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Sample records for oleracea var capitata

  1. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  2. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  3. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  4. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  5. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  6. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

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    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  7. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage on Wistar rat gastric ulceration

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    Camilo Amaro de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. Used in cooking for its nutritional value also has known anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (AEB in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the gastric disorders. METHOD: Acute gastric ulcers were induced in rats by the oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid. The gastroprotective potential of the AEB (0.250, 0.500 and 1.000 mg.kg-1/body weight was compared with omeprazole (20 mg.kg-1/body weight. RESULTS: The stomach analysis indicated that treatment with AEB inhibited the gastric damage. The gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by chemical agent with a maximum of 99.44% curation (250 mg.kg-1 body weight in acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: The AEB demonstrated good antiulcerogenic activities which justify the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  8. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  9. Molecular cloning and primary sequence analysis of a gene encoding a putative shitinase gene in Brassica oleracea var.capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Chitinase,which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin,is involved in inducible plants defense system.By construction of cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) genomic library and screening the library with pRCH8,a probe of rice chitinase gene fragment,a chitinase genomic sequence was isolated.The complete uncleotide sequence of the putative cabbage chitinase gene (cabch29) was determined,with its longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 413 aa.This polypeptide consists of a 21 aa N-terminal signal peptide,two chitin-binding domains different from those of other classes of plant chitinases,and a catalytic domain.Homology analysis illustrated that this cabch29 gene has 58.8% identity at the nucleotide level with the pRCH8 ORF probe and has 50% identity at the amino acid level tiwh the catalytic domains of chitinase from bean,maize and sugar beet.Meanwhile,several kinds of cis-elements,such as TATA box,CAAT box,GATA motif,ASF-1 binding site,wound-response elements and AATAAA,have also been discovered in the flanking region of cabch29 gene.

  10. Supercritical CO2 extraction, chemical characterisation and antioxidant potential of Brassica oleracea var capitata against HO·, O2(·-) and ROO·.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; da Silveira, Géssica Domingos; Porte, Liliane; Frizzo, Clarissa; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Mossi, Vinicius; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Bohrer, Denise; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos

    2013-12-15

    In this work were extracted bioactive compounds from Brassica oleracea var capitata using supercritical CO2 and evaluated the antioxidant potential of the extracts. Five extractions were accomplished to investigate the influence of pressure (10-25 MPa) and temperature (20-60 °C) in the extraction yield, chemical composition and antioxidant potential towards peroxyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The highest extraction yield was obtained at 60 °C and 25 MPa, which was 0.47 wt% (run 2). In the characterisation of the extracts obtained was possible the identification of sulforaphane and iberin nitrile that present known biological properties. The extracts of all runs presented antioxidant activities towards the three radicals, but the highest activities for all radicals were using the extracts obtained in the run 2. The use of supercritical CO2 extraction to obtain bioactive compounds of B. oleracea var capitata showed to be a promising alternative to conventional extraction methods, since allowed the extraction of compounds with scientific and industrial interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  12. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  13. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) IN CABBAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka; Hellen Georgia Santana; Paulo Marçal Fernandes; Cecilia Czepak; Camilo de Lelis Rocha

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos u...

  14. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  15. Effects of seed priming, salinity and methyl jasmonate treatment on bioactive composition of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (white and red varieties) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Ismahen; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; Boughanmi, Neziha; Martinez Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Brassica spp. sprouts are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially glucosinolates and phenolic acid derivatives, and the composition of these young germinating seeds can be altered by several external factors. In this study two cabbage varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, red and white) were studied using seed priming (KCl 50 mmol L(-1) ; NaCl 150 mmol L(-1) ) and MeJA spraying (25 µmol L(-1) ) to elicit the phytochemical content of edible sprouts. The red variety was richer in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds than the white one but not in mineral nutrients. Seed priming enhanced the potassium (K) content and flavonols in both varieties, while the total content of glucosinolates was reduced after seed priming only in the red variety. The white variety responded better than the red one to KCl seed priming, increasing the flavonols (89%). Salinity did not induce any change in the phytochemical content of these two varieties. Elicitation with sprayed MeJA was effective in significantly increasing the content of indolic glucosinolates glucobrassicin (5.7-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.7-fold) in the red cultivar. In the white variety, in addition to glucobrassicin (19.4-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.4-fold), 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (2.3-fold) was also enhanced. MeJA also elicited significant amounts of anthocyanins (41%) and chlorogenic acid derivatives (329%) in the white variety. KCl seed priming and MeJA elicitation promoted the phytochemical composition of the cabbage varieties, especially in the white variety. The application of NaCl resulted in less efficient elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

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    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  17. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes.

  18. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  19. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE IN CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: teflubenzuron, nas doses de 25 mL, 30 mL e 40 mL de produto comercial (p.c./100 L de água; chlorfenapyr, nas doses de 30 mL, 50 mL e 100 mL de p.c./100 L de água; deltamethrin, na dose de 30 mL de p.c./100 L de água; e testemunha. Para cada tratamento realizaram-se aplicações semanais após o transplantio. As avaliações foram realizadas na colheita, contando-se o número de furos causados pela traça, em cinco cabeças comerciais de repolho, tomadas ao acaso, por parcela. Pôde-se concluir que os inseticidas teflubenzuron e chlorfenapyr foram mais eficientes que deltamethrin no controle da traça-das-crucíferas P. xylostella nas doses testadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; traça; controle químico.

    The research was carried out in an area under continuous cabbage cropping (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil, from September to November 1996. The aim was to compare insecticides for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella control. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were teflubenzuron in the doses of 25 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL of commercial product (c.p. / 100 L of water; chlorfenapyr in the doses of 30 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL of c.p./ 100 L of water; deltamethrin in the dose of 30 mL of c.p. / 100 L of water; and control. Treatments were applied weekly

  20. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  1. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  2. Effect of Magnetic Field on Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. Seed Germination and Studies on Its Mechanism%磁场对结球甘蓝种子萌发的影响及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔路路; 于海霞; 李景富; 姜景彬; 许向阳

    2014-01-01

    以结球甘蓝种子为试材,采用正交试验和均匀试验方法,研究了磁场强度、作用时间及处理前种子浸泡时间对各发芽指标的影响以及各影响因素的主次顺序,并对磁场参数中磁场强度和作用时间进行大范围筛选,更进一步从可溶性蛋白含量、丙二醛含量、抗氧化酶活性等方面探讨磁场处理提高种子活力的作用机理。结果表明:适宜的磁场处理可以促进种子萌发,提高种子活力,以20℃蒸馏水浸泡8 h 后1000~3500 GS 磁场处理1~6 min 为宜,但长时间、大强度磁场处理反而抑制种子萌发;磁场强度为种子萌发的主要影响因子,作用时间和浸泡时间的主次顺序因发芽指标的不同而不同;与对照相比,磁场处理的种子萌发期间可溶性蛋白含量降低或升高的速率、MDA 含量下降的幅度和速率、3种抗氧化酶活性上升的速率均加快,从而提高种子活力。%Taking Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. seed as experimental material,the effect of magnetic field intensity,and magnetic acting time and seed soaking time before treatment on seed germination index and primary and secondary relations between all factors were studied by orthogonal test and uniform test method.Then the large scale screening of magnetic field intensity and magnetic acting time were carried out to further investigate the mechanism of using magnetic field treatment to improve seed vigor from the view points of soluble protein content,malondialdehyde content,and antioxidant enzyme activity.The results indicated that suitable magnetic field treatment could promote seed germination and improve seed vigor.Magnetic field intensity was the main factor affecting seed germination.The primary and secondary order of action time and soaking time were varied with different germination indexes. Seed germination was inhibited by too high magnetic field intensity for a long time. Soaking seed in 20

  3. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  4. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  5. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  6. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  7. Cloning and Expression of an Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (OguCMS)-related MYB Transcription Factor in Brassica oleracea var.capitata%甘蓝胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)相关的MYB转录因子BoMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 康宗利; 刘海霞; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) is the most widely used male sterile type in cabbage breeding. MYB transcription factors play a key role in regulation of plant defense response and multiple development processes. In present experiment, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor which down regulated 10.3 times in cabbage (Brasska okracea var. capitata) OguCMS lines was cloned by SMART RACE strategy.The full-length cDNA of B0MYB1 was 1 141 bp, which contained a 196 bp long 5' untranslated region, a 246 bp long 3' untranslated region and a 699 bp long open reading frame (GenBank accession number: JN703995). It was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization prediction. It was an anther preferentially expressed gene in cabbage, which reached its expression peak in the late development. It was induced by the regulation of plant hormones salicylic acid(SA) and jasmonate methyl (JA-ME), and consequently regulated the expression of anther development genes. The experimental results suggests that B0MYB1 may be one of the important genes which involved in OguCMS anther development.%萝卜胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)是目前甘蓝中应用较广的雄性不育类型,MYB转录因子具有调控植物防御应答反应和多个发育过程的作用.本实验以在甘蓝(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)OguCMS花药中下调10.3倍的EST序列为信息探针,结合电子克隆及RACE技术,得到一个与甘蓝OguCMS雄性不育相关的MYB转录因子全长cDNA,命名为BoMYB1(GenBank登录号:JN703995).经亚细胞定位预测,该基因定位于细胞核,全长1 141 bp,包含一个长度为196 bp的5’非翻译区、246 bp的3’非翻译区和一个699 bp的开放阅读框.该基因在花药中具表达优势,并在花药发育晚期出现表达高峰,受植物激素水杨酸(SA)和茉莉酸甲酯(JA-ME)的调控,诱导花药发育基因的表达.实验结果提示,BoMY B1可能是参与OguCMS花药发育的重要基因之一.

  8. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  9. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  10. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  11. Caracterização química da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata var capitata Chemical characterization of nut of Butia capitata var capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira Butia capitata var capitata produz o coquinho-azedo, fruto de odor agradável e penetrante, cuja polpa é aproveitada para a produção de um suco saboroso na região norte de Minas Gerais. As sementes apresentam uma amêndoa cuja exploração ainda é bastante limitada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição da amêndoa do coquinho-azedo, visando a avaliar suas possibilidades de uso. Na amêndoa, a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas e fibras foi determinada por métodos gravimétricos. Os teores dos principais minerais foram avaliados por espectrofotometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivo, e a composição dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura da semente foi determinada por cromatografia a gás. A amêndoa do coquinho-azedo apresentou 9,9 % de umidade e 57,8 % de lipídios totais, 25,8 % de fibra detergente neutro, 17,6 % de fibra detergente ácido e 1,6 % de cinzas em base seca. A gordura extraída da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo apresentou elevados teores de ácido láurico (42,1 %, que foi seguido pelo ácido oléico (16,9 %. Predominaram os ácidos graxos saturados (78,9 %, principalmente os de cadeia média (C6-C12.The Butia capitata palm tree produce a very aromatic fruit named "coquinho-azedo", which freeze pulp is frequently used to produce agreeable juice in north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. "Coquinho-azedo" kernel contains a nut that is not frequently explored. The purpose of the present study was the chemical characterization of "coquinho-azedo" nut to evaluate the possibilities of its use. The moisture, lipids, ash and fiber contents were determined by gravimetric methods. The mineral profile was characterized by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer and the fatty acids profile was characterized by gas chromatography. The coquinho-azedo nut presented 9,9 % of moisture, 57,8 % of total lipid, 25,8 % of neutral detergent fiber, 17,6 % of acid detergent fiber

  12. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made.

  13. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F; Valentão, P; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  14. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  15. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  16. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  17. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  18. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  19. Histopathology of Brassica oleracea var. capitata subvar. alba infected with Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because anatomical changes induced by the cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae) have been insufficiently characterized, here we describe these changes in the root tissues of white head cabbage varieties commonly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, where cabbage-growing areas are heavily...

  20. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  1. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  2. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) on soil ogranisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  3. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  4. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  5. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  6. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS acc...

  7. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  8. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  9. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  10. Collembola Diversity between Chemical Pesticide and Bioinsecticide in Broccoli Farm (Brassica oleraceae var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Y.; Suhara

    2017-02-01

    The existance of Collembola diversity was determined by how land system work. Farming systems with excessive pesticide application can reduce number of Collembola. On the other hand nowaday people aware of environment by using bioinsecticide. The Method were comparing two land system which use Chemical pestisice and Bioinsecticide. Procedure were using Trapping wells (PMS) in three plots; T0: control without treatment, T1: Chemical Insecticide, T2 : Bioinsecticide for 24 hours. The factors that measure are abiotic factors by taking 10 grams of soil planting Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var Italica), after 24 hours of taking separates it with other land animals, then identifying Collembola species were using Microcam based on identification book of Collembola. The result showed that density and Biodiversity of land system bioinsecticide was the highest value and indic. It was found also that in Broccoli farm dicovered 3 Familia and 8 species of Collembola both litter and soil. Species found that Isotomurus sp, Seira sp, Lepidosira sp, Coecobrya sp, Callyntura sp, Homidia sp, Sallina sp and Ascocytrus sp, three Family is derived from Isotomidae, Entomobryidae and Paronellid.

  11. Salinity in the germination of Brassicas oleracea L. var. itálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilson Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for vegetable seeds with high quality and the achievement of vigorous seedlings is increasing, because these characteristics determine the success of the production. The use of some areas such as arid and semiarid regions runs into some obstacles such as salinity and potential sodicity of water used for irrigation, whose main purpose is to provide adequate moisture for growth and development of plants in order to increase productivity and consequently, reduce the effects of drought. This study aims to assess the seed germination and vigor of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. itálica cv. Santana, under the influence of salt stress. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds and Seedlings of the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB-Pombal, in completely randomized design, with treatments arranged in 2x5 factorial scheme, corresponding to two lots of seeds (not aged and aged and osmotic potentials of five soaking solution (0, –0.2, –0.4, –0.6 and –0.8 MPa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on two sheets of filter paper moistened with saline (NaCl at different concentrations and maintained in germination temperature of 20-30º C and photoperiod-eight hours, after were subjected to assessment of their physiological quality through tests of germination and vigor. The presence of salts in the soaking solution resulted in decreased seed vigor as the osmotic potential of the soaking solution has become more negative, indicating that the seeds of broccoli cultivar Santana has low tolerance to salinity.

  12. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  13. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen b

  14. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  15. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  16. Cloning and sequence analysis of a mutation-type cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anhe CHEN; Jiana LI; Yourong CHAI; Rui WANG; Jun LU

    2008-01-01

    A 2431-bp full-length cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene, BoC4H, was cloned from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. It contains 2 introns. Its mRNA is 1715 bp, encoding a deduced 481-amino-acid polypeptide with wide homologies to C4Hs from other plants. It possesses cytochrome P450 conserved domains and motifs such as the haem-iron binding motif, the E-R-R triad, the T-con-taining binding pocket motif and the hinge motif neces-sary for optimal orientation of the enzyme. It also has most of the canonical C4H/CYP73A5-featured sub-strate-recognition sites (SRSs) and active site residues. However, owing to a single-base deletion at C2242 and subsequent frame shift within the 3' coding region as com-pared with C4H genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, BoC4H shows a 36-aa deletion/variation at its C-terminus and the SRS6 motif together with active site residues therein are absent. Thus BoC4H may be of no function or low activity. BoC4H is a membrane protein and is probably associated with the endoplasmic reticu-lure. Its secondary structure is dominated by alpha helices and random coils. The Swiss-Model could not predict its tertiary structure. B. oleracea contains a C4H gene family with at least 5 members.

  17. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  18. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)

    OpenAIRE

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plan...

  19. Influence of light and temperature on gene expression leading to accumulation of specific flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne eNeugart; Angelika eKrumbein; Rita Maria eZrenner

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plan...

  20. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de, P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen by the crop was around 300 kg ha-1. In one experiment, band placement positively influenced nitrogen uptake. Split application did not influence nitrogen uptake. Nitrogen application resulted in a h...

  1. Grünkohl (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Untersuchungen zur Diversität verschiedener Sorten

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Grünkohl ist besonders im Norden Deutschlands jedem ein Begriff und beliebt als wohlschmeckendes und traditionelles Wintergemüse. Doch Grünkohl ist nicht gleich Grünkohl. Das sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit schnell deutlich werden, als 12 kommerziell im Handel erhältliche sowie 12 alte ostfriesische Landsorten dieser zum Gemüsekohl (Brassica oleracea) gehörenden Pflanze untersucht worden sind. Das Augenmerk dieser Arbeit richtet sich auf den Anbau der Pflanzen (Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit und -ve...

  2. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  3. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  4. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica; Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa; Helber Enrique Balaguera-López; Pablo Antonio Serrano-Cely

    2011-01-01

    La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1), la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilizac...

  5. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  6. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  7. Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, H; Mohamed, M T M; Anwar, M P; Saud, H M

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  8. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  9. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  10. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

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    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  11. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  13. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

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    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  14. Valorization of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) by-products as a source of antioxidant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2003-04-09

    The present study reports the development of two extraction protocols, with potential industrial applicability, to valorize cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolics. In addition, the nonionic polystyrene resin Amberlite XAD-2 was used to obtain purified extracts. The extract yield, phenolic content, phenolic yield, and correlation between the antioxidant activity and the phenolic content were studied. The water and ethanol protocols yield a phenolic content of 33.8 mg/g freeze-dried extract and 62.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract, respectively. This percentage increased considerably when the extracts were purified using Amberlite XAD-2 yielding a phenolic content of 186 mg/g freeze-dried extract (water extract) and 311.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract (ethanol extract). Cauliflower byproduct extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity (vs both DPPH(*) and ABTS(*)(+) radicals), ferric reducing ability (FRAP assay), and capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate assay). In addition, the antioxidant activity was linearly correlated with the phenolics content. The results obtained indicate that the cauliflower byproducts are a cheap source of antioxidant phenolics very interesting from both the industrial point of view and the possible usefulness as ingredients to functionalize foodstuffs.

  15. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  16. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2015-11-11

    Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4), methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1) and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1), were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g(-1) DW (dry weight). Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative-reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  17. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  18. 结球甘蓝减数分裂中染色体异常行为分析%Analysis on Chromosome Abnormal Behavior in Meiosis of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵治亮

    2009-01-01

    对300多个纯合二倍体结球甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂各时期的染色体进行观察,发现自然条件下纯合二倍体甘蓝花粉母细胞在减数分裂的双线期、终变期以及中期Ⅰ出现了高频率的1~3个四价体和中期Ⅰ有高频率的1~3对染色体提早分离和滞后分离2种异常现象,探讨了甘蓝结实率不高与染色体异常行为之间的关系.%The chromosomes from more than 300 pollen mother cells of homozygous diploid of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L were observed in every period of meiosis. It was found that altofrequent 1-3 quadrivalent appeared in diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I of meiosis of pollen mother cells of B. oleraces var. Capitata under natural conditions, and 2 kinds of abnormal phenomenas such as altofrequent 1-3 pairs of chromosomes separated early or late in metaphase I of meiosis. The relationship between low seed setting rate of B. oleraces var. Capitata and chromosome abnormal behavior was explored.

  19. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  20. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  1. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  2. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28 was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate

  3. Influence of light and temperature on gene expression leading to accumulation of specific flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eNeugart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 µmol m-2 s-1 or 100 µmol m-2 s-1 at 10°C, or at 400 µmol m-2 s-1 with 5°C or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5°C or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides

  4. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  5. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRESH LEAF OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE LINN. VAR. ACEPHALA (D.C ALEF (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleraceae (BOL is the common cabbage and a familiar garden plant, widely used as spice all over the world. Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C and has been widely employed locally to treat acute inflammation and peptic ulcers. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti¬ulcer activity of Brassica oleraceae, while identifying the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effects and exploring some of the possible mechanisms of its anti¬ulcer activity, using standard laboratory procedures. Doses of 100, 300 and 750 mg / kg of Brassica oleraceae were separately administered to groups of overnight fasted rats, with appropriate standard drugs using Ethanol / HCl, Indomethacin and Cysteamine models to explore anti¬ulcer property of BOL on the stomach and duodenum respectively. The extract in a dose¬ dependent fashion, offered better protection against the ulcerogens in the gastric ulcer models, when compared with the positive control groups. However, the smallest dose of 100 mg / kg recorded the highest percentage protection in the cysteamine group. Up to 1200 mg / kg i.p and 10,000 mg / kg oral doses of Brassica oleraceae did not produce any mortality in mice. Phytochemical constituents identified included alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and saponins. The pH was 8.5. The present study has validated the local use of Brassica oleraceae in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the speculated mechanisms of action could be through acid neutralization, cytoprotection and antioxidation by flavonoids.

  6. El modelo V.S.P. en lechuga Batavia Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    An investigation was realized in the region of Pavitas, municipality of La Cumbre, Santa Fe farm, 1480 meters above sea level in a soil of Pavas Association (Aeric Tropaquept to prove the plastic cup-sustrate-plant model in the production of Batavia lecttuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and the effects of the organic matter filter cake press, cattle manure, poultry manure and earthworm soil, incorporated in the soil. Twenty two (22 treatments and fours repetitions were applied with each of the two varieties (Great lakes 118 and Pacific, the treatments corresponded to 5, 10, 15 t/ha of the organic matter which were applied to the soil fifteen days before transplantations occured. The results showed an excellent plant vigour and quality after the transplantation. It was also observed a good plant poblation and uniformity. The sustrate filter cake press mixed with botton fly ash presented better results in the field than the other treatments, having the highest crop yield and the best quality. The Great Lakes 118 with this treatment doubled the production of the treatment with soil. With the organic sustrates, the poultry manure 5 t/ha projected better results. The work showed the good behavior of the varity Great Lakes 118 compared to the Pacific. This treatments also improved the chemical caracteristics of the soil, especially increased the organic matter, potassium, phosporus, manganesum and zinc.

    En el Corregimiento Pavitas, municipio de La Cumbre, en la Finca Santafé, a 1.480 msnm en un suelo de la Asociación Pavas (Aeric Tropaquept se probó el modelo vaso-sustrato-planta (VSP, en la producción de plántulas de lechuga Batavia L. sativa var. capitata y el efecto en la producción de los compuestos orgánicos, cachaza, lombricompuesto, gallinaza y bovinaza, incorporados al suelo. Los 22 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, repartidos en dos variedades (Great Lake 118 y Pacific correspondieron a dosis (5, 10, 15 t/ha de las

  7. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. Convar. acephala Var. sabellica) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2009-04-08

    Kale is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, a group of vegetables including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, with a high content of health-promoting phytochemicals. The flavonoids and hydroxycinammic acids of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), a variety of kale, were characterized and identified primarily through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Thirty-two phenolic compounds including glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid were tentatively identified, providing a more complete identification of phenolic compounds in curly kale than previously reported. Moreover, three hydroxycinnamic acids and one flavonoid with an unusual high grade of glycosylation, quercetin-3-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-diglucoside, have been tentatively identified for the first time. The influence of different extraction conditions (extraction method, solvent type, solvent/solid ratio, and duration of extraction) was investigated. The total flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents in curly kale determined as rutin equivalents (RE) were 646 and 204 mg of RE/100 g of fresh weight (fw), respectively. The contents of individual flavonoids ranged from 2 to 159 mg of RE/100 g of fw, with main compounds kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (18.7%) and quercetin-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (16.5%). After acidic hydrolysis, two flavonol aglycones were identified in curly kale, quercetin and kaempferol, with total contents of 44 and 58 mg/100 g of fw, respectively.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi Kabatiella caulivora Var. A from Alyxia reinwardtii Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sri Wulan Manuhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and characterization of β-1,3-endoglucanase from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. have been done. It showed 40° C of optimum temperature, and optimum pH is 7. After the purification with hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, it’s activity was increased. Based on SDS-PAGE analysis, β-1,3-endoglucanase have molecular weight around 48 kD. Antifungal activity of β-1,3-endoglukanase show that it has best inhibition zone on Fusarium solanii at extract from ion exchange chromatography.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are associated with eutrophication of rivers and lakes [2], soil erosion [3], among others. The organic agriculture is an alternative for the use of additives, which aims to enhance the efficient use of nonrenewable natural resources, and utilization of renewable natural resources and biological processes aligned to biodiversity, the environment, economic development and quality of human life [4]. The use of homeopathy for the cultivation of plants is into the organic agriculture. Homeopathic medicines can lead to greater plant growth, the elimination of pests and soil enrichment, without presenting environmental impacts, or damage to the consumer or for the handler. Aim: The objective of this study is to find on the homeopathic medicine an alternative method for the use of fertilizers in order to increase the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica. Methodology: Seeds of broccoli will be treated with homeopathic medicines for phosphorus and gibberelic acid in the following method and scale 6cH, 30cH and 200cH, according with the 3rd edition of the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. These seeds will be cultured on Petri dishes in a MS medium. The dilution and the agitation water on the same high dilutions above, are used as a growth control, in the same way, gibberelic acid, a hormone, widely used commercially as a fertilizer, is also used as control. The applications will be made six days a week. It will be conducted a seedlings count

  10. Embryogenesis in Culture of Isolated Microspores of Brassica juncea var.capitata%结球芥菜游离小孢子培养的胚状体发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长龙; 杨培新; 郑奕雄

    2011-01-01

    2009~2011年对6种不同结球芥菜品种进行了小孢子培养试验,结果表明:在相同的培养条件下,各品种胚状体的发育是不同步的,胚状体的平均产量也存在极显著的差异,以大平铺的平均产胚量最高,为3.52个/蕾,其次为哥历蕾.%The isolated microspores of 6 Brassica juncea var. Capitata varieties were cultured from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that: under the same culture conditions, the embryogenesis of different varieties was of asynchrony, the average embryoid yield had extremely significant difference among different varieties, and the variety Dapingpu had the highest average embryoid yield (3.52 embryoids per bud) , followed by Gelilei.

  11. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  12. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  13. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-04

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment.

  14. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

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    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  15. Alleviation of the Effects of NaCl Salinity in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green Using Plant Growth Regulators

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    Anjali Ratnakar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental stress due to salinity has been reported to result in adverse effects on the growth of plants. Studies have shown that the use of plant growth regulators (PGRs has an ameliorative effect on plants grown under saline conditions. In the present investigation, effect of gibberellic acid (GA3, 6-furfuryladenine (Kinetin and benzyl adenine (BA on Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green, cultivated under saline conditions has been studied. After a pre-soaking treatment of six hours in 20 mg L-1 solutions of GA3, Kinetin and BA, the seeds were allowed to germinate and grow for forty-five days under saline conditions. On the analysis of mature leaves, it was observed that both chlorophyll a and b, and total chlorophyll showed an increase in PGR-treated plants compared to the untreated set. With the pretreatment, the reducing and non-reducing sugar content, as well as protein content of the leaves showed an increase in accumulation compared to the untreated plants. The accumulation of the stress metabolite proline, which increases under saline conditions, showed a significant decrease in the plants pretreated with PGRs.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  17. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  18. Curd development associated gene (CDAG1) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) could result in enlarged organ size and increased biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qingli; Qin, Erjun; Jin, Chuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Shen, Guangshuang; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The curd is a specialized organ and the most important product organ of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of curd formation and development remains largely unknown. In the present study, a novel homologous gene containing the Organ Size Related (OSR) domain, namely, CDAG1 (Curd Development Associated Gene 1) was identified in cauliflower. Quantitative analysis indicated that CDAG1 showed significantly higher transcript levels in young tissues. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ectopic overexpression of CDAG1 in Arabidopsis and cauliflower could significantly promote organ growth and result in larger organ size and increased biomass. Organ enlargement was predominantly due to increased cell number. In addition, 228 genes involved in the CDAG1-mediated regulatory network were discovered by transcriptome analysis. Among these genes, CDAG1 was confirmed to inhibit the transcriptional expression of the endogenous OSR genes, ARGOS and ARL, while a series of ethylene-responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were found to increased expression in 35S:CDAG1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This implies that CDAG1 may function in the ethylene-mediated signal pathway. These findings provide new insight into the function of OSR genes, and suggest potential applications of CDAG1 in breeding high-yielding crops.

  19. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  20. How Efficient Is Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Pollinating Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata? Pollination Behavior, Pollinator Effectiveness, Pollinator Requirement, and Impact of Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Subbanna, Avupati Rns; Preetha, G; Gupta, JaiPrakash

    2017-06-01

    Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers. Pollinator effectiveness as measured by seed set in flowers excluded from bee visitation, single bee visit, and unrestricted pollinator visits was 0.11. Studies on the impact of A. cerana bee pollination in cabbage seed production revealed an increase of 17.28% in siliqua per panicle, with 26.11% increase in seed yield. For assessing the requirement of A. cerana to pollinate one hectare of cabbage, flower availability and the speed with which the pollen and nectar foragers process the flowers are taken into consideration. A forager is estimated to pollinate 4,780 flowers a day, but cabbage flower requires 9.09 visits of A. cerana for optimum seed set. Thus, a maximum of 4,999 bee foragers or 8.33 colonies are needed to effectively pollinate 1 ha of cabbage. Though A. cerana is a good pollinator, our findings suggest that it is not an ideal pollinator of cabbage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L. f. rubra Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using Different Encapsulating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Bernstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the drying air temperature (140 and 160°C and the concentration of encapsulating agents gum Arabic and polydextrose (10 and 15% on the physicochemical characteristics of the red cabbage extract obtained through extraction in acidulated water and drying using a spray dryer. The anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, water activity, solubility, color and microstructure of the final product were analyzed. Results showed that increase in the temperature did not cause significant changes in the anthocyanin quantity and antioxidant activity. The microscopic analysis revealed that for both the encapsulating agents, the absence of fissures and porosity in the particle surfaces produced powder with high solubility in water. The principal component analyses showed a strong correlation between the anthocyanin content and the antioxidant activity (r = 0.82 and luminosity (r = 0.81.

  2. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  3. Differences among cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) genotypes for Cd uptake and accumulation in fruiting portion and possible inhibition through use of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils may become progressively enriched with cadmium as a consequence of industrial activities, fertilization, and waste disposal. The current widespread interest in Cd uptake and translocation arises not only from its toxicity to plants, but also from the harmful health effects of its dietary inta...

  4. Efekat ekspresije gena za protein-kinazu 1 duvana (NPK1) kod transformisanih biljaka karfiola (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) na razvoj tolerancije prema povišenim koncentracijama NaCI in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Suzana M.

    2015-01-01

    Biljke su neprekidno izloţene razliĉitim vrstama stresa iz spoljašnje sredine, koji nepovoljno utiĉu na njihov rast i razviće. Povećan salinitet zemljišta je jedan od faktora spoljašnje sredine, koji u velikoj meri ograniĉava produktivnost gajenih biljaka. Karfiol (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), je znaĉajna povrtarska kultura koja je, kao i ostale povrtarske kupusnjaĉe, podloţna uticaju razliĉitih stresnih faktora, pa i povećanom salinitetu usled intenzivnog zalivanja. Uz klasiĉne metod...

  5. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins.

  6. Effect of devernalization on the transition from vegetative to prefloral phase of the broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. 'Fiesta' shoot meristem

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    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and histological changes which occur in the cold-induced apical meristem of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica cv. ‘Fiesta’ during transition from the vegetative to the generative phase have been demonstrated in our previous investigations. Now, a light microscopic study on the micromorphological parameters of the tunica and corpus of the meristem was undertaken to ascertain their association with devernalisation. Changes in the apex of broccoli seedlings grown for 26 days at 24oC, succeeded by 35 days of cold treatment (16oC - vernalization followed by 14 days of warm treatment (24oC - devernalization, were studied and described. Microscopic analysis according to the new method of slide preparation showed cytohistological zonation and the spatial distribution of cells in the central and peripheral zones of the broccoli shoot meristem more precisely than possible hitherto. Comparison between subsequent stages of meristem reorganization after devernalization revealed variation in the structure of the apex during its transition to the evocation phase of flowering. The results of measurements show that the tunica width changes irregularly, increasing from its minimum value (112.39±5.78 μm through the medium one to the maximum values (260.32±2.50, to decrease again, while its height increased and decreased sinusoidally from its minimum value (21.52±4.30μm to the maximum one (76.98±7.44μm and then decreasing again to the minimum value (21.52±4.30. The stratification of the tunica as well as its width and height revealed relatively low variation within the analyzed time. These structural traits correlated with cold/warm treatments may be further utilized in the broccoli breeding programme against developmental disturbances.

  7. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response.

  8. Culture and fusion of pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica with haploid mesophyll protoplasts of B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Ryschka, U; Marthe, F; Klocke, E; Schumann, G; Zhao, H

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid callus was formed from the successful protoplast fusion between pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica and haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica rapa. The pollen protoplast isolation frequency in broccoli was highly related to the ratio of trinucleate pollens in the male gametophyte population. Large quantities of pollen protoplasts with high vigor could be isolated, and the isolation frequency reached up to 90% in 6.0-7.0 mm long flower buds with about 94.7% trinucleate-stage pollens. Pollen protoplasts could be collected and purified by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. In 1% Na-alginate embedding culture, cell divisions were observed but no further development was found. The haploid mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro haploid plants of B. rapa. Results strongly showed the variability in culturability of mesophyll protoplasts from different haploid lines. Both pollen protoplasts and haploid mesophyll protoplasts retained a stable round shape in the designed prefusion solution with an osmotic pressure of 0.74 osmol/kg. Polyethylene glycol was used for the protoplast fusion, and 40% polyethylene glycol 4000 enabled the highest fusion frequency of about 20%. Some postfusion protoplasts showed cell divisions up to callus proliferation. Calli were screened by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis for their hybrid character. Results revealed the existence of the hybrid calli. Some of the hybrid calli grew well with green color and shoot primordia. According to our knowledge, this is the first report about a hybrid formation between two haploid protoplasts. Potential comprehensive applications, as well as problems of this technique, are discussed.

  9. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  10. Low and moderate photosynthetically active radiation affects the flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) dependent on two low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) contains a large number of naturally occurring structurally different non-acylated and acylated flavonol glycosides as well as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low and moderate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and how these levels interact with low temperature in these phenolic compounds. Juvenile kale plants were treated with PAR levels from 200 to 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 5 and 10 °C under defined conditions in climate chambers. Of the investigated 20 compounds, 11 and 17 compounds were influenced by PAR and temperature, respectively. In addition, an interaction between PAR and temperature was found for eight compounds. The response of the phenolic compounds to PAR was structure-dependent. While quercetin triglycosides increased with higher PAR at 5 and 10 °C, the kaempferol triglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1). In contrast, kaempferol diglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at increased PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10 °C. However, key genes of flavonol biosynthesis were influenced by temperature but remained unaffected by PAR. Furthermore, there was no interaction between the PAR level and the low temperature in the response of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale with the exception of caffeoylquinic acid, which decreased with higher PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a lower temperature. In conclusion, PAR and its interaction with temperature could be a suitable tool for modifying the profile of phenolic compounds.

  11. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  12. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  13. Agronomic parameters in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica in convencional, organic and natural crop systems/ Parâmetros agronômicos em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica em sistema convencional, orgânico e natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic parameters were assessed in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica, cv. Legacy, in different cultivation systems: Natural 1 [incorporation of elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Conventional (NPK in the planting + bórax + dressing N]; Organic [organic compost (1 kg/plant]. Plants high were assessed 30, 45 and 60 days after planting; cycle; fresh weight; shelf life and dried weight were also evaluated. Fresh weight of leaves and stems in conventional was higher then in organic treatment. Inflorescence fresh weight, leaves and stems dried weight and shelf life were similar among treatments. The inflorescence fresh and dried weight from conventional were higher than those from Organic and Natural 1. Cycle found in Natural 1 was longer than the other treatments.Parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L . var. italica, cv. Legacy, em quatro sistemas de cultivo: Natural 1 [incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [incorporação de composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Convencional [NPK no plantio + bórax + N em cobertura]; Orgânico [aplicação de composto (1 kg/planta]. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplantio; duração do ciclo, peso fresco, período de conservação pós-colheita e peso seco. O peso fresco da parte vegetativa obtido no sistema convencional foi superior ao sistema orgânico. O peso fresco e seco da inflorescência obtido no sistema convencional, foi superior àquele obtido nos sistemas Orgânico e Natural 1. O ciclo no sistema Natural 1 foi mais longo do que nos outros tratamentos.

  14. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  15. Estudo comparativo das alterações de processamento no brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) submetido a diferentes processos de congelamento e períodos de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Damian, Andréa Clara Spoladore

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Amostras de brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) foram congeladas por 3 métodos diferentes e armazenadas com a finalidade de analisar a textura e a microestrutura (rompimento da parede celular) do brócoli. O brócoli foi selecionado e separado de acordo com o diâmetro de caule (@ 5 mm), branqueado e congelado em freezer a -18°C pelo método lento, a -50°C em congelador de placas pelo método r...

  16. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice García Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del correspondiente gen humano fue transfectado a Brocoli via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 con el vector pCAMBIA1105.1. La transformación del tejido de raíces fue confirmada por PCR, reacciones de restricción y ensayos de B-glucuronidasa. Resultados y Discusión: La presencia del cDNA correspondiente a preproinsulina y proinsulina fue B-glucuronidasa positiva para varias de las líneas. Aunque el rendimiento fue variable, cinco líneas mostraron valores apropiados con potencial para ser usadas como modelo de estudio en la producción en biorreactores.

  17. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

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    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  18. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the

  19. 福建漳州青花菜栽培钾肥施用技术优选%Research on the Application Techniques of Potassium Fertilizers of Brassica oleracea var. italica in Zhangzhou of Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬

    2013-01-01

    以青花菜品种‘炎秀’Brassica oleracea var.italica‘yanxiu’为材料,通过设置钾肥横向与纵向施肥的田间试验,探讨青花菜最佳钾肥用量和最佳钾肥运筹。结果表明,在设定氮、磷肥施用量分别为30.0 kg/667.7 m2、10.0 kg/667.7 m2的条件下,钾肥不同施用量对青花菜的株高、苗期功能叶片数、植株扩展度及全株重(去根)、单球重均有一定的影响,当钾肥施用量为19.1 kg/667.7 m2时,其产量最高,为1763.5 kg/hm2;在同样氮、磷肥的背景条件下,钾肥施用量以15.0 kg/667.7 m2,按基肥/追肥不同比例进行施用,青花菜所表现的株高、苗期功能叶片数、植株扩展度及全株重、单球重等形态及产量指标均有所差异,当基肥∶追肥按0.2∶0.8进行施用时,该产量指标均明显高于其它配比的处理。%Vertical and lateral field fertilizing experiments were conducted to investigate the best potassium (K) fertilizer consumption and application of Brassica oleracea var. italica ‘yanxiu’ in Zhangzhou. The results indicated that the different application of potassium had a certain effect on broccoli height, numbers of the functional leveas in seedling stage, plant slump flow, the whole weight (without root) and single head weight that the N fertilizer and P fertilizer were applied at a respective rate of 30 kg/667.7 m2 and 10.0 kg/667.7 m2, the highest yield of broccoli was 1763.5 kg/hm2 with 19.1 kg/667.7 m2 of K fertilizer input; at the same background of N, P fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer was 15.0 kg/667.7 m2 , according to the different proportion of potassium fertilizer as basal manure and top dressing on broccoli, the height, numbers of the seedling functional leveas, plant slump flow, the whole weight, single head weight and the yield index all have some difference, the proportion of basal manure and top dressing was 0.2∶0.8, the production index were higher than other

  20. Molecular Distinction of Two Ogura CMS Sources in Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.%两种甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育源的分子鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬勇; 方智远; 王庆彪; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 孙培田

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较两种可实用的甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育源(CMSHY和CMSR)在细胞质DNA水平上的区别,以快速、准确鉴别两种不育源.[方法]利用开发的叶绿体SSR(cpSSR)和线粒体SSR(mtSSR)引物,结合聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和测序技术,获得在两种不育源间的分子差异,并对其中有限制性内切酶的位点转化成CAPS标记.[结果]无法在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳上发现32对cpSSR扩增产物的差异,经测序仅发现ACP9引物上SSR重复数的差异.在21对mtSSR引物中,仅mtSSR2引物可以在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳上区分这两种不育源.经测序发现其余5对mtSSR引物上存在9个多态性差异,其中3个为SSR位点的差异.对其中2个可被限制性内切酶MseI酶切的多态性位点转化成CAPS标记,分别命名为m92-143 Mse I、ml-346 Mse I.这些标记均可以用于这两种Ogura细胞质雄性不育源的区分.[结论]利用获得的cpSSR和mtSSR标记,成功区分甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育源CMSHY和CMSR.CAPS标记可快速、简便、准确地区分两种不育源.%[Objective] Two feasible Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility sources (CMS HY and CMSR3) in cabbage were used to identify its cytoplasmic DNA distinction. [Method] With chloroplast SSR (cpSSR) and mitochondrial SSR (mtSSR) primers, the technologies of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing were used to explore the molecular differences between Ogura CMSHY and CMSR3. The markers with restriction enzyme recognition sites were converted into CAPS markers. [Result] cpSSR amplicons could not differ two CMS sources on polyacrylamide gel, but the sequence of amplicon ACP9 differed them on SSR repeat numbers. In 21 mtSSR primers, only amplicon of mtSSR2 could distinguish two CMS sources on polyacrylamide gel. Moreover, nine polymorphic differences were obtained with sequencing in other 5 mtSSR primers. Two polymorphic differences with Mse I restriction enzyme recognition sites were converted into CAPS markers, named as m92-143 Mse I, ml-346 Mse I . [Conclusion] Two cabbage Ogura CMS sources were distinguished with cpSSR and mtSSR markers. CAPS markers could be used as a fast, easy and accurate method to distinguish two CMS sources.

  1. 中国结球甘蓝雄性不育研究进展%Studies on the Male Sterility in Cabbage(Brassica Oleracea L.Var Capitata)in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建刚; 李成琼; 宋洪元

    2003-01-01

    本文从常规选育结球甘蓝雄性不育系和利用分子生物学技术将雄性不育基因转入甘蓝获得雄性不育植株两个方面综述了中国结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究进展,并指出了在今后的研究中应注意解决的问题.

  2. Site-Specific Gene Targeting Using Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE)-Based Nuclease in Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zijian Sun; Nianzu Li; Guodong Huang; Junqiang Xu; Yu Pan; Zhimin Wang; Qinglin Tang; Ming Song; Xiaojia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recognition modules with DNA nuclease have tremendous potential as molecular tools for genome targeting. The type III transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain a DNA binding domain consisting of tandem repeats that can be engineered to bind user-defined specific DNA sequences. We demonstrated that customized TALE-based nucleases (TALENs), constructed using a method called“unit assembly”, specifically target the endogenous FRIGIDA gene in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. The results indicate that the TALENs bound to the target site and cleaved double-strand DNA in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effector binding elements have a 23 bp spacer. The T7 endonuclease I assay and sequencing data show that TALENs made double-strand breaks, which were repaired by a non-homologous end-joining pathway within the target sequence. These data show the feasibility of applying customized TALENs to target and modify the genome with deletions in those organisms that are still in lacking gene target methods to provide germplasms in breeding improvement.

  3. Site-specific gene targeting using transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based nuclease in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zijian; Li, Nianzu; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Junqiang; Pan, Yu; Wang, Zhimin; Tang, Qinglin; Song, Ming; Wang, Xiaojia

    2013-11-01

    Site-specific recognition modules with DNA nuclease have tremendous potential as molecular tools for genome targeting. The type III transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain a DNA binding domain consisting of tandem repeats that can be engineered to bind user-defined specific DNA sequences. We demonstrated that customized TALE-based nucleases (TALENs), constructed using a method called "unit assembly", specifically target the endogenous FRIGIDA gene in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. The results indicate that the TALENs bound to the target site and cleaved double-strand DNA in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effector binding elements have a 23 bp spacer. The T7 endonuclease I assay and sequencing data show that TALENs made double-strand breaks, which were repaired by a non-homologous end-joining pathway within the target sequence. These data show the feasibility of applying customized TALENs to target and modify the genome with deletions in those organisms that are still in lacking gene target methods to provide germplasms in breeding improvement.

  4. Preliminary Studies on Isozymes and Protein of Hybrid from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜(Eru CMS)与甘蓝种间杂种的同工酶和蛋白质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    经胚抢救获得甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)(Eru CMS)与甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.)种间杂种,前期经过流式细胞仪、柱头染色体数目、花粉活力等分析获得一些真杂种.利用电泳法,对真杂种植株的3种同工酶(SOD、EST、COD)和蛋白质进行详细分析,了解了杂种与亲本的同工酶和蛋白质的特性差异.结果表明,杂种与亲本之间的同工酶和蛋白质存在较明显的差异:杂种的SOD、COD的酶带表现为偏父本甘蓝型;杂种的EST的酶带表现为偏母本油菜型;杂种的蛋白质电泳表现为不仅具有双亲的特征蛋白带,也有其自身特征蛋白带.%Brassica napus x Brassica oleracea hybrids were obtained by embryo rescue technology and identified by flow cytometry analysis, chromosome count of stigma cells, and pollen viability tests. Patterns of isozyme and protein of the real hybrids were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, isozyme (SOD, EST, and COD) and protein patterns were compared with those of the parents, with obvious variations observed. Results also showed that the SOD and COD patterns of the hybrids were similar to Brassica oleracea, while the EST pattern was similar to the female parent. The protein pattern mainly showed parental complements, with new bonds also possessing their own characters.

  5. 羽衣甘蓝种子主要品质性状的表现及其相关性%Performance and Correlation of Main Quality Traits in Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐章林; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    148 lines of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) from germplasm resource and advanced generation were selected randomly to analyze the characteristics and correlation of oil, protein, glucosinolates and seven fatty acid compositions in mature seed. The results showed that the average contents of oil and protein were 29.48% and 45.13% respectively, with a total content of oil plus protein was 74.61%. Maximum variation was observed on glucosinolates with a coefficient of variation reached 31.72% . Among .seven fatty acid compositions, the contents of oleic and erucic acids were the highest, followed by linoleic, palmitic d stearic acids were the lowest in mature seed. Except glucosinolates and stearic acid, the rest 9 traits presented a jingle-peak normal distribution. Correlation analysis indicated that significant or very significant correlations were ex stent among the quality traits and this was similar to that of three types of rapeseed ( B. napus L. , B. campestris L. i nd B. juncea Coss. ) . There were some excellent germplasm resources in kale which could be utilized directly in bleeding of high quality rapeseed.%随机挑选148份羽衣甘蓝种质资源和高世代材料,分析了成熟种子的含油量、蛋白质、硫苷和7种主要脂肪酸成分的表现特征及其相关性.结果表明:羽表甘蓝成熟种子平均含油量为29.48%,平均蛋白质含量为45.13%,含油量和蛋白质总量为74.61%.硫苷含量的变幅最大,变异系数为31.72%.7种主要脂肪酸成分中,油酸和芥酸的含量较高,其次为亚油酸,棕榈酸和硬脂酸的含量较低.除硫苷含量和硬脂酸含量外,其余9个性状的表现均呈单峰正态分布.相关性分析表明,大多数性状间都具有显著或极显著的相关性,这与对甘蓝型、白菜型和芥菜型3种类型油菜的研究结果相一致.在羽衣甘蓝中存在一些优异的种质资源,通过筛选可以在油菜优质育种中加以利用.

  6. Etude de l’activité antiparasitaire et antimicrobienne des extraits de zests d’oranges Citrus sinensis var.Washington navel sur le ravageur Ceratitis capitata et la mycoflore qui lui est associée.

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzouz, Fatima zohra

    2015-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata سمحت لنا الدراسة البیوایكولوجیة لذبالة الفواكھ Penicillium sp. Aspergillus sp et Monilia أربع أنواع (Alternaria sp.,. الفطریات الضارة المتعلقة بھا، سمحت بتعریف ثمانیة أنواع فطریة sp). ثم تلیھا مكونات فینولیة أخرى (Tanins ) بالمقابل دراسة قدرة البرتقال على مقاومة ھذه القطریات بینت أن المكافحة تبدأ بإفراز مركبات فینولیة تركیبیة Ceratitis ) دراسة خلاصة قشرة البرتقال و الزیوت الطیارة الخاصة بھا على العزلات الفطریة و یرقات الذبابة و الذبابة نفسھا .(Flavonoides) حاثة ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 5651 - 5700 of 11090 ... Vol 12, No 12 (2013), Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among ... and their association studies on reproductive and milk production traits in .... of white head cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata sub.var. alba) ...

  8. 滇东北冷凉山区夏秋青花菜无公害栽培技术%Cultivation techniques of Brassica oleracea var. Italica in northeast Yunnan mountain in summer and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金传友; 马卫; 黄吉美; 许钱友; 王朝武

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Yunnan mountain climate is cool in summer and autumn, suitable for Brassica oleracea. Based on years of pro- duction practice, a set of non-pollution cultivation techniques of the Brassiea olerctcea for northeast Yunnan mountain in summer and autumn was introduced including selecting species, nurturing seedlings, planting specifications, fertilizer and water management, pest control, harvesting and so on.%摘要:滇东北山区夏秋季节气候温凉,适于种植反季青花菜,文章结合多年生产实践,从品种选择、培育壮苗、规格定植、肥水管理、病虫防治、适时采收等措施总结介绍一套滇东北冷凉山区夏秋青花菜无公害栽培技术。

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of collard landraces and their relationship to other Brassica oleracea crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landraces have the potential to provide a reservoir of genetic diversity for crop improvement to combat the genetic erosion of the food supply. A landrace collection of the vitamin-rich specialty crop collard (Brassica oleracea var. viridis) was genetically characterized to assess its potential for ...

  10. Wound repair in Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    We documented the microscopic morphology of tissue healing in Montipora capitata. Fragments from two healthy coral colonies were traumatized by scraping tissue and skeleton and monitored in flow-through seawater tables every 2-4. days for 40. days for gross and cellular changes. Grossly, corals appeared healed and repigmented by Day 40. Histologically, traumatized issues were undistinguishable from intact untraumatized tissues by Day 12. We suspect that the calicoblastic epidermis of basal body wall is pluripotential and can develop into surface epidermis when needed. ?? 2010.

  11. RESPONSE OF CABBAGE CULTIVARS TO BLACK ROT INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars were ... and stable cultivar(s) with adequate resistance to black rot caused by ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics: ... black rot development in introduced cabbage.

  12. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea v...ar. capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassi...ca oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutrition

  14. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE II. SERIES ANNULARES, CAPITATAE, PAPILLIFERAE AND MICROPHYLLAE ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE II. SERIES ANNULARES, CAPITATAE, MICROPHYLEAE Y PAPILLIFERAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Turnera L. includes around 100 American species and two African ones, arranged in nine series. In this paper, the following four series embracing 21 species are revised: Annulares, Capitatae, Microphyllae and Papilliferae. Six new taxa are described: Thatschbachii, Thatschbachii var. miniata, Tmaracasana,and T.princeps of the seriesCapitatae, Tasymmetrica of the series Microphyllae, and Tcaatingana of the series Papilliferae. The species of these four series share the common features of simple and glandular hairs, generally well-developed floral peduncle, absent pedicel, linear or elliptic prophylls, generally warty or granulate fruit, and a floral tube, appendicular in nature, in that it is the product of the fusion of the lower part of the calyx and corolla, with the staminal filaments adnate only at the base. In the series Annulares,
    Microphyllae and Papilliferae the leaves and young stems are fragrant, the scent being produced by the glandular hairs, and the floral peduncle is shortly adnate to the petiole. Three
    series, Annulares, Capitatae and Microphyllae, have leaves with generally well developed stipules and a disjunct geographical distribution. The series Annulares and Capitatae have nectaries and villous or hirsute styles, while Microphyllae and Papilliferae lack nectaries and their styles are glabrous or somewhat pilose. In some species of Microphyllae the staminal filaments are joined at the base, forming an annular structure 0,05-0,50 mm high. The seeds are peculiar in Annulares, being very short, with a central, prominent and slightly concave chalaza. In the series Capitatae, the flowers are gathered in short, capitate inflorescences, the length of the peduncles being variable or sometimes wanting, and the seeds are obovoid, reticulate or striate. The leaves of Microphyllae are small, with the stipules adnate to the foliar
    base; setiform glandular hairs, similar to those of

  15. Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) but not in spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Lars M; Beacham, Andrew M; Reade, John P H; Monaghan, James M

    2016-07-01

    Babyleaf salads such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well-watered controls. We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 甘蓝转TA29-Barnase基因植株的花器特征及育性分离的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON FLOWER CHARACTERISTICS AND SEGREGATION OF MALE STERILITY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH TA29-Barnase IN CABBAGE(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉英; 龚静; 吴晓光; 杨红娟; 沈革志; 王新其; 殷丽青; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新杉

    2001-01-01

    Male sterile cabbage plants were got by transferring TA29-Barnasegene to common cabbage plants. These male sterile transgenic plants with TA29-Barnase gene have the same horticultural characters which can be also inherited steadily by plants in next generation as non-transgenic ones. But their flowers bear fully catagenetic stamen lacking pollens, normal fragrant nectaries and strong pistils able to receive pollens from other plants or different cultivars and set seeds. At the meantime, the sterility in transgenic plants can segregate in their posterior generations at sterility rates of 12.5%~85.7%.%利用分子生物学方法,将控制作物育性的基因(TA29-Barnase)转化甘蓝生物体,培育出了甘蓝雄性不育植株。带有TA29-Barnase基因的雄性不育植株的园艺学性状与未转化植株相同,并且其性状在后代中稳定不变;不育植株的花朵表现雄蕊完全退化,但蜜腺和雌蕊健全,能接受外来花粉,杂交结实率较高;同时,雄性不育植株的不育性在后代中出现分离,不育株率占12.5%~85.7%;此外,不育性状具有镶嵌性。

  17. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  18. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 19 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of Iris lactea var. chinensis germplasm detected by inter-simple ... seeds in greenhouse and laboratory conditions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... white head cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata sub.var. alba) from Turkey ... Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and its impact on ...

  19. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from Spinacea oleracea L. (spinach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H; Richardson, M; Scogin, R; Boulter, D

    1973-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L., var. Monster Viroflay) cytochrome c was determined on 1mumol of protein. The molecule consists of 111 residues and is homologous with other mitochondrial cytochromes c. Experimental details are given in a supplementary paper that has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50013, at the National Lending Library for Science and Technology, Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973), 131, 5.

  20. Trapping Female Medflies (Ceratitis capitata) by Broadcast of Male Calling Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP022884 TITLE: Trapping Female Medflies [ Ceratitis capitata ] by Broadcast...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP022883 thru ADP023022 UNCLASSIFIED Trapping Female Medflies ( Ceratitis capitata ) by...systems for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in seven countries," J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 156-164. 2. Hendrichs, J., Franz, G., and Rendon, P

  1. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  2. Genetic diversity of populations of Butia capitata endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hélida

    2015-03-18

    Uniscience®) fluorescent dye, at 90 V from 2.5 h to 4 h .... genetic structure of the genotypes of B. capitata. ..... 8: 54-59. Collevatti RG, Telles MPC, Lima JS, Gouveia FO, Soares TN ... Pollen and seed dispersal among dispersed plants.

  3. Deep roots of Brassica oleracea have high uptake of 15N-nitrate to 2 meters soil depth

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, H.L.; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2006-01-01

    • Deep roots may be important for uptake of NO3- by annual crops. A field experiment with the deep rooted crop curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.) was performed to investigate root distribution and N uptake in deep soil layers. • Root distribution was investigated by use of minirhizotrons and root extractions to 2.4 m depth. The capacity for crop N uptake was studied by deep 15NO3- placement followed by analysis of plant 15N content after 3-30 d...

  4. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  6. Anticancer properties of Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poças

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that some EOs have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, insecticidal activities. However, studies into their anti-tumoral activities are scarce. This study, indicates that Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum EOs exhibited antitumor activity against RKO and MCF7 cells, deserving further research into both the mechanism of the observed anti-tumour activity and potential cancer therapeutic applications.

  7. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  8. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  9. Selection of a Bacillus pumilus strain highly active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

    2010-03-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata.

  10. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  11. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  13. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  14. Experimental Conditions: SE25_S10_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S10_M01_D01 SE25 Comparison of leaf metabolites among cabbage varieties SE25_S10... Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanpachi Leaf SE25_S10_M01 6.7mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_29145 SE25_MS1 LC-FT

  15. Experimental Conditions: SE25_S10_M02_D02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S10_M02_D02 SE25 Comparison of leaf metabolites among cabbage varieties SE25_S10... Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanpachi Leaf SE25_S10_M02 6.7mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_29146 SE25_MS1 LC-FT

  16. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE27 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27 Effect of agricultural films for cabbage leaf metabolites Investigation of Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultura...l film or no agricultural film), 3 replicates data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1, Naoki Yamamoto 1,

  18. Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... different Chinese Brassica oleracea L. varieties were analyzed by HPLC ... Key words: Sulforaphane, erucin, brassica seed, diet supplement. ... broccoli (B. Capitata L. var. italica) and shepherd's purse (Capsella ... extracts was determined by GC-FID or HPLC. ..... Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a.

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 32 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) ... Seed germination and in vitro regeneration of the African medicinal and ... Passive- and active-cigarette smoking: Effects on the levels of antioxidant vitamins ... extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 651 - 700 of 2083 ... Vol 33, No 4 (2003), Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on ... inclusion of discarded cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on the ... longa) on blood biochemistry parameters and antioxidant activity in chickens, Abstract PDF ... ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production performance ...

  1. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. costata) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of -carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as “grelos” (rap...

  2. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  3. Arsenic accumulation in Brassicaceae seedlings and its effects on growth and plant anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas-Silva, Larisse; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; de Araujo, João Marcos

    2016-02-01

    We wished to evaluate the effects of arsenic on the morphology and anatomy of Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Brassica oleracea var. italica. Seeds were subjected to concentrations 0µM, 250µM, 350µM and 450µM arsenic in the form of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) during 12 days. All species accumulated more arsenic in the roots than in the shoots, except for B. oleracea var. capitata. There was no difference of translocation factor between species and treatments. Growth decrease was observed in roots of B. oleracea and R. sativus, and in shoots of R. sativus and B. oleracea var. italica. All species presented anatomical alterations in the roots, such as: cell hypertrophy, protoplast retraction, cellular plasmolysis, and necrotic regions. B. juncea presented collapse and hypertrophy of cells from the leaf blade tissues. Quantitative anatomical analyses performed on the root and leaves of B. oleracea and B. juncea revealed that arsenic interfered on the root vascular cylinder diameter and on height of epidermal cells of the adaxial leaf surface of both species. We concluded that arsenic was absorbed from the culture medium and induced alterations both on root and shoot growth of the seedlings. Retention of arsenic within the root was responsible for major damage in this organ.

  4. The preparation of the rice coral Montipora capitata nubbins for application in coral-reef ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, K; Richmond, R H

    2012-04-01

    Securing adequate and appropriate source material for coral-reef ecotoxicology studies is a significant impediment to conducting various experiments supporting the goal of conserving coral-reef ecosystems. Collecting colonies from wild stocks may be counter to protecting coral reef populations. To address this issue the rice coral Montipora capitata was used to generate sufficient genetically identical nubbins for research purposes. Growth and survival rates of these laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins were studied over a period of 90 days. The resulting data support the conclusion that the laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins showed successful growth and survival rates and are the best solution to solve the source material issue for lab experimentation. This paper describes the laboratory method used for the preparation and maintenance of these M. capitata nubbins and discusses the benefits and difficulties of using these nubbins in ecotoxicity studies.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Mansour; Fater Mohamad

    2016-01-01

      Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), [Ceratitis capitata], were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria...

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in tropical forage Stylosanthes capitata Vogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M O; Sassaki, R P; Chiari, L; Resende, R M S; DE Souza, A P

    2009-01-01

    Stylosanthes capitata is an important tropical pasture legume. Knowledge of genetic diversity and structure of S. capitata populations is of great importance for the conservation and germplasm management of this species. Thus, eight microsatellite markers were developed from an S. capitata-enriched library. They were characterized in 20 accessions from the germplasm collection of the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.16 to 0.85 and from 0.40 to 0.85, respectively. These microsatellites are the first set of molecular markers from this species and will contribute towards studies of genetic diversity, conservation and breeding of S. capitata.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,...

  8. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  10. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Suhyoung; Lee, Sang-Won; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2012-08-22

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in the skin and flesh of pale green and purple kohlrabis. Analysis of these distinct kohlrabis revealed the presence of 8 glucosinolates, 12 anthocyanins, 2 carotenoids, and 7 phenylpropanoids. Glucosinolate contents varied among the different parts and types of kohlrabi. Glucoerucin contents were 4-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than those in the skin. Among the 12 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(feruloyl)(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. Carotenoid levels were much higher in the skins than the flesh of both types of kohlrabi. The levels of most phenylpropanoids were higher in purple kohlrabi than in pale green ones. trans-Cinnamic acid content was 12.7-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than that in the pale green ones. Thus, the amounts of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the two types of kohlrabi were significant.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  12. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more hea...

  13. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  14. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  15. Glycosidases in the plasma membrane of Ceratitis capitata spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Jari; De Caro, Daniela; Perotti, Maria-Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2011-02-01

    Fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are rated among the world's most destructive agricultural pests. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is emerging as a model organism to study the fertilization in Insects. Three integral proteins with glycosidase activity are present in the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. The glycosidases have been purified and characterized. We have demonstrated the presence of three enzymes, a β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an α-mannosidase and an α-l-fucosidase. The molecular mass of the native enzymes estimated by gel filtration was 160 kDa for β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, 310 kDa for α-mannosidase and 140 kDa for α-l-fucosidase. SDS-PAGE showed that β-N-acetylhexosaminidase is a dimer of a single protein of 73 kDa, α-mannosidase consists of six subunits with different molecular weights and α-l-fucosidase is a dimer made up by two different monomers. Characterization of the purified enzymes included glycosylation pattern, pI, optimal pH, substrate preference, kinetic properties and thermal stability. Soluble forms similar to the sperm associated glycosidases are present. Polyclonal antibodies raised against synthetic peptides designed from the predicted products of the Drosophila melanogaster genes encoding β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and α-l-fucosidase were used. Immunofluorescence labelling of spermatozoa showed that the enzymes are present in the sperm plasma membrane overlying the acrosome and the tail. This work represents the first report on the characterization in C. capitata of sperm proteins that are potentially involved in primary gamete recognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  17. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...

  18. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata early embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salvemini

    Full Text Available The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8-10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae.

  19. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8-10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae.

  20. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I.; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and oc

  1. Actin Genes in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymer, D. S.; Anleitner, J. E.; He, M.; Thanaphum, S.; Saul, S. H.; Ivy, J.; Houtchens, K.; Arcangeli, L.

    1990-01-01

    We have undertaken the study of actin gene organization and expression in the genome of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata. Actin genes have been extensively characterized previously in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and they have valuable properties for comparative studies. These genes are typically highly conserved in coding regions, represented in multiple copies per genome and regulated in expression during development. We have isolated a gene in the medfly using the cloned Drosophila melanogaster 5C actin gene as a probe. This medfly gene detects abundant messages present during late larval and late pupal development as well as in thoracic and leg tissue preparations from newly emerged adults. This pattern of expression is consistent with what has been seen for actin genes in other organisms. Using either the D. melanogaster 5C actin gene or the medfly gene as a probe identifies five common cross reacting Eco RI fragments in genomic DNA, but only under less than fully stringent hybridization conditions. PMID:1692797

  2. A Second Superoxide Dismutase Gene in the Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, G. K.; Robinson, A. S.; Kwiatowski, J.; Ayala, F. J.; Scott, M. J.; Kriticou, D.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first case of two Cu/Zn Sod genes (ccSod1 and ccSod2) that have been cloned and sequenced from an insect, the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. Biochemical evidence suggested the presence of two Sod genes in the medfly. The two genes are isolated using different molecular strategies: ccSod1 via cross-hybridization to a genomic library using a heterologous probe and ccSod2 from cDNA using a homologous probe generated by PCR. Sequence analysis shows that ccSod1 and ccSod2 are different genes. The inferred amino sequences show that all essential residues of the active site are strictly conserved, which suggests both genes encode functional Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Phylogenetic analysis by the maximum parsimony method with bootstrap resampling of previously known Cu/Zn SOD reveals two monophyletic groups, vertebrates and insects. The position of ccSOD2 in this phylogeny is undefined with respect to dipteran ccSOD1, vertebrate, plant, fungal, and extracellular Cu/Zn SOD, which suggests that the duplication detected in Ceratitis is ancient, perhaps as old as the origins of the arthropod phylum in the Cambrian more than 500 million years ago. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes places the genes on different chromosomes, which is consistent with an ancient gene duplication. PMID:7498747

  3. A VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungwa, Matondo; Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    to make a, post expression, dual antigen conjugate vaccine, comprising two clinically tested antigen candidates (CSP and VAR2CSA).  Methods: The DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a region of VAR2CSA was genetically fused with SpyTag at N-terminus. The full-length CSP antigen was genetically fused to C-terminal Spy......Catcher peptide. The covalent interaction between SpyTag/SpyCatcher enables the formation of DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity and quality of antibody responses induced by the conjugate vaccine, as well as a control CSP-SpyCatcher vaccine, was tested in BALB/c mice.  Results: Serum samples...... obtained from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine were able to recognize both untagged DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a as well as CSP antigen. Moreover, the geometric mean anti-CSP antibody titer was 1.9-fold higher in serum (at day 35 and 55 post-first immunization) from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine...

  4. Methods to Break Seed Dormancy of Rhynchosia capitata, a Summer Annual Weed Métodos para Romper la Dormancia de Rhynchosia capitata, una Maleza Anual de Verano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Haider Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy of weed seeds is a significant feature contributing to their survival rate since it helps the weeds to avoid herbicides and other weeding practices along with unfavorable environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on the germination of Rhynchosia capitata, a common summer annual weed, which is emerging as a weed threat in Pakistan. Seeds were soaked in thiourea, KNO3, HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4, and they were also mechanically scarified (sandpaper. Results indicated that R. capitata seeds show signs of physical dormancy that is mainly due to the impermeability of their coat. Mechanical scarification and acid scarification (soaking of seeds in H2SO4 for 60 and 80 min and in HCl for 12 and 15 h were very efficient in breaking dormancy and promoting germination. Seed soaking in HNO3 for 1 to 5 d showed little effect whereas various concentrations of thiourea and KNO3 were ineffective in breaking R. capitata seed dormancy.La dormancia seminal de las malezas es un rasgo significativo contribuyente a su tasa de supervivencia, puesto que ayuda a las malezas a evitar herbicidas y otras prácticas de desmalezado junto con condiciones ambientales desfavorables. Investigamos los efectos de diferentes tratamientos para romper dormancia sobre la germinación de Rhynchosia capitata, una maleza anual estival común en Paquistán. Las semillas se sumergieron en tiourea, KNO3, HCl, HNO3 y H2SO4 y además fueron escarificadas mecánicamente (papel lija. Los resultados indicaron que las semillas de R. capitata muestran signos de dormancia física principalmente debido a impermeabilidad de su cubierta. Escarificación mecánica y ácida (inmersión de semillas en H2SO4 por 60 y 80 min y en HCl por 12 y 15 h fueron muy eficientes para romper dormancia y promover germinación. Las semillas sumergidas en HNO3 por 1 a 5 días mostraron poco efecto, mientras diversas concentraciones de tiourea y KNO3 fueron

  5. Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Can; Hou, Bo-Hua; Ou-Yang, Ge-Cheng; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Irradiation of Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) on an artificial diet; Irradiacao de larvas de Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha fraterculus e Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A.; Sato, M.E.; Suplicy Filho, N.; Potenza, M.R. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamazaki, M.C.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to establish gamma radiation dose levels sufficient to prevent the emergence of adults, and thus to serve as parameters for disinfestation of hosts of the fruit-flies Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha fraterculus, and Anastrepha obliqua. Four-, 5,6-, and 7-day-old larvae of the 3 species were tested. Pupation was unaffected by 40 Gy for C. capitata, and by 100 Gy for A. fraterculus and A. obliqua. Gamma radiation doses necessary to prevent development of adults from larvae were 30 Gy, 20 Gy and 20 Gy for C. capitata, A. obliqua respectively. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs.

  7. First Occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. in the State of Roraima, Brazil = Primeira ocorrência de Ceratitis capitata (Wied. no Estado de Roraima, Brasil

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    Luciana Baú Trassato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its cosmopolitan and invasive characteristics, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied., is considered to be the most harmful tephritide to global fruit farming, causing greater losses in production than any other species of the same family. In Brazil, it was first detected in 1901 in the state of São Paulo, and was present in 22 of the 27 federated states by 2014. Because of its economic importance and the continual entry of hosts into the state, the hypothesis of this work was that the Mediterranean fruit fly [Ceratitis capitata (Wied.] is already present in the State of Roraima. Weekly collections of potential host fruits were carried out in October 2014 in urban areas of the city of Boa Vista, Roraima. The collected fruit was taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Roraima, where they were weighed, counted and packed under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in order to obtain pupae. After emergence, the flies were fed on water with 25% honey for two days, fixed in 70% alcohol and sent for identification to the Department of Entomology Research of the Amazon National Research Institute (INPA in Manaus. In this way, Specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. (Diptera: Thephritidae were detected in fruit of the guava (Psidium guajava L., validating the hypothesis that the pest is already present in Roraima. The first record of the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. in the state of Roraima is therefore reported here. = A mosca-do-mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wied., por apresentar características cosmopolita e invasora, é considerada o tefritideo mais nocivo à fruticultura mundial, causando perdas produtivas superiores a qualquer outra espécie da sua família. No Brasil, foi primeiramente detectada em 1901 no estado de São Paulo, e estava presente em 22 das 27 unidades federativas até o ano de 2014. Em razão da sua importância econômica e da constante entrada de

  8. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Manrakhan, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and Steinernema khoisanae, to infect pupariating larvae, pupae and adults of Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa was investigated in laboratory bioassays. Pupariating larvae and adult flies were susceptible to nematode infection, with no infection recorded for the pupae. Pupariating larvae of C. capitata were generally more susceptible to infection than those of C. rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

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    Christel Brunschwig

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity, in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry. PMID:28036089

  11. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

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    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinacia oleracea (spinach of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Spinacia oleracea powder at 200mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  12. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

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    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  13. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine sampling range for female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for pest tephritid fruit flies. Field studies were conducted in shaded coffee and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were captured. Traps (38 traps ...

  14. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  16. Oviposition preference and larval performance in Ceratitis capitata (Díptera, Tephritidae

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    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments concerning oviposition preference were carried out on Ceratitis capitata to determine whether females are able to preferentially oviposit on natural hosts in which the larvae develop better. The results indicated that the females do not preferentially oviposit on hosts of better nutritive value for the larvae.

  17. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar; Mohammed Said Hefnawy; Sahar Youssef Al-Okbi; Doha Abdou Mohamed; Nabil Khamis El-Sayed; Amira Ahmed El-Anssary; Tom Mabry

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents.Methods:organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out.Results:Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds.Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  18. Biologia floral do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Martius).

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    O presente estudo avalia a biologia floral em uma população natural de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) no estuário amazônico, localizado na Ilha do Combu, Município de Acará, Pará (48º25´W; 1º25´S). O período de estudo foi de um ano (janeiro a dezembro de 1991). Os resultados mostraram que Euterpe oleracea é uma espécie monóica, dicógama e protândrica; as brácteas abrem-se cinco dias após maturação; as flores masculinas permanecem de 10 a 12 dias nas inflorescências e as flores femininas ...

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

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    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  20. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  1. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana to control Ceratitis capitata in semi field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali; Sermann, Helga; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a highly polyphagous pest of economic importance cultures in Syria, as in many other parts of the world. The potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiona BALS (VUIL.) strain 412 against adults of Mediterranean fruit fly C. capitata was evaluated in semi field conditions during the summer. Soil (5-7 cm high) was filled into plastic container (27 cm x 32 cm). In one container 75 pupae, two days before emergency, were spread uniformly on the soil. Then the pupae were covered with soil (4-5 cm layer). After that, 30 ml suspension of fungal spores (4 x 10(8) spores/ml) was applied to the soil surface using a dash bottle. This corresponded to a spore density of 1.3 x 10(7) spores/cm2 on soil. Water and food (1:4 yeast, sucrose) were placed in the cages for the emerged flies. The semi-field evaluation of B. bassiana revealed a fly mortality of about 46% compared to 16% in the control. In addition 72% of dead flies were moulded in the treatment. These results indicated that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana was pathogen against the adults of C. capitata not only in the laboratory condition but also under field condition. That means B. bassiana could decrease the offspring of C. capitata. Therefore B. bassiana could be an effective factor to control C. capitata in combination with other control methods, used in IPM program in the field.

  2. Bronchodilatory effect of Portulaca oleracea in airways of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, F; Boskabady, M H; Borushaki, M T; Tohidi, M

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway of asthmatic patients was examined. The relaxant effect of the orally administered 0.25 ml/kg of 5% boiled extract in comparison with 3 mg/kg oral theophylline and 200 microg inhaled salbutamol was studied by measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MEF(25-75)), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The FEV1, PEF, MEF(25-75), and sGaw were measured before, administration and repeated 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after administration of the oral extract and theopylline. For inhaled salbutamol measurements were performed 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post-inhalation. Results showed that the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea caused significant increases in all measured pulmonary function tests (PFTs), (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the maximum increase in measured PFTs due to the boiled extract and theophylline. However, maximum increase in PEF and MEF(25-75) due to the boiled extract were significantly lower than those of salbutamol (P < 0.05 for both cases). The onset of brochodilatory effect of extract was similar to that of theophylline beginning 60 min, but the effect of extract decline after 120 min after administration. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that Portulaca oleracea has a relatively potent but transient bronchodilatory effect on asthmatic airways.

  3. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  4. Effects of parental age on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied.

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations with single pair mating have been conducted in order to study the influence of parental age on the adult progeny's longevity and reproductive parameters of t he Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied.

  5. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

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    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  6. [Parasitic effect of Opius concolor (Spzl) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on an intermediate host Ceratitis capitata Wied (Diptera, Trypetidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, M H; Ben Salah, H

    1984-01-01

    The parasitic incidence of Opius concolor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on a replacement host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Trypetidae) was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis methods. A noticeable modification of C. capitata proteins was observed when parasited by O. concolor. But the most important phenomenon is the finding of common antigens between the host and the parasite. These results are discussed with regard to trophic and parasitic behaviour of the parasite.

  7. Seed shadow, seedling recruitment, and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (Combretaceae) in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS,B. A.; F. P. L. Melo; Tabarelli,M.

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the seed shadow, seedling recruitment, ontogenetic structure and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (an emergent canopy tree) in a 380-ha fragment of the Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil. In particular, we examine seed distribution around 10 parental trees and both seedling recruitment and mortality, during an 18 month period beneath and around parental trees. Moreover, we describe: (1) B. capitata occurrence within treefall gaps; (2) population structure in terms...

  8. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  9. VAR, SVAR and SVEC Models: Implementation Within R Package vars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Pfaff

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the package vars and its implementation of vector autoregressive, structural vector autoregressive and structural vector error correction models are explained in this paper. In addition to the three cornerstone functions VAR(, SVAR( and SVEC( for estimating such models, functions for diagnostic testing, estimation of a restricted models, prediction, causality analysis, impulse response analysis and forecast error variance decomposition are provided too. It is further possible to convert vector error correction models into their level VAR representation. The different methods and functions are elucidated by employing a macroeconomic data set for Canada. However, the focus in this writing is on the implementation part rather than the usage of the tools at hand.

  10. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  11. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  12. Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

  13. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  14. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-04-01

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Isotopic labeling and LC-APCI-MS quantification for investigating absorption of carotenoids and phylloquinone from kale (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilich, Anne C; Britz, Steven J; Clevidence, Beverly A; Novotny, Janet A

    2003-08-13

    The ability to study bioavailability of nutrients from foods is an important step in determining the health impact of those nutrients. This work describes a method for studying the bioavailability of nutrients from kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) by labeling the nutrients with carbon-13, feeding the kale to an adult volunteer, and analyzing plasma samples for labeled nutrients. Results showed that conditions for producing atmospheric intrinsically labeled kale had no detrimental effect on plant growth. Lutein, beta-carotene, retinol, and phylloquinone were analyzed using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of plasma samples showed that labeled lutein peaked in plasma at 11 h (0.23 microM), beta-carotene peaked at 8 (0.058 microM) and 24 h (0.062 microM), retinol peaked at 24 h (0.10 microM), and phylloquinone peaked at 7 h (3.0 nM). This method of labeling kale with (13)C was successful for producing clearly defined kinetic curves for (13)C-lutein,(13)C-beta-carotene, (13)C-retinol, and (13)C-phylloquinone.

  16. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  17. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  18. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Montipora white syndrome (MWS results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR, while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata. Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  19. Is polyandry a common event among wild populations of the pest Ceratitis capitata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Mossinson, Sigalit; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Malacrida, Anna R; Yuval, Boaz; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2006-08-01

    In many insect species, females can mate more than once and store sperm from more than one male. An assessment and understanding of polyandry in the field can be important for pest species with a high colonization potential, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which is also highly polyphagous and among the most destructive agricultural insects. The use of polymorphic microsatellite markers, combined with different statistical approaches, provides evidence that polyandry occurs in two C. capitata natural populations, one population from the Greek island of Chios and one population from Rehovot, in Israel. The observed different level of polyandry is discussed in relation to the genetic diversity, seasonality, and demography of the two populations. When polyandry is present, paternity analysis also indicates that one male, presumably the last, tends to sire most of the progeny. Polyandry and paternity skew may have important implications for the evolution of the species, in terms of maintenance of the genetic variability. Moreover, these aspects of the mating behavior, i.e., remating frequency and paternity skew, may locally affect the sterile insect technique, the most commonly applied control strategy against C. capitata.

  20. Molecular tools for sterile sperm detection to monitor Ceratitis capitata populations under SIT programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, María; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Argilés, Rafael; Jacas, Josep A; Castañera, Pedro; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    The success of an area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relies on the mating success of sterile males in the field. Limited information is available about the effectiveness of sterile males in achieving mates with wild females and how these matings contribute to reducing wild populations. To this end, firstly a mating competition test was performed in the laboratory with different release ratios (1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10 and 1:1:20 for wild females:wild males:sterile VIENNA-8 males respectively) and different host fruit. Secondly, the same release ratios were evaluated under semi-natural conditions on caged trees and on sentinel host. By means of molecular markers, VIENNA-8 male sperm was positively detected in those females exposed to the male ratios 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 in the laboratory. In the field test, sterile VIENNA-8 male matings and the C. capitata progeny on apples were positively correlated with the ratio of sterile males released and with the percentage of sterile matings respectively. These results confirm the validity of using the molecular detection of VIENNA-8 male sperm to predict the C. capitata population under semi-natural conditions. Implications of these results in measuring the efficacy of an SIT programme are discussed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Transcriptome analysis in Ceratitis capitata to unveil genes involved in ageing-maturation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. San Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used in integrated programmes against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae. Information on the age distribution of insects, and more particularly, the knowledge of wild female reproductive status (mature or not at the time of the sterile male release is one of the key factors for the success of the SIT. In recent years, sequencing analysis has become an important tool in molecular biology. In this work we present a genome-wide expression analysis based on SSH (substractive sequence hybridization and EST (expressed sequence tag sequencing and macroarray expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the ageing-maturing process in C. capitata, leading to the successful identification of new putative candidate genes of reproductive status in medfly that would serve as molecular markers for ageing. We have sorted out 94 unigenes from 873 single-pass ESTs, of which 57% have homology with known genes. Ageing-maturing process in C. capitata presents a marked expression pattern accompanied by the increase of transcription level of genes involved in reproduction (vitellogenins, chorion proteins and male-specific serum proteins. Other identified cDNAs (43% with a differential expression pattern would be also candidates but deserve further studies, as they belong to the unknown function class.

  2. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The pangenome of an agronomically important crop plant Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Barker, Guy C; Edger, Patrick P; Kim, HyeRan; Martinez, Paula A; Chan, Chon Kit Kenneth; Severn-Ellis, Anita; McCombie, W Richard; Parkin, Isobel A P; Paterson, Andrew H; Pires, J Chris; Sharpe, Andrew G; Tang, Haibao; Teakle, Graham R; Town, Christopher D; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-11-11

    There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis.

  4. The Potency of Krokot (Portulaca oleracea) as Functional Food Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Daisy; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Wijaya, Hanny

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has many auxiliary plants that may have nutritional and or environmental benefits, so that it may increase the yield of the main crops. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea), one of the auxiliary plants, was traditionally consumed in many parts of the world for its delicacy and medicinal benefits. Our research indicated that krokot has high potency to improve the health status of the community. It has 5.4 mg/100 g of b-carotene, 22.2 mg/100 g of vitamin C, and significant amount of folic acid...

  5. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions.

  6. Cyt1Aa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) serovar israelensis is active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Quist, J Cristian; Castañera, Pedro; González-Cabrera, Joel

    2010-09-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is one of the world's most destructive fruit pests. The aim of this study was to ascertain insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) delta-endotoxins to C. capitata. Among 42 selected Bacillus strains, only B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) solubilised protoxins showed biological activity against C. capitata neonate larvae, whereas Bti spore and crystal mixture was inactive. Insecticidal activity of Bti protoxins was significantly enhanced by incubation with Culex pipiens L. gut extracts. Overdigestion of Bti protoxins with Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) gut extracts suppressed biological activity against C. capitata, and this correlated with degradation of Cyt toxins. Cyt1Aa solubilised protoxin showed the highest toxicity, LC(50) after 7 days of 4.93 microg cm(-2), while proteolytical processing of Cyt1Aa protoxins by larval gut extracts did not enhance insecticidal activity. The present study provides evidence for the first time of the insecticidal activity of a B. thuringiensis strain against C. capitata and identifies a single delta-endotoxin with potential for controlling this pest. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits; Sensibilidade de ovos de Ceratitis capitata (WIED.,1824) irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A.; Yasuoka, S.T.; Amorim, E.O.; Sato, M.E.; Suplicy Filho, N. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Faria, J.T. de [Delegacia Federal de Agricultura, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  9. Effects of Portulaca Oleracea on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 陆付耳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Portulaca oleracea, a Chinese medicinal herb, on insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Experimental model of T2DM was established by injection of streptozotocin (25mg/kg) and feeding with high calorie forage. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on oral glucose tolerance, serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol and free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity index were all observed. Results: Portulaca oleracea could reduce the body weight, improve the impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, decrease serum free fatty acids, attenuate hyperinsulinemia and elevate insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea could improve insulin resistance in rats with T2DM, and the mechanism might be related to its actions in improving lipid metabolism and decreasing free fatty acids.

  10. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  11. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  12. Effects of different substrates and salinity on growth and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica in soilless culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a very serious problem for agricultural development, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, many benefits of soilless culture have caused the expansion of these systems in these areas. In this research, in order to investigate the effects of different substrates and salinity stress on physiological characteristics and yield of broccoli, an experiment was conducted as factorial, in which the main factor was substrate (cocopeat, perlite, sand, 25% cocopeat+75% perlite, 25% perlite+75% cocopeat and 50% peat+50% pumice and the sub factor was salinity stress (0, 100 and 150 mM NaCl with 4 replications. Results indicated that substrate, different levels of salinity and their interaction had significant effects on morphological characteristics, days to flowering, fresh and dry weight of leaves, nutrients concentration and weight of the broccoli head. Maximum values of the aforementioned factors were observed in the zero salinity level and 50% peat+50% pumice substrate. This means that substrate can be effective on the effect of salinity on plants. High levels of salinity caused a reduction in growth and yield of broccoli and this growth reduction was accompanied by the reduction of chlorophyll and content of Ca, K, and Fe and increased Na and Cl concentration in leaf tissue. The best growing medium, either in saline or non-saline conditions, was 50% peat+50% pumice. Although broccoli growth was not suitable in perlite medium, this substrate caused its early maturing. In this experiment, salinity treatment reduced the head weight of broccoli, in addition to decreasing the quality of yield. According to the results, 50% peat+50 pumice is recommended as a proper substrate for production of broccoli.

  13. Evaluation of Image Analysis to Determine the N-Fertilizer Demand of Broccoli Plants (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Graeff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous models have been developed for calculating optimum decision rules for nitrogen fertilization based on remote sensing techniques. New technologies related to digital image analysis may provide an alternative method to estimate nutrient status faster and more efficiently than current techniques. A series of field studies was conducted to determine the applicability of digital image analysis for nitrogen demand estimates in broccoli plants. Digital images were taken under constant light conditions in various wavelength ranges (380–1300 nm using a digital imager. Images were processed for the parameters ∗ and ∗ in the ∗∗∗ color system. The image analysis showed a close correlation between the nitrogen status of broccoli plants and the parameter ∗ of the ∗∗∗ color system especially in the wavelength ranges 510780 and 516780 nm. The relationship between nutrient concentration in leaf dry matter and the parameters ∗ was used to determine the N fertilizer demand within the cultivation period. Estimated N amounts were applied as top dressing four weeks after setting and were 100 kg ha−1 lower than the standard fertilizer rate. Calculated N balances indicated a total uptake of applied N amounts in the image-based N treatments without considerable yield loss. Thus, digital image analysis proved to be an effective means of determining nitrogen status and adjusting fertilizer applications to preserve or enhance crop quality and yield considering sustainability.

  14. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  15. Metallo-proteinase from the seedlings of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica): : Preparation, partial characterization and substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilimowska-Pelc, A; Dryjański, M; Zal, T; Wilusz, T

    1991-10-01

    Metallo-proteinase from 8-d-old seedlings of kale was isolated. The enzyme was extracted with 1% NaCl, concentrated by ammonium sulfate and finally purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated enzyme had a molecular weight of 22.4 kDa and showed a maximum activity at pH 9.0 using casein as a substrate. Proteolytic activity of proteinase was inhibited by chelators. The inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was abolished by some divalent metals ions, especially by Zn(2+). The enzyme showed activity against the synthetic peptides Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA and Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and hydrolized the following peptide bonds in the oxidized insulin B-chain: Leu6-Cya7, Leu15-Tyr16, Leu17-Val18 and Phe25-Tyr26.

  16. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KUBIS MERAH (Brassica oleraceae var. TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN PADA BISKUIT TEPUNG BIJI RAMBUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ristiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seed flour could be utilized as a food especially as source of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Red cabbage could be used as natural food color because of their anthocyanin content. The aims of the research were to investigate the effect of red cabbage to the antioxidant activity and consumer preference of rambutan seed flour biscuit. This research was use completed randomized design with 9 combinations and 2 replications. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was biscuit made by 50 g of rambutan seed flour addition and 20% of red cabbage extract, e.i 19.48 % radical scavenging activity (RSA of DPPH. But biscuit which was most prefere by panel test was only 25 g of rambutan seed flour without any addition of red cabbage extract. Rambutan seed flour and red cabbage addition to the biscuit did affect the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of the biscuit.

  17. Effect of time of day for harvest and postharvest treatments on the sugar metabolism of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Hasperue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available     Loss of sugars contributes to accelerate postharvest senescence of broccoli. Several treatments have been developed to delay senescence, but in many cases their effects on sugar metabolism were not analyzed. We studied the effect of harvest at different times of day (08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h and of several postharvest treatments as heat treatment (HT, modified atmosphere (MA and 1-methylcylcopropene (1-MCP on sugar levels and activities of enzymes related to sucrose and starch degradation. Harvesting at the end of day delayed the loss of chlorophylls and caused the lowest decrement in sugars, although no differences in invertase, sucrose synthase and β-amylase activities were detected among samples. Treatments of MA and 1-MCP caused a lower loss of glucose and fructose, while HT caused a lower decrement of sucrose. Treated samples maintained higher levels of chlorophylls. The treatments reduced the activity of invertase and sucrose synthase and induced higher levels of β-amylase activity. Harvesting at the end of day and performing simultaneously a MA treatment could be a good combination to maintain the green color of the inflorescence and sugar levels during postharvest of broccoli.

  18. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  19. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  20. Efficacy of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chinrasri, Orawan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on performance, carcass characteristics, tissue Se concentration, and physiological responses of broilers in comparison to that of Se from Se-enriched yeast and sodium selenite. Three hundred and sixty male broilers, 10 days of age, were assigned to 6 groups, 4 replicates of 15 broilers each, according to the completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were the following: T1: control diet; T2: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast; and T4, T5, and T6: control diet plus 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results found that dietary Se supplementation did not (p > 0.05) alter performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Se supplementation increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the liver and kidney of broilers. Heart tissue Se concentration of broilers fed Se from sodium selenite was lower (p < 0.05) than that of broilers fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast. Selenium from HPSeKS increased higher (p < 0.05) GSH-Px activity when compared to Se from sodium selenite and Se-enriched yeast. The results indicated that the efficacy of Se from HPSeKS was comparable in increasing tissue Se concentration, but higher in improving GSH-Px activity in Rbc when compared to those of Se from Se-enriched yeast.

  1. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  2. Functional Morphology of the Mouthparts of the Adult Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Robinson, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    Food-based attractants incorporating an insecticide are an important component of area-wide control programmes for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This study was carried out to understand the feeding mechanism of adults of this species. Mouthparts of C. capitata are similar in general structure to those of another Tephritid genus, Bactrocera, and have specific structural modifications that determine what adult flies can ingest. The labellum has a series of fine tube-like structures, called pseudotracheae, on its inner surface. Each pseudotrachea leads from the outer margin of the labellum and ends at the prestomum to the oral opening. The pseudotracheae contain fine micropores about 0.5µm in size. During feeding, the oral opening is never exposed to the feeding substrate but the portions of the opposing labellar lobes proximal to the oral opening are flexed against each other and distal portions of the opposing labellar lobes are opened and pressed flat against the feeding substrate or surface. The prestomal spines at the base of each pseudotrachea interlock to form a barrier across the oral opening. Thus entry of large particles directly into the crop and gut through the oral opening is prevented by flexure of the opposing labellar lobes against each other and the interlocking prestomal spines across the oral opening. Only liquids and suspended particles less than 0.5µm in size are sucked through the micropores into the lumen of the pseudotracheae and then pass into the food canal and into the crop and gut. The pseudotracheae of adult C. capitata, particularly along the middle portion of the labellum, have prominent blade-like projections that Bactrocera do not have. These projections are probably an ancestral condition as they were not observed to use them to abrade the plant or feeding surface as has been reported for species in the Tephritid genus, Blepharoneura.

  3. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest.

  4. One Metarhizium brunneum Strain, Two Uses to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-10-01

    We determined the virulence and insecticidal activity of the hypocrealean fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain EAMb 09/01-Su and its crude extract against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and we evaluated the combined use of the fungus with its crude extract. We also determined the effect of fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH of the M. brunneum culture medium on the insecticidal activity of the crude extract. When C. capitata adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension, the strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 100% mortality with a mean lethal time (LT50) of 5.6 d and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.84 f#x2013; 10(7) conidia per milliliter. Fermentation time significantly affected the lethality of the crude extract when it was provided to C. capitata per os. The highest level of mortality (73.3%) and the shortest median survival time (25.5 h) was obtained from 15-d-old cultures. The crude extract was demonstrated to be thermostable, given that the mortality was >50% at 48 h when the extract had been heated to 100°C for 3 h. Lastly, the optimum initial pH for maximum crude extract activity in terms of mortality ranged between 7 and 9. Additivity was observed for all M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain crude extract combinations tested, indicating compatibility between products. We concluded that the M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain is a promising tool for medfly control alone or in combination with its crude extract. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaka, Hanumantappa B; Londonkar, Ramesh L; Umesh, Madire K; Tukappa, Asha

    2014-01-01

    The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30). The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The R f value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82). Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18) and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ± 0.01) have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ± 0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  6. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantappa B. Nayaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30. The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82. Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18 and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ±  0.01 have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ±  0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  7. Sex and the single embryo: early deveiopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Falaguerra, Andrea; Siciliano, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Scolari, Francesca; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2010-01-26

    In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ) integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly) has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex), the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex) and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-alpha) were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i) when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii) when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is reprogrammed in the embryos and iii) similarities and

  8. Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharopoulou Antigone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Results Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex, the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-α were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Conclusions Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is

  9. The Process of Intromission in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The distiphallus of the male of Ceratitis capitata is folded back 180° onto the basiphallus during the early stages of intromission, and is then unfolded within the female. Repeated folding and unfolding may occur within the female. Two membranous sacs on the distiphallus are capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female, along with periodic stiffening of the basiphallus; inflation of the larger, distal sac may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm into the ventral receptacle.

  10. Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ) integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly) has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Results Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex), the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex) and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-α) were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Conclusions Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i) when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii) when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is reprogrammed in the embryos

  11. Survival of Wild Adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann under Natural Winter Conditions in North East Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peñarrubia-María

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwintering of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann at the northern limits of its geographic distribution is not yet well known. With the aim of estimating the survival rate of medfly adults in northeast Spain under natural winter conditions, a two-winter-season trial was carried out. A control was carried out in a climatic chamber at 25°C. The results showed that medfly adults were unable to survive the entire winter season in the Girona area. Climatic conditions, including the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature and the high rainfall, appeared to be involved in adult mortality in winter.

  12. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  13. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  14. Lecitina, silicone e amido na adubação foliar de couve (Brassica oleracea L. Lecithin, silicon and starch in the foliar feeding on collard green (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmany Aires Cunha Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos que a lecitina, amido e silicone possam ter na eficiência da adubação foliar, utilizando-se sais e quelatos como fonte de micronutrientes. Para isso foi realizado um experimento em que avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de diferentes adjuvantes em relação à absorção e translocação de zinco e manganês na forma de sais e quelatos. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, com quatro fatores em estudo e dois níveis cada, perfazendo um fatorial 2x2x2x2, totalizando dezesseis tratamentos. Além dos tratamentos, foi adicionada testemunha como tratamento adicional, perfazendo, assim, um total de 102 parcelas. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso, contendo uma planta de couve-manteiga (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. Os tratamentos constaram de combinações entre 2 fontes (sulfato e quelato e de presença ou ausência de três substâncias na calda de pulverização: lecitina de soja desengordurada, um siliconado comercial e gel de amido de mandioca. A determinação dos efeitos constituiu-se na análise do teor de zinco e manganês nas folhas novas 30 dias após a pulverização. A adição de lecitina aumentou a absorção do sulfato de zinco ao passo que o produto siliconado aumentou a absorção do zinco quelatizado. Tanto a lecitina quanto o produto siliconado, quando adicionados à calda de pulverização, aumentaram o teor de manganês. O gel de amido não aumentou a absorção de nenhum micronutriente.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of lecithin, starch and silicon may have in the efficiency of foliar feeding, using salts and chelates as source of nutrients. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition at Univerdidade Federal de Goiás (Jataí unit - GO, set in a completely randomized design, with six replications, four factors in study and two levels each, making a 2x2x2x2 factorial

  15. New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Efendi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae and one cytotype of var. ensiformis are recorded from Indonesia: var. victoriae with 2n=58 (sexual diploid from Gorontalo, North       Sulawesi, and 2n=87 (triploid from Lombok Island and Bogor, West Java; and var. ensiformis with 2n=116 (sexual tetraploid. The diploid is smaller than the triploid in plant size. Results indicate a cytological variation in var. victoriae, like in var. ensiformis.

  16. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  17. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  18. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Marelize; Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia; Hattingh, Vaughan

    2013-10-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) are fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in South Africa. These pests cause direct damage to a number of commercially produced fruit and are of phytosanitary concern. A study was conducted to determine the distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal occurrence of the three species in different climatic regions of South Africa. The relative abundance and seasonal phenology of C. capitata and C. rosa were also compared between production areas and home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Yellow bucket traps baited with Biolure were used to trap the flies over a 2-yr period in the different sampling areas. Different fruit types were sampled in Stellenbosch to determine fruit fly infestation. C. capitata was found to have a widespread distribution in South Africa, whereas C. rosa were absent from or only present in low numbers in the drier regions. C. cosyra was restricted to the North East and East coast, following a similar pattern to the distribution of marula, Sclerocarrya birrea, an important wild host. Fruit in home gardens provided a breeding ground for C. capitata and C. rosa and a source for infestation of orchards when fruit started to mature, highlighting the need for an area-wide strategy for the control of fruit flies.

  19. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  20. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  1. MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This monograph is a compendium of all plant species reported as hosts of C. capitata (or potential hosts based on mere appearance on some lists). There are 353 species (312 have valid genera and species names and 41 have species identified as "sp." or "spp.") included in the monograph; 79 species ha...

  2. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  3. Seasonality in calcification response of Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, under climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, K.; Rodgers, K.; Jokiel, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The response of coral reef communities to future environmental conditions is a topic of enormous concern and considerable debate. However, information is lacking concerning the interaction between local and global stressors on modern reefs. Irradiance and temperature, along with other numerous environmental factors that regulate coral calcification rates and productivity, are predicted to change with future elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, an experiment was performed in continuous flow mesocosms under full solar radiation to describe the direct and interactive effects of temperature, irradiance, and pCO2 on the calcification of the Hawaiian reef building coral, Montipora capitata across seasonal and temporal scales. Corals were subjected to twelve experimental treatments composed of two pCO2 levels (present day levels, 2X present), two temperature regimes (ambient, heated +2°C), and three conditions of irradiance (ambient, 50% and 90% reduction). Results revealed irradiance and temperature stress have the strongest influence on coral calcification with pCO2 playing a lesser role. The effects of pCO2 also varied among temperature and irradiance regimes. Large decreases in calcification were observed in corals under ambient irradiance levels that were exposed to elevated temperatures and high pCO2 levels. These results suggest the interaction of these environmental parameters may alter optimal growth conditions of M. capitata under future climate change projections.

  4. Metallothionein induction and antioxidative responses in the estuarine polychaeta Capitella capitata (Capitellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya J; S Bharathiraja; V Sekar; R Rajasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant response induced by copper (Cu) exposure inCapitella capitata. The capacity of Cu bioaccumulation was also evaluated through the metal quantification. Methods: Worms were exposed to different concentrations of Cu 50, 100, and 200 μg/L for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. In all the assays, control groups were run in parallel, employing only saline water (10%). The concentrations of Cu in the digested acidic solutions of worms were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-Optical emission spectrophotometry. The total protein content and other anti oxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were recorded for the experiment period. Results: Bioaccumulation of Cu metals in polychaetes was increased parallel to exposure time. A peak concentration (197.30±12.32 μg/g) of metallothioneins (MTs) was registered at 14th day of 100 μg/L group compared to control group (37.29 μg/g). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were increased significantly (P<0.05) after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The concentration of Cu had significant (P<0.05) influences on the activity of SOD. The same physiological activity was recorded in GST evaluation. Conclusions: These results of biochemical variables in C. capitata suggest us a useful model species for monitoring of environmental disturbance by heavy metal pollution. Antioxidant defenses were confirmed as sensitive biomarkers for metal stress in polychaete worms.

  5. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ordax

    Full Text Available Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  6. Bleached Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals catabolize δ13C-enriched lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.

    2011-09-01

    Corals rely on stored energy reserves (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and protein) to survive bleaching events. To better understand the physiological implications of coral bleaching on lipid catabolism and/or synthesis, we measured the δ13C of coral total lipids (δ13CTL) in experimentally bleached (treatment) and non-bleached (control) Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals immediately after bleaching and after 1.5 and 4 months of recovery on the reef. Overall δ13CTL values in treatment corals were significantly lower than in control corals because of a 1.9 and 3.4‰ decrease in δ13CTL immediately after bleaching in P. compressa and M. capitata, respectively. The decrease in δ13CTL coincided with decreases in total lipid concentration, indicating that corals catabolized δ13C-enriched lipids. Since storage lipids are primarily depleted during bleaching, we hypothesize that they are isotopically enriched relative to other lipid classes. This work further helps clarify our understanding of changes to coral metabolism and biogeochemistry when bleached and helps elucidate how lipid classes may influence recovery from bleaching and ultimately coral survival.

  7. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females copulated normally with control, males and in very low numbers with both types of mutant malesMachos mutantes (ciegos, alas vestigiales de la mosca del mediterráneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann mostraron diferencias en conducta comparados con los machos testigo (cría masiva. Los machos mutantes, realizaron menos intentos por aparearse y lograron menos apareamientos que los machos testigo. Las hembras con alas vestigiales, copularon menos con ambas clases de mutantes. Los machos ciegos, subieron en lugar de saltar sobre las hembras y copularon en números muy bajos comparados con los machos testigo y con los de alas vestigiales. Las hembras ciegas, copularon de forma normal con los machos testigo y en números muy bajos con ambos tipos de machos mutantes

  8. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  9. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  10. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Photosensitizing effect of hematoporphyrin IX on immature stages of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Massaldi, Ana; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of Ceratitis capitata were tested as a model for hematoporphyrin IX (HP IX) phototoxicity. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) of HP IX in the food was determined during postembryonic development until adult emergence as 0.173 mm (95% CI: 0.138-0.209). The corresponding HP IX LC(50) during the dispersal period alone was 0.536 mm (95% CI: 0.450-0.633). HP IX toxicity was compared against Phloxine B (PhB) (0.5 mm). HP IX elicited a mortality of 90.87%, which was mainly concentrated during prepupal and early pupal stages. PhB mortality was much lower (56.88%) and occurred mainly during the adult pharate stage. A direct correlation between light-dependent HP IX mortality, evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was established in C. capitata larvae. ROS were found to be very significant in both the brain and in the gut.

  12. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  13. Identification of the Sex-Determining Region of the Ceratitis Capitata Y Chromosome by Deletion Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the medfly Ceratitis capitata, the Y chromosome is responsible for determining the male sex. We have mapped the region containing the relevant factor through the analysis of Y-autosome translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization with two different probes. One probe, the clone pY114, contains repetitive, Y-specific DNA sequences from C. capitata, while the second clone, pDh2-H8, consists of ribosomal DNA sequences from Drosophila hydei. Clone pY114 labeled most of the long arm and pDh2-H8 hybridizes to the short arm and the centromeric region of the long arm. In 12 of the analyzed 19 Y-autosome translocation strains, adjacent-1 segregation products survive to the late pupal or even adult stage and can, therefore, be sexed. This was correlated with the length of the Y fragment still present in these aberrant individuals and allowed us to map the male-determining factor to a region of the long arm representing ~15% of the entire Y chromosome. No additional factors, affecting for example fertility, were detected outside the male-determining region. PMID:8889534

  14. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables.

  15. Efficacy of attract-and-kill devices for the control of Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime; Vacas, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The control of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann traditionally has relied on chemical control with organophosphate insecticides. The use of many of these substances has been banned by new European directives; therefore, the development of new control methods is essential to manage this pest. Bait sprays with spinosad, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques have been the base for new integrated pest management programmes. In this study, a 2 year field trial was conducted in two citrus areas to test the efficacy of attract-and-kill devices against mass trapping and spinosad-plus-bait treatments. The Magnet(®) MED attract-and-kill device, Spintor(®) treatments and mass trapping achieved good control of C. capitata populations, as confirmed by low percentages of damaged fruit in the assessments performed during the harvest period. On the other hand, fly population levels on plots treated with other attract-and-kill prototype devices increased more than threefold by comparison with the populations recorded in the rest of the treated plots. The same effect was observed for fruit damage, with 6-8 times less damage with Magnet(®) MED and spinosad treatments, respectively, than with the attract-and-kill prototype devices. By using an effective attractant, conventional trapping systems can be replaced with cheaper and easier-to-handle attract-and-kill devices. The efficacy of these devices and their advantages over conventional mass trapping systems are discussed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Morphological characterization of the antennal lobes in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Paolo; Corda, Valentina; Sollai, Giorgia; Kreissl, Sabine; Galizia, C Giovanni; Crnjar, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The medfly Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests for horticulture worldwide. The knowledge about anatomy and function of the medfly olfactory system is still limited. The first brain structure to process olfactory information in insects is the antennal lobe (AL), which is composed of its functional and morphological units, the olfactory glomeruli. Here, we present a morphological three-dimensional reconstruction of AL glomeruli in adult brains. We used unilateral antennal backfills of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) with neural tracers, revealing the AL structure. We recorded confocal stacks acquired from whole-mount specimens, and analyzed them with the software AMIRA. The ALs in C. capitata are organized in glomeruli which are more tightly packed in the anterior part than the posterior one. Axons of ORNs bilaterally connect the ALs through a commissure between the two ALs. This commissure is formed by several distinct fascicles. Contralateral dye transfer suggests the presence of gap junctions connecting ORNs from both antennae. There was no statistical difference between the average volumes of female ALs (204,166 ± 12,554 μm(3)) and of male ALs (190,287 ± 11,823 μm(3)). In most specimens, we counted 53 glomeruli in each AL, seven of which were sexually dimorphic in size.

  17. A New Diagnostic Resource for Ceratitis capitata Strain Identification Based on QTL Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Barr, Norman B; Geib, Scott M

    2017-09-09

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a destructive agricultural pest and the subject of exclusion efforts in many countries. Suppression and eradication of invasive populations to prevent establishment is facilitated by the release of sterile males using the sterile insect technique (SIT). In active SIT release areas, it is critical to accurately discriminate between released sterile males and wild-caught individuals to be able to detect extremely rare invasive individuals in areas inundated with millions of sterile male flies. Current methods for discrimination exist, but are not always definitive, and a more reliable method is necessary. To address this, we took a novel approach and developed a genotyping assay that is linked to traits that facilitate male-only releases and are maintained in the SIT colonies, white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl). The development of this assay was achieved through linkage mapping and QTL mapping of wp in a mapping population derived from SIT colony flies and wild-type colony flies. This new method to discriminate released SIT flies from wild individuals was demonstrated across SIT colonies and wild individuals from across the geographic range of this species. In addition, linkage and QTL mapping of wp in C. capitata has larger impacts as it can serve as a foundational tool to identify the genetic basis of traits that facilitate the separation of male from female flies which can be used to develop SIT programs in related species. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  18. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata in Iran: genetic diversity and comparison with other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajabiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann is an economically important pest on fruits all over the world. The origin of this fly is thought to be from Africa, but it has recently expanded its distribution in many geographic regions including Iran. Due to the wide spread of this pest in Iran and its serious damage to fruit on trees, including citrus orchards of northern Iran, the present study was conducted firstly to investigate genetic diversity within populations of C. capitata based on the sequences of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes including cytochrome C oxidase I (COI, NAHD dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (ND4 and ND5 and secondly to compare the Iranian haplotypes with those found in other countries. Results of this study indicated low levels of genetic diversity (four, four and three haplotypes among different populations of this pest, respectively for the COI, ND4 and ND5 genes in northern Iranian populations. The genetic similarity and very low levels of genetic diversity of northern Iranian populations suggest that the pest colonisation occurred relatively recently. In addition, haplotypes of Mazandaran province are similar to haplotypes of those countries that have recently been infected by this pest.

  19. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil with different pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochi, Dinalva A; Monteiro, Antonio C; De Bortoli, Sergio A; Dória, Háyda O S; Barbosa, José C

    2006-01-01

    This research intended to investigate if the presence of pesticides in the soil could affect the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. (Sorokin) for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and assess the effect of conidia application as suspension or dry conidia. The fungicides chlorothalonyl and tebuconazol, the acaricide abamectin, the insecticide trichlorfon, and the herbicide ametrin were applied at the manufacturer-recommended doses. Soil samples were placed in glass flasks and were given the fungus as conidial suspension or dry. After pesticide application, 20 3rd-instar larvae were placed in the soil. The flasks were sealed with voile fabric and incubated at 27 +/- 0.5 masculineC for nine days, until adult emergence; incubation continued for four more days at room temperature. The total insect survival was significantly affected and pathogenic activity was detected from the pupa stage on. Pupa survival was reduced (Ptebuconazole reduced (86.2% and 82.5%, respectively) the survival period of C. capitata compared to the control (95.0%). The techniques used for conidia application did not influence the total insect survival rate, but conidial suspension applied on soil surface reduced survival during the pupae and adult phases.

  20. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    . Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske...

  1. Seed shadow, seedling recruitment, and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (Combretaceae) in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, B A; Melo, F P L; Tabarelli, M

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the seed shadow, seedling recruitment, ontogenetic structure and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (an emergent canopy tree) in a 380-ha fragment of the Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil. In particular, we examine seed distribution around 10 parental trees and both seedling recruitment and mortality, during an 18 month period beneath and around parental trees. Moreover, we describe: (1) B. capitata occurrence within treefall gaps; (2) population structure in terms of ontogenetic stages for the whole site; and (3) spatial distribution of adults within an area of 51 hectares. 99% of seeds were found beneath parent crowns (n = 4,236) and seed density reached 14.6 +/- 29.9 seeds/m2 (0-140 seeds/m2). 49% of all seeds germinated but seedling mortality reached 100% after an 18 month period. In addition, saplings of B. capitata were not found in forest understory and within 30 treefall gaps (94-2,350 m2). The adults showed an average DBH of 69.3 +/- 22.1 cm, were 19.2 +/- 2.9 m tall and presented a clumped spatial distribution. B. capitata matched some of the features presented by shade intolerant trees or large-gap specialists, and we hypothesize that low rates or even lack of long distance seed dispersal events may be reducing the probability of B. capitata seeds reaching suitable habitats for successful seedling recruitment and growth. Because of that (1) seedlings face high levels of early mortality; (2) there is no sapling recruitment at the study site; and (3) local population faces senility and it is threatened by local extinction.

  2. Seed shadow, seedling recruitment, and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (Combretaceae in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Santos

    Full Text Available Here we describe the seed shadow, seedling recruitment, ontogenetic structure and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (an emergent canopy tree in a 380-ha fragment of the Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil. In particular, we examine seed distribution around 10 parental trees and both seedling recruitment and mortality, during an 18 month period beneath and around parental trees. Moreover, we describe: (1 B. capitata occurrence within treefall gaps; (2 population structure in terms of ontogenetic stages for the whole site; and (3 spatial distribution of adults within an area of 51 hectares. 99% of seeds were found beneath parent crowns (n = 4,236 and seed density reached 14.6 ± 29.9 seeds/m² (0-140 seeds/m². 49% of all seeds germinated but seedling mortality reached 100% after an 18 month period. In addition, saplings of B. capitata were not found in forest understory and within 30 treefall gaps (94-2,350 m². The adults showed an average DBH of 69.3 ± 22.1 cm, were 19.2 ± 2.9 m tall and presented a clumped spatial distribution. B. capitata matched some of the features presented by shade intolerant trees or large-gap specialists, and we hypothesize that low rates or even lack of long distance seed dispersal events may be reducing the probability of B. capitata seeds reaching suitable habitats for successful seedling recruitment and growth. Because of that (1 seedlings face high levels of early mortality; (2 there is no sapling recruitment at the study site; and (3 local population faces senility and it is threatened by local extinction.

  3. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale.

  4. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  5. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison with existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; El-Wakkad, Mokhtar F; Tadrous, Meshil D; Jessup, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Phytosanitary cold treatments were tested for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) using comparisons with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold tolerant for all three species. Results show that B. invadens is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata and B. zonata at 1.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C and lend support to the use of C. capitata cold treatment schedules for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that B. zonata is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata.

  6. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  7. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  8. Identification of antioxidant capacity -related QTLs in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Cartea, María Elena; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables possess high levels of antioxidant metabolites associated with beneficial health effects including vitamins, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and phenolics. Until now, no reports have been documented on the genetic basis of the antioxidant activity (AA) in Brassicas and the content of metabolites with AA like phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. For this reason, this study aimed to: (1) study the relationship among different electron transfer (ET) methods for measuring AA, (2) study the relationship between these methods and phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, and (3) find QTLs of AA measured with ET assays and for phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flower buds in a DH population of B. oleracea as an early step in order to identify genes related to these traits. Low correlation coefficients among different methods for measuring AA suggest that it is necessary to employ more than one method at the same time. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for all traits. For AA methods, seven QTLs were found in leaves and six QTLs were found in flower buds. Meanwhile, for the content of metabolites with AA, two QTLs were found in leaves and four QTLs were found in flower buds. AA of the mapping population is related to phenolic compounds but also to carotenoid content. Three genomic regions determined variation for more than one ET method measuring AA. After the syntenic analysis with A. thaliana, several candidate genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis are proposed for the QTLs found.

  9. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  10. Looking for a substituent of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Yeoh, Loo Yew; Chee, Swee Yong; Lim, Tuck Meng

    2017-04-01

    Spinach's chloroplasts electron transport features are often adapted to build biofuel cells or biosensors for environment conservation. This approach may raise food security issues. The present study aimed to test on in vitro functional activity of chloroplasts from selected underutilized leaves of: Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in comparison with spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The leaves' electrical conductivity was measured to evaluate the initial cell permeability. We applied Hill's reaction to determine the photoreduction capacity of the chloroplasts. Initial electrical conductivity of leaves ranged from 11.5 to 18.5 µs/cm/g followed the order of water lettucequality marker for the leaves' chloroplasts. Chloroplasts of oil palm frond and water lettuce showed low photoreduction rate of 14 to 22%. On the other hand, the chloroplasts of both spinach and pandan leaves exerted an initial photoreduction rate which was above 90%. The photoreduction rate of these chloroplasts remained to above 60% even after 30 day-storage at -20°C. In comparison with spinach, pandan leaves' chloroplasts possessed similar in vitro functional activity and storage stability at 4°C and -20°C. This warrants further investigation on chloroplasts of pandan leaves for higher-value applications.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledo Ana da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  13. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  14. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) specific recombinant monoclonal phage display antibodies for prey detection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.

  15. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  16. Delivery of Nucleic Acids through Embryo Microinjection in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest Insect, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny. The advent and the subsequent rapid development of biotechnological tools, together with the availability of the medfly genome sequence, has greatly boosted our understanding of the biology of this species. This favored the proliferation of new strategies for genome manipulation, which can be applied to population control. In this context, embryo microinjection plays a dual role in expanding the toolbox for medfly control. The ability to interfere with the function of genes that regulate key biological processes, indeed, expands our understanding of the molecular machinery underlying medfly invasiveness. Furthermore, the ability to achieve germ-line transformation facilitates the production of multiple transgenic strains that can be tested for future field applications in novel SIT settings. Indeed, genetic manipulation can be used to confer desirable traits that can, for example, be used to monitor sterile male performance in the field, or that can result in early life-stage lethality. Here we describe a method to microinject nucleic acids into medfly embryos to achieve these two main goals.

  17. Sniffing out chemosensory genes from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Siciliano

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly, is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs. A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera

  18. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  19. Identification and expression profiling of Ceratitis capitata genes coding for β-hexosaminidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Maria E; Intra, Jari; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Briani, Federica; Perotti, Maria Elisa

    2011-02-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the genes coding for β-N-acetylhexosaminidases in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, belonging to the Tephritidae family, order Diptera. Two dimeric β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, HEXA and HEXB, have been recently identified on Drosophila sperm. These enzymes are involved in egg binding through interactions with complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the egg shell. Three genes, Hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1), Hexosaminidase 2 (Hexo2) and fused lobes (fdl), encode for HEXA and HEXB subunits. The availability of C. capitata EST libraries derived from embryos and adult heads allowed us to identify three sequences homologous to the D. melanogaster Hexo1, Hexo2 and fdl genes. Here, we report the expression profile analysis of CcHexo1, CcHexo2 and Ccfdld in several tissues, organs and stages. Ccfdl expression was highest in heads of both sexes and in whole adult females. In the testis and ovary the three genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns. All the mRNAs were detectable in early stages of spermatogenesis; CcHexo2 and Ccfdl were also expressed in early elongating spermatid cysts. All three genes are expressed in the ovarian nurse cells. CcHexo1 and Ccfdl are stage specific, since they have been observed in stages 12 and 13 during oocyte growth, when programmed cell death occurs in nurse cells. The expression pattern of the three genes in medfly gonads suggests that, as their Drosophila counterparts, they may encode for proteins involved in gametogenesis and fertilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  1. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sniffing out chemosensory genes from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  3. An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Hoffman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present an agent-based simulation (ABS) of Ceratitis capitata ("Medfly") developed for estimating the time to extirpation of this pest in areas where quarantines and eradication treatments were immediately imposed. We use the ABS, implemented in the program MED-FOES, to study seven different outbreaks that occurred in Southern California from 2008 to 2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed by the State, based on a linear developmental model (thermal unit accumulation, or "degree-day"). MED-FOES is a useful tool for invasive species managers as it incorporates more information from the known biology of the Medfly, and includes the important feature of being demographically explicit, providing significant improvements over simple degree-day calculations. While there was general agreement between the length of quarantine by degree-day and the time to extirpation indicated by MED-FOES, the ABS suggests that the margin of safety varies among cases and that in two cases the quarantine may have been excessively long. We also examined changes in the number of individuals over time in MED-FOES and conducted a sensitivity analysis for one of the outbreaks to explore the role of various input parameters on simulation outcomes. While our implementation of the ABS in this work is motivated by C. capitata and takes extirpation as a postulate, the simulation is very flexible and can be used to study a variety of questions on the invasion biology of pest insects and methods proposed to manage or eradicate such species.

  4. Insecticidal Activity of a Destruxin-Containing Extract of Metarhizium brunneum Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Lafont, F; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2015-04-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests that limit fruit production around the world; they cause important damages, increasing directly and indirectly annual costs, and their management is predominately based on the use of chemical insecticides. This research investigated the insecticidal activity of the crude extract obtained of Metarhizium brunneum Petch EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its capacity to secrete secondary metabolites including destruxins (dtx). Dtx A and A2 had insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) when administered per os. The crude extract of seven Metarhizium and one Beauveria isolates were evaluated per os against medfly adults. The crude extracts of the isolate EAMb 09/01-Su resulted in mortality ranging between 95 and 100% at 48 h. The high-pressure liquid chromatography profile showed two active peaks (F5B and F6 subfractions) related with dtx A2 and dtx A, which caused 70 and 100% mortality on C. capitata at 48 h postfeeding, respectively. The LC50 was 104.92 ppm of dtx A, contained in the F6 subfraction, and the LT50 was 4.16 h at a concentration of 400 ppm of dtx A contained in the F6 subfraction. Moreover, the average survival time of adults exposed to this subfraction was 12.6 h with only 1 h of exposure. The insecticide metabolites of the F6 subfraction of the EAMb 09/01-Su isolate retained >90% of its insecticidal activity after exposure to 60°C for 2 h and 120°C for 20 min. These results highlight the potential of this strain as a source of new insecticidal compounds of natural origin for fruit fly control.

  5. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  6. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  7. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  8. Germination ecology of Rhynchosia capitata: an emerging summer weed in Asia Ecologia da germinação de Rhynchosia capitata: planta daninha emergente durante o verão na Ásia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchosia capitata is becoming an increasing problem in summer crops, such as cotton, soybean, pearl millet and mungbean in many Asian countries. Laboratory and greenhouse studies have been conducted to determine the effects of several environmental factors on seed germination patterns and seedling emergence of R. capitata. We investigated whether the diverse ecological factors such as temperature, light, salinity, moisture stress, pH, and soil depth affected germination and seedling emergence of R. capitata. Germination increased as temperature increased from 25ºC and significantly reduced at 45ºC. Presence or absence of light did not influence germination. Germination of R. capitata was sensitive to increased salt and moisture stress, as well as to seed burial depth. Only 48% of seeds germinated at 150 mM salt concentration compared to 100% in control (distilled water. Similarly, 15% of seeds germinated at an osmotic potential of ‑0.8 MPa compared to 88% at ‑0.2 MPa. The optimum pH for seed germination of R. capitata was 7 (98% germination, but the seeds also germinated at lower level of pH 5 (85% and at higher level of pH 10 (75%. In seed burial trial, maximum seedling emergence of 93% occurred at 2 cm depth, and seedling did not emerge from a depth of 12 cm. The high germination ability of R. capitata under a wide range of ecological factors suggests that this species is likely to be the one to cause more problems in a near future, if not managed appropriately.A Rhynchosia capitata vem se tornando um problema crescente para culturas de verão como algodão, soja, milheto e feijão-mungo em muitos países asiáticos. Foram feitos estudos de laboratório e estufa para determinar os efeitos de vários fatores ambientais sobre os padrões de germinação das sementes e emergência das plântulas de R. capitata. Diversos fatores ecológicos, tais como, temperatura, luz, salinidade, estresse hídrico, pH e profundidade do solo foram

  9. Influence of protein on feeding behavior of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae): comparison between immature males and females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do C.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this work was to compare the influence of dietary protein on performance and feeding behavior of immature males and females of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The protein source was beer yeast at 6.5 and 1.5 g.100 ml-1. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of emergence, total life cycle, adult size, diet consumption, feeding preference and discrimination threshold for yeast. Immature adults showed similar protein requirements regardless of sex. Both males and females showed similar feeding behavior, preferring to feed on the diet with higher protein content. The discrimination threshold for levedure in both sexes was 0.4 g.100 ml-1. We concluded that immature males of C. capitata show similar protein requirements as the immature females. (author)

  10. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  11. Data for spatial analysis of growth anomaly lesions on Montipora capitata coral colonies using 3D reconstruction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.R. Burns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Please see the research article, “Investigating the spatial distribution of Growth Anomalies affecting Montipora capitata corals in a 3-dimensional framework” (J.H.R. Burns, T. Alexandrov, E. Ovchinnikova, R.D. Gates, M. Takabayashi, 2016 [1], for further interpretation and discussion of the data.

  12. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  13. SPINACIA OLERACEA LINN: A PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Priyanka Subhash

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Scientists and medical professionals have shown increased interest in this field as they recognize the true health benefits of these remedies. “Let food be your medicine and let medicine be your food” was advised by the father of medicine, Hippocrates, over two million ago. It’s still true today that “you are what you eat.” Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that came originally from south-western Asia and is now grown in most parts of the world. Scientifically it is known as Spincia oleracea Linn. (Family-Chenopodiaceae. Though Spinach is most often used as a food, it has medicinal value as well. Spinach is packed with vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E and minerals like magnesium, manganese, iron, calcium and folic acid. Spinach is also a good source of chlorophyll, which is known to aid in digestion. Spinach is also rich in the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein. It is a good source of the bioflavonoid quercetin with many other flavonoids which exhibits anti-oxidant, antiproliferative, antiinfammatory, antihistaminic, CNS depressant, protection against gamma radiation, hepatoprotective properties in addition to its many other benefits. Spinach is also used to prevent the bone loss associated with osteoporosis and for its anti-inflammatory properties in easing the pain of arthritis. Spinach is good for the heart and circulatory system and has energy-boosting properties. Spinach is truly one of nature's most perfect foods.

  14. Quarantine treatment against mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) in mangoes haden variety (Mangifera indica) with gamma irradiation (Co 60)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña C., María E.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Guillen E., Rafael; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria - SENASA.; Arias A., Gladys C.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Tephritidae fruit flies are among the most damaging pests of fruit crops worldwide Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, for instance, can infest more than 250 fruit and vegetable crop species, and constitutes the main phytosanitary restrict for export purposes. The investigation was carried out in a SENASA’s Production Center of Sterile Fruit Flies and PIMU’s laboratory; it was supervised by an OIEA’s irradiation expert. This research comprised two stages: 1) Determine the minimum irradiation dose t...

  15. Biology and Thermal Requirements of Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared on Ceratitis capitata Eggs (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nornberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2017-05-04

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h. Later, the eggs were placed in plastic containers (50 mL) (50 eggs/container) on a layer of artificial diet and packed in chambers at temperatures 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 12 h. The largest number of offspring, emergence rate, and weight of adults of F. arisanus were observed at 25°C. The highest sex ratios (sr > 0.75) were recorded at 15 and 18°C, being statistically higher than the temperatures 20°C (0.65), 22°C (0.64), 25°C (0.65), 28°C (0.49), and 30°C (0.47). At 32°C, there was no embryonic development of F. arisanus. The egg-adult period was inversely proportional to temperature. Based on the development of the biological cycle (egg-adult), the temperature threshold (T t) was 10.3°C and thermal constant (K) of 488.34 degree-days, being the number of generations/year directly proportional to the temperature increase. The data show the ability of F. arisanus to adapt to different thermal conditions, which is important for biological control programs of C. capitata.

  16. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  17. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage

  18. Phytoremediation of fluoride with garden ornamentals Nerium oleander, Portulaca oleracea, and Pogonatherum crinitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Desai, Shaileshkumar B; Bhujbal, Sourabh S; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Biradar, Shivtej P; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2017-03-01

    Nursery grown plants of Nerium oleander, Pogonatherum crinitum, and Portulaca oleracea were observed to remove fluoride up to 92, 80, and 73%, respectively, from NaF solution at the concentration of 10 mg L(-1) within 15 days. Concentration range of 10-50 mg L(-1) of fluoride revealed a constant decrease of removal from 92 to 51% within 15 days by N. oleander, while the biomass (one to five plants) showed enhancement in removal from 74 to 98% in 10 days. Translocation and bioaccumulation factors calculated after fluoride contents in roots and leaves of N. oleander, P. crinitum, and P. oleracea were 1.85, 1.19, and 1.43, and 9.8, 3.6, and 2.2, respectively. P . oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander showed reductions in chlorophyll contents by 40, 57 and 25 and 8%, carbohydrates by 50, 44, and 16%, and proteins by 38, 53, and 15%, respectively. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the roots of P. oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander were observed to be induced by 400, 383, and 500%; 80, 105, and 424%; and 153, 77, and 71%, respectively, while the leaves showed induction in SOD, CAT, and GPX activities by 550, 315, and 165%; 196, 227, and 243%; and 280, 242, and 184%, respectively. Results endorsed the superiority of N. oleander for fluoride removal over other plant species.

  19. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  20. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  1. Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, K. T B; Broekgaarden, C.; Voorrips, R. E.; Bas, N.; Visser, R. G F; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we s

  2. Clubroot in the cole crops: the interaction between Plasmodiophora brassicae and Brassica oleracea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The clubroot disease of the cole crops ( Brassica oleracea ) and other crucifers is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae . It is an important disease, affecting an estimated 10 % of the total cultured area world-wide. The potential of cultural practices to reduce crop losses due to clubroot

  3. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  4. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  6. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  7. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  8. Host status of avocado ('Hass') to Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, J

    2009-08-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'Hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. Unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. In field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to avocado attached to the tree. Fruit was harvested immediately, 4, 8 and 18 d after exposure. In all the experiments, the fruit was incubated at 25 degrees C for 49 d after harvest. Hass avocado fruit was sourced from pack-houses throughout the avocado production areas and inspected for any internal pests. Similar inspections were done from 2005 to 2008 at arrival in Europe following standard export procedures. Analysis indicated that Hass avocado is a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and a poor but potential host for C. rosa and C. cosyra. No requirement for a risk mitigation treatment for C. capitata on South African Hass avocado was found. Fruit sampling data did not produce any infested fruit, suggesting that natural conditions and/or existing procedures functioning in a systems approach are likely to mitigate the quarantine risks of C. rosa and C. cosyra on Hass avocado in South Africa.

  9. Field Efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae-Based Attractant-Contaminant Device to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Ayala, I; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Moya, P

    2015-08-01

    Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant-contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly populations and that the inoculation dishes (IDs) needed replacing mid-season to provide protection for the entire season. In this study, fungal treatment was even more effective than conventional chemical treatment. Population dynamics in fungus-treated fields along with the infectivity study of field-aged IDs in the laboratory found that the ACD remained effective for at least 3 mo. The results suggest M. anisopliae-based ACD can be used to control C. capitata in the field. The implications of its use, especially as a tool in an integrated pest management program, are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Gary J; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis.

  11. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Genomic structure and expression analysis of the RNase kappa family ortholog gene in the insect Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampias, Theodoros N; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Sideris, Diamantis C

    2008-12-01

    Cc RNase is the founding member of the recently identified RNase kappa family, which is represented by a single ortholog in a wide range of animal taxonomic groups. Although the precise biological role of this protein is still unknown, it has been shown that the recombinant proteins isolated so far from the insect Ceratitis capitata and from human exhibit ribonucleolytic activity. In this work, we report the genomic organization and molecular evolution of the RNase kappa gene from various animal species, as well as expression analysis of the ortholog gene in C. capitata. The high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, in combination with the fact that exon sizes and intronic positions are extremely conserved among RNase kappa orthologs in 15 diverse genomes from sea anemone to human, imply a very significant biological function for this enzyme. In C. capitata, two forms of RNase kappa mRNA (0.9 and 1.5 kb) with various lengths of 3' UTR were identified as alternative products of a single gene, resulting from the use of different polyadenylation signals. Both transcripts are expressed in all insect tissues and developmental stages. Sequence analysis of the extended region of the longer transcript revealed the existence of three mRNA instability motifs (AUUUA) and five poly(U) tracts, whose functional importance in RNase kappa mRNA decay remains to be explored.

  13. Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae em pomares de pessegueiro em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul Population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach orchards in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1824 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1830 in peach orchards in Porto Alegre city. The peak for A. fraterculus was in November and December and for C. capitata in December and January. There was no significant difference among the population levels in the cultivars Fla 13-72, Premier and Marli.

  14. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  15. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J.; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  16. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial...... physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of Tuscan black cabbage...

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  19. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  20. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  1. Physiological mechanisms of dehydration tolerance contribute to the invasion potential of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relative to its less widely distributed congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Christopher W; Boardman, Leigh; Marlin, Danica; Terblanche, John S

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related species, the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, are not established outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, adult water balance traits and nutritional body composition were measured in all three species at different temperatures and levels of relative humidity to determine whether tolerance of water stress may partially explain their distribution. Adult C. capitata exhibited higher desiccation resistance than C. rosa but not C. cosyra. Desiccation resistance of C. capitata was associated with lower rates of water loss under hot and dry conditions, higher dehydration tolerance, and higher lipid reserves that were catabolised during water stress. In comparison with C. capitata, C. cosyra and C. rosa lost water at significantly higher rates under hot, dry conditions, and did not catabolise lipids or other sources of metabolic water during water stress. These results suggest that adult physiological traits permitting higher tolerance of water stress play a role in the success of C. capitata, particularly relative to C. rosa. The distribution of C. cosyra is likely determined by the interaction of temperature with water stress, as well as the availability of suitable hosts for larval development.

  2. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  3. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014-2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm(-3) (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm(-3) (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm(-3) nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm(-3), (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm(-3) and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm(-3). The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves.

  4. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  5. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm-3, (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm-3 and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves. PMID:27803709

  6. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Smoleń

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodine (I and selenium (Se are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognised together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015 were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique system. They included the application of I (as KIO3, Se (as Na2SeO3 and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I•dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 µM I, while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se•dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 µM Se. SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg∙dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724 µM, 7.24 µM and 72.4 µM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: 1. control, 2. I + Se, 3. I + Se + 0.1 mg SA∙dm-3, 4. I + Se + 1.0 mg SA∙dm-3 and 5. I + Se + 10.0 mg SA∙dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots. Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet and decreased the content of SA in leaves.

  7. Respuesta de ecotipos de Stylosanthes capitata a dosis de cobre en solución nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Esteban A.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available La solución nutritiva de Arnon y Hoagland se modificó a 1/10 para simular las condiciones de acidez y fertilidad del suelo de las sabanas bien drenadas isohipertérmicas de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Se usaron seis concentraciones de cobre (0,0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 Y 0.8 ppm. la solución nutritiva se renovó cada 15 días y se aplicaron nitrógeno (14 ppm/semana e hierro (1 ppm, 3/semana. La cantidad de materia seca producida por los ecotipos y el cultivar Capica en los tratamientos de 0.2, 0.4 Y0.8 ppm Cu, fue relativamente te nula. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea, raíz y total de la planta fue diferente en los ecotipos de S capitata. Así mismo hubo diferencias significativas en la concentración, absorción y translocación del cobre por lo ecotipos y el cultivar Capica. El requerimiento diferencial de cobre, manifestado en la producción de materia seca en la parte aérea en el nivel 0.05 ppr por los ecotipos CIAT 1693 y 1728 por el cultivar Capica (CIAT 102801, se define como el resultado de las relaciones evolutivas de cada ecotipo con el nivel de cobre disponible en la solución del suelo.In the greenhouse ecotypes of Stylosanthes capitata were cultivated to observe their behavior under different copper concentrations. A nutrient solution based on Arnon and Hoagland's (1/10 was used to simulate the acidity and the fertility of well drained savannas of the Eastern Planes of Colombia. Six concentrations of copper were used (O, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm with rewal of the nutrient solution every 15 days, and applications of nitrogen (14 ppm/week and iron (1 ppm, three times/week. The dry matter quantity produced by the ecotypes and the Capica cultivar under treatments of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm Cu, relatively nill. A differential behavior of Stylosanthes capitata ecotypes responses to applied copper was observed in relation to dry matter production in aerial, part, root and total plant. So, there were significant

  8. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A. [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  9. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  10. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  11. Euterpe oleracea Mart. extract prevents vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Silva Cristino Cordeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. We assessed the effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí seed extract (ASE rich in proanthocyanidins and catechin on vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress associated with hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR and control rats were treated with ASE (200 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 10 weeks. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed (MAB, acetylcholine response, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1 expressions were studied. The antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative damage and nitrite quantification were assessed in MAB and heart homogenates. eNOS immunohistochemistry and histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections. ASE was able to attenuate the hypertension and prevent the endothelial dysfunction in MAB of SHR. The increased levels of protein carbonylation and associated low levels of nitrite in MAB and heart of SHR were attenuated by ASE. The up-regulation of eNOS and SOD1 expression and the increased activity of SOD in MAB from SHR were normalized by ASE. In aorta from SHR, ASE prevented the increase in media thickness, media:lumen ratio and the decrease in the percentage of elastic fibers. Our results suggest that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the vascular dysfunction in SHR, through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects and NO production. Industrial relevance. Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí has been considered one of the most important medicinal plants of the Amazon by its beneficial effects in the treatment of fever, pain, inflammation and anemia. More recently, Euterpe oleracea Mart. has been reported to reduce blood pressure with an important antioxidant property. The present research reports the protective effect of the extract of the seeds from Euterpe oleraca Mart. against high blood pressure and the associated vascular structural and functional changes. The test for antihypertensive and vascular anti-hypertrophic effect of the hydro

  12. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults Efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica Sobre adultos de Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica sobre Ceratitis capitata. Os tratamentos em um tubo plástico com algodão foram expostos para dois casais numa gaiola plástica. Nessa gaiola, também foi fornecida dieta artificial (proteína hidrolisada + açúcar ad libitum. Os extratos afetaram significativamente a longevidade de C. capitata. O período de pré-oviposição não foi significativamente afetado pelos extratos. Em contrapartida, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano (888 ppm afetou a fecundidade e a fertilidade, reduzindo em 80% o número de ovos colocados e a viabilidade dos ovos em 30%, no 8º dia. Portanto, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano afeta a reprodução de C. capitata.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik M Gomulski

    Full Text Available Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  14. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  15. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of female age and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim-Bravo Iara S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laboratory ones had an oviposition preference hierarchy at the beginning of peak period of oviposition. However this hierarchic preference disappeared in a later phase of life. In the second experiment the females were previously exposed to fruits of different hierarchic positions and afterwards their choice was tested in respect to the oviposition preference for those fruits. The results showed that there was an influence of the previous experience on the posterior choice of fruits to oviposition when the females were exposed to fruits of lower hierarchic position.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of nanos in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal-effect gene that plays an important role in posterior patterning and germ cell development in early stage embryos. nos is known from several diverse insect species, but has so far not been described for any Tephritid fruit fly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression pattern of the nos orthologous gene, Ccnos, in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, which is a destructive pest of high agricultural importance. CcNOS contains 398 amino acids and has a C-terminal region with two conserved CCHC zinc-binding motifs known to be essential for NOS function. Transcripts of Ccnos were confirmed by in situ hybridization to be maternally-derived and localized to the posterior pole of early stage embryos. Regulatory regions of nos have been employed in genetic engineering in some dipterans such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Given the similarity in spatial and temporal expression between Ccnos and nos orthologs from other dipterans, its regulatory regions will be valuable to generate additional genetic tools that can be applied for engineering purposes to improve the fight against this devastating pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermotolerance and HSP70 expression in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalosaka, Katerina; Soumaka, Elisavet; Politis, Nikos; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance has been well documented in Drosophila melanogaster. However, there is limited information on this relationship in other insect species. In this report we describe the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship in one of the major fruit fly pests, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance were assayed at a range of temperatures in several stages of medfly development. The most thermotolerant stage was found to be the late larval stage (100% survival at 41 degrees C) followed by adult flies and late embryos (100% survival at 39 degrees C). These three stages showed a positive relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance. Mid-larval and mid-embryonic stages were found less thermotolerant and the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship was not evident. Early embryos did not express Hsp70 at any temperature and exhibited the lowest thermotolerance. The relationship between Hsp70 and inducible thermotolerance was also studied in late larvae. A pretreatment at 37-39 degrees C increased thermotolerance at higher temperatures by approximately 1 degrees C. In parallel, the pretreatment increased Hsp70 expression suggesting a close link between Hsp70 expression and inducible thermotolerance. The increased Hsp70 levels after pretreatment were found to be due to the increased levels of the hsp70 RNA.

  19. Identification of genes for engineering the male germline of Aedes aegypti and Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth R; Yu, Yachuan; Shimeld, Sebastian M; White-Cooper, Helen; Alphey, And Luke

    2016-11-21

    Synthetic biology approaches are promising new strategies for control of pest insects that transmit disease and cause agricultural damage. These strategies require characterised modular components that can direct appropriate expression of effector sequences, with components conserved across species being particularly useful. The goal of this study was to identify genes from which new potential components could be derived for manipulation of the male germline in two major pest species, the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the tephritid fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. Using RNA-seq data from staged testis samples, we identified several candidate genes with testis-specific expression and suitable expression timing for use of their regulatory regions in synthetic control constructs. We also developed a novel computational pipeline to identify candidate genes with testis-specific splicing from this data; use of alternative splicing is another method for restricting expression in synthetic systems. Some of the genes identified display testis-specific expression or splicing that is conserved across species; these are particularly promising candidates for construct development. In this study we have identified a set of genes with testis-specific expression or splicing. In addition to their interest from a basic biology perspective, these findings provide a basis from which to develop synthetic systems to control important pest insects via manipulation of the male germline.

  20. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  1. Sperm storage and use in polyandrous females of the globally invasive fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Sabrina; Scolari, Francesca; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Bonomi, Angelica; Marchini, Daniela; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R; Matessi, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is an invasive species in which polyandry, associated with sperm precedence, is a common behaviour in the wild. In this species, characterized by internal fertilization, we disclose how the sperm from two males are stored in the female storage organs and how they are used in terms of paternity outcome. The experiments were designed to furnish comparable and unbiased estimates of sperm numbers and progeny in twice-mated females. Results are incorporated in a model through which it is possible to relate the amount of stored sperm with the progeny of twice-mated females. The results show that polyandrous medfly females conserve equal amounts of sperm from the two males to fertilize their eggs. However, we observed a clear advantage of the second male's sperm in siring progeny, which interestingly decreases in favor of the first male as ovipositions progress. The results enable us to exclude differential sperm mortality and suggest that it is the mechanics governing the storage organs which causes the initial, but decreasing second male sperm precedence during the female reproductive life. These outcomes allow us to correlate sperm use in polyandrous females with the mating strategies and invasiveness of this fly.

  2. A comparison of yield-related traits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum DC. and Coriandrum sativum var. sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Dyulgerov; Boryana Dyulgerova

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation we studied how yield-related traits of large-fruited (var. sativum) and small-fruited (var. microcarpum DC.) coriander differ at the Southeastern Bulgaria climatic conditions during 2010-2012. For this purpose, 20 genotypes from var. microcarpum and 20 genotypes from var. sativum were tested using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat. Plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of umbels per ...

  3. Herbivore-specific, density-dependent induction of plant volatiles: honest or "cry wolf" signals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Shiojiri

    Full Text Available Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae larvae and attract more (naive parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata as a "cry wolf" signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike.

  4. Capacidad dispersiva de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae entre valles agrícolas en San Juan, Argentina Dispersal behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae among agricultural valleys in San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Díaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, díptero tefrítido cosmopolita originario del norte de África, es la principal plaga de los frutales en muchos países de América. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer las características de la capacidad de dispersión de Ceratitis capitata, mediante la liberación de moscas estériles en condiciones de campo, con el propósito de predecir las posibles invasiones de valles agrícolas vecinos. Se liberaron 54.000 moscas estériles marcadas de ambos sexos, en localidades del valle de Tulum, cercanas a los ingresos de los valles de Ullum y Zonda. Para el monitoreo del vuelo dispersivo se instalaron trampas Jackson y Mc Phail. Se capturaron 1.213 adultos durante el periodo de muestreo. No hubo propagación de los adultos liberados desde el valle de Tulum a los valles de Ullum y Zonda. La presencia de hospederos, posición geográfica de cada Quebrada y la orientación respecto al viento predominante, podrían explicar la diferencia de difusión entre ambas Quebradas. La dispersión duró cinco semanas. La distancia media de los adultos liberados fue de 3.764 m (S= 2.897 m sin encontrar diferencias entre ambos sexos.Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann is a cosmopolitan Tephritids dipteran native to the north of Africa, which is the main plague of fruit trees in many countries of the American continent. Here we assess the dispersion capacity of the Ceratitis capitata, by releasing sterile flies under field conditions, in order to predict possible invasion to agricultural valleys nearby. 54,000 marked sterile flies of both sexes were released in locations of the Tulum Valley, close to the access to the Ullum and Zonda valleys. Jackson & Mc Phail traps were set up for monitoring the dispersion flights. 1,213 adults were captured during the sampling period, and there was no dispersion of the released adults from the Tulum valley to the Ullum and Zonda valleys. Host presence, geographical position of each ravine and wind

  5. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  6. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  7. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...

  8. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank, model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden- ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions under which the VAR model represents a full probability formulation of a sample of time-series observations, (2...

  9. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels < or =73 ng/10(7) bacterial cells based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Paralytic shellfish poisoning-like physiologic reactions in test animals used in the mouse assay were recorded for the endosymbionts except for P. putida. The study is the first to elucidate the possible contribution of bacterial endosymbionts in the toxicity of P. bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines.

  10. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  11. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar Kolinski Machado; Ana Cristina Andreazza; Tatiane Morgana da Silva; Aline Augusti Boligon; Vanusa do Nascimento; Gustavo Scola; Angela Duong; Francine Carla Cadoná; Euler Esteves Ribeiro; Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, part...

  13. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  14. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.

  15. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants.

  16. EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINACIA OLERACEA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVARAJAN NATARAJAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world the percentage of people using chemical drugs increases with their side effects. “THE BOON GIVEN TO OUR EARTH IS THE HERBS”. Spinach is gaining importance world wide over as a potential source of new drugs to combat a variety of ailments as this species contains molecules credited with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihepatic as well as anticancerous. One such plant is Spinacia oleracea L. medicinal plant belonging to the family Amaranthaceae. The aim of present study was to screen the antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of leaves and stem of Spinacia oleracea L. The results highlighted that aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves showed better antioxidant activity followed by the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The antimicrobial activity of various extracts of S. oleracea expressed moderate to better inhibitory effect against Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extracts showed maximum effect than stem extracts. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of this plant, showed the presence of major phytochemicals. This study supports the leaf extracts may be used as an effective antioxidant and antimicrobial agents to combat various ailments caused by the free radicals and the microbial species.

  17. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  18. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-27

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  19. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  20. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  1. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, A.; Vilich, V.; Hennig, L.; Kluge, M.; Sicker, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these all...

  2. Potencial alelopático de Cyperus rotundus L. sobre espécies cultivadas Allelopathic potential of Cyperus rotundus L. upon cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Monteiro de Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Cyperus rotundus na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Brassica rapa, Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids, Lycopersicum esculentum e Raphanus sativus. Foram utilizadas sete concentrações do extrato aquoso (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100%. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas, constituindo a unidade amostral. Os extratos aquosos de C. rotundus evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação das sementes e no crescimento das duas partes vegetais (raiz e parte aérea, de todas as espécies testadas, exceto na germinação de sementes de tomate e de alface, sendo que a redução aumentou com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. A estrutura vegetal mais afetada em presença dos extratos aquosos foi o sistema radicular das plântulas.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species may promote changes in the development of other plants or even in other organisms. The aim of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Cyperus rotundus leaves on germination and growth of Brassica campestris, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Brassica rapa, Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids, Lycopersicum esculentum and Raphanus sativus seedlings. Seven aqueous extract concentrations were used (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized desing, with five replications of ten seeds of each cultivated species

  3. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.com, e-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.com, e-mail: ibravo@ufba.br

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  4. Sperm-less males modulate female behaviour in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  6. The significance of genetic polymorphisms within and between founder populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. from Argentina.

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    Alicia Basso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics.

  7. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper.

  8. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Significance of Genetic Polymorphisms within and between Founder Populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alicia; Martinez, Laura; Manso, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. Conclusions The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics. PMID:19252742

  10. Gene discovery in an invasive tephritid model pest species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Soares, Marcelo B; Bonaldo, Maria F; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    Background The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a highly invasive agricultural pest that has become a model insect for the development of biological control programs. Despite research into the behavior and classical and population genetics of this organism, the quantity of sequence data available is limited. We have utilized an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtain detailed information on transcriptome signatures that relate to a variety of physiological systems in the medfly; this information emphasizes on reproduction, sex determination, and chemosensory perception, since the study was based on normalized cDNA libraries from embryos and adult heads. Results A total of 21,253 high-quality ESTs were obtained from the embryo and head libraries. Clustering analyses performed separately for each library resulted in 5201 embryo and 6684 head transcripts. Considering an estimated 19% overlap in the transcriptomes of the two libraries, they represent about 9614 unique transcripts involved in a wide range of biological processes and molecular functions. Of particular interest are the sequences that share homology with Drosophila genes involved in sex determination, olfaction, and reproductive behavior. The medfly transformer2 (tra2) homolog was identified among the embryonic sequences, and its genomic organization and expression were characterized. Conclusion The sequences obtained in this study represent the first major dataset of expressed genes in a tephritid species of agricultural importance. This resource provides essential information to support the investigation of numerous questions regarding the biology of the medfly and other related species and also constitutes an invaluable tool for the annotation of complete genome sequences. Our study has revealed intriguing findings regarding the transcript regulation of tra2 and other sex determination genes, as well as insights into the comparative genomics of genes implicated in chemosensory reception and

  11. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A.; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  12. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

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    Gurusamy Raman

    Full Text Available Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC region (82,805 bp, with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19 was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23 genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  13. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  14. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  15. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouri, Rabeh; Le Goff, Gaelle; Hemden, Hiethem; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; M'saad, Mariem; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda-cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (6-14-fold), achieving LC50 values (129-287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory-selected resistant strain W-1Kλ (205-fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13-18-fold) in the resistant strain. The W-1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross-resistance to etofenprox (240-fold) and deltamethrin (150-fold). Field-evolved resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W-1Kλ. The levels of cross-resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEDHOST,Version 2.0 is the second revision of:"MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann),Version 1.0," which was released in 1998 as a Windows-based executable database and listed all plant species reported as hosts of Medit...

  17. Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Nontarget Insects to the Attractant BioLure and its Individual Components in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  18. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  19. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  20. Toxicity of naturally occurring Bio-fly and chitosan compounds to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, E I; Nasr, H M; Badawy, M E I; El-Gendy, I R

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of five compounds of a biopolymer chitosan and Bio-fly (Beauveria bassiana fungus) as biopesticide was evaluated on Ceratitis capitata under laboratory conditions. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) as biochemical indicators were also determined in vivo. The results indicated that B. bassiana based Bio-fly exhibited significant toxicity against C. capitata (LC50 = 3008 and 3126 mg/L after 48 h in females and males, respectively) followed by the derivatives of chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan. Bio-fly displayed remarkable inhibition of AChE activity (IC50 = 2220 mg/L) while N-(2-chloro,6-flourobenzyl)chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) chitosan had no significant difference in inhibitory action. In adult males, N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan exhibited the highest inhibitory action (IC50 = 6569 mg/L). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on the activity of ATPase indicated that highly significant inhibition was found with N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan with an IC50 of 8194 and 8035 mg/L, in females and males, respectively.

  1. Highly differentiated populations of the freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata suggest limited dispersal and opportunities for allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katharine M; Chepurnov, Victor A; Sluiman, Hans J; Thomas, Sindu J; Spears, Bryan M; Mann, David G

    2009-08-01

    The diversities and distributions of diatoms are much more complex than was ever imagined. To understand the underlying mechanisms, research must focus on evolutionary processes occurring at a population level and employ sufficiently informative molecular markers. Using ten microsatellites and ITS rDNA sequence data, we investigated the genetic structure of populations of the benthic freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata (until 2004 a cryptic entity within the S. pupula agg. species complex). This is the first time that microsatellites have been used to investigate the genetic structure of any freshwater or benthic microalga. Using an integrated approach (morphology, DNA barcoding and specificity of the microsatellite primers), we verified the identity of 70 S. capitata isolates obtained from lakes in the UK, Belgium and Australia. Standardized F'(ST) values were very high (>0.4) and in Bayesian analyses, isolates clustered according to their country of origin, with limited evidence of admixture. However, selected isolates from all countries were sexually compatible, a result consistent with limited ITS divergence. Considering the apparent absence of desiccation-resistant resting stages in most diatoms, we conclude that such levels of differentiation are likely to be a consequence of limited dispersal. With restricted dispersal, previously unacknowledged opportunities for allopatric speciation exist, which may help to explain the huge extant diversity of diatoms.

  2. Insecticidal effects of various concentrations of selected extractions of Cestrum parqui on adult and immature Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Nelson; Budia, Flor; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar

    2006-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of Cestrum parqui L'Héritier (Solanaceae) were evaluated at different concentrations in several stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). For adults, the study was extended to extracts obtained with several solvents of an increasing degree of polarity. Aqueous extracts from C. parqui showed a high toxicity to neonate larvae when ingested through diet, inhibiting pupation at a concentration above 0.6%. Lower concentrations delayed the larval development and reduced the percentages of pupae formed and adult emergence. An LC50 = 0.9% after 3 d of continuous ingestion of C. parqui aqueous extracts could be calculated, whereas extracts obtained with organic compounds were nearly innocuous except with the use of the solvent methanol/water (80:20), the more polar of those tested, that killed 12.5% of adults. Aqueous extracts were also harmful to adults by diminishing the reproductive potential, which implies a significant effect on the offspring. Egg contact with insecticide or dipping third instars did not cause any adverse effect, supporting the hypothesis that only by means of ingestion can the toxic compounds of C. parqui reach the target. Our results showed that C. parqui components causing C. capitata mortality are mostly dissolved in water and not in organic solvents, which point out their polar character.

  3. Highly efficient DNA-free gene disruption in the agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata by CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meccariello, Angela; Monti, Simona Maria; Romanelli, Alessandra; Colonna, Rita; Primo, Pasquale; Inghilterra, Maria Grazia; Del Corsano, Giuseppe; Ramaglia, Antonio; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Chiarore, Antonia; Patti, Francesco; Heinze, Svenia D; Salvemini, Marco; Lindsay, Helen; Chiavacci, Elena; Burger, Alexa; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian; Bopp, Daniel; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2017-08-30

    The Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) is an invasive agricultural pest of high economic impact and has become an emerging model for developing new genetic control strategies as an alternative to insecticides. Here, we report the successful adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption in the medfly by injecting in vitro pre-assembled, solubilized Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) loaded with gene-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNA) into early embryos. When targeting the eye pigmentation gene white eye (we), a high rate of somatic mosaicism in surviving G0 adults was observed. Germline transmission rate of mutated we alleles by G0 animals was on average above 52%, with individual cases achieving nearly 100%. We further recovered large deletions in the we gene when two sites were simultaneously targeted by two sgRNAs. CRISPR-Cas9 targeting of the Ceratitis ortholog of the Drosophila segmentation paired gene (Ccprd) caused segmental malformations in late embryos and in hatched larvae. Mutant phenotypes correlate with repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) lesions in the two targeted genes. This simple and highly effective Cas9 RNP-based gene editing to introduce mutations in C. capitata will significantly advance the design and development of new effective strategies for pest control management.

  4. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  5. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Intensity of Attack Caused by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera, Tephritidae on Mandarin along the Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Montenegrin seacoast, all cultivated citrus species (mandarin, orange, lemon,grapefruit, fig, loquat and ziziphus were detected as host plants of the Ceratitis capitata Wiedem.Among those found, in economic sense, the most important host plant is mandarinUnšiu.Intensity of the attack were monitored on mandarin in 2003 and 2004 in localities Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, and was determined as higher in 2003. The first symptoms ofattack were detected, depending on locality, from middle of September until beginning ofOctober, one to two months earlier then in 2004. The maximum number of larvae per fruitwere detected in October and November (average from 13.44±0.16 to 22.82±0.13. Timeof the first symptoms appearence on mandarin in September and October 2003 and in November2004, indicate on crucial importance of alternative host plants (figs and loquat forreproduction and increasing of C. capitata population, because later during a season its intensityof attack on mandarin, depend largely on their presence.

  7. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  8. Capacidad dispersiva de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae entre valles agrícolas en San Juan, Argentina

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    Leonardo M. DÍAZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, díptero tefrítido cosmopolita originario del norte de África, es la principal plaga de los frutales en muchos países de América. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer las características de la capacidad de dispersión de Ceratitis capitata , mediante la liberación de moscas estériles en condiciones de campo, con el propósito de predecir las posibles invasiones de valles agrícolas vecinos. Se liberaron 54.000 moscas estériles marcadas de ambos sexos, en localidades del valle de Tulum, cercanas a los ingresos de los valles de Ullum y Zonda. Para el monitoreo del vuelo dispersivo se instalaron trampas Jackson y Mc Phail. Se capturaron 1.213 adultos durante el periodo de muestreo. No hubo propagación de los adultos liberados desde el valle de Tulum a los valles de Ullum y Zonda. La presencia de hospederos, posición geográfica de cada Quebrada y la orientación respecto al viento predominante, podrían explicar la diferencia de difusión entre ambas Quebradas. La dispersión duró cinco semanas. La distancia media de los adultos liberados fue de 3.764 m (S= 2.897 m sin encontrar diferencias entre ambos sexos.

  9. Cloning and purification of protein kinase CK2 recombinant alpha and beta subunits from the Mediterranean fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyanou-Koutsoukou, Sophia; Baier, Andrea; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Maniatopoulou, Evanthia; Thanopoulou, Konstantina; Szyszka, Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is an insect capable of wreaking extensive damage to a wide range of fruit crops. Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase that is highly conserved among eukaryotes; it is a heterotetramer composed of two catalytic (α) and a dimer of regulatory (β) subunits. We present here the construction of the cDNA molecules of the CK2α and CK2β subunits from the medfly C. capitata by the 5'/3' RACE and RT-PCR methods, respectively. CcCK2α catalytic subunit presents the characteristic and conserved features of a typical protein kinase, similar to the regulatory CcCK2β subunit, that also possess the conserved features of regulatory CK2β subunits, as revealed by comparison of their predicted amino acid sequences with other eukaryotic species. The recombinant CcCK2α and CcCK2β proteins were purified by affinity chromatography to homogeneity, after overexpression in Escherichia coli. CcCK2α is capable to utilize GTP and its activity and is inhibited by polyanions and stimulated by polycations in phosphorylation assays, using purified acidic ribosomal protein P1 as a substrate.

  10. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  11. 地中海实蝇幼虫分子鉴定%Molecular identification for larvae of Ceratitis capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶军; 周国梁; 易建平; 吴家教; 阮长浩; 梁帆; 郑建中; 王文兵

    2007-01-01

    通过对从秘鲁进口的葡萄中截获实蝇类幼虫进行ITS区和线粒体CO Ⅰ,COⅡ,COⅢ、ND5基因序列的扩增和测序,并与GenBank中对应的序列进行比对,结果表明,截获样品ITS区序列和地中海实蝇Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)同源性为95.16%(其中ITS1为99.52%,ITS2为86.2%),线粒体COⅠ,COⅡ,COⅢ,ND5基因序列和地中海实蝇C.capitata同源性为100%,99.9%,99.5%,99.8%;基于CO Ⅰ序列构建的系统发育树中,幼虫样品和地中海实蝇最为接近.根据序列分析和系统发育关系分析的结果,将截获的实蝇类幼虫鉴定为地中海实蝇C.capitata.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent NADPH-diaphorase activity in the optic lobes of male and female Ceratitis capitata mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Roda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is acknowledged as a messenger molecule in the nervous system with a pivotal role in the modulation of the chemosensory information. It has been shown to be present in the optic lobes of several insect species. In the present study, we used males and females from four different strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: or; or,wp (both orange eyed; w,M360 and w,Heraklion (both white eyed, as models to further clarify the involvement of NO in the mutants’ visual system and differences in its activity and localization in the sexes. Comparison of the localization pattern of NO synthase (NOS, through NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd staining, in the optic lobes of the four strains, revealed a stronger reaction intensity in the retina and in the neuropile region lamina than in medulla and lobula. Interestingly, the intensity of NADPHd staining differs, at least in some strains, in the optic lobes of the two sexes; all the areas are generally strongly labelled in the males of the or and w,M360 strains, whereas the w,Heraklion and or,wp mutants do not show evident sexdependent NADPHd staining. Taken as a whole, our data point to NO as a likely transmitter candidate in the visual information processes in insects, with a possible correlation among NOS distribution, eye pigmentation and visual function in C. capitata males. Moreover, NO could influence behavioural differences linked to vision in the two sexes.

  13. Evaluación de colores para la oviposición de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Suárez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata es una de las principales plagas de la fruticultura mundial y en Argentina es la Mosca de los Frutos de mayor abundancia y distribución. El desarrollo de una trampa artificial de oviposición, puede ser una herramienta útil de monitoreo para hembras grávidas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad atrayente para la oviposición de C. capitata sobre esferas de agar de color amarillo, rojo, verde, negro y sin color; en condiciones de laboratorio. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, siendo las esferas rojas y negras las más atractivas sobre las verdes, amarillas y sin color. En laboratorio, la mayor atracción alcanzada por el rojo y negro sustentaría la hipótesis de que el fuerte contraste respecto al fondo incrementaría la atracción de los colores más oscuros.

  14. Bolívar y Blanco White

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    Pons, André

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este estudio procura poner de manifiesto la influencia de Blanco White, redactor de El Español (Londres, 1810-1814, en el ideario político de Bolívar, comparando el Manifiesto de Cartagena, la Carta de Jamaica y el Discurso de Angostura con los artículos de Blanco. Después de precisar las relaciones personales del periodista con el Libertador en Londres, se cotejan los textos y se muestra cómo Bolívar se inspiró en el periódico y lo utilizó en un doble sentido: subversivo, con objeto de justificar la lucha anticolonialista, y conservador, para analizar las dificultades de la independencia y de la democracia e imaginar el tipo de gobierno de los nacientes estados.

  15. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  16. Viabilidad del desarrollo de alimentos funcionales frescos por incorporación de aloe vera a la matriz estructural de endibia (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) y zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) mediante la técnica de impregnación a vacío

    OpenAIRE

    SANZANA RAMOS, SIGRID XIMENA

    2011-01-01

    El vínculo que une la alimentación y la salud es un aspecto que desde hace algunos años marca la evolución de la industria de los alimentos. El origen de los alimentos funcionales, es fruto de esta preocupación, ampliando el concepto de alimentación a la posibilidad de mantener y/o mejorar la salud. Los alimentos funcionales que incluyen, según definición del ILSI, a cualquier alimento o ingrediente del mismo que pueda producir para la salud un beneficio adicional al del valor nutritivo de...

  17. Mutation studies in Cymbopogon nardus var. Confertiflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, D.K.; Kak, S.N.; Kaul, B.L. (Regional Research Lab., Jammu (India))

    1981-09-01

    Vegetative slips of Cymbopogon nardus var, confertiflorus after irradiation with various doses of X-rays left a clone among the surviving plants that showed mutation resulting in a higher content of geranyl acetate. From its progeny, raised after selfing a fresh clone, possessing about 60% geranyl acetate in the oil without any effect on the herb yield, has been isolated. This mutant has a significant commercial importance as a new source of geranyl acetate, an important aroma chemical.

  18. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  19. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF PET – ETHER EXTRACT OF PORTULACA OLERACEA (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antiarrthritic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea. The petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Male Wistar rats and anti-arthritic activity by Fruends adjuant arthritis model. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenoids. Acute toxicity studies showed that the extract was non-toxic upto a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Petroleum-ether extract exhibited significant anti-arthritic activity. The present study indicates that the petroleumether extract of Portulaca oleracea has a potential anti-arthritic activity can be used as anti-arthritic drug.

  1. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  2. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  3. Validación de una metodología multiresiduo para la determinación de residuos de plaguicidas en repollo (Brassica Oleracea van Capitata.por cromatografía de gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltón Leonardo Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este esmdio se diseñó y validó una metodología multirresiduo para el análisis de los plaguicidas organoclorados, organofosforados y organonitrogenados más usados en repollo en el departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. El proceso de extracción incluye la homogeneización de una pequeña cantidad de muestra con acetato de etilo en presencia de Na2S04 y NaHCO3 filtración y concentración. Los pasos de limpieza implican GPC y cromatografía en minicolumna sobre silica gel.

  4. Validación de una metodología multiresiduo para la determinación de residuos de plaguicidas en repollo (brassica oleracea van capitata.)por cromatografía de gases

    OpenAIRE

    Miltón Leonardo Moreno; Jairo Arturo Guerrero Dallos

    2010-01-01

    En este esmdio se diseñó y validó una metodología multirresiduo para el análisis de los plaguicidas organoclorados, organofosforados y organonitrogenados más usados en repollo en el departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. El proceso de extracción incluye la homogeneización de una pequeña cantidad de muestra con acetato de etilo en presencia de Na2S04 y NaHCO3 filtración y concentración. Los pasos de limpieza implican GPC y cromatografía en minicolumna sobre silica gel.

  5. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  6. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Special Feature: Remediation Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites Sheila Van Cuyk, Lee Ann B. Veal, Beverley Simpson, and...evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as...used is a water-based slurry containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). This bacterium produces a toxin that is lethal to gypsy moth

  7. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  8. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  9. Factors affecting the glucosinolate content of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Pablo; Cartea, María Elena; Gonzalez, Carmen; Vilar, Marta; Ordas, Amando

    2007-02-07

    Kales (Brassica oleracea acephala group) are important vegetable crops in traditional farming systems in the Iberian Peninsula. They are grown throughout the year to harvest their leaves and flower buds. The glucosinolate content of kales is dependent upon the environmental factors, plant part examined, phenological stage of plant growth, and level of insect damage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in the total and individual glucosinolate concentrations during plant development and to determine if significant variation of glucosinolate levels can be explained by insect pests attack and other environmental factors in four locations in northwestern Spain. The total glucosinolate concentration in leaves of B. oleracea increased with plant age from seedling to early flowering stages. At that stage, the aliphatic glucosinolate content in leaves of B. oleracea declined drastically over time as the content in the flower buds increased. The highest contents of indolyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin) and of the aromatic glucosinolate occurred in leaves harvested at the optimum consumption stage while flower buds contained the highest concentration of aliphatic glucosinolates, especially sinigrin. Sinigrin is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. There appears to be a loss of total and individual glucosinolate concentrations related to pest attack. Leaves damaged by lepidopterous pests contained a lower total glucosinolate content (25.8 micromol g-1 dw) than undamaged leaves (41 micromol g-1 dw). The amounts of sinigrin, glucoiberin, and glucobrassicin were also lowest in insect-damaged leaves. Environmental factors such as soil properties and temperature appear to influence the glucosinolate content in leaves although more research on this subject is needed.

  10. ?cidos grasos, actividad antioxidante y antibacterial en extractos de verdolaga. (Portulaca Oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Moncayo Esp?n, Cristian Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehist?ricos las plantas medicinales han sido utilizadas para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones. Estas plantas han sido objeto de un sin n?mero de investigaciones con el fin de encontrar propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y antimutag?nicas. Portulaca oleracea o verdolaga, es una hierba nativa, rica en ?cidos grasos omega3 y vitaminas, que ha sido usada con fines medicinales. En el Ecuador, un pa?s rico en biodiversidad, se han encontrado dos especies end?micas perte...

  11. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  12. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  13. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The

  14. Identification and in vivo functional analysis of a virginiamycin S resistance gene (varS) from Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Kamitani, Y; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1999-05-01

    BarA of Streptomyces virginiae is a specific receptor protein for virginiae butanolide (VB), one of the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulators of the Streptomyces species, and acts as a transcriptional regulator controlling both virginiamycin production and VB biosynthesis. The downstream gene barB, the transcription of which is under the tight control of the VB-BarA system, was found to be transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with its downstream region, and DNA sequencing revealed a 1,554-bp open reading frame (ORF) beginning at 161 bp downstream of the barB termination codon. The ORF product showed high homology (68 to 73%) to drug efflux proteins having 14 transmembrane segments and was named varS (for S. virginiae antibiotic resistance). Heterologous expression of varS with S. lividans as a host resulted in virginiamycin S-specific resistance, suggesting that varS encoded a virginiamycin S-specific transport protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bicistronic transcript of barB-varS appeared 1 to 2 h before the onset of virginiamycin M1 and S production, at which time VB was produced, while exogenously added virginiamycin S apparently induced the monocistronic varS transcript.

  15. Lignans from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chun; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Chen, Ji-Jun; Pu, Jian-Xin; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jin-Ping; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

    2007-08-01

    Two new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans angeloyl-(+)-gomisin K(3) (1) and methylisogomisin O (2), together with six known ones, isogomisin O, angeloylisogomisin O, gomisin O, angeloygomisin O, benzoylgomisin O, epigomisin O, and four 1,4-bis(phenyl)-2,3-dimethylbutane type lignans, pregomisin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, isoanwulignan, and sphenanlignan were isolated from the aerial parts of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  16. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824 IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAGA A

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em dieta artificial, foi estimado um Probit 9 de 24,67Gy. Não foi observada influência significativa dos frutos de manga na eficiência da irradiação dos ovos, quando comparada com os testes em dieta artificial.

  17. Solid phase microextraction of volatile emissions of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of fly sex, age, and mating status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Cristina; Vacas, Sandra; Zarzo, Manuel; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2011-01-12

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the courtship behavior and pheromone communication of medflies; however, the sex pheromone composition is still a controversial subject. The discovery of new components affecting medfly behavior would be of interest for medfly control methods based on semiochemicals. This work describes volatile compounds emitted by Ceratitis capitata collected using solid phase microextraction. The volatile study was conducted according to an experimental design with three factors (sex, age, and mating status) assumed to be relevant for better understanding the chemical communication. Emission data were treated by means of principal component analysis, a statistical methodology not previously applied to the study of volatiles emitted by fruit flies. The characterization of emission patterns could be useful for the selection of compounds to be further investigated in biological assays to improve knowledge of the key semiochemicals involved in medfly behavior.

  18. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  19. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scolari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male

  20. Cloning, sequence identification and expression profile analysis of α-L-fucosidase gene from the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Jari; Perotti, Maria-Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2011-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests, a polyphagus insect of relevant economic importance and is widespread in many regions around the world. It is the best-studied fruit fly pest at genetic and molecular level and much has been learned on its ecology and behaviour. An α-L-fucosidase has been recently hypothesized to be involved in sperm-egg interactions in Drosophila melanogaster and in other Drosophila species. Here, a complete cDNA encoding a putative α-L-fucosidase of the medfly was amplified using the reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate based on the conserved coding sequence information of several insect α-L-fucosidases, cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession no. FJ177429). The coding region consisted of 1482 bp which encoded a 485-residues protein (named CcFUCA) with a predicted molecular mass of 56.1 kDa. The deduced protein sequence showed 75% amino acid identity to D. melanogaster α-L-fucosidase, and in fact the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CcFUCA had closer relationships with the α-L-fucosidases of drosophilid species. The tissue expression analysis indicated that CcFuca was expressed in a single transcript in all tissues, suggesting a ubiquitous localization pattern of the encoded protein. Our findings provide novel insights on a gene encoding a protein potentially involved in primary gamete interactions in C. capitata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Ribeiro, José M C; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2012-01-01

    Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating

  2. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to ana

  3. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  4. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  5. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  6. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  7. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal < unfertilized control < sheep manure < extruded shrimp shell < anaerobically digested food waste < mineral fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  8. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  9. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  10. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra enhances drought and osmotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsheng Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11, a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA- mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  11. Efecto de la exposición del semillero a coberturas de colores sobre el desarrollo y productividad del brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; Javier F Rojas B

    2009-01-01

      Se estudió el efecto de diferentes rangos del espectro sobre el crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli. Se usaron películas plásticas de color amarillo, azul, naranja, transparente, y sin cobertura...

  12. Expresión de la hormona de crecimiento humano en cultivos de raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar García López; Octavio Gómez Gúzman; Emma Gloria Ramos-Ramírez; Armando Ariza-Castolo; Josefina Pérez-Vargas; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    Debido al crecimiento de la población humana mundial, las compañías farmacéuticas enfrentan una creciente demanda de proteínas terapéuticas, como anticuerpos, enzimas y hormonas; no obstante, las instalaciones y tecnologías existentes, como los cultivos de células animales y bacterianos pueden no resultar suficientes para cubrir esa demanda. Una alternativa es la utilización de la biotecnología vegetal para producir proteínas heterólogas. En este trabajo se presentan resultados del estudio de...

  13. Wound Healing Effect of an Ointment Made From a Mixture of Brassica oleracea var, Punica granatum, and Plantago major L Extracts in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazafkan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian traditional medicine, Punica granatum, cabbage, and plantago have been used to prompt wound healing. The effects of cabbage, Punica granatum, and Plantago in wound healing have been investigated to some extent, but no experimental study has been performed to assess the impact of an ointment containing all these three substances on wound healing. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an ointment prepared from a mixture of cabbage, Punica granatum, and plantago on local wound healing in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was performed on 21 male Wistar rats. Firstly, a full thickness wound was created on rats flank, near the spine by a bistoury blade and forceps. Then they were randomly divided into three groups of seven rats as the control group, a positive control group (the treatment group with phenytoin, and the third one received a treatment with studied ointment. The wounds were evaluated on days three, six, nine, and 12. Results were compared by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results The average percentage of wound healing in different groups on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 were as follows; 21.3%, 37.87%, 67.39% and 77.17% in control group; 24.98%, 34.21%, 70.74% and 88.55% in positive control group; and 32.35%, 61.27%, 94.53%, and 99.91%, in case group. A significant difference was observed between the control and case groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Treatment with the studied ointment could promote wound healing.

  14. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  15. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  16. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties.

  17. Influence of cultivar and fertilizer approach on curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). 1. Genetic diversity reflected in agronomic characteristics and phytochemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2014-11-26

    The objectives were to investigate if genetic diversity among field-grown traditional and F1 hybrid kale cultivars was reflected in different agronomic characteristics and consequently glucosinolate (GLS) and flavonoid glycoside concentration. This study evaluated how nitrogen and sulfur supply and biomass allocation modified phytochemicals in two experiments with combinations of three cultivars and four N and two S application levels. Results showed less growth, and higher N concentration in the traditional cultivar 'Tiara' was associated with increased indole and total GLSs compared to traditional 'Høj Amager Toftø' and F1 hybrid 'Reflex' cultivars, which exhibited higher yield, lower N concentration, and different biomass allocation. S application increased total GLS concentration, whereas aliphatic GLS percentage decreased when N application increased. Decrease of six 'Reflex' GLSs besides quercetin glycosides and total flavonoid glycosides with increased N indicated higher N responsiveness for 'Reflex'. In conclusion, differences in agronomic characteristics were reflected in diverse phytochemical composition.

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey) by using rapid amplified polymorphic DNA and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, L G

    2014-02-14

    Chinese kale is an original Chinese vegetable of the Cruciferae family. To select suitable parents for hybrid breeding, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese kale. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity across 21 Chinese kale accessions from AVRDC and Guangzhou in China. A total of 104 bands were detected by 11 RAPD primers, of which 66 (63.5%) were polymorphic, and 229 polymorphic bands (68.4%) were observed in 335 bands amplified by 17 SRAP primer combinations. The dendrogram showed the grouping of the 21 accessions into 4 main clusters based on RAPD data, and into 6 clusters based on SRAP and combined data (RAPD + SRAP). The clustering of accessions based on SRAP data was consistent with petal colors. The Mantel test indicated a poor fit for the RAPD and SRAP data (r = 0.16). These results have an important implication for Chinese kale germplasm characterization and improvement.

