and darkness is known to induce senescence, the effect of continuous and periodic exposure to low-intensity white light at 22 °C on postharvest senescence of broccoli heads was assayed. Exposure to a constant dose of 12 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was selected as the most suitable treatment and was employed for subsequent experiments. During the course of the treatments, hue and L* values as well as chlorophyll content and visual observation of florets indicated an evident delay in yellowing in treated samples compared with controls. No statistically significant differences in total protein content were found, but soluble protein content was higher in treated samples. Total and reducing sugar as well as starch levels decreased during postharvest senescence, with lower values in control samples. The results of this study indicate that storage under continuous low-intensity light is an efficient and low-cost treatment that delays postharvest senescence while maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli florets. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  3. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amirul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9, 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12, 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13, and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  4. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  6. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  7. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  8. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  10. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  11. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ( Xcc ) is a very important disease of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B 1 ) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F 1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2 n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2 n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2 n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F 1 hybrid and BC 1 plants. The F 1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC 1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC 1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  13. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Water Quality Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Vandam; Tyler S. Anderson; David de Villiers; Michael B. Timmons

    2017-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Carmel) was grown in a conventional glass greenhouse under three different nutrient solution treatments. Lighting and temperature conditions were identical. Six growing systems were used to provide a duplicate trough system for each of these three treatments. Six trials were harvested from each system over a two month time period. Two treatments received hydroponic nutrient inputs, with one treatment at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7) and the other at pH 5.8 (H5), an...

  14. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  15. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  16. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  17. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  18. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  19. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  20. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  1. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  2. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  3. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  4. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  5. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  6. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

  7. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  8. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  9. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  10. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  11. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  12. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  13. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  14. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  15. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  16. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  17. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  18. Comparison of nitrate accumulation, nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency among different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes

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    Zhou Jianjian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the difference of nitrate accumulation,nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency between four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes (So10,So13,So18 and So57. Results showed that So13 had the highest nitrate contents under two nitrate (NO3--N level (0.5 mmol·L-1,15 mmol·L-1 conditions,whereas So10 had the lowest nitrate contents. So18 had the similar nitrate contents with So13 under low NO3- level,while it showed no significant difference of nitrate contents with So57 under high NO3- treatment. The 15NO3--N uptake rates of So13 were the highest one among four genotypes,while the N utilization efficiency (NutE and N utilization ratio (NUR of So13 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,NUR of So18 and So57 were higher than those of So13 and So10,while their 15NO3--N uptake rates were lower than those of So13. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,N utilization ratio of So10 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57,and its 15NO3--N uptake rate was significantly lower than those of So13. Among the four spinach genotypes,the So57 can be selected as elite germplasm using for spinach production for its relatively lower nitrate content and higher N efficiency.

  19. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Xing

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp. Among them, 49,959 (79.92% genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%, Gene Ontology (GO (33,767, 54.02%, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG (14,721, 23.55% and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG (12,974, 20.76% searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR, ethylene (ET- and jasmonic (JA-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG, pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters, myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying