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Sample records for oleos lubrificantes usados

  1. Removal of heavy metals of used oils lubricants by biosorption; Remocao de metais pesados de oleo lubrificantes usados por biossorcao

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    Moreira, Albina da Silva [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: albina@eq.ufrn.br; Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro de; Duarte, Marcia Maria Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcia@eq.ufrn.br; gomacedo@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    The used lube oils when thrown directly in the environment (water bodies, sewerage nets, soils) or when burned in a non-controlled way, causes serious problems to the environment. Used lube oils contain high levels of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, of which Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Chrome (Cr) are the most representative. Due to these problems and to the high consumption of energy in the re-refining process, came the interest of studying a new methodology for removing those heavy metals from discarded automotive lube oil through the process of biosorption. A type of heavy lube oil used in a bus fleet was chosen and it was characterized in order to find out which metals it contained and its concentration. Then the bio-solvent material was prepared, in this case, the pheophyta seaweed Sargassum Sp. For the biosorption study, some preliminary tests using Sargassum Sp protonated with HCl 0,06 M and without protonation were run. The purpose of using protonated and non-protonated biosorbent was to verify the process efficiency. It was observed that for metal with high level of concentration the protonated biosorbent was more efficient, while for metals with lower concentrations the non-protonated biosorbent was more efficient. (author)

  2. Determinação de contaminantes em óleos lubrificantes usados e em esgotos contaminados por esses lubrificantes

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    Eva Lúcia Cardoso Silveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and reliable ashing procedure is proposed for the preparation of used lubricating oil samples for the determination of Zn, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cu by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Sulphanilic acid was added to oil samples, the mixture coked and the coke ashed at 550 ºC. The solutions of the ash were analysed by flame AAS for these metals. The quantification limits were 38.250 µg g-1 for Zn, 4.550 µg g-1 for Fe, 1.562 µg g-1 for Pb, 1.450 µg g-1 for Ni, and 0.439 µg g-1 for Cu. The determinations, in lubricating oil, showed good precision and accuracy with recoveries between 90 and 110 %, indicating a negligible matrix effect in the experiments using addition of analyte, with relative standard deviation lower than 5%. The results for analysis of wastewater contamined by theses lubricants showed a very high relative standard deviation.

  3. Research of Brazilian crude in pilot plant for base oil production; Pesquisa em planta piloto visando valorizar o cru nacional na producao de oleos lubrificantes

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    Fontes, Anita E.F.; Nogueira, Wlamir S.; Ximenes, Lelia M. de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Claudio A.P. dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges for PETROBRAS is to find alternative crude oils to produce base oil and wax in its refinery. Duque de Caxias refinery has been using imported crude oil for 31 years living with constants threats to continuity because of the Persian Gulf conflicts. If we analyze the profitability of this business, we can verify that the lubes complex had contributed for the profitability by about 41,9% in 2002, even using imported crude oil. So, if we can incorporate a national crude oil in the actual refinery scheme, we would produce besides strategic gains better profitability for the base oil and wax unit. This paper describes a series of tests performed in the pilot plant, in which we produced base oils and wax using a mixture of imported crude with Brazilian crude oil. The base oils produced were classified as Group I with lower aromatic, Sulphur and basic Nitrogen content. Another great advantage of this alternative is that the light fractions obtained from distillation step can be used as feed to make fuels of better quality, due to the lower sulphur content, thus also reducing the environmental impact. (author)

  4. Increase base oil production using new technology for dewaxing aid; Desenvolvimento de novo aditivo para o processo de desparafinacao promove aumento da producao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Anita E.F.; Lima, Anie D. M.; Parauta, Cintia C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Freitas, Luis F.; Pires, Felipe de F.; Junior, Adalberto F.; Santos, Claudio A.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS produces simultaneously lubricant base oils and waxes in two of its refineries: Duque de Caxias (REDUC) and Landulpho Alves (RLAM). REDUC is the biggest in terms of volume output, contributing approximately with 78% of the national base oil production and 20% of wax. Unlike the RLAM refinery, which processes only Brazilian national crude, REDUC refinery processes imported paraffinic crude in a conventional refining scheme known as solvent route. Dewaxing is one of the most expensive steps in the solvent route used for the paraffin and oil separation. With the objective of improving the performance of this stage, traditionally high molecular weight polymer additives are mixed to the feedstock. This study presents the results that prove that investments in the development of new additives, which promote increases in the unit's production rate and enhance operational flexibility compared to tests without additives. One of these new additives also provides environmental benefits because it is made without aggressive products such as toluene. A modest investment in research studies increased production of base oil with existing plant and significantly increased the profitability of the REDUC lubricant unit. (author)

  5. Simulation of distillation in structured packing column to o obtain lube oils; Simulacao de uma coluna de destilacao com recheio estruturado para a obtencao de oleos lubrificantes

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    Machado, Rodrigo S.; Nicolaiewsky, Elioni M.A.; Mendes, Marisa F. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work aims for the simulation of a laboratorial distillation column, operating continuously at vacuum conditions, in order to obtain basic lubricating oils. The feed is a mixture of light neutral, medium distillate and bright stock, aiming to produce light neutral as the top product, the medium distillate in the side stream and bright stock in the bottom. The simulation was performed using PRO II software in order to establish the best operating conditions. This work was based in a previous simulation using the same column with 20 theoretical trays, in order to obtain the medium distillate and bright stock at the top and bottom respectively, without the side stream. The simulations were performed varying the feed flow of 1 and 3 Kg/h, entering in the middle or at the bottom of the column, the operational pressure of 7 and 10mbar and the reflux ratio of 3 and 5, using the true boiling point curve - TBP of the feed, with an initial boiling point of 378.9 deg C and end boiling point of 598.3 deg C. (author)

  6. Volume da gota dos colírios lubrificantes: estudo farmacoeconômico

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    Alexandre Xavier da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o volume médio das gotas produzidas pelos colírios lubrificantes em diferentes ângulos de inclinação e determinar o custo médio do tratamento. Métodos: Determinação do volume da gota de 3 frascos originais dos colírios lubrificantes Artelac®, Hylo Comod®, Lacrima® Plus, Systane® UL, Lacrifilm®, Hyabak®, Lacribell®, Ecofilm®, Mirugell®, Plenigell®, Fresh Tears®, Optive® e Endura® à inclinação de 90º e 45º. Determinou-se o número médio de gotas em cada frasco e foi feita avaliação farmacoeconômica dos colírios. Resultados: O volume das gotas variou de 32,2 a 64,0 µL a 45o e de 29,1 a 65,1 µL a 90o. A diferença entre as gotas em cada inclinação foi de 2 a 24% e o custo anual dos colírios de acordo com a inclinação variou de R$2,73 a R$130,73. A Duração Máxima de Tratamento (DMT foi de 29,3 a 51,4 dias na inclinação de 45o, e de 28,8 a 48,4 dias a 90º, sendo que a diferença na DMT foi de 0,5 até 8 dias a mais ou a menos, de acordo com a marca. Conclusão: Nenhum dos colírios estudados apresentou gotas ideais para o olho humano, levando a um desperdício do produto e maior custo para o fabricante e para o consumidor. Percebemos que existe uma variação significativa no volume da gota de acordo com a inclinação do frasco, e que uma variação maior do que 10% traria impactos financeiros para o paciente.

  7. Production of emulsifier by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C1 LBPVMA-UFAL using lubricant oil as main carbon source Danielle = Produção de emulsificante por linhagem de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C1 LBPVMA-UFAL, usando óleo lubrificante como única fonte de carbono

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    Danielle dos Santos Tavares Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this work was to evaluate the growth of Pseudomonasaeruginosa (C1 LBPVMA-UFAL on lubricant oil and verify the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Tests in solid medium containing lubricant oil supplemented with different sources of nitrogen were used to evaluate the growth of P. aeruginosa. The growth medium used for production of rhamnolipid was (g L-1: yeast extract, 0.1; NaCl, 1.0; MgSO4, 0.2; MnSO4.H2O, 0.02; 0.5% lubricant oil (w v-1. The biosurfactant concentration was detected 24h after the inoculation, during the exponential phase, with the maximum value obtained up to 120h, although no drastic alteration of pH had been verified. The emulsifier activity was also first detected after 24h of incubation, with maximum production after 120h. The characterization of the produced biosurfactant was performed through thin layer chromatography, which showed the presence of two spots with Rf values equal to 0.71 and 0.5, revealed by reagents specific to rhamnolipids. These results suggested that two types of rhamnolipidic biosurfactant are produced by the strain of P. aeruginosa in limited conditions of nutrients, able to use lubricant oil as main carbon source. This bacterium, isolated from agro-industrial effluent, showed potential to bioremediation assays of contamination with petrol and his derivates.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C1 LBPVMAUFAL sobre óleo lubrificante e verificar a produção de biosurfactante ramnolipídico. Testes em meio sólido com óleo lubrificante suplementado com diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram usados para avaliar o crescimento de P. aeruginosa. O meio de crescimento utilizado para a produção de ramnolipídeo foi (g L-1: extrato de levedura, 0,1; NaCl, 1,0; MgSO4, 0,2; MnSO4.H2O, 0,02; 0,5% de óleo lubrificante (p v-1. A concentração de biosurfactante foi detectada 24 h após a inoculação, durante a fase exponencial, com valor m

  8. Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L A F; de Alencar Cunha, K M; Santos, F A; Gramosa, N V; Silveira, E R; Rao, V S N

    2002-12-01

    The wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminaceae) bark was evaluated in rats on experimental wounds. The oleo-resin was tested by monitoring wound contraction in excised wounds and by measuring tensile strength in healing incision wounds. The topical application of oleo-resin at a concentration of 4% accelerated wound contraction in open wounds. The mean values of wound contraction in oleo-resin treated rats on day 9 was 84.05% +/- 2.37% as against 51.29% +/- 9.54% seen in controls and the difference was statistically significant (p contraction were observed on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. Also, the tensile strength in healing incised wounds was found to be significantly higher in the group of animals treated with 4% oleo-resin on day 5 but not on days 7 and 12 (controls: 35.95 +/- 7.44 g/cm; oleo-resin: 71.48 +/- 5.77 g/cm; p resin on wound healing and justify its traditional use for the treatment of wounds.

  9. 9 CFR 322.5 - Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. 322.5 Section 322.5 Animals and Animal... Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. No...

  10. Gerenciamento de embalagens de lubrificantes pós-consumo - Uma análise crítica

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    Harley M. Martins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação das sistemáticas atualmente praticadas no município do Rio de Janeiro para tratamento e disposição de embalagens pós-consumo de lubrificantes automotivos. O diagnóstico foi realizado através de pesquisa de campo com entrevista estruturada e visita às instalações de pontos de geração, centrais de triagem e recicladoras desse tipo de resíduo. Os resultados obtidos tornam evidente que os programas de logística reversa implantados no município em estudo apresentam deficiências significativas no que tange, principalmente, às sistemáticas para separação da fração oleosa do resíduo plástico e armazenamento temporário, com consequências diretas associadas ao transporte seguro e a viabilidade do processo de reciclagem. Os dados demonstram lapso entre as práticas vigentes e os preceitos preconizados pela Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, especificamente no que tange ao inciso IV, artigo 33, Lei 12.305/10.

  11. Gerenciamento de embalagens de lubrificantes pós-consumo - Uma análise crítica

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    Harley M. Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação das sistemáticas atualmente praticadas no município do Rio de Janeiro para tratamento e disposição de embalagens pós-consumo de lubrificantes automotivos. O diagnóstico foi realizado através de pesquisa de campo com entrevista estruturada e visita às instalações de pontos de geração, centrais de triagem e recicladoras desse tipo de resíduo. Os resultados obtidos tornam evidente que os programas de logística reversa implantados no município em estudo apresentam deficiências significativas no que tange, principalmente, às sistemáticas para separação da fração oleosa do resíduo plástico e armazenamento temporário, com consequências diretas associadas ao transporte seguro e a viabilidade do processo de reciclagem. Os dados demonstram lapso entre as práticas vigentes e os preceitos preconizados pela Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, especificamente no que tange ao inciso IV, artigo 33, Lei 12.305/10.

  12. Thermal degradation of a synthetic lube oil API SL/CF SAE 5W 40; Degradacao termica do oleo lubrificante sintetico API SL/CF SAE 5W 40

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    Lopes, Eddy H. de O.; Carvalho, Laura H. de; Silva, Everson de L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the thermal degradation to 210 deg C of lubricating oil synthetic API SL/CF SAE 5W 40 as received and on the presence of metallic particles, from engine parts (head and crankshaft). Samples were collected at various intervals of time. The metallic particles were spent in mesh sieve no. 200 (0.074 mm) and used both in the trials of characterization (EDX and SEM) as the thermal degradation of the oil. Changes in rheology, viscosity, density, color and FTIR were monitored over time of heat exposure. The results indicate that thermal exposure caused by thermal oxidation of synthetic oil and that the presence of metallic particles (10 ppm) accelerated this process, so it is suggested that during the exchange of oil are taken care to remove them from to prevent the premature deterioration of the new oil. The behaviour Newtonian was maintained throughout the period degradation and viscosity of the oil has not changed significantly even after long periods (1148 hours) of thermal exposure. Despite the density of oil also has not changed significantly with time of exposure, changes in color indicate that chemical changes occurred, which was detected by FTIR. (author)

  13. Evaluation of different demulsifiers to the treatment of lube oil refining wastewater; Avaliacao de diferentes agentes desemulsificantes no tratamento de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante

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    Morita, Dione Mari; Sawamura, Marcia Yumy; Moraes Junior, Manoel Carlos Vieira de; Campos, Fabio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1998-01-01

    The present research work was developed with the objective to evaluate the following demulsifiers to the destabilization of oil-water emulsion from the lube oil refining wastewater: ferric chloride and sulfuric acid; only sulfuric acid; calcium chloride; calcium hydroxide and hexane. Laboratory scale tests were performed changing operational conditions to different characteristics of the wastewater. The ferric chloride was an efficient demulsifiers at the p H of 4,0 and 5,0. In the acidulation test, it was observed that OG, COD and VS concentrations decreased up to p H 3,5 and from there on, the concentrations became constants. The concentrations of COD and OG decreased with the addition of calcium chloride until 1000 mg Ca{sup 2+}/L. in the tests with wastewater contained high concentration of oil, it was not observed the demulsification by the addition of calcium hydroxide. When the wastewater contained low concentration of oil, it was observed breakage of the emulsion in the doses higher than 1000 mg Ca (OH){sub 2}/L. The extraction of oil with hexane did not show satisfactory results. (author) 21 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Production of Group II and III base oils by hybrid route using brazilian crude; Producao de oleos basicos lubrificantes dos grupos II e III pela rota hibrida ou mista a partir de petroleo brasileiro

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    Nogueira, Wlamir Soares; Fontes, Anita Eleonora Ferreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a series of pilot plant tests made at PETROBRAS Research Centre, considering hydrotreatment and solvent dewaxing steps, to produce group II and group III lube base oils from Baiano Light crude feeds (Brazilian crude). RLAM Refinery has been using Baiano light crude to produce group I base oils by conventional route and in the pilot plant studies, two types of process scheme were tested. In the first one, an industrial run was performed at RLAM Refinery, including distillation, dewaxing and extraction and the light raffinate was used as a feed for a hydrotreatment pilot plant, followed by a distillation to remove the front ends. In the second scheme, another industrial run was performed, including distillation and dewaxing steps and the medium dewaxed oil was used as a charge for a hydrotreatment followed by distillation and dewaxing pilot plant tests. Products of excellent quality were obtained. Due to their high viscosity indexes (from 96 to 126), low contaminants levels (sulfur < 5 ppm and nitrogen < 5 ppm) and low aromatic content (CA < 2 %), the lube base oils produced are therefore classified as group II and group III. The main advantages of this route are related to the base oils quality improvements with low investment and more flexibility in terms of crude source. (author)

  15. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Remoção da fração oleosa de embalagens de lubrificantes automotivos pós-consumo por drenagem gravitacional

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    Harley Moraes Martins

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este trabalho aborda a questão do gerenciamento de embalagens pós-consumo de lubrificantes automotivos, considerando as dificuldades inerentes à implementação do sistema de logística reversa - prática compulsória por força de lei (Brasil, Lei 12.305/2010 - e a ineficácia dos atuais métodos utilizados para remoção da fração oleosa residual, necessária ao reprocessamento do material plástico por reciclagem mecânica direta. Para determinar metodologia apropriada para limpeza dos frascos de lubrificantes foram conduzidos experimentos para avaliar a influência do aquecimento e da posição das embalagens durante o processo de drenagem gravitacional. O procedimento analítico realizado proporcionou a escolha de uma combinação de variáveis capaz de assegurar remoção de elevado teor do resíduo oleoso com menor gasto energético. A otimização foi feita utilizando um planejamento experimental do tipo composto central com triplicata no ponto central. Os dados obtidos nos ensaios foram analisados com recursos estatísticos e demonstraram que ambos os parâmetros avaliados interferem, de forma significativa, no processo em estudo. Os resultados apontaram aumento da eficácia do processo quando a drenagem é realizada em temperaturas superiores a 35ºC e com a embalagem inclinada em ângulos próximos a 70º em relação à horizontal. Nessas condições, percentuais de remoção de óleo residual superaram 95% após 35 minutos de drenagem.

  17. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu

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    Prerna Sarup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guggulu is an oleo-gum resin which exudes out as a result of injury from the bark of Commiphora wightii (Arnott Bhandari [syn.  Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks Engl; Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks; Family, Burseraceae]. It has been used in the Ayurveda since time immemorial for the treatment of variety of disorders such as inflammation, gout, rheumatism, obesity, and disorders of lipids metabolism. It is a mixture of phytoconstituents like volatile oil which contains terpenoidal constituents such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids; steroids; flavonoids; guggultetrols; lignans; sugars; and amino acids. This review is an effort to compile all the information available on all of its chemical constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. The wild occurrence of this species is restricted mainly to the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat States of India, and the bordering regions of Pakistan. Oleo-gum resin, guggulu, tapped from the stems of this species, is consumed in high volumes by the Indian herbal industries. There has been a decline in its wild population over the last several decades, as a result of habitat loss and degradation, coupled with unregulated harvesting and tapping of oleo-gum resin. This species is consequently assessed as Critically Endangered and enlisted in the IUCN red list of threatened species.

  18. Current importance of oleo chemistry in the industrial sector of surfactants; Importancia actual de la oleoquimica en el sector industrial de tensioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Herrera, C.

    2009-07-01

    Oleo chemistry is an industrial sector with various applications and important developments in the field of surfactants. In this article different parts are dedicated to: A) Sources of oleo chemical raw materials; B) Valorization of the oleo chemistry in the field of surfactants; C) Hydrophilic heads based on carbohydrates or proteins, D) Examples of surfactants currently prepared at industrial scale, such as esters of polyols, alkylpoly glucosides, glucamides and lipo aminoacids. Collaboration between industrial sectors of surfactants and oleaginous products has evidenced various strong points. Ecological, energetic, economical and sanitary reasons will probably increase this collaboration in the future. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin)-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2011-03-08

    The old traditional phytomedicine asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the roots of different Ferula assa-foetida, is used in different countries for various purposes. Asafoetida is not only used as a culinary spice but also traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal parasites, etc. This oleo-gum-resin has been known to possess antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and antiviral activities. A wide range of chemical compounds including sugars, sesquiterpene coumarins and polysulfides have been isolated from this plant. Recent studies have shown new promising antiviral sesquiterpene coumarins from this old phytomedicine. The present review summarizes the information concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of asafoetida.

  20. Identification of sesquiterpene coumarins of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida L. from the Yasuj region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, J; Atabaki, V; Baher, E; Mazaheritehrani, M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida L. from Yasuj region led to the identification of five sesquiterpene coumarins namely, conferone (1), badrakemin (2), feslol (3), isosamarcandin (4) and samarcandin (5). The compounds were characterised by detailed 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D NMR (HMBC, HSQC and NOESY) experiments. Among these compounds, conferone (1) and isosamarcandin (4) are being newly reported in F. assa-foetida L.

  1. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-11-21

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc.

  2. Avaliação do custo de colírios lubrificantes a base exclusivamente de carboximetilcelulose no mercado brasileiro

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    Paulo Estacia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o custo do uso dos colírios lubrificantes mais utilizados no mercado nacional que apresentam na formulação o mesmo princípio ativo - carboximetilcelulose, considerando o número total de gotas presente em cada frasco dos colírios. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo experimental utilizando três frascos de cada um dos colírios Lacrifilm® (colírio 1 e Fresh Tears® (colírio 2. Para análise do custo dos colírios contou-se o número de gotas de cada frasco correlacionando os preços dos mesmos. O preço considerado para cada medicação foi o mínimo ao consumidor com alíquota de 17% publicado para o mês de janeiro de 2012. A análise estatística foi efetuada em SPSS® 18. A comparação das variáveis quantitativas analisadas foi procedida através do teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney e correlação linear de Spearman, sendo considerada uma diferença estatisticamente significante um valor de probabilidade inferior a 0,05. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as marcas de colírios avaliados com relação ao número total de gotas. O colírio 1 apresentou o maior número de gotas. CONCLUSÃO: O colírio 1, que tem o maior número de gotas por frasco, também é o que tem o preço mais acessível. Portanto, verifica-se que é o produto mais econômico, ou seja, o paciente pagará menos por cada gota.

  3. PROPUESTA DE MINIMIZACIÓN DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL PRODUCIDO POR VERTIDOS DE ACEITES VEGETALES USADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Chamorro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo Desarrolla una propuesta para minimizar el impacto ambiental producido por los vertidos de los aceites vegetales usados (AVU a las redes de aguas de desecho municipales, vertederos, rellenos sanitarios, cuerpos de aguas naturales. . Se determinó y cuantificó el universo de potenciales suplidores de aceites vegetales usados en la ciudad de Puerto Ordaz, Con los AVU se producirá un combustible ecológico, a través de la transesterificación de esteres. Se diseño y construyo una planta piloto para estudiar las reacciones químicas involucradas en el proceso y la producción del combustible ecológico (BIODIESEL, que podrá ser utilizado en cualquier motor Diesel.

  4. Characterization of Paraiba state, Brazil, clays used for clearing of oil of frying for application as bio fuel; Cacterizacao de argilas do estado da Paraiba, Brasil, utilizaadas para clareamento de oleos de fritura usados para aplicacao como biobombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: elainepatriciaaraujo@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The search for new sources of renewable energy order to minimize environmental impacts has led the scientists to develop new alternatives, such as the use of recycling of frying oils to produce biodiesel. The reuse of these oils has the advantage of obtaining a biofuel with the cost / benefit competitive. However, the conditions of post-consumer oils require treatment prior to its conversion the chemical (transesterification), removing solid particulate contaminants and adjusting its color using the clay of Paraiba. The use of biodiesel as fuel presents a reduction of levels of environmental pollution. This study aimed to characterize clay of Paraiba to be used in the clearing of frying oil. It was observed through the results of the Xray fluorescence (XRF) and infrared spectroscopy by Fourier Transform (FTIR), which the clays tested, have been effective in clearing of frying oils, making them similar to oil 'virgin'. (author)

  5. Cyclopentenyl acids from sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae): the first antileprotic used in Brazil; Acidos ciclopentenicos do oleo da sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae): o primeiro antileprotico usado no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana S.; Lima, Joselia A.; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: crezende@iq.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    The chaoolmugra oil is one of the oldest medicines used for leprosy until the development of sulfas. In Brazil, it is known as sapucainha oil that is obtained from Carpotroche brasilienesis seeds (Flacourtiaceae). Chemical and medicinal studies of sapucainha oil were introduced in Brazil by Peckolt, Cole and Cardoso which showed that major ciclopentenyl fatty acids as chaulmoogric, hydnocarpic and gorlic were responsible for its bactericidal activity. In this work, a method for quantification of sapucainha oil acidic fraction by HRGC was established using methyl n-heptadecanoate as internal standard. The oil chemical stability was investigated by the use of GC-MS, IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and showed that the main degradation products belong to the cyclopentenyl moiety oxidation. (author)

  6. Fuzzy diagnostic system for oleo-pneumatic drive mechanism of high-voltage circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Viorel

    2013-01-01

    Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP), presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  7. Fuzzy Diagnostic System for Oleo-Pneumatic Drive Mechanism of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Nicolau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP, presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  8. Efeito de lubrificantes sobre a integridade da sonda de Foley e implicações no tamponamento nasal para epistaxe Effect of lubricants on the integrity of the Foley catheter and their implications in nasal packing for epistaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Gaspar-Sobrinho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O tamponamento nasal para epistaxe é comumente realizado com gaze lubrificada e sonda de Foley. O balonete de Foley, de látex, pode ser dissolvido pela vaselina ou parafina; entretanto, estes são excipientes de várias pomadas e cremes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de potenciais lubrificantes sobre a integridade da sonda de Foley. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Balonetes de 80 sondas foram eqüitativamente distribuídos e mantidos sob tração em contato com um dos seguintes produtos: duas pomadas, três cremes, um gel, vaselina e gaze seca, e inspecionados a cada 24 horas por cinco dias. Os lubrificantes foram testados quanto a hidrossolubilidade. RESULTADOS: Vinte balonetes romperam-se, dos grupos vaselina e uma pomada. Os produtos não associados à degeneração da sonda mostraram-se hidrossolúveis, a despeito da presença de petrolato. DISCUSSÃO: Conjectura-se que a gaze do tampão nasal anterior com lubrificante hidrofóbico contendo petrolato, justaposto ao balonete de Foley, pode lesá-lo. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se apenas a inocuidade à sonda de Foley, os cremes e a pomada Furacin® poderiam ser indicados para lubrificar a gaze do tampão nasal anterior associado ao balonete de Foley. Nossos resultados sugerem que cremes, pomadas e géis hidrossolúveis preservam a integridade da sonda de Foley, ainda que contenham derivados do petróleo.Nasal packing for epistaxis is usually carried out using lubricated gauze and a Foley catheter. Lubricants such as Vaseline or paraffin can dissolve the Foley balloon of latex; however, they are excipients of various ointments and creams. AIM: To evaluate the effect of potential lubricants on the Foley catheter. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Balloons from eighty Foley catheters were distributed into groups of equal size and kept under traction in contact with one of eight different products: two ointments, three creams, one gel, Vaseline and dry gauze. The

  9. Gestión sostenible de los residuos de la construcción. Aceites usados

    OpenAIRE

    Berhamovic Breko, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto ambiental generado por los aceites minerales usados en una obra y proponer medidas para su reducción. Para la elaboración del mismo se plantearon cuatro objetivos específicos: 1) identificar un listado completo de los residuos peligrosos que intervienen en la fase constructiva de una obra; 2) presentar toda la legislación que afecta a estos residuos; 3) calcular el impacto ambiental de los aceites residuales producido...

  10. Óleos lubrificantes usados – evolução das responsabilidades pela coleta/destinação e alternativas para aplicações: uma contribuição para a tecnologia de produção mais limpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pereira Távora

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In contribution to the technology of a clean prodution, this paper presents a discussion about the Brazilian environmental legislation, regarding the collect and disposal of used oils , commenting about the responsibilities that were attributed to the sections involved in the virgin lubricating oils’ life cycle, during the whole analyzed period. Besides the legal aspects, the paper presents, summarily, the life cycle assessment of the lubricant oil, that finishes in the used oil generation, discussing the technical question of the subject.

  11. Limpeza da superfície de corte de rebolos por um sistema de ar comprimido na retificação cilíndrica externa de mergulho de materiais cerâmicos refrigerados com a técnica da mínima quantidade de lubrificante (MQL Grinding wheel surface cleaning using a compressed air system, in external plunge grinding of ceramics using the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bianchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos processos de retificação, a utilização de fluidos de corte é uma maneira de implementar a qualidade final do processo, pois os fluidos têm como finalidade a lubrificação na área de contato entre a peça e ferramenta e a refrigeração das superfícies, assim evitando danificações na superfície da peça. Com isso, a utilização de fluidos de corte tem sido constantemente estudada, visando diminuir a utilização deste, pois a utilização de fluidos de corte tem seus problemas. O custo do produto final aumenta consideravelmente com o uso de fluidos de corte no processo de retificação, além de que os fluidos de corte são substâncias tóxicas e nocivas tanto às pessoas quanto ao meio ambiente. Portanto, indústrias, universidades e centros de pesquisas são levados a pesquisar métodos alternativos menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente. Dentre as alternativas surge a técnica da mínima quantidade de lubrificante (MQL, que também tem suas desvantagens, como por exemplo, a formação de um borra de óleo na superfície de corte do rebolo, o que gera uma rugosidade maior na peça. Porém, visando minimizar o problema da formação da borra de óleo podem ser usados jatos de ar comprimido incidindo na superfície de corte do rebolo, com o objetivo de limpar a mesma. Este estudo será feito através da análise da avaliação das variáveis de saída do processo de retificação externa, como o comportamento da rugosidade superficial e dos desvios de circularidade. Através dos resultados obtidos pretende-se estudar a técnica do MQL, visando melhorá-la através da limpeza da superfície de corte do rebolo com jatos de ar comprimido.In grinding, the use of cutting fluids aims to improve the final quality of the process, because their purpose is to lubricate the contact area between workpiece and tool and the surface cooling, thus avoiding damages on the machined part. Therefore, this subject has been constantly studied, in order

  12. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  13. Creación de una empresa de recogida selectiva y gestión de aceite vegetal usado

    OpenAIRE

    Iribarren García, Iñigo

    2010-01-01

    Este proyecto trata sobre la creación de una empresa donde todo va a girar en torno a un producto principal: el aceite vegetal usado. A partir de ahí, en la empresa aparecen cuatro líneas de negocio independientes y a la vez relacionadas, que directa o indirectamente están ligadas con el aceite usado. Las cuatro líneas de trabajo van a ser una parte referente al servicio de recogida del aceite, actuación de la cual derivan otras dos de las cuatro líneas de negocio, como son la venta del aceit...

  14. O Território usado e o uso atual do Território do Agreste Potiguar

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Salomão Candido de Oliveira Salvador

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho em tela traz reflexões sobre o conceito de território usado, atentando para o uso que vem sendo feito, pelos diferentes agentes sociais, do território do Agreste Potiguar. Considera-se que o território é social, ou seja, guarda em si as marcas do trabalho humano, das relações de poder dos homens entre si e com o meio circundante. Além disso, acredita-se que o território usado também revela as ações estatais que são postas em tela em diferentes contextos, privilegiando, geralmente, ...

  15. Organización y programación de los textos de lectura inicial usados en Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La autora, después de analizar los diferentes aspectos de los métodos para aprender a leer revisa en función de diferentes criterios 7 libros que son usados para ese fin en nuestro medio.

  16. Biorremediación de lodos contaminados con aceites lubricantes usados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Vásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los lodos contaminados con residuos de aceites lubricantes usados generan gran impacto ambiental negativo al no ser manejados adecuadamente. Se propuso la biorremediación para disminuir la concentración de dichos contaminantes. Los ensayos fueron realizados en las instalaciones de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR de Río Frío (Girón, Santander, Colombia, donde se evaluaron consorcios microbianos nativos, que posteriormente se adicionaron a las biopilas conformadas por lodos deshidratados provenientes del tratamiento primario de aguas residuales domésticas (usados como fuente de materia orgánica, lodos provenientes de lavaderos de carros y lodos de alcantarillado de la zona industrial de la ciudad de Bucaramanga (Colombia. Se aislaron, identificaron y conservaron cepas microbianas con capacidad degradadora de hidrocarburos totales de petróleo (TPH como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter spp., Bacillus brevis, Micrococcus spp y Nocardia spp. Se hizo una serie de pruebas piloto donde se inoculó cada montaje con un consorcio bacteriano a una concentración de 3x108 UFC/ml de bacterias y microorganismos fúngicos como Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., a una concentración de 1x106 esporas/ml; se monitorearon parámetros de temperatura, pH, humedad y oxigenación. Se realizaron dos ensayos para verificar el comportamiento de dichos tratamientos; se analizó la variable continua TPH en ppm mediante el método de modelos mixtos lineares en bloques aleatorios completos, que revelaron diferencias significativas entre la biopila control y las biopilas bajo prueba; se obtuvieron porcentajes de remoción hasta de 94% de TPH en 120 días y 84% en 40 días, lo que reflejó un efecto positivo en la utilización de los consorcios de microorganismos bajo prueba en la descontaminación de lodos de alcantarillado industrial y lodos de lavaderos de carros. Palabras clave: biorremediaci

  17. REDES DE INTERCAMBIO DE CALOR APLICADAS A LA ESTERIFICACIÓN DE ACEITES VEGETALES USADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Laborde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available E n este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de redes de intercambio de calor (RIC a la esterificación de aceites vegetales usados (AVUs con catálisis ácida para la producción de biodiesel. Se aplican distintos métodos para obtener las cantidades mínimas de calor y la RIC para una capacidad de procesamiento de 0,19 kg/s de AVUs. Se considera una diferencia de temperatura mínima (∆Tmin de 10°C y los requerimientos mínimos de calentamiento y enfriamiento, resultan ser de 4629,87 W y de 10066,30 W, respectivamente. Al aplicar la red de intercambio calórico disminuye en un 78,92% el servicio de vapor requerido en el proceso y en un 62,48% el servicio de agua de enfriamiento, lo que demuestra que la integración reduce los requerimientos energéticos respecto al proceso no integrado.

  18. Valorización de los residuos generados en el procesado de aceites vegetales usados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Hidalgo-Barrio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han investigado las ventajas de un sistema de digestión anaerobia en dos fases para el tratamiento de una mezcla de los residuos oleosos (RO generados en el procesado de aceites vegetales usados y purín porcino (PP, 1/5 v/v, utilizando dos digestores semi-continuos operados a 37±1 ºC. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo a tiempos hidráulicos de residencia (THR de 0.5, 1, 2 y 4 días en la primera etapa (reactor acidogénico y de 11.5, 15, 18 y 20 días en la segunda etapa (reactor metanogénico. Los resultados revelaron que el THR tiene una gran influencia en la eliminación de demanda química de oxígeno soluble (DQOs y sólidos disueltos totales (SDT. La máxima eficiencia de eliminación de DQOs, SDT y producción máxima de biogás fueron de 86.4% y 81.9% y 0.65 m3 biogás por kilogramo de sólido disuelto volátil (SDV eliminado (65% CH4 respectivamente, conseguidas todas a un THR total de 20 días.

  19. Instrumentos usados para medir clima ético en organizaciones de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lucía Arango Bayer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del clima ético se ha convertido en un asunto de obligatorio abordaje para la bioética, que se enfrenta al reto de buscar climas éticos que promuevan la coherencia entre lo que las organizaciones sanitarias dicen ser y hacer y lo que efectivamente son y hacen. Esto con el objeto, entre otros, de reducir los conflictos éticos que se suscitan en los profesionales de la salud cuando ocur ren estas diferencias. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar los instrumentos que han sido usados para medir el constructo "clima ético" en las organizaciones de salud, de manera que sirva a los académicos y a las organizaciones de salud en el diseño de estudios sobre este tópico y les permita identificar sus particularidades. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de continuar explorando en un concepto de clima ético que incorpore los valores, los principios y los derechos que han de considerarse desde la bioética en la búsqueda de organizaciones que atiendan a los objetivos de las profesiones y los sistemas de salud hoy.

  20. Cuadro. Miguel de Unamuno de medio cuerpo de perfil, con libro en las manos y Catedral de Salamanca al fondo. Oleo de López Mezquita.

    OpenAIRE

    Gombau, Venancio, 1861-1929

    2010-01-01

    1 fot.; papel. - Cuadro. Miguel de Unamuno de medio cuerpo de perfil, con libro en las manos y Catedral de Salamanca al fondo. Oleo de López Mezquita. (Reproducción. Gelatina D. O. P. brillo. Pequeño desgarro con pérdida de emulsión en centro de lateral derecho y leves arrugas por la zona. Esquina superior izquierda dañada. Inscripción manuscrita a lapicero en reverso: "López Mezquita, Hendaya"). - Procedencia: fondo Miguel de Unamuno. - Buena Conservación.

  1. O Território usado e o uso atual do Território do Agreste Potiguar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Salomão Candido de Oliveira Salvador

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho em tela traz reflexões sobre o conceito de território usado, atentando para o uso que vem sendo feito, pelos diferentes agentes sociais, do território do Agreste Potiguar. Considera-se que o território é social, ou seja, guarda em si as marcas do trabalho humano, das relações de poder dos homens entre si e com o meio circundante. Além disso, acredita-se que o território usado também revela as ações estatais que são postas em tela em diferentes contextos, privilegiando, geralmente, os interesses das classes hegemônicas. Para a consecução do trabalho recorreu-se à realização de pesquisas bibliográficas e empíricas. As primeiras consistiram na busca e na leitura de livros e textos que nos ajudassem a desenvolver as reflexões postas em baila acerca do espaço geográfico e do território, sendo que entende-se este como sendo sinônimo daquele. Já as pesquisas empíricas consistiram em observações que fizemos no território do Agreste Potiguar, a fim de buscarmos compreender melhor o uso que vem sendo feito desse território. O trabalho é estruturado em duas partes: na primeira, são colocadas em tela algumas reflexões sobre o espaço geográfico, com o intuito de buscarmos compreender o conceito de território usado; e, na segunda, são trazidas à tona breves considerações sobre o uso do território do Agreste Potiguar. Palavras-chave: Território usado. Agreste Potiguar. Relações sociais de poder.

  2. Anticonvulsant Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida Oleo Gum Resin on Chemical and Amygdala-Kindled Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Rezvani, Mohamad Ebrahim; Vahidi, Ali Reza; Esmaili, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida) have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg) on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds. PMID:25210675

  3. Anticonvulsant effect of ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on chemical and amygdala-kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds.

  4. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin on renal function in normal Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Iranian medicine, asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the roots of Ferula assa-foetida, has been prescribed as a diuretic. This study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic effect of asafoetida in normal rats. Asafoetida was administered orally at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg and furosemide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal was used as positive control. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring urine volume and sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine content in urine and serum. Urine volume, excretion of sodium, and potassium were significantly increased by asafoetida as compared to the control group. A significant increase in creatinine clearance was observed in the groups treated with asafoetida at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05. We conclude that asafoetida induced a diuretic effect comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic furosemide. This study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of asafoetida as a diuretic agent.

  5. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin on renal function in normal Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, S. M.; Mohammadsadeghi, H.; Dashti-R, M. H.; Mousavian, S. M. M.; Aghaei, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine, asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the roots of Ferula assa-foetida, has been prescribed as a diuretic. This study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic effect of asafoetida in normal rats. Asafoetida was administered orally at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg and furosemide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring urine volume and sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine content in urine and serum. Urine volume, excretion of sodium, and potassium were significantly increased by asafoetida as compared to the control group. A significant increase in creatinine clearance was observed in the groups treated with asafoetida at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05). We conclude that asafoetida induced a diuretic effect comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic furosemide. This study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of asafoetida as a diuretic agent. PMID:27942173

  6. RECURSOS LINGÜÍSTICOS USADOS POR ADOLESCENTES VENEZOLANOS EN LA CREACIÓN DE APODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lexicon used by the young people, more specifically, the creation of nicknames used by them, is the object of study of the present work. Adolescents conform a linguistic community to very particular characteristic that identify them like group. The creativity like an essential characteristic of the language is made clear thus. Here the lexicon plays an important role. For that reason, its study acquires great relevance to also know, not only phenomena, but psychological issues present either in the individuals, or in social groups. The methodology that was used is of field, of qualitative type. The instruments used were the interview with open questions and a designed factory of Language to compile corpus. The analysis and interpretation of corpus became to the light of morphologic, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic the analysis. This fact gives relevance to the intentionality of the speaker.
    They settled down, for the interpretation of the data, four categories: binominal names, compounds, united sintagmáticas structures with preposition. One reached the following results: the category that is used more for the formation of the nicknames is the referred one to names. In the creation of sobrenames there is a motivation that comes from wich significant characteristics are taken that they constitute the sémica base of the nickname, wich is translated is a syntactic structure, this way interrelate two levels of the language: syntactic and the semantic one. In addition, the adolescents stand out as much characteristic physical, as of behavior, being the first most outstanding ones. On the other hand, nicknames reflect values in our society, such as machismo, virginity, and racism.
    El léxico utilizado por los jóvenes, más específicamente, la creación de apodos usados por ellos, es el objeto de estudio del presente trabajo. Los adolescentes conforman una comunidad lingüística con características muy particulares que los

  7. A optimização das misturas betuminosas com betume modificado com borracha reciclada de pneus usados

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para a investigação visando a optimização do comportamento de misturas betuminosas com betume modificado com borracha reciclada de pneus usados, constituindo um elemento resumo sobre o estado dos conhecimentos nesta matéria. Relativamente às várias variáveis envolvidas no processo de produção de misturas betuminosas com betume modificado com borracha são descritas as principais linhas de investigação que têm influência decisiva na melhoria do desemp...

  8. Avaliação do comportamento reológico de betume modificado com borracha de pneus usados

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A crescente utilização de betume modificado com borracha reciclada de pneus usados (BMB) em misturas betuminosas a quente para a reabilitação de pavimentos leva a que se procure conhecer melhor as suas características e o seu comportamento de modo a potenciar a sua utilização. Actualmente, tendo em conta a utilização corrente do BMB, a sua caracterização é realizada principalmente avaliando-se as suas propriedades, nomeadamente: i) a penetração com agulha, que avalia indirectamente a rigi...

  9. Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz; Jorge Medina-Valtierra; José Merced Martínez Rosales

    2011-01-01

    Se investigó la producción de biodiesel usando un reactor intermitente, se utilizó la metacaolinita como un catalizador sólido ácido que presentó una alta actividad para la producción de biodiesel a partir de aceite de maíz usado en freidora. El área superficial de la metacaolinita, diámetro de poro y volumen de poro fueron 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm y 30 mm3/g, respectivamente. Las condiciones óptimas para la reacción de transesterificación fueron: una relación molar aceite/metanol 1:31, temperatura d...

  10. Extracción de aceite lubricante usado en equipos de bombeo y generación eléctrica con Propano Supercrítico

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Cisneros, Manuel Delfín

    2012-01-01

    En el siguiente trabajo investigativo se pretende realizar el estsudio experimental de las propiedades extractivas del propano supercrítico aplicadas a los hidrocarburos presentes en los aceites lubricantes usados que provienen de la industria automotriz. La extracción supercrítica con propano permitirá eliminar la mayor cantidad de contaminantes presentes en el aceite lubricante usado tales como: agua, partículas metálicas, ocasionadas por el desgaste de las piezas en movimiento y fricción, ...

  11. Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Medina-Valtierra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la producción de biodiesel usando un reactor intermitente, se utilizó la metacaolinita como un catalizador sólido ácido que presentó una alta actividad para la pro­ducción de biodiesel a partir de aceite de maíz usado en freidora. El área superficial de la metacaolinita, diámetro de poro y volumen de poro fueron 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm y 30 mm3/g, respectivamente. Las condiciones óptimas para la reacción de transesterificación fueron: una relación molar aceite/metanol 1:31, temperatura de 160 ºC, presión manométrica de 1.65 MPa y una cantidad de catalizador de 3 (% peso. El rendimiento de ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos (biodiesel fue de 92.4 % para 2 h de reacción. Este método de preparación de biodiesel puede ser una buena alternativa para la utilización de aceite de maíz usado en freidora como una fuente muy barata para la producción de biodiesel combinado con un catalizador barato y además amigable con el medio ambiente.Biodiesel production with used frying corn oil by transesterification reaction, with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and volume of pore of metakaolinite were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determinate to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC, manometer pressure of 1.65 MPa and catalyst concentration of 3 % (w/w. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel was 92.4 % after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the cited inexpensive, “green” catalyst.

  12. La efectividad de los materiales de amortiguación usados en las ortesis plantares para el tratamiento de las sobrecargas metatarsales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dominguez

    2016-12-01

    Conclusiones: El uso de almohadillas con materiales tradicionalmente usados seleccionados en este estudio tiene un ligero efecto negativo en la presión máxima plantar en la cabezas metatarsales y la presión máxima plantar en la zona de antepié durante la fase propulsiva.

  13. OTIMIZAÇÃO DE CUSTOS DO TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO URBANO: COMPRAR OU VENDER UM ÔNIBUS USADO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues da Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a discussão sobre a mobilidade urbana envolva as modalidades de transporte de massa, a maioria das cidades ainda se valem das frotas de ônibus. Esta pesquisa objetiva apresentar um modelo que propõe identificar o momento que poderá ser exercida a opção de vender ou comprar um veículo usado da frota de ônibus do sistema de transporte público urbano, por meio da aplicação da Teoria de Opções Reais (TOR. Pesquisas apontam que quando o veículo é novo os custos de manutenção são baixos, cobrindo basicamente as revisões de rotina e a substituição de componentes, porém depois de certa idade, esses custos vão aumentando. Neste sentido uma dúvida que sempre surge é decidir o momento adequado para adquirir ou se desfazer de um veículo usado. A teoria utilizada neste estudo, a TOR, foca no Modelo Binomial em Tempo Discreto. Metodologicamente, o estudo foi desenvolvido com dados reais de um caso específico de frota de ônibus que serviu de suporte para a construção e teste do modelo proposto e apoiou-se em dados de uma empresa de ônibus tradicional do Espírito Santo. O modelo proposto é validado por meio de exemplo numérico que identifica o momento para a tomada de decisão. No caso em estudo o modelo apresentou o momento da opção a partir do final do segundo ano de uso do ônibus. A metodologia aplicada e os resultados encontrados despertam para a necessidade dos gestores terem informações decorrentes dos dados das frotas e poderem tomar decisões mais seguras, especialmente o momento “ideal” para substituição da frota. Para o poder público, estudos dessa natureza podem gerar subsídios à elaboração de normativos pelas agências reguladoras com vistas ao atendimento pelas concessionárias e de parcerias público-privado.

  14. OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE ESTERIFICACIÓN DE ACEITES VEGETALES USADOS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Laborde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe la optimización del proceso de esterificación de aceites vegetales usados (AVUs para la producción de biodiesel a partir de un análisis estructural mediante simulación . L a optimización energética se determin ó mediante una programación matemática, y posterior resolución mediante el software GAMS ® . Se analizaron dos alternativas tecnológicas . La Alternativa 1 incluye el proceso de esterificación aplicando una torre de lavado a la salida del reactor , mientras que la Alternativa 2 aplica un decantador a la salida del reactor . Se determinó que la A lternativa 2 fue la mejor opción debido a que el costo de servicio s totales anual es fue menor. Para la optimización energética del proceso seleccionado , se incorporó una bomba de calor entre las corrientes del condensador y del rehervidor de la torre de destilación y se diseñó una red de intercambio calórico entre las corrientes del proceso , esto permitiría un ahorro energético de servicios externos de 64,21% .

  15. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  16. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  17. POTENCIAL DEL ALMIDÓN RESISTENTE RETROGRADADO DE PAPA FRENTE A OTROS ADITIVOS FUNCIONALES USADOS EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE

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    D. Rodríguez-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El almidón resistente retrogradado (AR3 de las variedades de papa Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum grupo tuberosum y Guaneña (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja fue evaluado como aditivo funcional con características similares a la fibra dietaria y por su potencial prebiótico en pollos de engorde. Se asignaron aleatoriamente 792 pollos machos Ross de un día de edad a uno de cinco tratamientos experimentales bajo un diseño completamente al azar. Se evaluaron niveles de suplementación de 1,0% de AR3 –Pastusa (AR3P y Guaneña (AR3G–, frente a manano-oligosacáridos (MOS, 0,5%, carboximetilcelulosa (CMC, 1%, levadura comercial (LEV, 0,5% y un control sin suplementar. Los datos se analizaron mediante el procedimiento GLM del programa SAS®. MOS y AR3P mostraron el mayor peso y ganancia de peso corporal al día 42 de edad (P<0,05, MOS presentó el menor consumo de alimento frente al tratamiento CMC (P<0,05, con una mejor conversión alimenticia comparado con CMC y el control sin suplementar (P<0,05. Los grupos AR3P y AR3G tuvieron un comportamiento intermedio para la conversión de alimento. El mayor porcentaje de eficiencia americana e índice de productividad fue para MOS, seguido de AR3P frente al control sin suplementar (P<0,05. Con referencia al ingreso neto parcial por pollo fraccionado, MOS mostró el mayor ingreso comparado con AR3G, observando para los demás tratamientos un comportamiento intermedio (P<0,05. Los resultados sugieren que el AR3P tiene potencial para ser usado como un aditivo funcional en dietas para pollos de engorde durante un ciclo comercial de producción.

  18. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE PASTAS DE CEMENTO ADICIONADAS CON CATALIZADOR DE CRAQUEO CATALÍTICO USADO (FCC, Y METACAOLIN (MK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es parte de un proyecto de investigación cuyo objetivo principal es evaluar el desempeño de un residuo de una refinería de petróleo, como adición al cemento Portland con el fin de establecer la viabilidad de su aplicación en materiales de construcción. Este residuo denominado catalizador usado a partir del proceso de craqueo catalítico (fcc procede de las unidades de ruptura catalítica en lecho fluido y está compuesto principalmente por sílice y alúmina. Se analizó la hidratación en pastas de cemento adicionadas con el fcc, y se hizo una comparación con la adición de metacaolín (mk. Para realizar el estudio, se prepararon pastas de cemento Portland Ordinario (opc, adicionadas en porcentajes del 10 y 20% de fcc y mk como reemplazo de cemento. La actividad puzolánica de las adiciones y el tipo de productos de hidratación se determinaron mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X (drx y del análisis termogravimétrico (tg/dtg. Como fases principales del proceso de hidratación en las pastas adicionadas con fcc se encontraron silicatos cálcicos hidratados (csh, aluminatos cálcicos hidratados (cah, y silico aluminatos cálcicos (cash, productos similares a los obtenidos en pastas adicionadas con metacaolín.

  19. Tratamiento de los aceites vegetales usados, como materia prima para la elaboración de biodiésel en la ciudad de Arequipa

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Zúñiga, Rosa María; Huaco Álamo, Hortencia Elena; Cuentas Machicao, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Las hipótesis de la investigación son: a) Se puede obtener combustible ecológico (biodiésel) a partir de aceites usados, mediante la transesterificación, usando alcohol etílico, y b) Se puede disminuir el grado de contaminación de las aguas efluentes de los principales restaurantes de Arequipa, mediante el tratamiento de los aceites usados que se generan y a través de asesoramiento técnico correspondiente en la separación de este desecho.Para la investigación se tomaron en cuenta las siguient...

  20. Assessment of chemical composition of essential oil of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin from two different sites of Yazd province in center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hadavand Mirzaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum resin collected from two different sites of Yazd province (Tabas and Yazd in the center of Iran, were identified. The gas chromatography mass-spectroscopy (GC/MS data showed that the qualitative composition of the components appeared to be constant in two different regions. Moreover, no remarkable variations were found in the amounts of the essential oil major constituents. A total thirty-nine components, comprising 91.52% and 95.61% of the total oil, were characterized in Tabas and Yazd samples, respectively. The hydrodistilled oils contained E-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (40.15 and 44.36% in Tabas and Yazd samples, respectively, Z-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.93 and 27.98%, Guaiol (5.50 and 3.14% and Carotol (5.14 and 1.63% as major constituents.

  1. Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of four commercial grades of Omani luban, the oleo-gum resin of Boswellia sacra FLUECK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, Salim; Rameshkumar, K B; Hisham, Abdulkhader; Sivakumar, Nallusamy; Al-Kindy, Salma

    2012-03-01

    The essential oil compositions of four botanically certified and commercially available samples of Omani lubans (oleo-gum resins of Boswellia sacra Flueck.), locally known as Hoojri, Najdi, Shathari, and Shaabi in Jibali Arabic, obtained from plants growing in four different geographic locations of the Dhofar region of Oman, were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR spectroscopy. The market price of these four grades of lubans differed considerably, according to their color, clump size, and texture. However, this study revealed that Hoojri, the first grade luban, and Shaabi, the fourth grade luban, which greatly differed in their price, closely resembled each other in their essential oil composition, yield, and physicochemical characteristics, except the color and texture. The composition, yield, and specific rotation of the oils of Najdi and Shathari, the second and the third grade lubans, respectively, were different from those of Hoojri and Shaabi, but they both had high limonene contents. Najdi oil was different from the other three oils in terms of its high myrcene content. α-Pinene was the principal component in all the oils and can be considered as a chemotaxonomical marker that confirms the botanical and geographical source of the resins. All the oils showed pronounced activity against a panel of bacteria, and the trend in their bioactivity and their mode of action are discussed.

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin: effect of collection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid

    2013-06-15

    The properties of essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resins (OGRs) collectioned in three collections times in 15 June (OGR1), 30 June (OGR2) and 15 July (OGR3) 2011 was investigated. Essential oil from OGR1 was constituted high levels of (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.9%) and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (15.1%). Essential oil from OGR2 was constituted high levels of (Z)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (27.7%) and (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (20.3%). Essential oil from OGR3 was constituted high levels of β-pinene (47.1%) and α-pinene (21.3%). Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging were 0.012-0.035, 0.025-0.047 and 0.035-0.066 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi grpwth were 0.028-0.111, 0.027-0.107 and 0.018-0.058 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Essential oils obtained from different OGRs have different composition and biological activity thus have different applications in food and health industry.

  3. CONSUMO COLABORATIVO: TENDÊNCIA DE CONSTRUÇÃO DE CONHECIMENTO E NEGÓCIOS NO MERCADO DIGITAL DE PRODUTOS USADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Resem Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da economia criativa, o Consumo Colaborativo é crescente e impulsionado pela interação coletiva, especialmente, no ambiente virtual do mercado contemporâneo. Neste estudo, um website brasileiro de compra e venda de produtos usados ou de “segunda mão” https://www.enjoei.com.br é indicado como exemplo de ambiente colaborativo e promotor de conhecimento, comunicação e negócios de e-commerce. O problema de pesquisa decorreu da necessidade de identificação de tendências decorrentes das interações atuais entre mercado digital de produtos usados, o Consumo Colaborativo, conhecimento e responsabilidade socioambiental. O problema levantado por este conjunto de interações implica em questões de consumo e sustentabilidade ligadas à gestão de produtos e negócios, relacionando áreas como Tecnologia, Conhecimento, Design e Marketing. Portanto torna-se evidente que a comercialização de produtos usados e sua reutilização são partes de uma tendência de consumo colaborativo amplamente disseminada na world wide web (www. Os resultados apresentados são descrições, argumentos e considerações decorrentes do trabalho de pesquisa exploratório-descritiva sobre um fenômeno de consumo colaborativo, como tendência no mercado brasileiro.

  4. Investigación de la legalidad y cumplimiento tributario en la compra y venta de vehículos usados en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Cobo, María José

    2014-01-01

    La compraventa de vehículos usados es una de las actividades más informales que se desarrollan en diversos lugares del Ecuador, en donde el comprador y el vendedor asumen en virtud de un contrato diversas obligaciones, que se formalizan con la legalización y otorgamiento del contrato compraventa; para posterior registro en el Servicio de Rentas Internas y actualización de la especie de la matrícula ante las instituciones de tránsito competentes. En ocasiones la transferencia de...

  5. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    para determinar o volume de óleo lubrificante automotivo restante dentro dos frascos.

  6. Sensibilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos a agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Alves Botelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os agroquímicos empregados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar podem afetar a ação de fungos entomopatogênicos usados no controle biológico de pragas da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar se os inseticidas, herbicidas e maturadores utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar têm efeito tóxico sobre os fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram utilizados os inseticidas thiametoxan, aldicarbe e fipronil, os herbicidas imazapir, diuron, metribuzin, hexazinone+diuron, clomazone+ametrina, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético e glifosato, e os maturadores etil-trinexapac, sulfometurom-metílico e glifosato também. Os fungos foram cultivados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar contendo os agroquímicos. Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial, a produção e viabilidade dos conídios, e fez-se a avaliação da toxicidade dos agroquímicos. O inseticida à base de thiametoxan foi considerado compatível, pois não afetou o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos dois fungos. O inseticida formulado com fipronil se mostrou parcialmente tóxico para os fungos, sendo considerado moderadamente compatível, enquanto o aldicarbe foi considerado tóxico. Os herbicidas avaliados afetaram o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos entomopatógenos e foram classificados como tóxicos, mas aqueles formulados com imazapir, glifosato e metribuzim foram considerados compatíveis. Entre os agroquímicos usados como maturadores apenas o glifosato foi classificado como compatível. Os agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar, e que foram testados neste estudo, têm majoritariamente efeito tóxico sobre B. bassiana e M. anisopliae podendo comprometer sua ação como bioagentes de controle de pragas da cultura.

  7. Introducción de los marcadores del discurso en los manuales del ELE del nivel B2 usados en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira da Silva, Antonio Messias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende comprobar, en términos generales, si los manuales del ELE del nivel B2, que actualmente son usados en Brasil, introducen adecuadamente la clase de los marcadores del discurso en sus unidades didácticas. Esta investigación no sólo ha pretendido deslindar qué grupos de marcadores son introducidos en estos manuales sino también ofrecer a los profesores, aprendices y autores pautas más precisas que aporten a modos de mejorar y profundizar la enseñanza de estas unidades discursivas tanto en el aula de ELE como en la elaboración de materiales didácticos en los que se deberá tener en cuenta sus valores semántico-pragmáticos.

  8. Teorías y modelos de enfermería usados en la enfermería psiquiátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Alexandra Galvis López

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Con el paso del tiempo la disciplina de enfermería ha tenido un avance significativo, propiciado por el desarrollo y divulgación de modelos conceptuales que sustentan su práctica, por tal motivo se pretende conocer la incidencia de este avance en la práctica de la enfermería en Salud Mental y Psiquiátrica. Materiales y Métodos: Artículo de reflexión, que retoma la literatura sobre los modelos y teorías de Enfermería que se han usado en la práctica de la Enfermería en Salud Menta...

  9. Análisis Químico de Mezclas Biodiesel de Aceite de Cocina Usado y Diesel por Espectroscopia Infrarroja Chemical Analysis of Mixtures of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil and Diesel by Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer J Lafont; Manuel S Páez; Yudi C Torres

    2011-01-01

    Se propone un método eficiente para determinar los porcentajes óptimos de mezclas biodiesel de aceite usado y diesel, para uso automotor. El procedimiento consiste en recolección del aceite usado, limpieza de residuos, y obtención del biodiesel mediante una reacción de transesterificación, con diferentes proporciones molares metanol/aceite . Las muestras fueron analizadas por espectroscopia infrarroja. Se encontró que una proporción metanol/aceite de 1:8 presentó mayor rendimiento en la obten...

  10. Teorías y modelos de enfermería usados en la enfermería psiquiátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alexandra Galvis López

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Con el paso del tiempo la disciplina de enfermería ha tenido un avance significativo, propiciado por el desarrollo y divulgación de modelos conceptuales que sustentan su práctica, por tal motivo se pretende conocer la incidencia de este avance en la práctica de la enfermería en Salud Mental y Psiquiátrica. Materiales y Métodos: Artículo de reflexión, que retoma la literatura sobre los modelos y teorías de Enfermería que se han usado en la práctica de la Enfermería en Salud Mental y Psiquiatría y como la profesión de enfermería apropia este aspecto en la práctica diaria dando un cuidado holístico. Resultados: Se presentan las principales premisas conceptuales de los modelos y teorías referenciados en la bibliografía consultada en los cuales se reconoce  y concibe al ser humano de manera holística, al explorar  sus experiencias con el mundo,  con la enfermería y como se evidencia en la práctica de la enfermería en Salud Mental y Psiquiatría. Discusión: Se debe posibilitar el desarrollo de habilidades de ayuda que mantengan la perspectiva de integralidad y cuidado holístico. Conclusiones: Aun se cuenta con  muy pocas publicaciones en las cuales se visibilice la práctica de la enfermería en Salud Mental y Psiquiatría y el uso del conocimiento disciplinar en la práctica diaria. Con este artículo se espera  que el profesional de Enfermería, tenga un soporte teórico que le permita brindar un cuidado integral, a la persona con sufrimiento Psíquico, basándose en referentes conceptuales propios de la Disciplina.Cómo citar este artículo: Galvis MA. Teorías y modelos de enfermería usados en la enfermería psiquiátrica. Rev Cuid. 2015; 6(2: 1108-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v6i2.172

  11. Revisión de índices de distribución espacial usados en inventarios forestales y su aplicación en bosques tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ledo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los diferentes índices utilizados para describir y caracterizar la estructura horizontal o patrón espacial en masas forestales con especial énfasis en aquellos que se han aplicado para el estudio de bosques tropicales. Estos índices se han clasificado en función del tipo de datos requerido para su cálculo. Diferentes aspectos del comportamiento estadístico y la aplicabilidad de aquellos índices más usados (los índices de Fisher y Morisita, el análisis de la varianza en escalas anidadas y la técnica SADIE de entre las técnicas que utilizan datos de densidades o coberturas en unidades de muestreo; los índices de Clark-Evans, Pielou y Byth-Ripley basados en medidas de distancias entre árboles; y las funciones L(d y Oring que requieren para su cálculo la posición de todos los arboles se analizan en un caso de estudio a partir de datos de parcelas experimentales un bosque tropical andino.

  12. Tecnología, territorio y sociedad. Producción de biodiesel a partir de aceites usados en la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Manuel Garrido

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2002, se desarrollaron en Argentina distintas experiencias vinculadas a la producción de biodiésel a partir de aceites vegetales usados. El desarrollo de estas experiencias puede ser interpretada como una trayectoria socio-técnica en la que se articularon diferentes grupos sociales, técnicas y condiciones socio-demográficas generando distintos estilos socio-técnicos. La reconstrucción de esta trayectoria permite entender cómo se desarrollan los procesos de co-construcción de tecnologías, regulaciones, dinámicas económicas y prácticas sociales; más, cuando en el caso analizado, el aprovechamiento de desechos puede resolver problemas tanto ambientales como económicos y socialesSince 2002, a number of experiences have developed in Argentina related to biodiesel production based on waste vegetable oils. The development of these experiences can be interpreted as a socio-technical trajectory in which different social and technical, and different socio-demographic conditions were articulated, generating distinct socio-technical styles. The reconstruction of this trajectory makes possible an understanding of how processes of co-construction of technologies, regulations, economic dynamics and social practices develop. In the case analyzed, this reconstruction will permit observation of how the use of waste material can resolve environmental as well as economic and social problems.

  13. Avaliação de instrumentos de medida usados em pacientes com fibromialgia Assessment of different instruments used as outcome measures in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Barros Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os diferentes instrumentos de medida usados em pacientes com fibromialgia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 60 indivíduos que participaram de um ensaio clínico de corte transversal comparando os efeitos de exercícios realizados na água e exercícios realizados em solo, por meio dos questionários Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ para avaliar o impacto da doença, The Medical Outcomes Study 36 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 para avaliação da qualidade de vida, Inventário Beck para avaliar o estado de depressão e escala visual analógica da dor (EVA. Esses questionários foram comparados aos resultados obtidos em uma escala transicional do tipo Likert, a Escala verbal de avaliação de mudança (EVAM, considerada como critério de mudança na avaliação dos outros instrumentos. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de Spearman foi usado para estudar a correlação entre a medida EVAM e os outros instrumentos em dois momentos (T1 e T2. Em T1 houve correlação moderada entre EVAM e EVA (r = 0,49, EVAM e FIQ (r = 0,41 e correlação negativa entre EVAM e os domínios referentes a dor (r = -0,49, estado geral (r = -0,55 e componente físico (r = -0,42 do SF-36. Em T2, apenas o domínio vitalidade do SF-36 mostrou correlação negativa com EVAM, de valor fraco (r = -0,27. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se a EVAM como padrão ouro, nenhum dos instrumentos avaliados conseguiu captar, de maneira ótima, mudança no estado de saúde do paciente com fibromialgia.OBJECTIVE: To assess the different measure instruments used for patients with fibromyalgia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study assessed 60 individuals participating in a clinical trial of cross-sectional cohort comparing the effects of exercises performed in water and on land. The following instruments were used: the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ to assess the impact of the disease; the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 to assess quality

  14. EFEITOS DOS PRAZOS DE COMPRA, ESTOCAGEM E RECEBIMENTO NO RESULTADO DA VENDA: PROPOSTA PARA MENSURAÇÃO EM REVENDA DE AUTOMÓVEIS USADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem o objetivo de evidenciar o impacto dos prazos do ciclo operacional no resultado da venda. Nesse sentido, o estudo pretende responder como mensurar os efeitos desses prazos na lucratividade dos veículos comercializados por revenda de automóveis usados. Foi utilizada metodologia do tipo descritiva, no formato de estudo de caso, com abordagem qualitativa. Após breve introdução foi efetuada uma revisão da literatura a respeito dos conceitos relacionados ao tema central. Em seguida, foram apresentadas as principais características do estudo de caso realizado, com a descrição da empresa estudada e das etapas seguidas para dimensionar a influência dos prazos de compra, estocagem e recebimento no resultado auferido pela entidade. Posteriormente, foram apresentados os relatórios gerenciais elaborados com a intenção de demonstrar a diferença entre o resultado da venda “com” e “sem” a consideração desses prazos e comentados os principais aspectos pertinentes. Concluiu-se que, com os 32 carros vendidos durante o período da pesquisa, haveria redução de R$ 26.143,72 (R$ 94.021,67 – R$ 67.877,95 comparando-se as duas formas de mensurar o resultado comercial (margem de contribuição “sem” e “com” os efeitos dos prazos associados ao ciclo operacional, que representou queda de 27,81% no resultado final do período. Ainda, foram identificadas algumas limitações associáveis ao procedimento de cálculo utilizado.

  15. Coeficiente de fricción y mecanismos de degradación superficial en materiales usados para la construcción de implantes de juntas articulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Uribe A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio evaluó los materiales más usados en nuestro medio para la fabricación de implantes de juntas articulares, evidenciando los mecanismos de deterioro superficial presentes en tres tribosistemas: a pin de acero AISI 316LVM contra un disco de acero AISI 316L, b pin de acero inoxidable AISI 316LVM contra disco de polietileno de ultra alto peso molecular (UHMWPE y c pin de una aleación Ti6Al4V contra disco de polietileno de ultra alto peso molecular (UHMWPE, con velocidad de deslizamiento de 0.58 m/s y diferentes cargas normales. Se adaptó una máquina de ensayos de desgaste normalizada del tipo pin – disco (norma ASTM G 99, de tal forma que permitiera sumergir el sistema en una solución de suero de sangre de bovino con una concentración de proteínas de 0.03 g/ml, la cual simula el ataque corrosivo al que se ven sometidos los materiales en las juntas implantadas dentro del cuerpo humano. Se midieron la variación de la fuerza y el coeficiente de fricción en el tiempo para estudiar el comportamiento del tribosistema, caracterizando las superficies desgastadas macro y microscópicamente con el fin de identificar los fenómenos de deterioro superficial. La adhesión fue el mecanismo predominante en el deslizamiento de los pares metal – polímero, mientras que la combinación de adhesión y abrasión fue responsable por un daño mucho mayor en el sistema metal-metal.

  16. Evaluación de la corrosión de un acero embebido en morteros adicionados con catalizador de craqueo catalítico usado (FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Izquierdo García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el desempeño frente a la corrosión de morteros de cemento adicionados con un residuo de la industria petroquímica en ambientes contaminados con cloruros (Cloruro de Sodio, NaCl 3.5% y/o Anhídrido Carbónico, CO2 (3% CO2, 65% HR y 25°C. Se utilizó un residuo denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, procedente de una refinería colombiana; este material tiene un alto contenido de sílice y alúmina, morfología parcialmente amorfa y posee una alta reactividad. Para el estudio, se prepararon morteros de cemento Portland ordinario con el 12% de FCC como reemplazo de cemento, tanto simples como reforzados. Se evaluó el potencial y la corriente de corrosión y complementariamente, en los especímenes no reforzados, se determinó la absorción total, penetración de cloruros, resistividad y frente de carbonatación. A partir de los resultados, se concluye que la adición del 12% de FCC al cemento reduce la permeabilidad a cloruros y la susceptibilidad a la carbonatación del mortero en órdenes hasta del 50%, así mismo genera un incremento del 128% en la resistividad del mortero. Los aceros embebidos en los morteros adicionados presentaron velocidades de corrosión más bajas, particularmente en presencia de iones cloruros.

  17. Diseño de interfaces en los medios visitados por los venezolanos ¿Los más usados son usables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Benigni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC han impactado favorablemente a los ciudadanos y han cambiado sus hábitos de consumo de bienes y servicios; desde las distintas facetas de la vida en sociedad es necesario acoplarse a estos nuevos hábitos. La prensa nacional e internacional no escapa a esta realidad, y por tal, han comenzado a abrirse espacios en Internet para acercarse más a los ciudadanos a través del apoderamiento de las TIC. En Venezuela se ha venido incrementando el uso de los sitios web de los medios de comunicación social; a los cuales se accede desde computadores personales, portátiles, tabletas y teléfonos inteligentes. No obstante, muchos espacios en Internet se diseñan sin apego a las normas y principios de usabilidad que facilitan la intuitiva y correcta interacción del usuario con la aplicación informática. En consecuencia, se evalúa si los sitios web de los medios de comunicación social más usados por los internautas venezolanos son usables; para lo cual, se los analizará empleando los Principios de usabilidad, de Nielsen, y la Guía para evaluación experta, de Márquez Correa. Se concluye que los sitios web evaluados cumplen medianamente los principios, partes y recomendaciones expertas en cuanto al diseño de interfaces web.

  18. Bioactive Potential of 3D-Printed Oleo-Gum-Resin Disks: B. papyrifera, C. myrrha, and S. benzoin Loading Nanooxides-TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Diogo José; Tebcherani, Sergio Mazurek; Kubaski, Evaldo Toniolo; de Almeida Vieira, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the bioactive potential of filaments produced via hot melt extrusion (HME) and intended for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing purposes. The oleo-gum-resins from benzoin, myrrha, and olibanum in pure state and also charged with 10% of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3, were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Disks were 3D-printed into model geometries (10 × 5 mm) and the disk-diffusion methodology was used for the evaluation of antimicrobial and antifungal activity of materials in study against the clinical isolates: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Due to their intrinsic properties, disks containing resins in pure state mostly prevent surface-associated growth; meanwhile, disks loaded with 10% oxides prevent planktonic growth of microorganisms in the susceptibility assay. The microscopy analysis showed that part of nanoparticles was encapsulated by the biopolymeric matrix of resins, in most cases remaining disorderly dispersed over the surface of resins. Thermal analysis shows that plant resins have peculiar characteristics, with a thermal behavior similar to commercial available semicrystalline polymers, although their structure consists of a mix of organic compounds.

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DAS TÉCNICAS DE MÍNIMA QUANTIDADE DE LUBRIFICANTE, REFRIGERAÇÃO OTIMIZADA E REFRIGERAÇÃO CONVENCIONAL NA QUALIDADE DE PEÇAS PRODUZIDAS COM AÇOS ENDURECIDOS NO PROCESSO DE RETIFICAÇÃO INFLUENCE OF THE METHODS FOR MINIMUM AMOUNT OF LUBRICATION, OPTIMIZED COOLING AND CONVENTIONAL COOLING IN THE QUALITY OF PARTS PRODUCED WITH HARDENED STEEL IN GRINDING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a influência das técnicas de mínima quantidade de lubrificante, refrigeração otimizada e refrigeração convencional, com diferentes vazões e velocidade de aplicação do fluido de corte, na qualidade das peças produzidas com aços endurecidos, no processo de retificação cilíndrica externa de mergulho com a utilização de rebolos superabrasivos com baixa concentração de CBN. A análise da qualidade das peças foi realizada através da avaliação do comportamento da energia específica de retificação, rugosidade, tensão residual gerada e desvio de circularidade. Com a análise das formas de aplicação e das várias vazões e velocidades do fluido de corte utilizadas encontraram-se condições de lubri-refrigeração que propiciam a diminuição do volume de fluido de corte, diminuição do tempo de usinagem sem prejudicar os parâmetros dimensionais, o acabamento superficial e a integridade superficial. Em relação às diferentes formas de aplicação do fluido de corte notou-se o melhor desempenho da aplicação otimizada para maiores velocidades mostrando a eficiência de um novo conceito de bocal utilizado.The influence of minimum lubrication, optimized and conventional cooling at different flows and application rates of cutting fluids on the quality of hardened-steel pieces produced by external cylindrical plunge grinding with super-abrasive grinding wheels with low CBN concentrations was verified. The analysis of the quality of the pieces was performed through the assessment of the behavior of the specific energy of the grinding, roughness, roundness deviation, and the generated residual stress. By analyzing the application ways and of the several flows and application rates of the cutting fluid, lubrication/cooling conditions that enable the reduction in cutting fluid volume, reduction in grinding time without compromising the dimensional parameters (superficial finishing, surface integrity could be found

  20. Curvas de correlação para caracterizar concretos usados no Rio de Janeiro por meio de ensaios não destrutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Machado

    Full Text Available Os ensaios não destrutivos fornecem informações quanto às propriedades do concreto das estruturas, mas a confiabilidade da avaliação dessas propriedades depende da experiência do profissional que realiza esses ensaios e das curvas empregadas para correlacionar as grandezas medidas nos ensaios com as propriedades do concreto investigado. Este estudo visou prover os engenheiros de curvas de correlação que os possibilitem estimar, por meio da utilização de ensaios não destrutivos, a resistência à compressão e o módulo de elasticidade dos concretos dosados em central utilizados no Rio de Janeiro. Foram ensaiados corpos-de-prova moldados com concretos usados em diversas obras, fornecidos por diferentes concreteiras. Esses concretos tinham, em geral, fck nominal de 25 MPa ou 30 MPa. Objetivando englobar concretos com resistências mais variadas e os dois tipos de agregados graúdos típicos do Rio de Janeiro, foram ensaiados corpos-de-prova moldados nos laboratórios de dois grupos de concreteiras. Nestes concretos, variaram-se a relação água-cimento (0,40 a 0,60 e a característica petrográfica do agregado graúdo. Foram realizados ensaios de resistência à compressão e de módulo de elasticidade, de velocidade de propagação de ondas ultra-sônicas, de esclerometria e de penetração de pinos, em concretos com idades de 3, 7, 14, 28 e 90 dias. Aqui são apresentadas as curvas de correlação obtidas a partir da análise dos resultados de todos esses ensaios. Ao se usarem os métodos isolados, o de esclerometria foi o que levou à melhor avaliação da resistência à compressão e a combinação desse método com o de cravação de pinos melhorou a acurácia dessa avaliação. Na impossibilidade de se realizarem ensaios de módulo de elasticidade, o ensaio de velocidade de propagação de ondas ultra-sônicas pode ser uma opção interessante para a avaliação dessa grandeza.

  1. Análise de custo dos materiais usados para realizar as técnicas anestésicas na cirurgia programada de extração de catarata por facoemulsificação

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro,Jefferson; Barreiro, Telma Pereira; Rehder,José Ricardo Carvalho Lima

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o custo das técnicas anestésicas locais usadas em oftalmologia (retrobulbar, peribulbar, subtenoniana e tópica) para realizar cirurgia de facoemulsificação. MÉTODOS: Para análise de custo dos materiais usados para realizar os diferentes procedimentos anestésicos, adotamos as técnicas padronizadas pelo Setor de Catarata da Disciplina de Oftalmologia da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC. Para cada técnica foram tabulados os valores totais correspondentes aos materiais necessários ...

  2. Identificación de factores determinantes para el crecimiento en la venta de vehículos usados de la ciudad de Guayaquil y factibilidad de propuesta de negocio.

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Apolinario, Cinthia Janet

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación realiza el análisis y evaluación de los factores determinantes al momento de adquirir un vehículo. Se revisan teorías correspondientes al comportamiento del consumidor. Identificar las mejores estrategias de marketing y ventas de acuerdo al producto ofertado y a los propósitos establecidos. Se identifica las principales razones por las cuales las ventas de vehículos usados se ha incrementado, si depende del comportamiento del consumidor y si el principal factor es el...

  3. Identificación de factores determinantes para el crecimiento en la venta de vehículos usados de la ciudad de Guayaquil y factibilidad de propuesta de negocio.

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Apolinario, Cinthia Janet

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación realiza el análisis y evaluación de los factores determinantes al momento de adquirir un vehículo. Se revisan teorías correspondientes al comportamiento del consumidor. Identificar las mejores estrategias de marketing y ventas de acuerdo al producto ofertado y a los propósitos establecidos. Se identifica las principales razones por las cuales las ventas de vehículos usados se ha incrementado, si depende del comportamiento del consumidor y si el principal factor es el...

  4. Propuesta de implementación del mantenimiento centrado en la confiabilidad para los turbocargadores ABB VTR 354, usados en los motores WARTSILA VASA 16V32 L.N. de la empresa AGIP OIL Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Se implementó el Mantenimiento Centrado en Confiabilidad (RCM), para los turbocargadores ABB VTR 354, usados en los motores Wärtsilä VASA 16V32 LN de la Empresa Agip Oil Ecuador, que se encuentra ubicada en la Provincia de Pastaza, en el bloque 10; debido a la demanda de energía eléctrica para el funcionamiento de los equipos requeridos para el transporte, tratamiento y bombeo de petróleo, los motores Wärtsilä se encuentren con una confiabilidad sobre 96% y una disponibilidad s...

  5. TERRITÓRIO USADO E CIRCUITOS DA ECONOMIA URBANA LIGADOS AOS EQUIPAMENTOS MÉDICO-OSPITALARES EM CAMPINAS, RIBEIRÃO PRETO E SÃO JOSÉ DO RIO PRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Carvalho David

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da urbanização brasileira, na qual as cidades crescem simultaneamente a multiplicação de formas de trabalho com capitais reduzidos e tecnologias menos modernas, nossa pesquisa procurou conhecer o território usado por diferentes agentes do sistema produtivo de equipamentos médico-hospitalares no Estado de São Paulo. Atentando para as diferentes divisões do trabalho que coexistem na forma dos circuitos da economia urbana, discutimos a existência de um circuito superior marginal vinculado aos equipamentos médicos em Campinas, Ribeirão Preto e São José do Rio Preto, diante dos processos recentes de modernização da saúde no atual período da globalização.

  6. CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA GEOGRAFIA ÀS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS: TERRITÓRIO USADO COMO CONDICIONANTE DOS PROGRAMAS DE FITOTERAPIA DO SISTEMA ÚNICO DE SAÚDE (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Leandro Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A política pública surgiu como subárea da ciência política e ferramental de ação do governo nos EUA e na Europa, na década de 1940. Iniciou-se no Brasil, com algumas especificidades, em meados dos anos de 1980 no contexto de redemocratização, mantendo, contudo, as linhas gerais e as principais características daquelas duas matrizes que lhe inspiraram: foco nas ações e nos ideários dos atores envolvidos; centralidade do Estado; multidisciplinaridade e análise das ações governamentais. Propõem-se aqui algumas contribuições da geografia às políticas públicas a partir da consideração do espaço geográfico como híbrido de materialidades e ações: além das ações, também condicionam as políticas os arranjos dos objetos no território. Ademais, o território é usado por uma multiplicidade de atores, o que revela a multidimensionalidade do poder político e requer a apreciação não apenas da ação do Estado, mas dos atores não estatais na condução das políticas. O papel condicionante do território usado é aqui analisado a partir da política de adoção da fitoterapia (plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS em municípios de distintas regiões brasileiras.

  7. Análisis Químico de Mezclas Biodiesel de Aceite de Cocina Usado y Diesel por Espectroscopia Infrarroja Chemical Analysis of Mixtures of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil and Diesel by Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Jennifer J Lafont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método eficiente para determinar los porcentajes óptimos de mezclas biodiesel de aceite usado y diesel, para uso automotor. El procedimiento consiste en recolección del aceite usado, limpieza de residuos, y obtención del biodiesel mediante una reacción de transesterificación, con diferentes proporciones molares metanol/aceite . Las muestras fueron analizadas por espectroscopia infrarroja. Se encontró que una proporción metanol/aceite de 1:8 presentó mayor rendimiento en la obtención de biodiesel. Los espectros de infrarrojo mostraron el incremento del máximo de carbonilo de los esteres metílicos al aumentar las concentraciones de biodiesel en las mezcla biodiesel+diesel. Se concluye que la técnica usada cumple con la ley de Beer-Lambert y es adecuada para cuantificar este tipo de mezclas.An efficient method to determine the optimum percentages of blends biodiesel from used oil and diesel for automotive use, is proposed. The procedure consists of recollection of used frying oil, residue cleaning and synthesis of biodiesel by a transesterification reaction with different molar proportions of methanol/oil. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that a ratio methanol/oil of 1:8 showed higher performance in the production of biodiesel. The infrared spectra showed an increase in the carbonyl peak of the methyl esters with the increase of the concentration of biodiesel in the mixtures biodiesel+diesel. It is concluded that proposed technique complies with the Beer-Lambert law and it is a good method to quantify these types of mixtures.

  8. EXTRACCIÓN Y SECADO DE FLOCULANTES NATURALES USADOS EN LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE JUGOS DE CAÑA EXTRAÇÁO E SECAGEM DE NATURAL USADO FLOCULANTES DE CLARIFICAÇÁO DO SUCOS DE CANA EXTRACTION AND DRYING OF NATURAL FLOCCULANTS USED IN CANE JUICE CLARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ortiz G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La clarificación en jugos de caña se realiza por la adición de mucílagos vegetales. El objetivo fue evaluar la clarificación de tres floculantes naturales (balso, cadillo y guácimo en jugos de caña. Se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente y se evaluó la retención de sólidos insolubles versus un floculante sintético. Fue usado un modelo estadístico de bloques completamente al azar y la muestra control fue el Profloc 985. Se obtuvo un mucílago de mayor calidad al desfibrar en agua destilada, secar a 38°C por 11 horas y reducir a un tamaño de partícula de 212µm. La clarificación ideal fue a una concentración 0,03% p/v. El cadillo fue el floculante seco que presentó mayor eficiencia en la precipitación de sólidos solubles con un 93,6%, seguido del balso con un 90,4% y el guácimo con un 89,7%, frente al 100% de la muestra control. Los tres floculantes modificados están compuestos principalmente de carbohidratos (fructosa, glucosa y maltosa, saponinas y fenoles, además de hierro, calcio y fosfatos. Al comparar los contenidos de calcio y los fosfatos se encontró que los mayores valores correspondían a los floculantes modificados cadillo y balso, estos valores influyeron en su mejor desempeño en el proceso de clarificación del jugo de caña.A clarificaçáo do caldo da cana é realizada pormeio da adiçáo de mucilagem de plantas. O objetivo foi avallar o esclarecimento de três floculantes naturais (balsa, bardana e saman no caldos da cana. Foi caracterizado physicochemically e avallado retençáo insolúveis versus um floculante sintético. Foi utilizado um modelo estatístico para blocos ao acaso e amostra de cotrolo foi o Profloc 985. Mucilagem maior qualidade foi obtido pela despolpa a água destilada, secas a 38°C durante 11 horas e reduzido a un tamaño de partícula de 212µm. 0 esclarecimento foi ideal em urna concentraçáo de 0,03% w/v. A bardana foi floculante seca apresentou maior eficiencia na precipitaçáo de s

  9. Estudio de la hidratación de pastas de cemento adicionadas con catalizador de craqueo catalítico usado (FCC de una refinería colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Johanna Trochez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de un residuo industrial de una refinería de petróleo colombiana, conocido como catalizador de craqueo catalítico usado (FCC, en el proceso de hidratación de pastas cementicias. Para tal efecto, se prepararon pastas de cemento Pórtland ordinario (OPC adicionadas en porcentajes del 10 y 20% de FCC como reemplazo de la cantidad de cemento. La reactividad puzolánica del material y el tipo de productos de hidratación se determinó mediante difracción de rayos X (DRX y análisis termogravimétrico (TG/DTG. Adicionalmente, se determinó el calor de hidratación liberado con base en la norma ASTM C186. Los resultados indican que el proceso de hidratación de pastas adicionadas con FCC es altamente exotérmico como consecuencia de su actividad puzolánica a cortas edades. Las fases principales presentes en el proceso de hidratación de las pastas adicionadas con FCC fueron CSH, CAH y CASH, productos similares a los obtenidos en pastas adicionadas con metacaolín.

  10. Análise ambiental e econômica do biodiesel obtido por meio do óleo de fritura usado em praças de pedágio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alessandro Castellanelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o objetivo é demonstrar a viabilidade econômica e as vantagens ambientais da substituição do diesel pelo biodiesel, obtido do óleo de fritura usado, em geradores de energia elétrica. Para tanto, realizou-se estudo de caso em três praças de pedágio que possuem geradores a diesel, no Rio Grande do Sul. Os parâmetros técnicos para o estudo desses geradores resultam dos experimentos de bancada realizados pelo grupo de pesquisa, nos quais se verificou que o biodiesel pode ser empregado como substituto do diesel, nos geradores das praças de pedágio, em razão das vantagens tanto econômicas quanto ambientais. Assim, a realização deste estudo de caso proporcionou maior entendimento da temática proposta, além de mostrar a importância das fontes de energia renováveis em relação aos cenários ambientais, políticos e econômicos.

  11. Caracterização textural, morfológica e estrutural de catalisadores automotivos novos e usados Textural, morphological and structural characterization of new and used automotive catalysts

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    R. A. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversores catalíticos ou catalisadores automotivos são formados por metais nobres como platina, paládio, ródio e molibdênio, suportados em filmes de alumina depositados em cordierita, um material cerâmico poroso, os quais convertem gases poluentes em dióxido de carbono, água e nitrogênio, produtos não poluentes. Neste trabalho, é discutida a desativação de catalisadores automotivos devido às altas temperaturas de operação e por contaminação inorgânica originária dos combustíveis e óleos utilizados. Catalisadores novos e usados foram analisados por adsorção gasosa, picnometria, difração de raios X, e microscopia eletrônica de varredura para caracterizações texturais, morfológicas e estruturais. Microssonda eletrônica foi utilizada para detectar a composição dos catalisadores e dos seus contaminantes.Catalytic converters or automotive catalyst are formed by noble metals such as platinum, rhodium, palladium, and molybdenum supported in cordierite, a porous ceramic materials which convert the pollutant gases in carbon dioxide, water and nitrogenous, no-pollutant products. In this work, we discuss the deactivation of automotive catalyst due to the high operation temperature and by inorganic contaminants originating in engine oil and fuel. New and used catalysts were analyzed by gas adsorption, picnometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy for textural, morphological and structural characterization. EDS and WDS electron microprobe were used to detect the composition of the catalysts and their contaminants.

  12. Tecnologías disponibles para la Purificación de Biogás usado en la Generación Eléctrica Available Technologies for Purification of Biogas used in Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T Varnero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se resume y analiza algunas tecnologías que se han implementado para la purificación de biogás usado en la generación eléctrica. Se sabe que el biogás puede contener algunas impurezas y elementos traza que deben ser removidas antes de su uso en la matriz energética. Las tecnologías tradicionales para la purificación de biogás están basadas fundamentalmente en el empleo de métodos físicos y químicos, los cuales, además de generar contaminantes secundarios, a menudo tienen un alto costo. Como una alternativa, la purificación de biogás mediante procesos biológicos utilizando microorganismos parece atractiva. Los microorganismos pueden remover las sustancias consideradas contaminantes, especialmente para la eliminación de sulfuro de hidrógeno. Ser concluye que se trata de un método económico, con bajos gastos energéticos e inocuo para el medio ambiente y la salud humana.Available technologies that have been implemented for biogas purification for its use in power generation are summarized and analyzed. It is known that biogas may contain some impurities and trace elements that must be removed before its use as energy source. Traditional technologies for biogas purification are based primarily on the use of physical and chemical methods, which, besides generating secondary pollutants, often have a high cost. As an alternative, biogas purification through biological processes using microorganisms has become attractive. The microorganisms can remove substances considered pollutants; especially they can remove hydrogen sulfide. It is concluded that the method is cost effective with low energy inputs and harmless to the environment and human health.

  13. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  14. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas, tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água, foram utilizadas para classificar os agrotóxicos em inócuo (99%. Foram inócuos os acaricidas Envidor (espirodiclofeno, Kendo 50 SC (fenpiroximato e Ortus 50 SC (fenpiroximato, os fungicidas Antracol 700 PM (propinebe, Midas BR (famoxadona + mancozebe, Palisade (fluquinconazol, Persist SC (mancozebe e Systhane PM (miclobutanil e o inseticida Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozida; o herbicida Polaris (glifosato foi levemente nocivo; os herbicidas Finale (glufosinato sal de amônio e Roundup Original (glifosato foram moderadamente nocivos a T. pretiosum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of 12 pesticides used in the integrated production of apple, in laboratory (25±1ºC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14 hours photophase, exposing adults of Trichogramma pretiosum to fresh dry pesticide film, in the maximum dosage recommended for field use, with subsequent assessement of the number of eggs parasitized per female. The reduction in the parasitism, compared with the control (water, was used to classify the pesticides as harmless (99%. The acaricides Envidor (spirodiclofen, Kendo 50 SC (fenpyroximate and Ortus 50 SC (fenpyroximate, the fungicides Antracol 700 PM (propineb, Midas BR (famoxadone + mancozeb, Palisade (fluquinconazole, Persist SC (mancozeb and Systhane PM (myclobutanil and the insecticide Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozide were harmless; the herbicide Polaris (glyphosate was slightly harmful; the herbicides Finale (gluphosinate-ammonium and Roundup

  15. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS MÉTODOS USADOS PARA EL RECONOCIMIENTO DE ARRITMIAS:: EXPERIMENTO EDUCATIVO CONTROLADO EN ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA Comparison of two methods applied to teach arrhythmias:: an controlled educative trial in medical school students

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    David A Rincón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La habilidad para reconocer arritmias es esencial para los proveedores de reanimación cardiopulmonar avanzada. El desarrollo de esta habilidad es dispendioso y no se han identificado las mejores estrategias educativas para optimizar este proceso. Objetivo. Evaluar y comparar la efectividad y recordación de dos métodos de aprendizaje usados por estudiantes de medicina para reconocer arritmias cardíacas. Material y métodos. El estudio incluyó 99 estudiantes de medicina que se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos grupos. En un grupo se enseñó un método de cuatro pasos (n=51 y en el otro un método de diez pasos (n=48. En cada grupo se enseñó el método respectivo en una conferencia de 60 minutos de duración. Después se realizó una prueba específica para cada grupo con el fin de evaluar la percepción de “facilidad”, el uso y la recordación de cada método. Adicionalmente se evaluó la capacidad para reconocer arritmias en una prueba práctica general para los dos grupos. Resultados. Las características de base no eran diferentes entre los dos grupos antes de la asignación aleatoria. La capacidad para reconocer arritmias fue mejor en el grupo de cuatro pasos, porque aumenta la proporción de estudiantes con puntajes mayor o igual a 30 puntos sobre 50 (82% vs 19%; RR 4.39, IC 95% 2.40-8.02; NNT 2, aumenta la mediana de puntajes (34 ± 8 vs 23 ± 8; valor pBackground. The skill for read arrhythmias is essential in cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers. But the development of these skill is hard, and the better educational strategies for improves this process are not identified. Objective. To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two methods for teaching cardiac arrhytmias to medical school students. Material and methods. In the study, 99 medical school students was included and randomly allocated in two groups: four steps method group (n=51 and ten steps method group (n=48. In each group the assigned method was

  16. Cytotoxic effects of cyanoacrylates used as retrograde filling materials: an in vitro analysis Efeitos citotóxicos de cianoacrilatos usados como material de obturação retrógrada: uma análise in vitro

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    Cledson Lima de Azevedo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoacrylate has been used in medicine and dentistry for many years. It has been used as a postextraction dressing and retrograde filling material in endodontic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Histoacryl and other two homologue ethyl cyanoacrylates, Super Bonder and Ultrabond, on cultured fibroblasts, using the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The cyanoacrylates were applied to round glass coverslips, which were placed in contact with NIH 3T3 cells. After 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (short-term assay; viability and 1, 3, 5 and 7 days (long-term assay; survival, the cells were examined under phase light microscopy and counted. The data were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. In the short-term experiments, only the cultures of the Ultrabond group (GIV presented significant smaller percentages of cell viability than the cultures of the other groups (GI: control; GII: Super Bonder; GIII: Histoacryl. Although the cultures of the Super Bonder group (GII presented smaller percentages of cell viability than cultures of the other groups (GI, GIII, GIV at the long-term assay, this group was the only experimental group presenting a continuous and progressive cell growth. Our results have shown an in vitro biocompatibility of Histoacryl and ethyl cyanoacrylate homologues. These cyanoacrylates could therefore be of importance for endodontic purposes.Os cianoacrilatos tem encontrado aplicabilidade tanto na Medicina como na Odontologia há muitos anos. Têm sido usados como curativo após exodontias, bem como para obturação retrógrada em cirurgia parendodôntica. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o efeito citotóxico do Histoacryl e outros dois homólogos etil cianoacrilatos: SuperBonder e Ultrabond, em cultura de fibroblastos, empregando ensaios de viabilidade pela exclusão de células coradas pelo azul de Trypan. Os cianoacrilatos foram aplicados em lamínulas de vidro circulares, que foram colocadas sobre cultura

  17. Teor e composição química do óleo essencial de Hyptis marrubioides Epl., Lamiaceae em função da sazonalidade = Content and chemical composition of Hyptis marrubioides essential oil in function of seasons

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    Suzan Kelly Vilela Bertolucci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os oleos essenciais sao principios odoriferos armazenados em celulas especiais da planta. O oleo essencial no genero Hyptis e usado como anestesico, antiespasmodico, antiinflamatorio e pode induzir aborto em doses elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influencia da sazonalidade no teor e composicao do oleo essencial de Hyptis marrubioides. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (inverno, primavera, verao e outono e seis repeticoes, totalizando 60 plantas. O oleo essencial foi extraido por hidrodestilacao, em aparelho de Clevenger. A analise qualitativa do oleo essencial foi por cromatografia em fase gasosa (CG/EM. Na estacao do verao, as folhas das plantas de H. marrubiodes apresentaram os maiores teores de oleo essencial. Nas demais estacoes, os teores de oleo essencial obtidos foram semelhantes entre si. Os componentes majoritarios no oleo essencial foram os monoterpenoides α-tujona e β-tujona. As concentracoes relativas dos picos correspondentes a β-tujona nao apresentaram diferencas consideraveis nas quatro estacoes. Os sesquiterpenoides oxigenados (cedrol e cariofilenol e nao-oxigenados (α-copaeno, β-cariofileno, germacreno D e cadaleno foram encontrados em menores quantidades no oleo essencial, entretanto observam-se diferencas quantitativas ao longo das estacoes.Essential oils are odorous principles stored in special plant cells. The essential oil in the Hyptis genus is traditionally used as an anesthetic, antispasmodic, antiinflammatory, and can induce abortion in high doses. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of seasons in essential oil content and chemical composition of species H. marrubioides. A completely randomized complete design was used with four treatments (winter, spring, summer and autumn and six replications, totaling 60 plants. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus. The qualitative analysis of the

  18. Root traits of common bean genotypes used in breeding programs for disease resistance Características de raízes de genótipos de feijão usados em programas de melhoramento para resistência a doenças

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    Rogério Faria Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess root traits of 19 common bean genotypes, used in breeding programs for disease resistance. Genotypes DOR 364 and G 19833 were used as deep and shallow basal root checks, respectively. The number of whorls and basal roots were assessed on five-day old seedlings grown in germination paper. Growth pouch studies were conducted to evaluate basal root gravitropism and lateral root length from primary roots, in seven-day old seedlings. The following root gravitropic traits were estimated: basal growth angle, shallow basal root length (localized in the top 2 cm, and relative shallow basal root growth. Number of whorls varied from 1.47 to 3.07, and number of basal roots ranged from 5.67 (genotype TO to 12.07 (cultivar Jalo MG-65. Cultivars BRS MG Talismã, Carioca, BRS Pioneiro, and Diamante Negro exhibited shallow basal roots, while genotypes Vi-10-2-1, TU, AB 136, and México 54 showed deep basal roots. Cultivar Jalo MG-65 showed more lateral roots from the primary root than the other genotypes. Genotypes used on common bean breeding programs for disease resistance have great variability on basal and primary root traits.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de raízes de 19 genótipos de feijão, usados em programas de melhoramento como fontes de resistência a doenças. Os genótipos DOR 364 e G 19833 foram usados como testemunhas de raízes basais superficiais e profundas, respectivamente. O número de verticilos e raízes basais foi avaliado em plântulas com cinco dias de idade que cresceram em papel de germinação. Foram conduzidos estudos em recipientes de crescimento para avaliar o gravitropismo de raízes basais e o comprimento das raízes laterais, na raiz principal de plântulas com sete dias. As seguintes características relacionadas ao gravitropismo das raízes foram avaliadas: ângulo de crescimento de raízes basais, comprimento de raízes basais superficiais (localizadas nos 2

  19. Materiais usados na constituição dos principais componentes de células a combustível de óxido sólido Materials used in the manufacture of the main components of solid oxide fuel cells

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    A. C. Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As células a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC são dispositivos capazes de gerar energia elétrica com alta eficiência e baixa emissão de poluentes. As altas temperaturas de operação dessas células (600 a 1000 °C são benéficas no sentido de possibilitar a reforma in situ do combustível utilizado, bem como sua aplicação em sistemas de co-geração de energia, aumentando sua eficiência teórica total que pode chegar entre 80 e 85%. Entretanto, essas altas temperaturas, o contato direto entre materiais de constituições químicas diferentes e a utilização de gases redutores e oxidantes, são alguns dos fatores que impõem severas restrições aos materiais usados na preparação de seus principais componentes. O presente artigo tem como objetivo revisar o desenvolvimento do estado da arte, com relação aos materiais de ânodo, cátodo, eletrólito, interconectores e selantes, usados em SOFCs. Os requisitos necessários para o bom funcionamento de cada componente e os materiais que melhor se adequam aos mesmos são descritos. As vantagens e desvantagens dos principais materiais encontrados na literatura são também comentadas e comparadas.Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC are devices capable to generate electricity with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. The high operation temperatures of these batteries (600 to 1000 °C are advantageous, making possible the reform of the fuel used in situ as well as its application in systems for cogeneration of energy, increasing its total efficiency up to values between 80 and 85%. However, these high temperatures require severe restrictions on the materials used in the preparation of their main components. This paper aims to review the state of the art of the developed material as anode material, cathode, electrolyte, interconnects and seals, to be used in SOFCs. The requirements for a good operation of each component and the materials that best fit their specific need are described

  20. Biorremediacion de lodos contaminados con aceites lubricantes usados

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasquez, Maria Cristina; Guerrero Figueroa, Jennifer Thibisay; del Pilar Quintero, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    ... (Giron, Santander, Colombia), donde se evaluaron consorcios microbianos nativos, que posteriormente se adicionaron a las biopilas conformadas por lodos deshidratados provenientes del tratamiento primario de aguas residuales domesticas...

  1. O Algoritmo usado no programa de criptografia PASME

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Péricles Lopes

    2011-01-01

    This work present the main encryption's algorithm of the PASME tool. This software allows encrypt and hide an information in various types of files. The algorithm uses the fact that factoring large numbers is a difficult issue in terms of computational performing to make the main steps of the encryption.

  2. Biorremediacion de lodos contaminados con aceites lubricantes usados

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasquez, Maria Cristina; Guerrero Figueroa, Jennifer Thibisay; del Pilar Quintero, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    .... Se propuso la biorremediacion para disminuir la concentracion de dichos contaminantes. Los ensayos fueron realizados en las instalaciones de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) de Rio Frio...

  3. Manejo Microbiológico dos Grânulos de Polímero Acrílico Usados na Prevenção da Dengue/Microbiological Management of Polymer Granule Acrylic Used in the Prevention of Dengue Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Togeiro Bastos Filgueiras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Efetuar o manejo microbiológico dos grânulos de polímero acrílico usados na prevenção da Dengue. Materiais e Métodos: Para a determinação da presença ou ausência de coliformes totais e fecais, e de E. coli, foram realizadas avaliações utilizando metodologia do kit Colitest®. Foram elaborados cinco recipientes com mudas de planta simulando as condições naturais de vasos de polímero acrílico. Utilizaram-se cinco diferentes grânulos de polímero acrílico adquiridos comercialmente. De tais recipientes foram colhidas sete amostras em dias sucessivos. A leitura foi feita com auxílio de uma lâmpada de ondas longas de 365nm, após realizou-se prova de Indol. Resultado: Em relação ao grupo amostragem, em 11,5% não houve crescimento bacteriano, em 17,2% houve presença de E.coli e em 71,3% coliformes totais, constatando altos índices de contaminação. Discussão: Não há na literatura científica trabalhos semelhantes, porém trabalhos analisando águas de outras fontes evidenciam que a água proveniente dos vasos dos grânulos tem maior potencial de contaminação. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos permitiram identificar altas taxas de crescimento bacteriano, evidenciando grande risco de contaminação. As informações oferecidas nos rótulos não se encontram nos padrões estabelecidos pela ANVISA. O estudo é de grande importância por efetuar controle de qualidade microbiológico visando à segurança do consumidor em um produto usado na profilaxia do dengue. Objectives: To make the microbiological management of acrylic polymer granule used in the prevention of Dengue fever. Materials and Methods: For the determination of the presence or absence of total and faecal coliform and E. coli, evaluations were performed with the use of the kit Colitest® methodology. Five vases were prepared to plant seedlings simulating the natural conditions of acrylic polymer vases. Five different acrylic polymer granule acquired

  4. Características psicométricas dos instrumentos usados para avaliar a qualidade de vida na esclerose múltipla: uma revisão bibliográfica Psychometric characteristics of the instruments used to assess quality of life in multiple sclerosis: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Maria Reis Pedro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A esclerose múltipla (EM é a doença crônica neurológica que mais afeta adultos jovens; em 80% dos casos, a doença progride para situações de níveis variados de incapacidade, o que torna necessário avaliar a qualidade de vida (QV desses indivíduos. O objetivo desta revisão foi localizar estudos que avaliam a QV em indivíduos com EM, identificando os instrumentos utilizados e suas características psicométricas. Foram consultadas as bases Psycinfo, Psycarticles, Psycbooks, Psychology & Behavioral Science Collection, EJS E-Journal, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Medline, e Academic Search Complete, utilizando os descritores multiple sclerosis e quality of life, para localizar artigos publicados no período 1997-2007. Foram selecionados 1.376 artigos e, após a leitura dos resumos, excluídos os referentes a instrumentos que não tinham boas características psicométricas e/ou eram pouco referenciados. Foram encontrados 461 artigos, dos quais 267 usaram instrumentos genéricos e 194, específicos para a EM. Dos 7 instrumentos (2 genéricos, 5 específicos com boas características psicométricas utilizados pelos estudos consultados, o mais usado é o SF-36 (em 237 estudos. Todos os instrumentos têm validade verificada e apresentam grau elevado de confiabilidade, podendo ser utilizados para avaliação da qualidade de vida de pacientes com EM tanto em pesquisa quanto na clínica.

  5. Influência do tipo de ácido usado e da sua concentração na ativação de uma argila bentonítica Influence of the type and concentration of the used acid on the activation of bentonite clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A ativação ácida de uma argila tem por finalidade aumentar as suas propriedades adsortivas e catalíticas. Nesse estudo, uma amostra de argila bentonítica, proveniente da Província de Mendoza (Argentina, foi ativada com diferentes concentrações (4 e 8 N por ácido sulfúrico e clorídrico. Para verificar a influência das concentrações e do tipo de ácido usado na ativação da argila, utilizou-se técnicas de difração de raios X, análise térmica diferencial e termogravimétrica e análise química. Os resultados mostraram que houve modificação na estrutura do material argiloso após o ataque ácido. O tratamento com ácido sulfúrico e clorídrico sobre uma mesma bentonita originou produtos com diferentes características estruturais.The clay acid activation has the purpose of increasing its adsorbent and catalytic properties. In this study, a bentonite clay sample from Mendoza (Argentine was activated in different concentrations (4 N and 8 N through the use of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. To verify the influence of concentrations and the kind of acid utilized in the clay activation, it was utilized techniques of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and chemical analysis. The results have shown that the clay structure was modified after acid attack. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acid treatment in the same bentonite originated products with different structural characteristics.

  6. ENTRAVES E PERSPECTIVAS PARA A LOGÍSTICA REVERSA DO ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE E SUAS EMBALAGENS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques Demajorovic; Luis Alfredo Sencovici

    2015-01-01

    .... However, issues such as conflicts in the reverse chain as to the distribution costs of collection, lack of regional solutions to recycling activities, poor supervision, lack of tax incentives and...

  7. Increased production of naphtenic lubricants using more active catalysts; Aumento da producao de lubrificantes naftenicos usando catalisadores mais ativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Anita Eleonora F.; Lima, Anie Daniela M.; Figueiredo, Joao B.; Nogueira, Wlamir S.; Zotin, Jose L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS produces lubricant base oil in three of its refineries: Duque de Caxias (REDUC), Landulpho Alves (RLAM) and Lubricants and Derivatives of Petroleum of Northeast (LUBNOR). LUBNOR, which began its operation in 1998, is the only refinery that produces naphtenic lubricant base oils with a current capacity of 60.000 m{sup 3}/year. It processes Brazilian naphtenic crudes in a vacuum distillation unit to produce distillates, which are then fed in to a hydrotreatment unit (HDT). This HDT unit processes 170 m{sup 3}/day to obtain base oils NH-10, NH-20, NH-140 and ISOVOLT. In 2007, an evaluation study of new catalysts was made for this unit at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) aiming to increase the production capacity of the HDT unit. The concept was based on increasing the catalytic activity in the HTD unit by testing new catalysts and operating conditions in a pilot-plant unit. The results obtained were very promising showing that a selected catalyst achieved the normal production rate maintaining the same high quality product at a temperature lower than the conventional process. Alternatively, a 77% increase in the throughput capacity was achieved when the normal reaction temperature was applied to this selected catalyst. (author)

  8. Tunable Oleo-Furan Surfactants by Acylation of Renewable Furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Sung; Joseph, Kristeen E.; Koehle, Maura; Krumm, Christoph; Ren, Limin; Damen, Jonathan N.; Shete, Meera H.; Lee, Han Seung; Zuo, Xiaobing; Lee, Byeongdu; Fan, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Lobo, Raul F.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Dauenhauer, Paul J.

    2016-11-23

    An important advance in fluid surface control was the amphiphilic surfactant comprised of coupled molecular structures (i.e. hydrophilic and hydrophobic) to reduce surface tension between two distinct fluid phases. However, implementation of simple surfactants has been hindered by the broad range of applications in water containing alkaline earth metals (i.e. hard water), which disrupt surfactant function and require extensive use of undesirable and expensive chelating additives. Here we show that sugar-derived furans can be linked with triglyceride-derived fatty acid chains via Friedel-Crafts acylation within single layer (SPP) zeolite catalysts. These alkylfuran surfactants independently suppress the effects of hard water while simultaneously permitting broad tunability of size, structure, and function, which can be optimized for superior capability for forming micelles and solubilizing in water.

  9. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    fittkaui, F. platyacanthus. Os nomes indígenas usados para elas são: shuhu, para o camarão, oko e peimatherimi para cada um dos caranguejos pseudotelfusídeos, e hesiki tôtôrema para ambas as espécies de caranguejos tricodactilídeos.

  10. Efeito do tempo de exposição a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratário usado na indústria petroquímica Effect of the exposure time in cokemaking atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Cabrelon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os concretos refratários usados em unidades de craqueamento catalítico fluidizado (UFCC podem sofrer deterioração pela deposição de coque durante o processo de produção de hidrocarbonetos leves, ocasionando a diminuição do tempo de funcionamento do reator e conseqüente perda financeira para as petroquímicas. Diversos estudos foram feitos, porém nenhum deles aponta conclusivamente para a parcela que esta deposição tem na deterioração do concreto, permanecendo a dúvida se ele é o responsável pelos danos observados macroscopicamente no riser de uma UFCC. Este trabalho visou estudar o efeito do tempo de exposição a uma atmosfera coqueificante sobre um concreto refratário anti-erosivo, classe C, buscando identificar mudanças nas propriedades físicas e microestruturais que evidenciem o mecanismo de degradação e que possam fornecer subsídios para análises conclusivas acerca do entendimento do fenômeno. Para isso, prepararam-se amostras de um concreto usado industrialmente em UFCC, submetidas a um processo de coqueificação forçado em reator piloto. Fixou-se a temperatura e a taxa de aquecimento em 540 ºC e 50 ºC/h, respectivamente, variando-se os tempos de exposição ao gás propeno em 10, 60, 120, 240 e 480 h. Os corpos de prova tiveram suas microestruturas caracterizadas via microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura e suas fases por difração de raios X. Outros ensaios complementares foram necessários para o entendimento do fenômeno. Os resultados mostraram que a superfície e a microestrutura do material gradativamente se impregnam de coque, que preenche os poros, as microtrincas e as trincas. Não foram encontradas evidências de microtrincamento em torno dos poros da matriz do concreto preenchidos com coque, porém os agregados apresentam algum tipo de deterioração com o tempo de exposição ao propeno, não necessariamente causados diretamente pelo coque.Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic

  11. Incorporation by host tissue of two biomaterials used as repair of defects produced in abdominal wall of rats Incorporação por tecido do hospedeiro de dois biomateriais usados como reparo de defeitos produzido em parede abdominal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyiene Cordeiro Falcão

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Biomaterials may be used as treatment of great abdominal wall defects to avoid tension during repair. In the present research we intended to investigate incorporation type by host tissue of membranes of microbial cellulose (MC, produced by the bacteria Zoogloea sp., and of polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE in abdominal wall defects of rats. METHODS: Sixty male rats Wistar, anesthetized by ketamine (5mg/100g and xylazine (2mg/100g, were submitted to a rectangular excision (2x3cm of the abdominal wall, including fascia, muscles and peritoneum and further treated with implants of microbial cellulose (MC Group - 30 animals or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ( ePTFE Group- 30 animals. Each group was subdivided in 14th DPO, 28th DPO and 60th DPO Subgroups. RESULTS: Incorporation of biomaterials was observed by wrapping and infiltration by host tissue. It has been found that wrapping associated to infiltration of host connective tissue in implants of ePTFE were present in 100% of the observed samples, and this may be responsible for increase resistance to traction. Inversely, wrapping without host tissue infiltration was seen in 100% of examined specimens of MC implants. CONCLUSION: Wrapping and host tissue infiltration is seen only in ePTFE implants.OBJETIVO: Biomateriais podem ser usados como tratamento de grandes defeitos da parede abdominal para evitar tensão durante reparo. Na presente pesquisa pretendeu-se investigar o tipo de incorporação pelo tecido do hospedeiro de membranas de celulose microbiana (CM, produzidas pela bactérias Zoogloea sp., e de politetrafluoretileno (PTFEe em defeitos da parede abdominal de ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos machos Wistar, anestesiados através de cetamina (5mg/100g e xilazina (2mg/100g, foram submetidos a uma excisão retangular (2x3cm da parede abdominal, incluindo fascia, músculos e peritoneum e posteriormente tratadas com implantes de celulose microbiana (Groupo CM - 30 animais ou

  12. Glicemia e concentrações séricas de insulina, triglicérides e cortisol em equinos da raça Quarto de Milha e mestiços usados em provas de laço em dupla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larize de Oliveira Ramalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de uma prova de laço em dupla, caracterizado por ser um exercício físico de curta duração e alta intensidade, sobre a glicemia e concentrações séricas de cortisol, insulina e triglicérides  em equinos, durante competição realizada no estado do Espírito Santo. Para tal, foram obtidas amostras de soro e plasma de dez equinos, da raça Quarto de Milha ou mestiços, em três momentos, assim definidos: no repouso, uma  semana antes da prova atlética, já com o animal em treinamento (T0; antes da prova atlética (T1 e imediatamente  após o término da mesma (T2. A análise dos resultados demonstrou a não influência do exercício físico imposto sobre  a glicose plasmática, com valores plasmáticos de 96,1±12,9mg/dL, 101,3±11,9mg/dL e 100,2±13,9mg/dL, e sobre a  insulina sérica, com valores médios de 1,95±1,47μUI/mL, 2,36±1,21μUI/mL e 1,54±1,08μUI/mL, respectivamente, nos  tempos T0, T1 e T2. De forma oposta, foi possível observar uma influência significativa sobre triglicérides séricos, com  valores médios de 17,9±4,7mg/dL, 23,7±11,8mg/dL e 42,3±20,6mg/dL, e sobre o cortisol sérico, com valores médios  de 7,49±3,46mg/dL, 6,86±2,76mg/dL e 10,89±3,99mg/dL, respectivamente nos tempos T0, T1 e T2. A interpretação dos  resultados permitiu sugerir que os equinos usados estavam aptos ao nível de atividade física imposta.

  13. Eficácia e segurança de dois inaladores de pó seco usados para a aplicação de furoato de mometasona em pacientes com asma Efficacy and safety of two dry-powder inhalers for the administration of mometasone furoate in asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O furoato de mometasona (FM é um novo corticosteroide inalatório sintético potente. Internacionalmente, o FM é fornecido em um inalador de pó seco que permite sua administração em múltiplas doses. Para se obter uma preparação com melhor relação custo-eficácia, foram desenvolvidas no Brasil formulações de FM em cápsulas de pó seco para serem administradas em dose única. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e a segurança dos dois inaladores usados para a administração de FM em pacientes asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico, aberto, comparativo, paralelo e multicêntrico com 74 adultos portadores de asma persistente e moderada, randomizados em dois grupos para receber FM em uma dose de aproximadamente 400 µg, fornecida por um inalador de dose múltipla ou pelo novo inalador de dose única, uma vez ao dia durante 60 dias. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos estudados nos desfechos primários (VEF1 e frequência do uso de medicação de resgate ou nos desfechos secundários (PFE matinal, tolerabilidade e segurança, essa última avaliada pelo estudo do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. CONCLUSÕES: A administração de FM com o novo inalador de dose única desenvolvido no Brasil tem eficácia e segurança comparáveis à administração com o inalador de dose múltipla no tratamento de pacientes asmáticos.OBJECTIVE: Mometasone furoate (MF is a new, potent synthetic inhaled corticosteroid. Worldwide, MF is administered via a dry-powder inhaler that contains multiple doses. As a preparation that would be more cost-effective, single-dose MF capsules were developed in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the two inhalers for MF administration in patients with asthma. METHODS: A randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial involving 74 adult patients with moderate, persistent asthma who

  14. Influência da expansão rápida da maxila na rizólise dos caninos decíduos usados como ancoragem Influence of rapid maxillary expansion on the root resorption of primary canines used as anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo radiográfico, retrospectivo e longitudinal objetivou determinar se a ancoragem do aparelho expansor fixo tipo Haas, modificado para as dentaduras decídua e mista, interfere na velocidade de rizólise e esfoliação dos caninos decíduos. MÉTODOS: foi feita uma avaliação quantitativa da rizólise do canino decíduo mediante a medição do comprimento coroa-ápice dos caninos decíduos superiores, dos lados direito e esquerdo. Para essa avaliação, 24 crianças submetidas à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM na dentadura decídua ou no início da dentadura mista foram comparadas com 15 crianças que não passaram por esse procedimento. A medição do comprimento coroa-ápice dos caninos decíduos foi realizada com o programa computadorizado CEF-X Cefalometria Digital, produzido pela CDT Informática, que permitiu calibrar o tamanho dos dentes pela uniformização das imagens radiográficas digitalizadas. RESULTADOS: os dados estatísticos revelaram que não houve diferença na velocidade de rizólise dos caninos decíduos entre as crianças do grupo controle e as do grupo submetido à ERM. CONCLUSÕES: é possível inferir que o aparelho expansor fixo tipo Haas ancorado em dentes decíduos não influencia a rizólise dos caninos decíduos usados como ancoragem.AIM: The current radiographic, retrospective longitudinal study aim was to demonstrate whether the Haas fixed appliance, modified for the primary and mixed dentitions, interferes in the velocity of the root resorption and exfoliation of the primary canines. METHODS: It was evaluated the amount of root resorption of primary canines on the basis of measurements of the apex-crown length of right and left upper primary canines. For this measurement twenty-four children submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME in the primary and mixed dentition were compared to 15 children who did not undergo such a procedure. The measurement of the apex-crown length of the

  15. Tempo de reepitelização corneana com a instilação de colírio contendo hialuronato de sódio e carboximetilcelulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bugman Moreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tempo de reepitelização corneana pós abrasão usando colírios comercialmente disponíveis, um contendo hialuronato de sódio a 0,4%, outro contendo carboximetilcelulose a 1%, e comparar com a reepitelização sem instilação de colírio. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 coelhos, nos quais foi feita a abrasão mecânica da córnea nos 8 mm centrais. Esses animais foram divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu um colírio disponível comercialmente contendo hialuronato de sódio 0,4%, o segundo recebeu um colírio contendo carboximetilcelulose 1% e o terceiro não recebeu nenhuma droga. A avaliação foi feita a cada 24 horas por meio da análise de fotografias digitais sob luz azul de cobalto e coramento das córneas com fluoresceína a 2%. O estudo das imagens foi feito pelo sistema de análise de imagens do Autocad 2009®. A análise dos dados foi feita comparando o tempo total de reepitelização da córnea e a cada 24 horas entre os três grupos. RESULTADOS: A velocidade de reepitelização do grupo que usou colírio contendo hialuronato de sódio foi em média 90 horas; o grupo que usou carboximetilcelulose apresentou média de 105 horas; e o grupo que não usou nenhum tipo de lubrificante apresentou média de 108 horas para total reepitelização. Houve uma melhor performance na reepitelização após 96 horas nas córneas dos coelhos que usaram os colírios lubrificantes, sendo essa diferença estatisticamente comprovada. CONCLUSÃO: O colírio contendo hialuronato de sódio 0,4% mostrou índice de eficácia maior que aquele contendo carboximetilcelulose 1%, e este maior eficácia que o controle. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo mostram que o uso de lubrificantes no processo de reepitelização são de extrema valia e devem ser usados de rotina na clínica oftalmológica.

  16. Determinação de metais em óleos lubrificantes, provenientes de motores de ônibus urbano, utilizando a FAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lúcia Cardoso Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed a procedure to examine ashes produced in burning lubricating oils used in public transportation, in Teresina PI. Sulphanilic acid was added to the oil samples, which were burned at 550 °C for three hours and 650 °C for two hours. The ash solutions were analyzed by FAAS and there were significant differences in the metal contents of the waste oil produced from normal car service. The quantification limits in μg g-1 were 5.9 (Fe, 4.4 (Pb, 1.7 (Ni, 2.1 (Cu, and 1.2 (Zn. The results showed positive accuracy and precision with recoveries between 88 and 108%, and RSD lower than 10%.

  17. Development and evaluation of a high performance lubricant for industrial gears; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao de lubrificantes de alto desempenho para engrenagens industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Laura Denise Santiago de; Silva, Ademir Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, Adelci Menezes de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, new machines are submitted to higher efforts with smaller clearances. For them it is necessary to develop high performance lubricants in order to reduce friction, wear and emissions for internal combustion engines. In this work it was developed two lubricants, prepared with MoS{sub 2} (Molybdenum Disulfide) and LIC (Lubricant Intermetallic Compound), and they were compared to commercial oil, at the same viscosity grade ISO VG 320. The oils were tested in a four ball tribometer, at 1200 rpm, at initial temperature of 40 deg C and at 80 kgf. The friction reduction was of 13 % and 18 % for MoS{sub 2} and LIC oil, respectively. The wear was the same for all tested oils. Besides tests in the four ball machine, all oils were characterized by viscosity, demulsibility and atomic emission spectroscopy. The lubricants formulated with solids particles were considered as high performance. (author)

  18. Synergy and lubricant effect of biosurfactant/biodiesel addition in polymeric fluids; Acao lubrificante e sinergia da adicao de biosurfactante/biodiesel em fluidos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Suzan I.G.; Costa, Marta; Macedo, Sinara P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lubricity coefficient (CL) and filtrate volume of the polymeric drilling fluids contained glycerin, paraffin, biodiesel and biosurfactant were investigated to evidence the influence and efficiency when used individually or through associated. All the tested fluids were aged in rotative oven for 16 hours, at 200 deg F. In this study, the association of biodiesel with biosurfactant proved to be promising because it reduced the CL in 87% and the volume of filtered by 22%. Those results become promising when the applicability is approached in perforation of wells, because it means a smaller wear and tear of the drills when we told the lubricity data, and a smaller damage the formation when we provided a smaller invasion of the perforation fluid the formations. To evaluate the effect of the degradation of the products, the fluids were stocked to room temperature by thirty (30) days, being soon afterwards. That time of stockpiling went ideal to the hydration of the molecules, because its viscosity was alters sensibly and influencing positively in the filtrate and in rheologic mediated. (author)

  19. Avaliação de métodos comumente usados em laboratórios para a determinação da suscetibilidade à oxacilina entre amostras de Staphylococcus sp, isoladas de um hospital de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo Evaluation of methods commonly used in laboratories to determine the susceptibility to oxacillin among Staphylococcus sp samples isolated from a hospital in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Dias Lemos Kaiser

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O gênero Staphylococcus é de grande importância devido a sua alta prevalência em infecções hospitalares e por apresentar taxas elevadas de resistência a oxacilina e a outros antimicrobianos. Assim, a avaliação da acurácia dos métodos fenotípicos usados para determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos é essencial para garantir a escolha da terapia mais adequada. MÉTODOS: Foram usadas 114 amostras de Staphylococcus sp (53 S. aureus e 61 SCN na avaliação da acurácia dos métodos de difusão de disco, microdiluição em agar, ágar triagem oxacilina e sistema automatizado em comparação com a PCR para verificação da resistência a oxacilina. RESULTADOS: O gene mecA foi detectado em 48 (42,1% amostras e 27 (23,7% amostras apresentaram discrepância de resultados em pelo menos um dos métodos (74,1% SCN, 25,9% S. aureus. Para S. aureus, com exceção do Microscan Walkaway, todos os métodos apresentaram 100% de especificidade e sensibilidade. Já para os SCN, o sistema automatizado e o disco de cefoxitina apresentaram menor acurácia. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de dois métodos deve ser a melhor opção para a melhora da acurácia, principalmente quando o laboratório de diagnóstico utiliza somente sistema automatizado ou teste de difusão do disco de oxacilina. A associação destes métodos com outros apresentaram praticamente 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em nosso estudo.INTRODUCTION: The genus Staphylococcus is of great importance because of its high prevalence in hospital infections and because it presents high rates of resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials. Thus, evaluation of the accuracy of the phenotypic methods that are used to determine the profile of antimicrobial resistance is essential to ensure that the most appropriate therapy is chosen. METHODS: One hundred and fourteen strains of Staphylococcus sp (53 S. aureus and 61 CNS were used to evaluate the accuracy of the

  20. Study of methane solubility in oil base used in oil base drilling fluid; Estudo da solubilidade de metano em base oleo utilizada em fluido de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Teixeira da; Mariolani, Jose Ricardo Lenzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Lomba, Rosana Fatima Teixeira; Bonet, Euclides Jose

    2004-07-01

    During drilling a well, it is necessary to prevent and control high pressurized zones because while drilling on those zones, could occur a kick if the formation pressure were higher then downhole pressure, allowing the entering of undesirables fluids from the formation to the wellbore. If the well is not controlled this kick could became a blowout, generating damages to the environment, to the equipment and the human life. When drilling using oil-based mud, the concern related to the well control would be higher due the gas solubility in the mud, which could make it hard to detect the kick, especially in deep and ultra deep waters. In this work we have studied the interaction between methane and organic liquids used in drilling fluids, and the measurement and analysis of the thermodynamic properties of those gas liquid mixtures. There have been measured parameters like the oil formation volume factor (FVF{sub o}), bubble pressure, solubility (Rs) and the density of the saturated liquid in function of methane mole fraction and temperature. The results have shown that the gas solubility, at downhole conditions and during kick circulation, is a factor very important to the safety during well drilling in deep and ultra deep waters. (author)

  1. Sorption of oil in the polyurethane from oil or castor oil; Sorcao de oleo no poliuretano derivado do petroleo ou do oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentino, Wagner M.; Goulart, Shane A.S.; Mulinari, Daniella R. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: wagner-can@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The oil outpouring has caused serious environmental problems. To minimize this damage polyurethane foams have been used. In this work, the use of polyurethane from oil and castor oil, in different polyol/diisocyanate mass ratios, to absorb oil was evaluated. Results revealed that the proportion of polyol and diisocyanate influenced in the sorption capacity and the polyurethane from castor oil presented greater sorption capacity. Of this way, can say that the polyurethane from oil can be replaced by castor oil, contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  2. Study of methane solubility in oil base used in oil base drilling fluid; Estudo da solubilidade de metano em base oleo utilizada em fluido de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Teixeira da; Mariolani, Jose Ricardo Lenzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Lomba, Rosana Fatima Teixeira; Bonet, Euclides Jose

    2004-07-01

    During drilling a well, it is necessary to prevent and control high pressurized zones because while drilling on those zones, could occur a kick if the formation pressure were higher then downhole pressure, allowing the entering of undesirables fluids from the formation to the wellbore. If the well is not controlled this kick could became a blowout, generating damages to the environment, to the equipment and the human life. When drilling using oil-based mud, the concern related to the well control would be higher due the gas solubility in the mud, which could make it hard to detect the kick, especially in deep and ultra deep waters. In this work we have studied the interaction between methane and organic liquids used in drilling fluids, and the measurement and analysis of the thermodynamic properties of those gas liquid mixtures. There have been measured parameters like the oil formation volume factor (FVF{sub o}), bubble pressure, solubility (Rs) and the density of the saturated liquid in function of methane mole fraction and temperature. The results have shown that the gas solubility, at downhole conditions and during kick circulation, is a factor very important to the safety during well drilling in deep and ultra deep waters. (author)

  3. Effectiveness of NaOCl alone or in combination with EDTA on the diffusion of hydroxyl ions released by calcium hydroxide paste Efetividade do hipoclorito de sódio usado isoladamente ou em associação com o EDTA sobre a difusão de íons hidroxila liberados de pasta de hidróxido de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Santos Felippe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of different irrigant solutions employed during removal and replacement of calcium hydroxide paste on the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through root canal dentine in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-five maxillary and mandibular human canines with straight and fully developed roots were used. After mechanical preparation up to 1mm short of tooth length, 30 canals were filled with calcium hydroxide paste and 5 canals were left empty; all teeth had their coronal accesses properly sealed. Teeth were placed in plastic containers with distilled water, and pH was read after 30 days when the paste from 20 teeth was renewed. After removal of the paste by endodontic instrumentation and irrigation with distilled water, canals were replenished with newly mixed paste in Group 1 and 2. In these groups, final irrigation was conducted with 5 mL of EDTA followed by 5 mL of NaOCl in specimens in Group 1, and 5 mL of NaOCl only in specimens in Group 2. In 10 teeth the paste was not replenished at 30 days (Group 3. All specimens were returned to the containers with fresh distilled water, and the pH was recorded after another 30 days. The differences between the first (30d and second (60d pH readings were calculated and submitted to analysis of variance and individual comparisons using the Scheffeé's test. RESULTS: Results of mean analysis on differences of pH readings showed that greater diffusion had occurred on specimens in Group 3. Individual comparisons using Scheffeé's test showed statistical significance between Groups 2 and 3, and equivalence between all other groups. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the use of EDTA did not enhance diffusion of hydroxyl ions through root canal dentine.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar o efeito de diferentes irrigantes, usados durante a troca da pasta de hidróxido de cálcio, sobre a difusão de íons hidroxila. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 35 caninos humanos, com canais retos e ra

  4. Propuesta de minimización del impacto ambiental producido por vertidos de aceites vegetales usados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Chamorro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article Develops a proposal to minimize the environmental impact taken place by those poured of the used vegetable oils (UVO to the nets of municipal waste waters, drains, sanitary fillers and bodies of natural waters. It was determined and it quantified the universe of potential suppliers of used vegetable oils in the city of Puerto Ordaz, With the UVO an ecological fuel will take place, through the transesterification of you mat. You designs and I build a plant pilot to study the chemical reactions involved in the process and the production of the ecological fuel (BIODIESEL that will be able to be used in any Diesel motor.

  5. Aspectos básicos de los materiales usados en ingeniería

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alexander Aponte Rodríguez; Hernando A. Villazón Amaris

    2001-01-01

    E l estudio de los materiales ha sido objeto de gran importancia en el desarrollo tecnológico a nivel mundial, pues gracias a éste la humanidad ha logrado fabricar armas para defenderse de las otras especies y herramientas para las labores agrícolas que nos dieron la posibilidad de tener civilizaciones sedentarias. Los materiales juegan un papel fundamental en el avance de la tecnología, y mediante el estudio y desarrollo de éstos, se han podido lograr mejores ni...

  6. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marissol Richter; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o m...

  7. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissol Richter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o material se funde e quebra na boca. Muitos chocolates disponíveis no mercado são elaborados com ingredientes similares, porém apresentam diferentes sabores. Alguns produtores têm aromas específicos, sendo que existem trocas freqüentes nestes devido a variações no processo, acidez e temperatura, ocasionando variações de aroma e sabor no produto final. Por esta razão, as condições de produção do chocolate são mantidas freqüentemente em segredo. Os ingredientes utilizados na produção de chocolates e de seus produtos têm importante papel na aceitação pelo consumidor e na apresentação do produto.Chocolate is a product widely consumed throughout the world that has seen generally increasing production trends over the last years. Making chocolate requires an understanding of how the consumer perceives it. The preferred type of chocolate varies from country to country. The different tastes and uses for chocolate reflect the histories of the industry in different places. The taste of chocolate is partially determined by the chemistry of the product. Taste depends on the release of flavor compounds in the mouth and nose, while perceived texture is a function of the way in which the material melts and breaks up in the mouth. Most chocolates that are available on the market throughout the world are made from very similar ingredients, yet have very different flavors. Some manufacturers have specific house flavors, and very often this is due to specific changes during the manufacturing process, where changes in holding times, acidity and temperature can give rise to very different flavors in the final chocolate. For this reason, chocolate manufacturing conditions are often kept a closely guarded secret. The ingredients used in chocolate and confectionery products have an important role in consumers acceptance and presentation of the product.

  8. INTEROPERABILIDADE DE APLICATIVOS BIM USADOS EM ARQUITETURA POR MEIO DO FORMATO IFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lira Veras X. de Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito do Building Information Modeling (BIM pressupõe a interoperabilidade e a colaboração entre os profissionais da indústria da Arquitetura Engenharia e Construção (AEC. Todavia, estes profissionais exploram pouco o recurso da colaboração no processo de projeto com o BIM, além do mais, se os aplicativos BIM não possuírem robustez na interoperabilidade a atividade de colaboração e cooperação pode ser ainda mais dificultada. Visando diagnosticar a eficiência dos aplicativos BIM no uso do recurso da interoperabilidade, o presente trabalho empreende um esforço para identificar as principais não conformidades na troca de informações dos modelos do edifício produzidos em aplicativos BIM voltados para arquitetura. Além do mais, discute como estes aplicativos tratam as informações de mesmas famílias de objetos. Este artigo inicia com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos de colaboração, interoperabilidade e Industry Foundation Classes (IFC. Em seguida modela um edifício de dois pavimentos nos aplicativos ArchiCAD e Revit. Salva os modelos em arquivos no formato IFC. Importa os arquivos IFC pelo ArchiCAD, Revit e dois aplicativos de visualização. Analisa as não conformidades dos arquivos importados. Os resultados mostram que: ocorrem perdas na qualidade dos modelos do edifício quando importados de arquivos no formato IFC; aplicativos BIM destinados à arquitetura apresentam limitações na informação do modelo do edifício (parte das informações são geradas apenas em 2D; existem não conformidades de padrão na definição das propriedades dos componentes apresentados por diferentes aplicativos BIM, voltados para arquitetura. Como sugestão apresenta exemplo bem sucedido de sistema de compartilhamento de modelos BIM. Para finalizar, mostra que os tradutores de IFC, apesar das melhorias das últimas versões, ainda não são robustos o suficiente para transportar os dados do modelo com a qualidade do original. Palavras-chaves: Building Information Modeling, projeto arquitetônico, interoperabilidade. APPLICATION INTEROPERABILITY BIM USED IN ARCHITECTURE THROUGH THE FORMAT IF ABSTRACT The Building Information Modeling (BIM concept emphasizes interoperability and collaboration between Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC industry agents. However, aside from the fact that these agents haven´t explored all potentiality of technology supported collaboration, there is also the fact that BIM software are inefficient to allow fluent data exchange between different applications; therefore, making it more difficult to collaborate and cooperation through data sharing. In order to diagnose the maturity of BIM applications in interoperability resources, a study was developed to indentify the major non-conformities of building information models represented in the IFC format generated by architecture BIM authoring software. Therefore, this paper discusses how these applications handle information from the same families of objects when exported and imported to and from the IFC format. The first part of the article is a revision on collaboration, interoperability and IFC concept. Secondly, a two-story building in ArchiCAD e Revit software is presented. These models are exported to the IFC files format. Afterwards these IFC models are imported or opened in ArchiCAD, Revit and two IFC visualization software and analyses for non-compliance are executed. The results show: losses in consistence of the data model, when building models are imported from IFC models; architectural design BIM software are limited in information model of the building (partial information model are generated in 2D; there is no pattern in design model property, each software develops their own pattern. As a suggestion this paper shows a case of sharing system model, as a successful application of BIM interoperability in AEC industry. In short it shows that IFC, despite improvements in recent versions, are not yet robust enough to support all data representations of building information model for complete exchange between AEC applications. Key-words: Building Information Modeling, architectural design, interoperability.