  19. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  20. Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-05-07

    Kale has a high number of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study we investigated the interaction of moderate UV-B radiation and temperature on these compounds. Kale plants were grown at daily mean temperatures of 5 or 15 °C and were exposed to five subsequent daily doses (each 0.25 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of moderate UV-B radiation at 1 d intervals. Of 20 phenolic compounds, 11 were influenced by an interaction of UV-B radiation and temperature, e.g., monoacylated quercetin glycosides. Concomitantly, enhanced mRNA expression of flavonol 3'- hydroxylase showed an interaction of UV-B and temperature, highest at 0.75 kJ m(-2) and 15 °C. Kaempferol glycosides responded diversely and dependent on, e.g., the hydroxycinnamic acid residue. Compounds containing a catechol structure seem to be favored in the response to UV-B. Taken together, subsequent exposure to moderate UV-B radiation is a successful tool for enhancing the flavonoid profile of plants, and temperature should be considered.

  1. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  2. Ornamental Characteristics and Gardening Applications of Kale(Brassica oleracea var.acephala)%羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性及园林应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华渊; 李莹莹

    2011-01-01

    羽衣甘蓝具有明显的观赏特性和很高的园林应用价值,是我国华东地带深秋、冬季及早春重要的花坛材料.文章从株型、叶型、叶色、花序等方面分析了羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性,并探讨了其园林应用形式.

  3. 抗虫基因转化花椰菜的研究%Transformation of insect-resistant gene into cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L.Var.Botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲玲; 雷建军; 宋明; 李立云; 曹必好

    2004-01-01

    通过根癌农杆菌介导,将抗虫基因-豇豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂(Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor,简称CpTI)基因导入花椰菜无菌苗的下胚轴和子叶中.卡那霉素(Kanamycin,简称Kan)的筛选浓度为15mg/L,抑制农杆菌生长的抗生素选用羧苄青霉素(Carbencillin,简称Carb),浓度为500mg/L.对所获得的14株Kan抗性植株进行PCR扩增,结果显示有8株为阳性;对PCR阳性植株进行Southern分子杂交检测,结果证明CpTI基因已被整合到花椰菜植株的基因组中.%Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transferred into the cotyledons and hypocotyls of cauliflower by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The best selective concentration of kanamycin (kan) was 15 mg L-1. The concentration of carbencillin (carb) was 500 mg L-1. 14 transgenic cauliflower plants were obtained. The putative transformants were assayed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. The results indicated that CpTI gene was transferred into cauliflower successfully.

  4. Modeling the kinetics of peroxidase inactivation, colour and texture changes of Portuguese cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC during UV-C light and heat blanching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui M.S. Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heat blanching and UV-C light followed by heat on Portuguese cabbage peroxidase (POD, colour and texture were studied in the temperature range of 80-95 °C. POD inactivation, lightness (L and yellowness (b colour changes were described by a first-order reaction model. The greenness (a colour and texture (firmness changes followed a two fraction kinetic model behaviour. The temperature effect was well described by the Arrhenius law.At lower temperatures the combined treatment showed higher POD inactivation. Colour and texture parameters did not show significant differences between treatments. Long processing times turned the leaves slightly darker, decreased greenness, yellowness and firmness. Short processing times increased the  firmness and greenness of the leaves. The treatment at 80 °C for 90 seconds reduced 90% of POD, retaining 98% of lightness and 92% of yellowness and improved the green colour (130% and firmness (125%. At 80 °C the heat blanching required 7.4 min to inactivate 90% of the enzyme activity, reducing lightness, greenness, yellowness and firmness to 92%, 68%, 62% and 61%, respectively. The present findings will help to optimize the Portuguese cabbage blanching conditions.

  5. Identification of genes involved in the drought adaptation and recovery in Portulaca oleracea by differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Triassi, Agustina; Casas, María Isabel; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Portulaca oleracea is one of the richest plant sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and other compounds potentially valuable for nutrition. It is broadly established in arid, semiarid and well-watered fields, thus making it a promising candidate for research on abiotic stress resistance mechanisms. It is capable of withstanding severe drought and then of recovering upon rehydration. Here, the adaptation to drought and the posterior recovery was evaluated at transcriptomic level by differential display validated by qRT-PCR. Of the 2279 transcript-derived fragments amplified, 202 presented differential expression. Ninety of them were successfully isolated and sequenced. Selected genes were tested against different abiotic stresses in P. oleracea and the behavior of their orthologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana was also explored to seek for conserved response mechanisms. In drought adapted and in recovered plants changes in expression of many protein metabolism-, lipid metabolism- and stress-related genes were observed. Many genes with unknown function were detected, which also respond to other abiotic stresses. Some of them are also involved in the seed desiccation/imbibition process and thus would be of great interest for further research. The potential use of candidate genes to engineer drought tolerance improvement and recovery is discussed.

  6. Photosynthesis-Involvement in Modulation of Ascorbate and Glutathione in Euterpe oleracea Plants Exposed to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Machado BARBOSA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine if photosynthesis interferes with the modulation of antioxidant compounds in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to water deficiencies. A factorial, completely randomised experimental design was employed, and two water conditions (water deficit and control and four evaluation points (0, 6, 12 and 18 days were used, resulting in a total of eight measurements. The measured parameters included the water content and temperature of the leaf, gas exchange, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant content. Compared to the control treatment, the net loss of photosynthesis due to water restriction increased by approximately 100% on the 18th day of drought. The ascorbate levels decreased due to water restriction, presenting significant differences on the 12th and 18th day. In some cases, the water deficit increased the glutathione content; however, significant effects were only observed on the 18th day after irrigation suspension. Water deficits had a negative impact on stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. Additionally, increases in the glutathione content, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde content were observed; however, the ascorbate content decreased. Our results confirmed that the rate of photosynthesis interfered with the modulation of ascorbate and glutathione in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to drought.

  7. [Population dynamics of the palm Euterpe oleracea (Arecaceae) from flooded forests in Choco, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Diego A; Duque, Alvaro J; Muñoz, Edinson

    2010-03-01

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a dominant and promising species in flood plains of the Atrato river, Choco region of Colombia. We assessed the population dynamics of this species through growth rates, mortality and recruitment patterns for a period of two and a half years. Dynamic rates were compared among mixed and pure flood plain palm forests. These forests types were associated to different flooding regimes. Trees and palms were thinned in a portion for each forest type, the rest was left undisturbed. We used projection matrices to follow population trends. Thinning increased the transition probability of smaller individuals, but decreased it for larger individuals, as is typical of light demanding species. Thinning also increased mortality rates in almost all size classes, but did not affect recruitment rates. Under natural conditions, the E. oleracea populations are in equilibrium in pure and mixed forests. Thinning increased population growth in both forest types, suggesting the role played by density-dependent processes on the population size of this species.

  8. Optimization of phytoremediation in Cd- contaminated soil by using Taguchi method in Spinacia oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Jahanbakhshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly technique to the cleanup of polluted soils, which combines the disciplines of plant, soil and microbiology. In this study, four factors including: cow manure, compost, urea fertilizer and Cd-resistant bacteria with three different levels in soils contaminated with cadmium using 50 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O were used to optimize of phytoremediation by Spinacia oleracea. Taguchi method has been used for experimental design. Results showed that significant factors in the order of importance were: cow manure, Cd- resistant batteries, urea fertilizer and compost. The optimum conditions for the selected levels were inoculate three types of bacteria (CC3, CC4, CC5, compost = 10 (g kg-1, urea fertilizer = 0.05 (g kg-1 and cow manure = 40 (g kg-1. The performance of` these conditions were estimated at 257.27 (mg kg-1. Cow manure is the most contribution to efficiency of phytoremediation in Spinacia oleracea.

  9. The Effects of Portulaca oleracea on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tan; Xiaosa, Wen; Ruirui, Qi; Wencai, Shi; Hailiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tan Yue, Wen Xiaosa, Qi Ruirui, Shi Wencai, Xin Hailiang, and Li Min. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema in mice. High Alt Med Biol 16:43–51, 2015—Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is known as “a vegetable for long life” due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. However, the protective activity of the ethanol extract of PO (EEPO) against hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema has not been fully investigated. In this study, we exposed mice to a simulated altitude of 7000 meters for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h to observe changes in the water content and transvascular leakage of the mouse lung. It was found that transvascular leakage increased to the maximum in the mouse lung after 6 h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Prophylactic administration of EEPO before hypoxic exposure markedly reduced the transvascular leakage and oxidative stress, and inhibited the upregulation of NF-kB in the mouse lung, as compared with the control group. In addition, EEPO significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the lungs of mice, as compared with the hypoxia group. Our results show that EEPO can reduce initial transvascular leakage and pulmonary edema under hypobaric hypoxia conditions. PMID:25761168

  10. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  11. Efectos de la edad de la generación parental en la biología reproductiva de Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Trypetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Mª.P.; Muñiz, Mariano

    1993-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio con parejas aisladas de Ceratitis capitata Wied. para determinar la influencia de la edad de los padres, tanto en la calidad de las pupas, fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad de los adultos de la primera generación filial, como en el desarrollo larvario, actividad reproductora y eficacia biológica de los descendientes originados por adultos de edad avanzada en cuatro generaciones sucesivas. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que la edad de los prog...

  12. Response of female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad bait and polymer matrix mixture with extended residual effect in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Gomez, Luis E; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of foliar applications of protein baits against pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae) can be adversely affected by a rapid loss of attractive volatile compounds and by rainfall due to the high water solubility of the baits. In a large coffee, Coffea arabica L., plantation in Hawaii with high and low populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the relative attractiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait as either a 40% (vol:vol) spray solution (= GF-120 NF) or as a formulated proprietary amorphous polymer matrix (= GF-120 APM) was compared. The GF-120 APM formulations contained either, 25, 50, or 75% of GF-120 NF (wt:wt). All baits were tested in association with visually attractive yellow bait stations as a way of standardizing the evaluations. With both high and low C. capitata populations, significantly more females were attracted to the fresh sprayed GF-120 NF than to any of the three fresh GF-120 APM formulations. The attractiveness of GF-120 sprayed decreased significantly after 1 wk, whereas 1-wk-old GF-120 APM formulations were as attractive as similar fresh formulations. GF-120 APM 75% aged for 3 wk outperformed similarly-aged sprayed GF-120 NF with comparatively high C. capitata populations. With low populations, both GF-120 APM 75% and GF-120 APM 50% aged for 2 wk outperformed the similarly aged sprayed GF-120 NF. Combined findings indicate that APM mixed with either 50 or 75% GF-120 applied to bait stations can be attractive to female C. capitata for up to 3 wk longer than the standard sprayed GF-120 NF.

  13. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  14. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional.

  15. Suppressive effects of Calendula micrantha essential oil and gibberelic acid (PGR) on repro ductive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Karam T

    2005-08-01

    The volatile oil of Calendula micrtantha plant was extracted and the components were identified by Gc/Ms. Adulticidal efficiency of the volatile oil and gibberelic acid "plant growth promoting hormone" as well as their mixture was assessed against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The result showed that the two compounds capable have characteristic resembling to insect juvenile hormones and have suppressive effect on reproductive potential. They induced the significant disturbances in the ovarian protein fraction and the amino acids patterns.

  16. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  17. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  18. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  19. Novel RNA viruses producing simultaneous covert infections in Ceratitis capitata. Correlations between viral titers and host fitness, and implications for SIT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Giménez, Angel; Maria González, Rosa; Millán-Leiva, Anabel; Catalá, Marta; Llacer, Elena; Urbaneja, Alberto; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-02-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous pest, which infests multiple species of fruits and vegetables worldwide. In addition to the traditional control with chemical insecticides, sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented in integrated programs worldwide, and has become an essential measure for the control of this pest. A key issue for SIT is to release sterile males that are sufficiently competitive with males from the wild population. Using sequence information available in public databases, three novel picornaviruses infecting medflies were discovered and named as C. capitata iflavirus 1 and 2 (CcaIV1 and CcaIV2), and C. capitata noravirus (CcaNV). Additional analyses have revealed the presence of CcaIV2 and CcaNV covertly infecting most of the medfly strains used in the different SIT programs around the world, as well as in field captures in the east of Spain. High viral titers of CcaNV were associated with a reduction in the lifespan of males released to the field for the control of this pest, suggesting the possibility that CcaNV may impair the fitness of sterile flies produced by SIT programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Purification and characterisation of proteins secreted by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with insecticidal activity against adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Santiago-Alvarez, Cándido; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    The control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wied) is usually performed with protein bait sprays incorporating chemical insecticides that may have adverse effects on humans, non-target organisms and the environment. In recent years, scientists have sought more environmentally friendly insecticides for medfly control, such as plant- and microorganism-derived compounds. Among these compounds, entomopathogenic fungi are an unexplored source of natural insecticides. The crude soluble protein extract (CSPE) of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Mestch.) (strain EAMa 01/58-Su) shows chronic insecticidal activity when administered per os. Mortality in flies exhibits a dose response. The CSPE produces an antifeedant effect in adult flies, a result probably due to a progressive deterioration of the fly midgut after ingestion of the extract. Protease and temperature treatments show that insecticidal activity against C. capitata is due to proteinaceous compounds that are highly thermostable. Four monomeric proteins from this crude extract have been purified by liquid chromatography and gel electroelution. Although all four monomers seem to be involved in the insecticidal activity of the CSPE, the 15 kDa and the 11 kDa proteins appear to be mainly responsible for the observed insecticidal effect. Four new fungal proteins with insecticidal activity have been purified and identified. These proteins might be combined with insect baits for C. capitata biocontrol. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and Ceratitis capitata, and motile stages of the astigmatid mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Carpoglyphus lactis as factitious foods for Orius spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Jochem; Van de Walle, Anaïs; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Several factitious foods were assessed for rearing the anthocorid predators Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in the laboratory. Developmental and reproductive traits of both Orius species were examined when offered frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, frozen processed eggs of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, or mixed motile stages of the astigmatid mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) or Carpoglyphus lactis (L). Whereas C. lactis and T. putresecentiae proved to be an inferior food for rearing O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, eggs of C. capitata fully supported development and reproduction of both predators. Results on medfly eggs were similar or slightly inferior to those on E. kuehniella eggs, which is the standard food for culturing these anthocorid bugs. O. thripoborus could be maintained for 4 consecutive generations on C. capitata eggs indicating that processed medfly eggs can be a suitable and cheaper alternative to E. kuehniella eggs for prolonged rearing of these Orius spp. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  3. A Cluster of Vitellogenin Genes in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata: Sequence and Structural Conservation in Dipteran Yolk Proteins and Their Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, M.; Savakis, C.

    1991-01-01

    Four genes encoding the major egg yolk polypeptides of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, vitellogenins 1 and 2 (VG1 and VG2), were cloned, characterized and partially sequenced. The genes are located on the same region of chromosome 5 and are organized in pairs, each encoding the two polypeptides on opposite DNA strands. Restriction and nucleotide sequence analysis indicate that the gene pairs have arisen from an ancestral pair by a relatively recent duplication event. The transcribed part is very similar to that of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein genes Yp1, Yp2 and Yp3. The Vg1 genes have two introns at the same positions as those in D. melanogaster Yp3; the Vg2 genes have only one of the introns, as do D. melanogaster Yp1 and Yp2. Comparison of the five polypeptide sequences shows extensive homology, with 27% of the residues being invariable. The sequence similarity of the processed proteins extends in two regions separated by a nonconserved region of varying size. Secondary structure predictions suggest a highly conserved secondary structure pattern in the two regions, which probably correspond to structural and functional domains. The carboxy-end domain of the C. capitata proteins shows the same sequence similarities with triacylglycerol lipases that have been reported previously for the D. melanogaster yolk proteins. Analysis of codon usage shows significant differences between D. melanogaster and C. capitata vitellogenins with the latter exhibiting a less biased representation of synonymous codons. PMID:1903120

  4. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties.

  5. Butia capitata (Mart. Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr. Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO F. SANT'ANNA-SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  6. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  7. The effect of snowdrop lectin (GNA) delivered via artificial diet and transgenic plants on Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A.; Fitches, E C.; Down, R E.; Marris, G C.; Edwards, J P.; Gatehouse, J A.; Gatehouse, A M.R.

    1999-11-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) has previously been shown to confer significant levels of protection against the lepidopteran pest Lacanobia oleracea when expressed in transgenic potato. The effect of GNA on the parasitism of L. oleracea by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated. Maize-based, and potato leaf-based diets containing GNA, and excised transgenic potato leaves expressing GNA, were fed to L. oleracea larvae from the beginning of either the third or fourth larval instar. Lacanobia oleracea larvae were individually exposed to single mated adult female E. pennicornis parasitoids from the fifth instar onwards.The success of the wasp was not reduced by the presence of GNA in any of the diets, or by the length of feeding of the host prior to parasitism. However, the mean number of wasps that developed on L. oleracea reared from the third instar on the GNA-containing maize diet was significantly higher than on the controls (20.6 and 9.3 adults/host respectively). In all other cases differences were not significant. Eulophus pennicornis progeny that developed on L. oleracea reared on GNA-containing diets showed little or no alteration in size, longevity, egg load and fecundity when compared with wasps that had developed on hosts fed the respective control diets.The results suggest that expression of GNA in transgenic crops to confer resistance to lepidopteran pests will not adversely affect the ability of the ectoparasitoid E. pennicornis to utilise the pest species as a host.

  8. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. O. F. Cook (Arecaceae on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome: naturalization and influence on seedling recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the population structure of the exotic palm Roystonea oleracea in a swamp on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome, evaluating its influence on the seedling recruitment of other plant species. The population structure was analyzed in six 4 × 30 m plots, within which we categorized all individuals by ontogenetic stage. The influence of R. oleracea on the seedling recruitment of other plant species was evaluated in 2 × 2 m plots established beneath palm crowns and in adjacent areas without palms. We recorded 53 R. oleracea individuals. The majority (56.6% of the R. oleracea population was composed of immature adults, followed by mature adults. The density, richness and diversity of seedling species differed significantly between areas beneath and away from palms, the values being lower beneath R. oleracea crowns. Our results indicate that R. oleracea recruitment does not require human intervention, the number of reproductive individuals characterizing successful naturalization. This underscores the need for management policies aimed at palm eradication in order to avoid reductions in biodiversity.

  9. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ...

  10. Relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad de la hembra en Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae Relationship between time of larval development and fecundity in the female of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny C. Manso

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad en la hembra de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, comparando individuos de una cepa salvaje, con individuos de una cepa portadora de la mutación sw , la cual provoca atrasos en el desarrollo larvario. Se observaron caracteres de la morfología del ovario y su herencia entre los segregantes, para «tiempo de desarrollo» en la progenie del cruzamiento entre mutante y silvestre. El estudio mostró que las hembras sw (- que quedan muy retrasadas en su desarrollo, tienen menos ovariolas y una distribución de tamaños de óvulos menos homogénea que las que se desarrollan antes. Se encontró asimismo que entre las larvas de tipo salvaje, las más retrasadas también producen hembras con menor número de ovariolas y menos huevos totalmente desarrollados, que las que se desarrollan antes. Tanto en las hembras sw (- como en las sw(+ , los atrasos del desarrollo obran en desmedro de la postura de huevos de las hembras que se desarrollan más tarde, efecto que se manifiesta en el número menor de ovariolas y en las diferencias del ritmo de maduración del ovario. Bajo condiciones apropiadas de cría, las hembras mutantes para sw son capaces de alcanzar la misma fecundidad que las normales.We studied the relationship between the development time in the larva stage and the resulting female fecundity, in Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann wild-type individuals compared to mutant individuals showing slow development (sw. We observed the morphology of the ovaries in the progenies of the crossing between mutant and wild-type strains, comparing females segregating by «development time». This study showed that sw(- females developing later have got less ovarioles, and a more heterogeneous distribution of ovules, than females developing earlier. It was also found that the wild type females developing late also produce lower numbers both of ovarioles and fully developed ova, than those developing

  11. Caracterização molecular de populações de Butia capitata (Arecaceae do Sul do Brasil através de marcadores AFLP Molecular characterization of Butia capitata populations (Arecaceae in Southern Brazil estimated by AFLP analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Valli Buttow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Butia (Arecaceae é um pequeno gênero subtropical com espécies no sul da América do Sul, considerado ornamental. Além disso, seus frutos são apreciados pelo sabor e aroma peculiares. Porém, no Rio Grande do Sul, as populações naturais sofrem com o avanço das atividades rurais e da construção imobiliária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar oito populações de Butia capitata ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul através de marcadores moleculares do tipo AFLP. Pela análise molecular da variância, foi possível verificar que 83,68% da variabilidade genética são atribuídos à variação entre populações e 13,67% são atribuídos a diferenças entre populações dentro de regiões. A análise comparativa entre as oito populações feita de duas a duas demonstrou que são significativas as diferenças entre 15 populações, com média de 14,72% da variação molecular atribuída às diferenças entre populações. Este resultado indica a presença de variabilidade genética distribuída entre todas as populações, sem subdivisão decorrente de isolamento geográfico.The Butia genus (Arecaceae is a small genus with subtropical species distributed in South America widely used as an ornamental plant. Besides, its fruits are appreciated for its unique flavor and aroma. But in some regions in Rio Grande do Sul State natural populations suffer with progress of building and rural activities. The aim of this study, therefore, was characterizing eight populations of Butia capitata through AFLP markers. By analysis of molecular variance was possible to verify that 83.68% of genetic variability is attributed to variation among populations and 13.67% is attributed to differences among populations within regions. In the pair-wise analysis, differences between 15 populations were significant, with an average of 14.72% of molecular variation attributed to differences between populations. This result indicates the presence of genetic

  12. Genetic diversity of functional food species Spinacia oleracea L. by protein markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M; Yousaf, Z; Haider, M S; Khalid, S; Rehman, H A; Younas, A; Arif, A

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of genetic diversity contributes primarily towards crop improvement. Spinaciaoleracea L. is a functional food species but unfortunately the genetic diversity of this vegetable is still unexplored. Therefore, this research was planned to explore the genetic diversity of S. oleracea by using morphological and protein markers. Protein profile of 25 accessions was generated on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel. Total allelic variation of 27 bands was found. Out of these, 20 were polymorphic and the rest of the bands were monomorphic. Molecular weights of the bands ranged from 12.6 to 91.2 kDa. Major genetic differences were observed in accession 20541 (Peshawar) followed by 20180 (Lahore) and 19902 (AVRDC). Significant differences exist in the protein banding pattern. This variation can further be studied by advanced molecular techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and DNA markers.

  13. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  14. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  15. Dispersion of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Mandarin Orchards on Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Widem. has been an established pest onthe Montenegrin seacoast for more than ten years, although with variable abundance indifferent years and localities.From an economic aspect, its most important host in Montenegro is the mandarinunshiu (Citrus unshiu Marc., particularly its cultivar Owari. Dispersion of C. capitata in citrusorchards (prevailingly mandarin was monitored on Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar localitiesduring 2003 and 2004.The results of this study showed that, during both years, peripheral-row trees (primarily thefirst row in citrus orchards were more exposed to attacks by C. capitata than middle and lastrows. In 2003, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from 11.4±0.59to 40.1±0.67, from 7.04±0.47 to 28.8±0.48 and from 2.9±0.07 to 17.3±0.54 on the localities ofBaošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On the same localities, it ranged from 7.4±0.34 to16.9±0.4, from 0.0 to 18.7±0.32 and from 0.0 to 9.93±0.56 in middle rows, and from 3.0±0.28 to16.8±0.77, from 0.0 to 20.9±0.38 and from 0.0 to 13.1±0.39 in last rows. Data collected at Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar in 2003 also suggest that the average number of larvae per mandarinfruit in first rows was 1.78-2.08 times higher than in middle rows, and 1.25-1.77 times higher thanin last rows. In 2004, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from7.3±0.27 to 8.3±0.45, from 7.2±0.23 to 17.6±0.59 and from 3.8±0.1 to 8.8±0.25 on the localitiesof Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On these localities, it ranged from 1.7 ±0.17 to3.3±0.19, from 1.1±0.12 to 3.5±0.8 and from 0.0 to 0.8±0.14 in middle rows, and from 1.7±0.17 to3.6±0.32, from 0.0 to 4.0±0.26 and from 0.0 to 0.2±0.06 in last rows. Data collected in 2004also showed that the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows on the samelocalities was 3

  16. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  17. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...... in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid....... In a properly specified VAR, it makes no difference whether return news and dividend news are both computed directly or one of them is backed out as a residual....

  18. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  19. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity......Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate into more demanding requirements from the grid codes; for example voltage support at the point of connection has been introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making it important to analyze this control when applied...... to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...

  20. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...