  9. Estudio in vitro para comprobar la estabilidad del color de materiales provisionales usados en prostodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: en el presente estudio se valoró la estabilidad del color de resinas acrílicas y bisacrílicas. Métodos: se confeccionaron ochenta discos, la mitad fueron pulidos para comprobar cómo influye esto en la estabilidad del color. Las resinas se termociclaron y se sumergieron en diferentes líquidos pigmentantes. Se cuantificó el cambio en el color utilizando un espectrofotómetro. Resultados: los valores de cambio de color (DE) de todos los materiales fueron superiores al valor clínicamente...

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS VERBOS USADOS EN EL DIAGRAMA DE OBJETIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS M. ZAPATA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El diagrama de objetivos tiene varios usos: liga los requisitos y expectativas del interesado con los objetivos de la organización, establece las responsabilidades de los actores y permite explicar a los interesados la importancia del software futuro. En los diferentes trabajos en que se especifica o se usa el diagrama de objetivos subsisten algunos problemas como: el analista es, por lo general, quien elabora el diagrama de manera subjetiva (identificando los objetivos a partir de la información suministrada por el interesado, se presentan confusiones entre objetivos y operaciones, se usan conjuntos reducidos de verbos de objetivos y se obtienen los objetivos a partir de los escenarios-los cuales por lo general se elaboran en una fase más avanzada del ciclo de vida delsoftware. En este artículo se realiza la caracterización de los verbos de objetivos a partir de las Estructuras Léxicas Conceptuales de los verbos, los Roles Temáticos y una clasificación lingüística de los verbos. Este proceso sirve como punto de partida para la elaboración automática del diagrama de objetivos. Además, se implementa un algoritmo que permite extraer de un lexicón computacional los verbos que cumplen con esta caracterización.

  11. Caracterización de los verbos usados en el diagrama de objetivos

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata,Carlos M; LUIS ALFONSO LEZCANO

    2009-01-01

    El diagrama de objetivos tiene varios usos: liga los requisitos y expectativas del interesado con los objetivos de la organización, establece las responsabilidades de los actores y permite explicar a los interesados la importancia del software futuro. En los diferentes trabajos en que se especifica o se usa el diagrama de objetivos subsisten algunos problemas como: el analista es, por lo general, quien elabora el diagrama de manera subjetiva (identificando los objetivos a partir de la informa...

  12. Desmetalization of industrial oils; Proceso de desmetalizacion de aceites industriales usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Perez, V.; Brana Redondo, L. F.; Luque de Castro, M. D.

    2002-07-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction device for the removal of metals from used industrial oils is proposed for the first time. For this purpose, an exhaustive study of the most relevant variables affecting the extraction process was made. The method thus developed was validated using a certified reference material (C.R.M. 1084, N.I.S.T.) as well as four different used industrial oils where the extraction of seven metals, namely Cu, Fe, V, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was monitored by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The extractant used was water containing 4% nitric acid and 13 min was sufficient for achieving yields of the extraction within 70.4% and 97.4%. The precision of the overall method (including determination of the final metal content in the oil), expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%), ranged between 2.6 and 16.2. The use of liquid-liquid extraction assisted by microwave irradiation was shown as a good approach for removing hazard metals from used industrial oils. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. The recovery by focus. The used oils; La regeneracion como objetivo. Los aceites usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco Estevez, C.

    2002-07-01

    Used oils in Europe within the global scope of non-municipal waste, are of such importance that the European Agency of Environment has selected them as one of the five types of high-priority waste, in order to define next objectives of reduction in the environmental policy of the EU and, like such, has deeply analyzed them in its report of January, 2002. (Author)

  14. Acceptance tests for electrometers used in radiotherapy; Pruebas de aceptacion para electrometros usados en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Torres, M.; Tornero-Lopez, A. M.; Ruiz-Arrebola, S.; Guirado, D.; Vilches, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present a set of tests designed to check the compliance of the requirements established in the standard IEC 60731:19972 and TRS 3981 technical report for reference class electrometers using the material normally available in a medical physics department. The characteristics under exam are: stability in the start-up, zero shift, zero drift, leakage current, linearity and repeatability. The method is applied to 4 electrometers: PTW UNIDOS, Sun Nuclear PC-Electrometer, Scanditronix-Wellhofer DOSE1 and Standard Imaging MAX4000. We checked that the electrometers comply with the requirements, although we detected some differences in the performance between them. The method proved itself precise enough and efficient to provide with reliable results for these tests and we consider it could be used to establish an internal procedure for the acceptance of this kind of equipment. (Author)

  15. Interações entre produtos à base de plantas com os medicamentos usados em cardiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaco, Joana Sofia de Almeida Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2014 As doenças cardiovasculares incluem um amplo grupo de patologias que afetam o coração e os grandes vasos, as artérias e veias que constituem a rede de distribuição de sangue no organismo. Em Portugal, as doenças cardiovasculares continuam a ser a principal causa de morte, e também entre as principais causas de morbilidade e invalidez. Nos últimos anos tem-se verificado u...

  16. Formação de biofilme bacteriano sobre polimetilmetacrilato usado como cimento ósseo

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Ferraz de Campos Júnior

    2009-01-01

    A infecção bacteriana é a principal complicação que um procedimento de artroplastia de quadril ou joelho pode apresentar. Mesmo após a incorporação de antibiótico (gentamicina) ao cimento ósseo, as taxas de infecções após este procedimento cirúrgico continuam gerando sérios prejuízos para o hospital e para o paciente. As principais bactérias envolvidas nas infecções relacionadas aos implantes ortopédicos são Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O objetiv...

  17. Estudios anatómicos de algunos tomillos usados en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzani, Norma; Ariza Espinar, Luis

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia la anatomía foliar de tres especies (además el tallo en una de ellas), que bajo el nombre vulgar de "tomillo" o "tomillo serrano" son utilizadas en medicina popular o como condimentos: dos pertenecen a la familia Lamiaceae: Hedeoma multiflorum Benth y Thymus vulgaris L. y la tercera a las Verbenaceae: Acantholippia seriphioides (Gray) Mold. Los elementos histológicos son descriptos e ilustrados y en un cuadro comparativo se dan las diferencias para su correcta identificación

  18. Caracterización del alcohol polivinílico usado en recubrimientos de base acuosa

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    en este trabajo se estudia la aplicación del alcohol polivinílico (PVA) como agente filmógeno en el recubrimiento de película (“film coating”) de tabletas, en combinación con otros agentes formadores de película como hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa (HPMC), etilcelulosa (Aquacoat ECD®), poli-metacrilato (Eudragit® NE-30D) y dispersión de pigmentos (Cotolene). Se fabricaron núcleos placebo los cuales fueron recubiertos con cuatro diferentes formulaciones: PVA, PVA-HPMC, PVA-Eudragit y PVA-Cotolene. ...

  19. MATERIALES COMPUESTOS DE MATRIZ POLIMÉRICA USADOS PARA EL BLINDAJE DE INTERFERENCIA ELECTROMAGNÉTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Orlando Garzón Posada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como propósito revisar el estado del arte en la síntesis y caracterización de materiales de matriz polimérica reforzados con compuestos a base de carbón o ferritas para su uso como materiales atenuadores de interferencia electromagnética (EMI. Recientemente, este tipo de materiales han sido objeto de investigación debido a sus potenciales aplicaciones tecnológicas, economía y de ser además ambientalmente amigables, puesto que polímeros o cauchos reciclados se pueden utilizar para su fabricación. Estos compuestos pueden ser empleados en la producción de blindajes electromagnéticos, transductores, entrega focalizada de medicamentos, marcación de órganos, hipertermia magnética, etc. Para la fabricación de este tipo de materiales compuestos se usan refuerzos particulados, fibras o láminas y como matrices polímeros termoplásticos o termoestables, cauchos sintéticos o naturales. El método de producción de los compuestos (mezcla fundida, métodos químicos, etc. influye en las propiedades eléctricas, magnéticas y electromagnéticas del material obtenido, debido a la relación de aspecto de los refuerzos: compuestos con elevada relación de aspecto de sus refuerzos tendrán mejores propiedades magnéticas, eléctricas y desempeño frente a la interferencia electromagnética. El blindaje electromagnético de estos materiales se cuantifica a través de la efectividad del blindaje (SE o en otros casos a través de la pérdida reflectiva (RL. Una efectividad de blindaje de 30 dB corresponde a 99,9% de atenuación de la radiación electromagnética incidente. En todos los trabajos se comprueba que las propiedades del compuesto dependen de la cantidad y del tipo de refuerzo adicionado a la matriz.

  20. Alergias a alimentos ou a derivados usados como excipientes em medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Liliana Alexandra Alves

    2016-01-01

    Aditivos químicos têm como principal objetivo melhorar os produtos industrializados, como fármacos, conferindo-lhes cor, aroma, textura, conservação, entre outros. Os aditivos utilizados na indústria farmacêutica são denominados excipientes, completando a massa ou o volume especificado no medicamento. São considerados substâncias inativas, uma vez que não apresentam propriedades curativas ou preventivas de doenças ou dos seus sintomas. No âmbito deste trabalho, foi realizado uma revisão bi...

  1. Estudios anatómicos de algunos tomillos usados en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzani, Norma; Ariza Espinar, Luis

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia la anatomía foliar de tres especies (además el tallo en una de ellas), que bajo el nombre vulgar de "tomillo" o "tomillo serrano" son utilizadas en medicina popular o como condimentos: dos pertenecen a la familia Lamiaceae: Hedeoma multiflorum Benth y Thymus vulgaris L. y la tercera a las Verbenaceae: Acantholippia seriphioides (Gray) Mold. Los elementos histológicos son descriptos e ilustrados y en un cuadro comparativo se dan las diferencias para su correcta identificación

  2. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marissol Richter; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o m...

  3. Termoacu Cogeneration: gas, power and oil; Cogeracao Termoacu: gas, energia e oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Geraldo Jose; Gomes, Cicero Sena Moreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of a project that involves cogeneration of power and steam for continuous injection in oil wells in the fields of Alto do Rodrigues and Estreito, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The project combines a PETROBRAS intention for recovering heavy oil in that area with partners intention of generating power to connect in a critical point of the Brazilian Electric System. PETROBRAS studies began in the nineties, when oil wells in that area became old end showed the necessity of some oil recovery technology. In 1999, PETROBRAS and Guaraniana made a partnership for implementation of Termoacu Combined Cycle, that would begin operation as a cogeneration plant for thirteen years, and as combined cycle from that point. The profile of steam injection has been adapted to a new one to comply with the powe r capacity of the Plant, and will operate eight years as a cogeneration plant , four years as a combined cycle with cogeneration and after twelve years as a complete combined cycle with 500 MW of capacity. The project integrates a gas pipeline, a Thermal Power Plant, a Transmission Line to connect to the grid and a Steam Pipeline for steam injection at Estreito and Alto do Rodrigues fields. (author)

  4. Thermal polymerization of Moringa oleifera oil; Termopolimerizacao do oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Tania M.S.; Novack, Katia M.; Leandro, Cristiano, E-mail: tania@iceb.ufop.br [Departamento de Quimica - UFOP, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    It is increasingly clear both for society and the scientific community, that is necessary to find alternatives to reduce the use of polymeric materials because of their damage to the environment. One way to minimize the environmental problems related to the use of polymers is try to make them quickly degradable. In this study it was obtained a material with polymeric appearance derived from heating of the vegetable oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera. The resulting product is an interesting alternative to obtain polymeric materials that may have biodegradable characteristics, coming from a renewable source and low cost. Moringa oil can be used since it has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, and its main constituent oleic acid. All samples were characterized by FTIR, NMR and GPC. It was obtained a polymeric material, malleable, high viscosity, with some elasticity, low crystallinity and no unpleasant odor. (author)

  5. Rheological behaviour of hydrocolloids for oil recovery; Comportamento reologico de hidrocoloides para recuperacao de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Denise Z.; Franca, Francisca P. de; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Dutra, Eduardo S.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Naccache, Monica F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    In crude oil extraction, water can be injected into the well (secondary oil recovery). The amount of the oil extracted decrease after some operation time. In order to improve the oil recovery, polymer flooding would subsequently be used (tertiary oil recovery). The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of polyacrylamide, xanthan gum, guar gum and their blends in seawater solutions, and the rheology of a crude oil. Dynamic measurements of the pure polymers (1000 ppm) and blends (2000 ppm) exhibited G' values lower than G'' in low frequencies, and inversion of G' and G'' curves in frequencies between 20 and 30 rad/s. The xanthan gum presented the greatest values of G' when compared to the other polymers, which means that its structure is more rigid. The oil showed G' values lower than G'' values in low and high frequencies of oscillation. Steady measurements revealed pseudoplastic behavior for polymers and Newtonian behavior for the oil. In shear rates around 10 s{sup -1}, polyacrylamide/xanthan blend would be the most appropriate for the extraction of the oil presented. (author)

  6. Colocación Del Oleo Del Doctor Manuel Plata Azuero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Discurso Sesión Solemne
    Casa de la Cultura Socorro (Santander
    Febrero 15 de 1987

    Señores académicos:

    “Dice la historia que, hace 114 años, el día 3 de enero de 1873 se reunieron en la ciudad de Bogotá, los doctores Abraham Aparicio, Evaristo García, Leoncio Barreto, Liborio Zerda, Manuel Plata Azuero y Nicolás Osorio, con el objeto de fundar una sociedad que fomentase el estudio y adelanto de las ciencias médicas y naturales, y que diese solidaridad al ejercicio de la profesión médica. La junta preparatoria nombró Presidente al doctor Manuel Plata Azuero y Secretario al doctor Abraham Aparicio. Fue comisionado para redactar el reglamento que había de adoptarse, el doctor Liborio Zerda, el cual, después de algunas modificaciones, fue aceptado y puesto en práctica”.

    “Constituida la sociedad, celebró su segunda junta el día 9 de febrero del mismo año, con la asistencia de los doctores Abraham Aparicio, Leoncio Barreto, Julio Corredor, Samuel Fajardo, Evaristo García, Proto Gómez, Bernardino Molina, Francisco Montoya, Policarpo Pizano, Manuel Plata Azuero, Nicolás Osorio, Pío Rengifo, Rafael Rocha C., Federico Rivas, Joaquín Sarmiento, Antonio Ospina y Liborio Zerda. Todos estos notables profesores quedaron incorporados desde esa fecha a la sociedad, así como también los doctores Andrés M. Pardo y Libardo Rivas que no pudieron asistir a esa sesión. En esta reunión quedaron ratificados los nombramientos hechos en la anterior”.

    “Más tarde la Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales fue reconocida como ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA, en virtud de la Ley 71 de noviembre 22 de 1890 y como organismo consultor y asesor del gobierno para todos los asuntos relacionados con la salud pública y la educación médica del pueblo colombiano”.

    Fue, pues el doctor Manuel Plata Azuero, el primer Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, que viene en selecta comisión, a rendir un homenaje a la memoria de tan ilustre científico y eminente ciudadano ya perpetuar su efigie en este claustro magnífico que es la Casa de la Cultura del Socorro, descubriendo un óleo que refrescará permanentemente su recuerdo a las generaciones venideras.

    Ningún lugar más propicio y que mueva más a la reflexión que éste, para intentar al menos hacer un bosquejo, así sea desdibujado, de su -egregia personalidad, que como ninguna, se destaca en el ámbito nacional y llena los confines de la patria, por su obra como legislador, como médico, como político y como benefactor de la humanidad.

    Nació Plata Azuero en la ciudad del Socorro, en el año de 1823, del matrimonio de don Trinidad Plata Durán, y de doña Bárbara Azuero y Gómez. Hizo sus primeros estudios en su ciudad natal y a la edad de 9 años fue enviado a la Capital de la República en compañía de su hermano Patricio. Cursó estudios de literatura en el Colegio de San Bartolomé en donde se distinguió como uno de los más inteligentes y aprovechados educandos.

    “Ingresó luego a la Universidad Central de Bogotá, en donde se matriculó en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Fueron sus profesores los eminentes médicos de la época, doctores Benito Osorio, José Félix Merizalde, Andrés María Pardo, Eugenio Ramón y Francisco Mario Quijano”.

    “Recibió el título de doctor en Medicina y Cirugía en el año de 1845, después de haber obtenido los de Bachiller en Literatura y Licenciado en Medicina, según las exigencias de la época. En la Universidad se destacó por su consagración y rendimiento y antes de graduarse desempeñó el cargo de Secretario del Gran Consejo de la Facultad de Medicina; Subdirector de la misma y Catedrático sustituto”...

  7. Oil base fluids without tensoactive additives; Fluidos a base de oleo sem tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos V.; Aragao, Atila Fernando L. [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos Norte e Nordeste

    1989-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to define an ideal oil base fluid composition without tensoactive additives, since these may cause damage to producing formation during drilling or well completion. We investigated the rheological, filtrating and phase separation properties of the systems composed of diesel oil, organophilic clay and a polar agent (water or ethyl alcohol). In order to to that, we used the 286 Baroid digital rotating viscometer, filtrating cells standardized according to the American Petroleum Institute (AP) for temperatures of 25 deg C to 149 deg C and pressures of 6,89 x 10{sup 5} Pa (100 psig) to 3,44 x 10{sup 6} (500 psig), and the setting method, according to the determinations of respectively rheological, filtrating and phase separation parameters. Results proved that the composition: diesel oil-94% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 6% v/v and bentone - 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 lb/bbl), is ideal to meet the properties required for drilling and well completion operations for low densities, that is 0,84% to 1,02 (6,9 to 8,5 ib/gal). In order to obtain densities in the interval of 1,02 to 1,14 (8,5 to 9,5 ib/gal) the system should be condensed with calcite (Ca CO{sub 3}) and the base fluid composition should be : diesel oil-94 to 98% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 2 to 6% v/v and bentone 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 ib/bbl). The average cost per barrel for the systems studied here is of the same order of conventional oil base fluids (with tensoactive additives). (author) 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Gas analysis in transformer insulation oil; Analise de gases em oleo isolante de transformador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Paulo Edgard Palma; Scarpati, Iran Bedoni; Castro, Roney Valadares [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the studies, research and the setting up of gas extraction and analysis system for the gases dissolved in transformer insulation oils, using gas chromatography, at the Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (Brazilian siderurgy company) coke plant laboratory 2 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Equilibrio de fases de sistemas compostos por oleos vegetais, acidos graxos e etanol hidratado.

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Bernardo Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho de tese de doutoramento teve como objetivo avaliar vários aspectos do processo de extração líquido-líquido (ELL) como uma rota alternativa para a desacidificação de óleos vegetais. O conhecimento do equilíbrio de fases do sistema de interesse é essencial para o bom planejamento e desenvolvimento do processo de ELL. O presente trabalho apresenta dados de equilíbrio para sistemas compostos por óleos vegetais (milho/palma), ácidos graxos (oléico/ palmítico) e solvente (etan...

  10. Estudo da composição quimica de oleos essenciais de plantas aromaticas da Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Avila Lupe

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho envolveu o estudo da composição química dos óleos essenciais de cinco plantas aromáticas Aeollanthus suaveolens, Aniba canelilla, Aniba rosaeodora, Lippia alba e Ocimum basilicum por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-EM). Amostras destas plantas - óleo essencial, planta fresca, seca e resíduo da extração do óleo essencial - foram extraídas por Microextração em Fase Sólida em Espaço confinado (HS-SPME) e analisadas por CG-EM. Os óleos fora...

  11. Gas inflow in oil base fluids; Influxo de gas em fluidos a base de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Welmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Boas, Mario Barbosa V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    One of the major problems related to the use of oil base fluids is the dissolution of the natural gas in the fluid. This paper attempts initially at making a bibliographical review of all that was written on the subject of drilling fluids up to now. It also mentions some theoretical aspects regarding the process of gas dissolution in diesel oils, in order to produce an understanding of how the dissolution mechanism is processed. For a same increase in measured volume on the surface, the amount of gas incorporated into the fluid is significantly larger if the gas is dissolved in the oil phase than if it is emulsified in the fluid, as occurs when the fluid is water base. A rig team used to working with water-base fluids may be surprised with the fact that an increase of 20 bbl of fluid on the surface of a 5000 m well can mean the incorporation of about 1800 m{sup 3} of gas, if the fluid is oil-base and all the gas is in solution instead of the incorporation of 900 m{sup 3} if the fluid is water base. This paper has the goal of warning drilling engineers and technicians about this problem, as well as presenting charts and equations that allow for a more realistic evaluation of the amount of gas incorporated into oil fluids. (author) 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Bactericidal Activity of Oleo-gum Resins Doped with Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc Diogo José Horst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the bactericidal activity of vegetable oil-gum resins (Styrax benzoin, Commiphora mirrha, and Boswellia papyrifera doped with metal oxides (TiO2, P25, MoO3 e Cu2O in nanometric dimension. The in vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria E. coli was accessed. The antibiogram essay was performed using the semi-quantitative method Kirby-Bauer (KB agar diffusion test. The materials obtained were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, additionally; its morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that in most cases the materials present bactericidal activity, thereby inhibiting both planktonic and surface associated growth of this microorganism.

  13. Fuel vegetable oils under some economic considerations; Oleos vegetais combustiveis sob algumas consideracoes economicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem]. E-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for bio fuel production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1.1(castor bean); 1.8(peanut); 2.0(soy beans); 3.3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the Government Program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. (author)

  14. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  15. A computational method for oleo-acoustics, application to hydraulic shock absorbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Koren (Barry); P.F.M. Michielsen (Paul); J.-W. Kars; P. Wesseling

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTo predict high-frequency oil-flow phenomena in hydraulic-shock-absorber designs, a mathematical-physical model is proposed. The model consists of the 2-D unsteady Euler equations in axial-symmetric coordinates and an appropriate equation of state for oil. The main topic of the paper is

  16. Bio diesel from vegetable oils; Biodiesel a partir de oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, W.A.; Nunes, P.P.; Ferreira, M.S.; Martins, E.P.; Reguera, F.M.; Pastura, N.M.R. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Catalise

    2000-07-01

    Obtention alternative fuel from vegetable oils using catalytic transformation is a very interesting possibility, that begin to be research from petroleum crisis in 1973 and 1978, and has an advantage from others ways of energy because it do not vanish the soil nor harmful the ambient. M E catalysis group development research in combustible renewable source since 1979, with several publications. At first, various vegetable oils were researched and became evident that oils must be pre-hydrogenated in order to improve the quantity of hydrocarbons like diesel oil. So far, when the acidity of solids catalysts were studied, Broensted and Lewis acidity from supported catalysts with different acidity were compared, using soybean oil not hydrogenated, babassu and 'pinhao manso and wild', and others fatty acids as models compounds. So, carboxylic acid were studies as models compounds and the vegetable oil reforming on acids catalysts with niobium, modifying zeolites or not by rare earth, in order to get more quantity in bio diesel. This paper objective is notice the research that since 1970 decade is done by this group improving vegetable oils as renewable energy source. (author)

  17. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  18. Stability and filtering capacity of diesel oil; Estabilidade e filtrabilidade do oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo Vieira; Rocha, Mauro Iurk [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mails: marvial@petrobras.com.br; miurk@petrobras.com.br; Zotin, Fatima Maria Zanon [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fzotin@uerj.br; Pinto, Ricardo Rodrigues da Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Recursos Humanos. Gerencia de Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias]. E-mail: rcp@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The increasing demand for the reduction in the emission of polluting agents by diesel motors has led to the use of more advanced injection systems. These systems are increasingly reducing clearances and portray more restrictive filtering capacity, protecting them from the release of fuel particles. Those particles may originate in the degradation of oil products, formed by the acid-catalyzed condensation between aromatic compounds and heterocyclic nitrogens. These compounds appear in the various chains used in the composition of the fuel. We address here the aspects influencing the stability to oxidation and fuel filterability as well as the methods used to assess the degradation capacity of several diesel oil formulations. (author)

  19. Therapeutic properties of whey used as fermented drink Propriedades terapêuticas de soro de leite usado como bebida fermentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kar

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of whey for preparation of beverage was standardized by utilizing yoghurt cultures. The product, wheyghurt drink, made with 4% yoghurt cultures inoculated in deproteinized whey (4.8% lactose, 0.66% ash, 0.46% fat and 0.40% protein adjusted to pH 6.4 and incubated at 42oC for 8h had all the technological requisite and dietetic criteria required in the product. The factors affecting the antibacterial activity of wheyghurt drink against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Bacillus cereus were determined. There was a significant variation (PA bioconversão de soro de leite para preparação de bebida foi padronizada utilizando culturas de iogurte. O produto feito com culturas de iogurte a 4%, inoculadas em soro desproteinizado (lactose 4,8%; cinzas, 0,66%; gordura 0,46% e proteína 0,40%, pH 6,4, incubado a 42oC por 8h, apresentou todos os requisitos tecnológicos e critérios dietéticos requeridos para o produto. Os fatores que afetam a atividade antibacteriana do produto contra Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae e Bacillus cereus foram determinados. Houve uma variação significativa na atividade antibacteriana do produto contendo diferentes níveis de inóculo (1, 2, 4 e 8% e concentração de açúcar a 37, 42 e 45oC. Incubação a 42oC com cultura a 4% no soro apresentou a maior atividade inibitória. O produto armazenado até 5 dias em refrigeração apresentou características organolépticas aceitáveis e microrganismos em quantidade adequada (108 ufc/ml para ser considerado benéfico.

  20. Estudo das degradações de pesticidas usados na região de Dourados-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Vieira de Olival

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e descarte irregular de agrotóxicos na agricultura têm causado sérios problemas ambientais e de saúde. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficiência de UV e de alguns processos de oxidação avançada que envolva reação de foto-Fenton, O3 e O3/UV para o tratamento de soluções aquosas contendo pesticidas comerciais e padrão. Os resultados mostraram que a combinação da radiação UV em meios alcalinos com O3 aumentou significativamente a eficiência do processo de degradação e o sistema foto-Fenton é uma alternativa promissora para o tratamento de efluentes contendo pesticidas.

  1. Formación de complejos fármaco-resina usados en preparados de liberación prolongada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Alba Delgado

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los tiempos para alcanzar el equilibrio en reacciones de intercambio iónico durante la formación de sales complejas poliestireno divinil-benceno sulfonato, con los fármacos dexanfetamina, metilhomatropina y salbutamol. Se hicieron reaccionar sales de los fármacos en solución con la resina en su forma "sodio", cuantificándose a intervalos la concentración en el sobrenadante, siguiendo el avance de la reacción y determinando el punto de equilibrio. Se propone un estadístico simple que permite seleccionar el tiempo para dar por terminada la reacción, y se encuentran valores inferiores a los informados en la literatura. Se comenta la relación entre dimensión molecular y nivel de saturación del complejo.Time intervals required for reaching the proper balance of ion exchange reactions during the formation of polystirene-dyvinil-benzene-sulphonate complex salts with drugs such as dexamphetamina, metylhomatropine and salbutamol are analyzed. Drug salt solutions were caused to react with resin in "sodium" form, then supernadant concentration was estimated at intervals following the development of the reaction and determining the point of balance. A simple statistical method which makes it possible to determine the time when the reaction shall be finished was proposed, and also values lower than those reported in literature were found. Some comment on the association between molecular dimension and the saturation level of the drug-resine complex are made

  2. Diferencia y transversalidad en la religiosidad de los sectores populares: mirando con telescopio luego de haber usado el microscopio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Semán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo integrar en un análisis el hecho de que en una pocas manzanas de un barrio humilde del Gran Buenos Aires la religiosidad abarca desde las apropiaciones “mágicas” del pentecostalismo, hasta las relecturas rockeras de esa misma religiosidad? He argumentado que la religiosidad de los sectores populares, vis a vis nuestra idea de religión, presenta una diferencia radical, para interrogar la percepción autista de un mundo irracional con que se autocomplace la ciencia social cuando se aproxima a lo religioso. Como esto oscurecía heterogeneidades y lógicas de transformación de las religiosidades populares, he descripto, puntualmente, situaciones que elaboran la religiosidad de los sectores populares de forma circunstanciada y especifica. Aquí integro y presento estas “particularidades” en una pluralidad articulada, de forma agregada, para que pueda observarse el panorama de las diferencias, y por sobre todas las cosas, el hecho de que su conjunción permite asir sentidos y formas de un mecanismo de cambio en las formas de religiosidad que producían sujetos del Gran Buenos Aires a fines de la última década del siglo XX. También discutiré conceptos del análisis de los fenómenos religiosos para cuestionar sus preconceptos secularizantes -modernizantes y/católicos.

  3. Report on batteries and accumulators of domestic consumption; Informe sobre pilas y acumuladores usados de consumo domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escala Urdapilleta, J.L. [Consejeria de Urbanismo, Vivienda y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno Vasco, Vitoria (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    This paper does not want to study the different types of batteries and accumulators but it is necessary to know the polluting content of them depending on the type of batteries and the use given to them. (Author)

  4. Reusing of types wastes in way construction. First part; Reutilizacion de neumaticos usados en la construccion de carreteras 1 parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas Raz, R.

    2001-07-01

    Used vehicle tyres involve an ecological problem, regarding waste products. Both Spanish and European Environmental Standards promote waste recycling instead of waste incineration, which is specifically applicable to waste tyres. The Engineering Group, Elsamex, has developed, through its research centre CIESM, a researching line completely feasible, offering a recycling option based on the addition, by means of three different techniques, of the refused tyres rubber powder to the asphalt mixes for road construction. This is the refused tyre treatment, which contributes, to a greater extent, to a sustainable development, mostly thanks to the great capacity of roads for using this product as raw materials. Added to this, there is an environmental benefit derived from the ecological treatment used with refused tyres, and its efficacy. Moreover, the treatment helps to the production of asphalt mixes with longer durability with a wet process. This allows long term money saving in road maintenance. (Author)

  5. Comparação de materiais usados na confeção de facetas dentárias

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Eduardo Melo Pires

    2016-01-01

    A demanda na procura da reabilitação estética é um dos focos da história da humanidade ao longo das eras, mas que teve a sua acentuação nestes últimos dois séculos. Sendo a face um dos pontos que nos permite avaliar esteticamente uma pessoa, cabe ao médico dentista, como um dos profissionais que trabalha nessa zona do corpo humano, avaliar e procurar satisfazer as necessidades estéticas da população. Assim, por parte dos profissionais de Medicina Dentária, tem de haver uma procura const...

  6. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  7. Reacciones adversas ocasionadas por los biomateriales usados en prostodoncia Adverse reactions caused by biomaterials used in prosthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    D.P. Restrepo Ospina; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2010-01-01

    La incidencia de reacciones adversas a los productos dentales es difícil de estimar. Los odontólogos usan productos potencialmente alérgicos e irritantes durante sus procedimientos dentales. Estos materiales incluyen antisépticos, anestésicos locales, radiación ultravioleta, guantes de látex, dique de goma, enjuagues y otros productos empleados en la higiene bucal. Adicionalmente, los materiales empleados durante los procedimientos restauradores como metales, materiales de impresión, cementos...

  8. Reducción de la frecuencia de muestreo en los conversores ADC y DAC usados en predistorsionadores digitales

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro López, Gabriel; Wang, Teng; López Bueno, David; Ruiz Lavín, María de las Nieves; García García, José Ángel; Gilabert Pinal, Pere Lluis

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands for higher data rate, wider signal bandwidth is required, and this imposes high sampling rate converters in the communications equipment. This paper provides and analyzes experimental results obtained from testing some of the most promising techniques able to reduce the sampling rate speed of the Analog to Digital Converters and Digital to Analog Converters to be used in the implementation of Digital Predistorters. In a first section, an ove...

  9. RESEÑA DE ALGUNOS REGÍMENES ADUANEROS ESPECIALES USADOS COMO ESTÍMULO A LAS EXPORTACIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Rodríguez, Jorge; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente, la creación de puertos o zonas francas, obedece más bien a razones económicas, ligadas fundamentalmente con la necesidad o conveniencia de promover el desarrollo de una determinada zona del territorio nacional; promover o facilita runa corriente comercial desde el extranjero y con destino a los países vecinos, generalmente medita­rráneos; estimular la creación de complejos industriales o de determinadas industrias y aún, desarrollar industrias manufactu­reras a base de materias ...

  10. Refrigerador termoelétrico de peltier usado para estabilisar um feixe laser em experimentos didáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Paulo Roberto de; Almeida,Danilo

    2014-01-01

    É apresentado um experimento onde os alunos montam um sistema de estabilização térmica de um laser de diodo mantido a temperatura controlada e estabilizada utilizando materiais de baixo custo. Um circuito de controle baseado no efeito Peltier foi montado para estabilizar um sistema ótico composto de uma ponteira laser e de optodiodos para a detecção dos feixes espalhados e transmitido. Os efeitos físicos associados são discutidos permitindo aos estudantes a fixação dos conteúdos teóricos na á...

  11. Reacciones adversas ocasionadas por los biomateriales usados en prostodoncia Adverse reactions caused by biomaterials used in prosthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    D.P. Restrepo Ospina; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2010-01-01

    La incidencia de reacciones adversas a los productos dentales es difícil de estimar. Los odontólogos usan productos potencialmente alérgicos e irritantes durante sus procedimientos dentales. Estos materiales incluyen antisépticos, anestésicos locales, radiación ultravioleta, guantes de látex, dique de goma, enjuagues y otros productos empleados en la higiene bucal. Adicionalmente, los materiales empleados durante los procedimientos restauradores como metales, materiales de impresión, cementos...

  12. Reacciones adversas ocasionadas por los biomateriales usados en prostodoncia Adverse reactions caused by biomaterials used in prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Restrepo Ospina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de reacciones adversas a los productos dentales es difícil de estimar. Los odontólogos usan productos potencialmente alérgicos e irritantes durante sus procedimientos dentales. Estos materiales incluyen antisépticos, anestésicos locales, radiación ultravioleta, guantes de látex, dique de goma, enjuagues y otros productos empleados en la higiene bucal. Adicionalmente, los materiales empleados durante los procedimientos restauradores como metales, materiales de impresión, cementos, acrílicos y adhesivos también pueden producir efectos indeseables en los tejidos de los pacientes. La presentación de complicaciones orales producidas por estos materiales pueden incluir estomatitis, reacciones liquenoides, quemaduras bucales, queilitis, inflamación labial y facial, sintomatología general y anafilaxis.The incidence of adverse reactions to dental products is difficult to estimate. Dentists use many potential allergens and irritants in the course of their work. These materials include antiseptics, local anaesthetics, ultraviolet radiation, latex gloves, rubber dams, mouthwashes and other dental hygiene materials. Besides, the materials used during the restorative procedures as metals, impression materials, cements, acrylics, and adhesives can also produce undesirable effects in the tissues of patients. The presentation of oral complaints can include stomatitis, lichenoid reactions, burning in the mouth, cheilitis and lip swelling, facial swelling, general symptoms and anaphylaxis.

  13. MOOC basados en competencias y usados como herramientas de capacitación: el caso Vagones de Ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mendoza González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Los cursos en línea masivos y abiertos (MOOC, por sus siglas en inglés se han utilizado en los últimos años como una herramienta poderosa para la educación en línea; son fácilmente adaptables a múltiples contextos de capacitación y aprendizaje. En este artículo se canalizaron las virtudes y características de los MOOC hacia la alfabetización digital de la población del estado de Aguascalientes con el fin de contribuir a la reducción de la brecha digital. Para lograr este propósito, primeramente se realizó un diagnóstico a los usuarios del programa Vagones de Ciencia y Tecnología, estrategia del Gobierno del Estado para satisfacer la necesidad de competencias digitales en la entidad; se obtuvieron las competencias digitales adquiridas que luego fueron comparadas con las de carácter internacional vigentes. Tal comparación determinó las competencias a transmitir en los MOOC disponibles para miles de personas a través de la plataforma Moodle. Después de implementar la propuesta, se observó un importante reforzamiento del programa, lo cual fue avalado por sus directivos, usuarios y facilitadores. Asimismo, se percibió una reducción considerable de la brecha digital en el estado al visualizarse la incorporación de la propuesta en otros programas públicos similares orientados a este propósito.

  14. Recuperação de metais de catalisadores de hidrorrefino usados via fusão com KHSO4

    OpenAIRE

    AFONSO, Julio Carlos; Silva,Neocir da; Salvato,Gustavo Nascimento; Busnardo,Roberto Giovanini

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a process for metal recovery from spent NiMo and CoMo/Al2O3 commercial hydrorefining catalysts. The samples were treated by fusion with potassium hydrogen sulfate (5 h, 600 ºC) with a KHSO4/catalyst mass ratio of 10:1. After fusion the solid was solubilized in water (100 ºC), leaving silicon compounds as residue. Losses of nickel and cobalt may reach 16 wt% of the amount present in the sample, depending on the silicon content. Soluble metals were isolated by selective prec...

  15. Digestão de óleo lubrificante encapsulado em forno de microondas com radiação focalizada por adição de amostra ao reagente pré-aquecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Bressani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of the recently proposed procedure based on gradual sample addition to microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated acid is limited by the sample viscosity. In this work, lubricating oil samples with high viscosity were encapsulated and manually added to the microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated digestion mixture. The procedure was applied for determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, Sr, V, W, and Zn in lubricating oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES. Determined and certified values for Ca, Mg, P, and Zn in lubricating oil were in agreement at a 95% confidence level.

  16. Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronhas, Maite E.S.; Fernandes, Haroldo C.; Siqueira, Wagner C.; Figueiredo, Augusto C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: maronhas@gmail.com, haroldo@ufv.br, augusto.figueiredo@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Mechanization Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa using a stationary diesel engine Yanmar brand NS{sub B} 75, with nominal power of 5.8 kw at 2400 rpm, direct injection, and water cooled. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. Were used as fuel five mixtures of diesel oil (DO) and soybean oil (OS) re-used in the kitchen of the restaurant of the university in the proportions of 0-100%, 25-75%, 50-50%, 75-25 % and 100-0% respectively. The power and torque of the engine is higher for the mixture showed a 75% OD and 25% OS and 25% lower for DO and 75% OS. The lowest hourly consumption was with a mixture of 25% and 75% OD and OS was 15% lower than for the pure diesel. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation. (author)

  17. Energy consumption of an agricultural an agricultural tractor operating in dynamometer using with diesel and chicken oil biodiesel; Consumo energetico de um trator agricola operando em bancada dinamometrica com oleo diesel e biodiesel de oleo de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo; Romano, Leonardo Nabaes; Schlosser, Jose Fernando [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of energy use in agricultural machinery is dependent on the efficiency of internal combustion diesel cycle, their genuine propellants. However, some biofuels may offer a better yield due to some peculiar characteristics such distinctions in calorific value. Many studies have demonstrated a better utilization of the energy content when operating with biodiesel and with binary mixtures with diesel oil. In this study, tests were conducted on a dynamometer bench to evaluate the energy consumption of a tractor engine with four cylinders and 53 kW (72 hp), operating with biodiesel and chicken oil mixture with diesel oil. In the tests were evaluated six ratios (B5, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100). The results showed that increasing the proportion of biodiesel was favorable to improve the utilization of the energy content, thus increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine. The best result was obtained with pure biodiesel (B100) with consumption of 395.47 MJ.h{sup -1}and efficiency of 32.35%. On the other hand the witness had the lowest use B5 with 428.20 MJ.h{sup -1} and thermal efficiency of 30.67%. (author)

  18. Economic and technical considerations on the use of vegetable oils as fuel substitute for diesel oil; Consideracoes economicas e tecnicas sobre o uso de oleos vegetais combustiveis como substituto de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for biofuels production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1,1(castor bean); 1,8(peanut); 2,0(soy beans); 3,3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the government program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. The feasibility of National Program for Biofuels Use and Production and both economical and environmental aspects should also consider the destination of the main by-products of the biofuel productive chain such as the left over cakes after extraction of the oil and glycerine produced during the transesterification process. (author)

  19. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  20. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time; Interesterificacao quimica de oleo de soja e oleo de soja totalmente hidrogenado: influencia do tempo de reacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: badanribeiro@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  1. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  2. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating with oil diesel, U$187,19 / MWh for B 10 and US$ 191,71/MWh for B 20. (author)

  3. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Comparison of Oleo- vs Petro-Sourcing of Fatty Alcohols via Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jignesh; Arslan, Erdem; Cirucci, John; O'Brien, Julie; Moss, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show that petro-FA has overall lower average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (~2.97 kg CO2e) compared to PKO-FA (~5.27 kg CO2e). (1) The practices in land use change for palm plantations, (2) end-of-life treatment for palm oil mill wastewater effluent and (3) end-of-life treatment for empty fruit bunches are the three determining factors for the environmental impacts of PKO-FA. For petro-FA, n-olefin production, ethylene production and thermal energy production are the main factors. We found the judicious decisions on land use change, effluent treatment and solid waste treatment are key to making PKO-FA environmentally sustainable. The sensitivity results show the broad distribution for PKO-FA due to varying practices in palm cultivation. PKO-FA has higher impacts on average for 12 out of 18 impact categories evaluated. For the base case, when accounted for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses results, the study finds that marine eutrophication, agricultural land occupation, natural land occupation, fossil depletion, particulate matter formation, and water depletion are affected by the sourcing decision. The sourcing of FA involves trade-offs and depends on the specific practices through the PKO life cycle from an environmental impact perspective.

  5. Comparison of Oleo- vs Petro-Sourcing of Fatty Alcohols via Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jignesh; Arslan, Erdem; Cirucci, John; O’Brien, Julie; Moss, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show th...

  6. Design of three-phase gravity separators for heavy oils; Projeto de separadores trifasicos para oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosivania P.; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Carlos H.M. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The primary processing of crude oil consists in the separation of oil, gas, water (and solids suspensions, if present), the conditioning of the hydrocarbons for transportation to the refinery, and the water treatment for re-use. With the discovery of significant fields of heavy oil in Brazil, whose densities are close to the density of water and viscosities are about hundreds to thousand times higher than the viscosity of water, the production and primary processing of this fluid with usual technology is not attractive and often unfeasible. It is well known that the demand from the majority of the refineries is that the quantity of water dispersion in the oil (BSW) is below 1%, so this work investigates the behavior of the water dispersion in heavy oil, causing an increase in viscosity and density. Therefore, this work intends to define strategies to efficiently separate these liquids, emphasizing the physical aspects of separation. Mathematica software was used for the equation modeling, which governs the horizontal separation vases dimensioning, allowing the observation of the influence of many variables on the separator dimensions. (author)

  7. Optimization of the chemical interesterification reaction of palm oil; Otimizacao da reacao de interesterificacao quimica do oleo de palma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo; Ando, Marlene Yumi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], Email: grimaldi@fea.unicamp.br

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian market has been showing a growing concern with nutritional values of oil components of foods. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the consistency of oils. Chemical interesterification of deodorized palm oil was studied on a laboratory scale. The best results were obtained with 0.4% MeONa and heating for 20 min at 100 deg C. These conditions are based on the largest variation in triacylglycerols as compared to a control. The trisaturated values varied from 6.2 to 9.9%, showing that the consistency of the oil improved for it to be used in margarines, without the formation of trans isomers. (author)

  8. Shale oil production chain mapping; Mapeamento de processos do ciclo de obtencao de oleo a partir do xisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanaha, Rodrigo T.; Shimabuco, Thays E.; Azevedo, Ricardo C. de; Tomi, Giorgio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas e de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Reliable rock mechanical information is very important for optimum reservoir development. This information can help specialists to accurately estimate reserves, reservoir compaction, sand production, stress field orientation, etc. In all cases, the solutions to problems involving rock mechanics lead to significant cost savings. Consequently, it is important that the decisions be based on the most accurate information possible. For the describing rock mechanics, cores represent the major source of data and therefore should be of good quality. However, there are several well conditions that cause coring and core recovery to be difficult, for example: unconsolidated formations; laminated and fractured rocks; critical mud losses, etc. The problem becomes even worse in high-inclination wells with long horizontal sections. In such situations, the optimum selections of core heads become critical. This paper will discuss the most important design features that enable core heads to be matched precisely to various challenging applications. Cases histories will be used to illustrate the superior performance of selected core heads. They include coring in horizontal wells and in harsh well conditions with critical mud losses. (author)

  9. Heavy oil recovery: the challenger to minimize environmental damages; Recolhimento de oleo pesado: o desafio para reducao de impactos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Frederico de Azevedo; Wegner, Isaac Rafael [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The maritime accidents that result in oil spill are high on the public environmental concerns, because of these; the oil industry has a high priority to prevent and control them. Heavy oils, the most difficult kind of oil to be recovered, could impact the maritime environmental with a different approach, it could impact the water column and the sea bottom, so much different them the float oil. One these environmental impacts could be done by. This challenger have been overcome by the development of procedures that manner the heavy oil behavior on waterways, gulf and sea could be understood. Once this process could be understood to become easy monitoring the oil track and mitigate the oil impact on the water environment. This paper describe how the PETROBRAS Environmental Response Team has been establish a mean do conduce this task. (author)

  10. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report; Pneumonia por aspiracao de oleo mineral: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Machado, Dianne Mello; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. de Radiologia; Morandi, Jose Laerte J.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. Materno-Infantil; Teixeira, Graca Helena M.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Jesus, Rafael Ferreira de; Santos, Lino Antonio Duarte dos; Lopes, Humberto Eustaquio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water.There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique. On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique. In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase. The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. (author)

  12. Thermochemical methods for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Jose Bonifacio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Nitrogen Generating System (SGN in Portuguese) is a thermochemical method first developed for cleaning and removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. SGN is based on a redox chemical reaction between two salts which is catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction is strongly exothermic and its products are nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. All reaction products are harmless to the environment. In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, developed at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES), was based on SGN technology which has been adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. By combining simultaneous effects of the SGN treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand and removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. SGN technology has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in loco right after a contamination event. (author)

  13. Thermochemical method for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, based on NGS (Nitrogen Generating System) technology, was adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. NGS is a thermochemical method first developed for removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. The method is based on a strongly exothermic redox chemical reaction between two salts catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction products are harmless to the environment and consist of nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. By combining simultaneous effects of the treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand. After treatment, removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. The method has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in place right after a contamination event. (author)

  14. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  15. Environmental compensation application in the oil and gas sector; Aplicacao da compensacao ambiental no segmento de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia H.C.; Pollis, Altaira M. [ICF Consultoria do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Marco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The regulation of the law no 9.985, of July 18, 2000, by the decree no 4.340, of August 22, 2002, awake the productive sector to the imposition to the entrepreneur that must destine the amount of at least 0,5% of the total costs foreseen for the hole undertaking implementation, to implement or maintain environmental conservation units. The most of the environmental agencies have been applied 0,5%. The IBAMA uses a methodology to establish the impact level and the range between 0,5% and 5% to define the environmental compensation percentage and is questionable. Then, until now, this legal requirement have been applied in a heterogeneous form to the environmental licensing. The various applied criterions, the huge subjectivity in the impact level assessment, and the influence of this requirement in the licensing schedule, associate to the oil and gas sector project costs point to a relevant impact in the feasibility of the oil and gas sector projects. Based in the percentages that IBAMA had established for the oil and gas sector was esteemed some costs destined to the environmental compensation. The law implementation without inhibition of investments in the country depends on the involved sectors articulation. (author)

  16. SMA chemical modification for application as diesel oil additive; Modificacao quimica do SMA visando aplicacao como aditivo para oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Zawadzki, Sonia F.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos]. E-mails: rafaelsoldi@hotmail.com, mafco@quimica.ufpr.br

    2003-07-01

    The deposition of paraffinic material during the crude oil and their derivatives production and transportation is one of the principal problems in the petroleum industry. Polymer derivatives obtained from styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (SMA), containing long pendant hydrocarbon segments in the polymeric backbone, are known as efficient polymeric additives to prevent the wax deposition and to reduce the oil pour point. Nevertheless, this application for this class of polymer is not much evaluated in Brazil. In this work, a new procedure was developed for SMA synthesis and chemical modification using stearyl alcohol. The performance of these polymeric materials as pour point depressants were evaluated using a Brazilian diesel oil from REPAR/PETROBRAS. The best results were obtained for the polymeric additives with small amounts of octadecyl ester groups. When it was used only 25 ppm of one of these additives, the oil presented a pour point value of -17 deg C and the diesel oil containing 100 ppm of this same additive presented a pour point value of -30 deg C. This last result indicates a 24 deg C pour point decreasing. (author)

  17. Sulfur content standards homogeneity evaluation in diesel fuel; Avaliacao da homogeneidade de padroes de teor de enxofre em oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo Rezende; Sakai, Patricia Naomi

    2003-07-01

    The Reference Materials Group, from Chemistry Division of the Technological Research Institute from Sao Paulo State is developing new reference materials, employed to assure traceability to a number of tests carried out by laboratories of Petroleum Industry, amongst them, a set of reference materials with certified sulfur content. A standard must have its homogeneity assured, once it is certified through measurement on a limited number of units, but certified values must be valid throughout the entire lot. Assuring homogeneity of a lot is a specialized task, which demands the proper use of adequate statistical methods. In this paper it is presented a study accomplished in order to evaluate homogeneity of a Diesel fuel, candidate to the certification as a sulfur content reference material. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyanhydride derived from castor oil; Sintese e caracterizacao de polianidrido derivado do oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Fernando de M.; Reis, Roberta Yonara Nascimento; Nobre, Francisco X.; Matos, Jose M.E., E-mail: robertayonara@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polyanhydrides are biopolymers already used as drug carriers, that allow the controlled release of the drug in vivo. Currently, these polymers are produced from a polyol, such as ethyleneglycol. In this work we synthesized a polyanhydride from castor oil, from the derivatization of oil via alcoholysis reaction. The oil was then converted to a monoglyceride (MG) by alcoholysis reaction at 140 °C. The MG reacted with phthalic anhydride (PA) at 100 °C, forming the polymer P1. The polymer was characterized by FT-IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. These techniques allowed confirmation of the polymer formation. (author)

  19. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  20. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  1. Tipos e doses de adubacao organica no crescimento, no rendimento e na composicao quimica do oleo essencial de elixir paregorico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    do Bomfim Costa, Larissa Correa; Brasil Pereira Pinto, Jose Eduardo; de Castro, Evaristo Mauro; Vilela Bertolucci, Suzan Kelly; Monteiro Correa, Ricardo; Soares Reis, Erika; Barreto Alves, Pericles; dos Santos Niculau, Edenilson

    2008-01-01

    A pratica da adubacao organica, alem de fornecer nutrientes para as plantas, proporciona a melhoria da estrutura fisica do solo, aumenta a retencao de agua, diminui as perdas por erosao e favorece o controle biologico...

  2. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose O.B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.M.; Correa, Raimundo G.C.; Bernardo, Francisco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho Junior, Luiz G. [2 Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Abreu, Rosa F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost. Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Recently a new patent related with the process for the production of this fluid was submitted to the World Industrial Property Organization - WIPO. (author)

  3. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. A guerra dos pneus: a controvérsia entre Brasil e Comunidades Europeias sobre o comércio internacional de pneus usados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO has in their structure a body to settle disputes relating to the maintenance of free trade, which is the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB. In this paper, we analyze the controversial “Brazil - Measures affecting the importation of restored tires”, conveyed in the Brazilian press under the epithet “The War of the tires,” occurred between the years 2005 and 2007 within the aforementioned body. This is a Brazilian imposition of measures restricting the entry of used or restored tires. The ban was not extended to the MERCOSUR countries due to a decision of the Arbitration Court of the economic bloc, which led Brazil to allow the entry of used and restored tires in these countries. Brazil has argued that this would suit what was allowed by the Article XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, but the European Communities (EC understood this as a merely protectionist restrictive measure to trade commerce. The objective here is to investigate whether the adoption of such a measure had actually environmental motive or, on the other hand, sought trade protectionism. It was observed that Brazil really had grounds for the imposition of environmental measures and the EC aimed to use this country as the recipient of its waste tires, which, under rigid internal European legislation, could no longer be disposed in its landfills.

  5. Repelência de produtos fitossanitários usados na cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos na emergência de Trichogramma galloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Rezende Antigo

    Full Text Available Trichogramma galloi Zucchi é um importante parasitoide de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, principal praga da cana-de-açúcar. Como vários produtos químicos são utilizados no manejo dessa cultura, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a repelência de alguns produtos fitossanitários sobre adultos do parasitoide T. galloi e seu efeito na emergência dos descendentes. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em câmara climática a 23 ± 2 ºC, UR de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Os produtos avaliados foram: inseticidas clorantraniliprole, etiprole, tiametoxam, triflumurom, lambda-cialotrina+tiametoxam, fipronil e Metarhizium anisopliae, herbicidas clomazone e diurom+hexazinona e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometurom-metílico e trinexapaque-etílico, nas maiores concentrações recomendadas à cana-de-açúcar. Para a avaliação de repelência de cada produto, realizou-se teste com livre chance de escolha, onde 30 ovos de D. saccharalis foram imersos em água destilada e outros 30 na calda do produto a ser testado. Cada uma das massas de ovos destes dois tratamentos foi transferida para um tubo de vidro, sendo os mesmos interligados por um conector de papel com um orifício central, por onde um tubo menor foi acoplado para liberação de três fêmeas de T. galloi, previamente alimentadas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quinze repetições para cada produto avaliado. Avaliou-se a repelência, o número médio de ovos parasitados por fêmea e a emergência. Clorantraniliprole, triflumurom e sulfometurom-metílico não repeliram o parasitoide e nem afetaram o número de ovos parasitados. Para a emergência, verificou-se que os produtos M. anisopliae, tiametoxam, clomazone, diurom+hexazinona e sulfometurom-metílico não afetaram essa característica biológica.

  6. Micro controlled system used in the control and in the monitoring of batteries bank; Sistema microcontrolado usado no controle e monitoracao de banco de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacorso, Nelso Gauze

    1991-09-01

    The development of a closed loop micro controlled based system for battery charging, monitoring charge and discharge, and even more, detecting structure failures is presented. The control algorithm is emphasized, being applied a charging method which uses voltage, current and temperature information. The objective of using this control technique is the design of a high performance battery charger, allowing the longest battery life possible, in reliable UPS applications. A prototype has been built and laboratory tested. Experimental results, developed program routines and the system circuits are included. (author)

  7. Estudio evolutivo de la eficacia de materiales de resina autograbadores usados como selladores de fosas y fisuras en niños portadores de aparatos de ortodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Sotoca Tobarra, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es comparar la eficacia in vivo como sellador de fosas y fisuras, en niños portadores de aparatos de ortodoncia, entre los materiales autograbadores de resina compuesta y los selladores tradicionales de resina. Hemos estudiado 225 selladores realizados a 51 niños, de entre 6 y 16 años de edad, portadores de aparatología fija de ortodoncia. Los selladores se colocaron en 81 molares (primeros y segundos molares) y 144 premolares (primeros y segundos premola...

  8. Revisión de los métodos estadísticos multivariados usados en el análisis de calidad de aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingry Natalia Gómez Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En los ecosistemas acuáticos se monitorea el agua para determinar sus variaciones espacio-temporales, generando grandes y complejas matrices de datos que requieren herramientas que ayuden en la interpretación de los mismos, para que los administradores de los recursos hídricos puedan informar a la sociedad el deterioro de estos y tomar medidas correctivas. El presente artículo es una revisión de tema cuyo objetivo es el examen de técnicas estadísticas multivariadas usadas para examinar la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la calidad del agua. En él se presentan diversas técnicas como el análisis factorial, que se usa con el fin de disminuir la dimensionalidad de los datos y construir factores subyacentes o variables latentes que generen las variables observadas, estos factores pueden usarse e interpretarse como índices de calidad del agua construidos a partir de los datos recolectados; también se presenta en análisis de clúster y el análisis discriminante que se usan comúnmente para estudiar la variabilidad espacial, estudiando similaridades entre períodos o estaciones de muestreo, estas tres técnicas se usan comúnmente con fines exploratorios; para objetivos más complejos como el modelamiento y la predicción, se presentan los modelos jerárquicos, de regresión múltiple y de ecuaciones estructurales. Para todos los métodos se presenta su funcionalidad y aplicabilidad y se ilustran usando casos de estudio. Esta revisión describe cómo estos métodos pueden utilizarse con miras a estudiar la calidad del agua con el fin de monitorear espacial y temporalmente la variabilidad de las medidas tomadas.

  9. Processo da retrolavagem em filtros de areia usados na irrigação localizada Backwash process in sand filters used in localized irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo da retrolavagem consiste na passagem da água através do filtro em sentido contrário ao fluxo de filtragem com o objetivo de remover partículas orgânicas e inorgânicas retidas no meio filtrante. O projeto de filtros de areia com configurações ineficientes e a ocorrência de condições operacionais inadequadas contribuem para limitar o desempenho desse processo, causando deficiências na limpeza dos meios filtrantes e comprometendo o funcionamento dos sistemas de irrigação localizada. O objetivo do presente trabalho é proporcionar uma revisão sobre os conceitos associados ao processo da retrolavagem nos filtros de areia, relacionando informações existentes na literatura com experiências de laboratório. Foi gerado um texto básico com informações técnico-científicas sobre o tema, visando a criar um momento de reflexão sobre o processo de retrolavagem e a contribuir para a melhoria do desempenho desses equipamentos na irrigação localizada.The backwash process consists of water passing through the filter in the opposite direction of the filtering flow to remove organic and inorganic particles of media filter. Inefficient sand filters designs and the occurrence of inadequate operating conditions contribute to restrict the process performance, causing deficiencies in the filter cleaning and compromise the operation of localized irrigation systems. The objective of this study is to provide a review about concepts associated with the backwash process in sand filters, relating literature information with laboratory experiments. A basic documentation was produced with technical and scientific information on this subject to create a reflection about the backwash process and contribute to the improvement of the equipment performance in the localized irrigation.

  10. Magnetic composites based on natural sources used for removal of oil; Compositos magneticos baseados em fontes naturais usados para remocao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grance, E.G.O.; Varela, A.; Daher, E.; Gomes, L.Q.; Michel, R.C.; Souza Junior, F.G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br; Rodrigues, C.H.M. [Coordenadoria da Licenciatura em Quimica. Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Aracruz, ES (Brazil); Oliveira, G.E. [Departamento de Quimica - Centro de Ciencias Exatas - Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of a magnetic resin based on lignin from Kraft process. This material, due to this aromatic / aliphatic balance is able to oil spill clean up processes. The resin was prepared through bulk polycondensation of lignin, cashew nutshell liquid and formaldehyde in presence of maghemite nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic composites were studied using ATR, FTIR and SAXS. Magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. Results showed that obtained materials posses a considerable magnetic force and a good oil removal capability. One part of the best material was able to remove eleven parts of oil from the water, making it a good absorber. (author)

  11. Extratos vegetais usados no controle de dípteros vetores de zoonoses Plant extracts used in the control of dipteran vectors of zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos são importantes transmissores de doenças que cada vez mais ocorrem em áreas periurbanas ou urbanas, devido à introdução ou reaparecimento de seus respectivos vetores. As estratégias de controle das doenças transmissíveis por vetores biológicos são de difícil execução, principalmente quando associadas à existência de reservatórios domésticos e silvestres e aos aspectos ambientais. O uso de inseticidas direcionado ao combate de formas adultas de dípteros vetores tem sido freqüente. Entretanto, o amplo uso dos inseticidas sintéticos desde a descoberta do DDT para o controle de pragas domésticas e da agricultura, como também de vetores que transmitem doenças ao homem, levou a uma maior preocupação em relação à toxicidade e impacto ambiental destes agentes. Além disso, a resistência a inseticidas tornou-se uma preocupação crescente na agricultura, economia e na saúde pública. Um grande número de diferentes espécies de plantas representando diferentes áreas geográficas ao redor do mundo tem se mostrado capaz de causar efeitos letais e subletais sobre insetos. Esta revisão aborda a utilização de extratos de plantas com potencial no controle de dípteros vetores de zoonoses.Insects are important transmitters of diseases increasingly occurring in peri-urban or urban areas due to the introduction or the reemergence of their respective vectors. Strategies to control diseases transmitted by biological vectors are difficult to implement, especially when associated with the existence of domestic and wild reservoirs and environmental aspects. The use of insecticides against adult forms of dipteran vectors has been frequent. However, the widespread use of synthetic insecticides since the discovery of DDT to control domestic and agricultural pests, as well as vectors that transmit diseases to humans, has led to greater concern for the toxicity and environmental impact of these agents. Moreover, resistance to insecticides has become an increasing concern in agriculture, economy and public health. A large number of different plant species representing different geographical areas around the world have been capable of causing lethal and sublethal effects on insects. This review addresses the use of potential plant extracts to control dipteran vectors of zoonosis.

  12. Reusing of tyres wastes in way construction: 2 part; Reutilizacion de neumaticos usados en la construcciond e carreteras-II parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas Raz, R.

    2002-07-01

    Used vehicle tyres involve and ecological problem, regarding waste products. Both Spanish and European Environmental Standards promote waste recycling instead of waste incineration, which is specifically applicable to waste tyres. The Engineering Group, Elsamex, has developed, through its research centre CIESM, a researching line completely feasible, offering a recycling option based on the addition, by means of three different techniques, of the refused tyres rubber powder to the asphalt mixes for road construction. This is the refused tyr treatment, which contributes, to a greater extent, to a sustainable development, mostly thanks to the great capacity of roads for using this product as raw materials. Added to this, there is an environmental benefit derived from the ecological treatment used with refused tyres, and its efficacy. Moreover, the treatment helps to the production of asphalt mixes with longer durability with a wet process. This allows long term money saving in road maintenance. (Author)

  13. Estudio del mecanismo de la corrosión del recubrimiento de cobre químico usado en la protección de los espejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaños-Rodríguez, E.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Darkening of the silver layer in classical glass mirror manufacturing process can be caused by the copper layer corrosion, this may take place by the environment action or residual chemicals remaining on the "mirroring" step. The present work describes a possible mechanism of copper coating corrosion, studying the corrosion product compositions formed inside the "spot". It was found that defect on the silver layer are associated with chemicals and moisture, they produce the copper layer corrosion and the development of blisters in the silver coating.

    El defecto conocido como "nube o mancha", que aparece en los espejos plateados fabricados usando las tecnologías convencionales, se atribuye a la corrosión del recubrimiento de cobre ocasionado por agentes agresivos que pueden atravesar las capas de pinturas, pero otra causa del problema puede estar originada por deficiencias durante las etapas del proceso de fabricación de los mismos. En este trabajo, se propone un mecanismo de la corrosión del recubrimiento de cobre a partir del estudio de la composición de los productos de la corrosión en la mancha. Los cloruros, los iones sodio y el oxígeno, procedentes de varias fuentes del sistema, reaccionan formando sales y óxidos de cobre que producen el ampollamiento de la película de plata, la ruptura de la misma y la presencia de estos productos de corrosión se refleja con la formación de manchas de diferentes tamaños, colores y formas sobre la superficie del espejo.

  14. Manejo de buprenorfina transdérmica en pacientes que no han usado previamente opioides Transdermal buprenorphine in opioid naive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rull

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tras una breve revisión de las características de la buprenorfina transdérmica y de sus efectos secundarios, se describe el inicio del tratamiento en el paciente que previamente no ha recibido opioides.After a brief survey of the characteristics and side effects of transdermal fentanyl, its use in an opioid naive patient is described.

  15. Calibration of area monitors for neutrons used in clinical linear accelerators; Calibracao de monitores de area para neutrons usados em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity and the necessary cares for the realization of measurements of neutron fields in rooms for radiotherapy treatment containing clinical accelerators. The acquaintance of the technical characteristics of the monitors and the periodic calibration are actions and fundamental procedures to guarantee traceability and the reliability of measurements

  16. Modificação do agar fenil-alanina usado na identificação de enterabacteriáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Timo Iaria

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available É proposta uma modificação da fórmula do agar fenil-alanina, com a finalidade de simplificar a prova da desaminação dêste aminoácido, que consiste na adição de citrato de ferro amoniacal ao meio.A modification of the phenylalanine agar medium is proposed. The objective is the simplification of the deamination test. The modification consist in adding ferric ammonium citrate to the medium.

  17. Proyecto de construcción e implantación de una industria para la elaboración de biodiesel a partir de aceites usados

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Casals, Iñaki; Ávalos Tomàs, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad y de una manera creciente, Europa fomenta y promueve la utilización de subproductos y la valorización de los residuos. Por otro lado, la propia industria química de commodities en una constante búsqueda de mejores márgenes de beneficios, cada vez más escasos, intenta ampliar el abanico de materias primas más económicas, siempre garantizando la calidad del producto. Tratando a los residuos como un mercado claramente emergente, se realiza este proyecto para af...

  18. Nuclear wastes. The spent fuel using as false problem; Alquimica de los Residuos Nucleares: de pecado a virtud. El combustible usado como falso problema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gomez, A.

    2006-07-01

    Firstly this article presents the energy potential and advantages of nuclear waste in comparison with other types of energy residues. As a consequences the existing denomination of residue or waste applied to the uranium used in nuclear power plants is discussed. This semantic issue is relevant when analysing present opposition to nuclear energy and also favours the arguments against its viability posed by antinuclear groups. (Author)

  19. Puesta a punto y optimización de técnicas para la cuantificación de biodiesel producido a partir de aceites comestibles usados

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Nahuel; Matkovic, Silvana R.

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos años, el biodiesel ha ganado considerable atención debido a la creciente preocupación por los problemas ambientales asociados con el uso de combustibles fósiles. Los estudios e investigación que se presentan en este trabajo comienzan con la puesta a punto y optimización de técnicas volumétricas para la cuantificación de glicerol. El método está destinado a cuantificar glicerol libre y total a fin de determinar el rendimiento en la producción de biodiesel. Adicionalmente, se pro...

  20. Un estudio de los números irracionales en los libros usados en el grado octavo en Florencia (Caquetá)

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Albeiro; Quesada, Alirio

    2012-01-01

    En este reporte de investigación se presenta un análisis del tratamiento didáctico dado a los números irracionales en libros de texto de matemáticas del grado octavo, a partir de dos dimensiones de análisis: dimensión conceptual y Dimensión didáctico - cognitiva, con sus respectivas categorías de análisis e indicadores.

  1. Modelos in vivo más usados para la identificación de disrupción endocrina potencial del aparato reproductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balia Pardo Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, existe gran preocupación científica debido a los efectos que puede causar la exposición a sustancias químicas que tienen el potencial de provocar disrupción endocrina en la vida silvestre y los seres humanos. Diferentes organismos internacionales han propuesto diversas baterías de ensayos toxicológicos y bioensayos in vitro e in vivo para la identificación de disruptores endocrinos. El presente trabajo, por tanto, pretendió divulgar la metodología para realizar los ensayos in vivo que permiten identificar las sustancias que puedan conducir a la disrupción endocrina del aparato reproductor y que cumplen la condición de estar validados por la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico. El ensayo uterotrófico ha sido empleado para evaluar la actividad estrogénica o antiestrogénica en diferentes especies, principalmente en roedores tales como ratas hembras inmaduras y adultas ovariectomizadas. El ensayo de Hershberger es uno de los ensayos validados para determinar disruptores endocrinos potenciales en ratas machos castradas, en el cual la acción de un agonista o un antagonista androgénico puede ser identificada por el aumento o disminución significativo del peso de los órganos y tejidos sexuales de los animales tratados versus los controles. Los ensayos uterotrófico y de Hershberger son de fácil realización, sensibles y reproducibles, siendo muy útiles en la evaluación del potencial tóxico de nuevas sustancias.

  2. Revisión de los métodos estadísticos multivariados usados en el análisis de calidad de aguas

    OpenAIRE

    Ingry Natalia Gómez Miranda; Gustavo Antonio Peñuela Mesa

    2016-01-01

    En los ecosistemas acuáticos se monitorea el agua para determinar sus variaciones espacio-temporales, generando grandes y complejas matrices de datos que requieren herramientas que ayuden en la interpretación de los mismos, para que los administradores de los recursos hídricos puedan informar a la sociedad el deterioro de estos y tomar medidas correctivas. El presente artículo es una revisión de tema cuyo objetivo es el examen de técnicas estadísticas multivariadas usadas para examinar la var...

  3. Management of used channels and control rods as radioactive wastes; Gestion de canales usados y barras de control como redisuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, L.; Duque, J.; Serrano, G.

    2014-07-01

    During the operation of a nuclear power plant, are generated different types of radioactive wastes. A number of features which include the activity and life average of different radioisotopes present in the material, determine the waste management measures during preparation, transport and temporary or permanent storage. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of polymers with drag reduction potential used in drilling fluids; Avaliacao de polimeros com potencial de reducao de arraste usado em fluidos de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Marcus V.D.; Costa, Francileide G. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)]. E-mail: mvferreira.puc@petrobras.com.br; Lopes, Lea; Figueiredo, Marcos S.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The employment of linear chain polymers with high molecular weight in fluids as drag reducers became a current practice in the chemical industry. The petroleum industry presents several potential applications for drag reducers. Although some commercial products are available for specific applications, the major drag reduction mechanisms are, still unknown nowadays, despite of several theories about the phenomena. The aim of this work is to evaluate the rheological behavior of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) and xanthan and diu tan gums solutions that have drag reduction characteristics. It is expected that these polymers present a good drag reduction potential. All these polymers will be evaluated as drag reducers in a pressure drop flow loop. The final step is to correlate drag reduction tendency with rheological properties and molecular structure. (author)

  5. Determinación de hidrocarburos en lodos residuales del tanque de almacenamiento de aceites usados de Etapa EP., posterior al tratamiento con Ecosoil, Sphag Sorb y compostaje

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La Empresa Municipal Pública de Telecomunicaciones, Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento, ETAPA EP., preocupada por la mala disposición que se da a los hidrocarburos: lubricantes y combustibles, lleva adelante, el “Programa de Recolección de Aceites Minerales Usados”, con el propósito de recolectarlos para disponer de ellos de una manera ambientalmente segura, lo que ha originado el inconveniente de la generación de lodos contaminados con hidrocarburos como resultado de la sedimentación...

  6. Disposal of waste channels and control rods and radioactive waste; Gestion de canales usados y barras de control como residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, L.

    2015-07-01

    Iberdrola and ENRESA are jointly developing a project for the characterization and conditioning of around 200 control rods and 70 used channel from Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. This treatment line for high level waste with a radiologic inventory that avoids using the El Cabril low level waste repository is new in Spain and incorporates specific features like the option to carry on with the conditioning stage prior to having a licensed package and available storage facility for this type of waste. (Author)

  7. Properties of the lithium carbonate for to be used as thermal neutrons detector; Propiedades del carbonato de litio para ser usado como detector de neutrones termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera A, E.; Urena N, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the dosimetric properties of the lithium carbonate used as detecting of thermal neutrons and by means of free radicals is evaluated and presented. The studied parameters that were carried out for this detector were: intensity of the Electron paramagnetic resonance signal (EPR); reproducibility, fading of the signal to ambient temperature, stability of the signal to low temperature (0 degrees); answer of zero dose and homogeneity or reliability of the data of the detector, humidity, solar light, temperature and radio sensitivity. These parameters indicate the utility that have the detectors for the estimation of fields of neutron fluences that are applicable to capture therapies by neutron-boron and, nuclear reactors. (Author)

  8. ANÁLISIS DE LA VULNERABILIDAD DE LA RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA DE UN ACOPLE USADO EN TRENES CAÑEROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ISIDRO GARCÍA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el análisis de un acople, pieza que facilita el enganche de semirremolques tipo cañero, para formar lo que se conoce como tren cañero, vehículo encargado de transportar la caña desde el campo de cosecha hasta el ingenio azucarero. En este trabajo se estudia la vulnerabilidad de la resistencia mecánica en servicio ante el deterioro gradual por desgaste como resultado del movimiento relativo de dos superficies. La estimación de la carga de trabajo se hace por medio de dos métodos: uno teórico, y otro experimental que involucra la instrumentación del acople para la obtención de los datos requeridos. Se evalúa el comportamiento estructural del acople mediante técnicas computacionales de elementos finitos, para después analizarlo con disminución de la sección crítica del acople para la evaluación de la vida útil del mismo. Así, se estima un parámetro técnico de servicio para el cambio del acople, sin deterioro de las condiciones de seguridad en el transporte de la caña.

  9. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lima Victal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar à cultura brasileira os instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, utilizados no diagnóstico de cistite intersticial. Foram realizadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura internacional para a adaptação cultural. As etapas de tradução, síntese das traduções e retrotradução foram realizadas satisfatoriamente, e a avaliação das versões sintéticas pelo comitê de especialistas resultou em algumas alterações, assegurando as equivalências entre as versões originais e traduzidas. O PUF foi pré-testado entre 40 sujeitos e The O'Leary-Sant em uma amostra de 50 indivíduos, devido à necessidade de ajustes em decorrência da baixa escolaridade da população. O processo de tradução e adaptação foi realizado com sucesso e os instrumentos, após as modificações, demonstraram ser de fácil compreensão e rápido preenchimento. Entretanto, este é um estudo que antecede o processo de validação e será premente o emprego do instrumento em novas pesquisas para que sejam avaliadas suas propriedades psicométricas.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD: criteria used by different professional categories / Diagnóstico y tratamiento de TDAH: criterios usados por diferentes categorías profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aragão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic criteria and intervention proposals related to ADHD in different professional categories from the city of Natal, RN, Brazil. In the study participated 34 professionals conveniently selected and a semi-structured interview was conducted with them. After the categorization of information we proceeded to a multidimensional descriptive Cluster analysis. There was an evident division of the whole group into two other groups due to three bigger relevance variables: education, number of sessions used in the diagnosis, and the use of formal instruments. Group 1, formed by physicians, was characterized by the use of two to three sessions and by the use of instruments and formal scales. In Group 2, the average number of sessions was higher than three and all psychologists and most educational psychologist from this group did not use formal scales for diagnosis. We suggest that the academic training determines the diagnostic modalities and intervention modalities for ADHD. RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los criterios diagnósticos y propuestas de intervención relacionados al TDAH de diferentes categorías profesionales en la ciudad de Natal – RN, Brasil. Participaron 34 profesionales seleccionados por conveniencia y a quienes se les realizó una entrevista semi-estructurada. Luego de la categorización de las informaciones se procedió al análisis descriptivo multidimensional de tipo Clusters. Se hizo evidente la división de la muestra total en otros dos grupos en relación a las tres variables de mayor relevancia: educación, número de sesiones utilizadas en el diagnóstico y uso de instrumentos formales. El Grupo 1, formado por médicos, se caracterizó por la utilización de dos o tres sesiones y por el uso de instrumentos y escalas formales. En el grupo 2, el número promedio de sesiones fue superior a tres y todos los psicólogos y la mayoría de los psicopedagogos no utilizaron escalas formales en el diagnóstico. Se sugiere que la formación académica determina las modalidades diagnósticas y de intervenciones utilizadas junto al TDAH.

  11. Technology of ceramic and polymeric membranes for oil/water separation; Tecnologia de membranas ceramicas e polimericas para separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A; Souto, K.M; Silva, Adriano A.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In last years, separation techniques by membranes and membranes grew of a laboratory simple tool for an industrial process with a considerable technical and commercial impact. Today, membranes have been being widely used in the treatment of the oily/water, because they offer chemical, thermal resistance and resistance the pressure for a wide variety of alimentation terms. Membrane can be defined as a barrier that separates two phases and that restricts, total or partially, the transportation of one or several present chemical species in the phases. The morphology of the membrane and nature of the material that constitutes are some characteristics that are going to define application kind. The ideal structure for these filters is the asymmetric, formed by one or more layers of different pores size, with gradual reduction of the pores size, when approaches the side filtrate. Having in mind that the environmental legislations more process with membranes offers a new option to face these challenges. The membranes typically used in the oil and water separation act as a barrier for the emulsified oil and solubilization. In the petroleum production and refined oil water mixed with oil is prosecuted in great volumes in lots of processes, this mixture should be treated to separate the oil of water before it can return to the environment or even to be reused in the process. This review aims relate studies done with ceramic and polymeric membranes using a separation oil/water system mounted in laboratory scale in UFCG/CCT/ANP/PHH25. The results show that filtration membranes, micro filtration and ultrafiltration were very effective in oil/water separation. (author)

  12. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  13. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  14. Performance of generating group diesel fed with different blends of soybean biodiesel; Desempenho de um grupo gerador diesel alimentado com diferentes misturas de biodiesel de oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Elton Fialho dos; Amaral, Paulo Augusto Pedroso; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Freitas, Sueli Martins; Queiroz, Helio de Souza [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Anapolis], E-mail: bcunha_2@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The replacement of diesel with biofuels or blends with diesel that is the most focused today to supply the shortage of petroleum based fuels. In Brazil the trend that biodiesel be used with regular diesel is increasing. As a result feasibility studies are becoming more necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate use of biodiesel in different concentrations with diesel (B3, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B100) in a generating group diesel. Assays for quantification of the hourly consumption of fuel and emission of noise in different variants of the engine had been carried out. This was conducted through the electrical charge, connected to the generating group, and carried out through the analysis of the degree of Bosch blackening of the gases of exhaustion in the different concentrations. The equations of regression had good correlation with the real data. In conclusion the electric charge applied to the group generator increases proportionately with the time consumption and the emission of noise. However Biodiesel (B100) is different in comparison to other mixtures in the Bosch blackening test, presenting a lesser emission in relation to the other mixtures. (author)

  15. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  16. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  17. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails: mariana.portella@lactec.org.br, portella@laclec.org.br; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mandreoli@cteep.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  18. Difficulties for innovation in energy technology development: thermoelectric generation with vegetable oils; As dificuldades para a inovacao em rotas tecnologicas de desenvolvimento energetico: geracao termeletica com oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose Antonio Sales de [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB-CDS), DF (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel

    2008-07-01

    Analysis of the vegetable oil as energy source, observing the troubles caused by technology innovation insertion in the Brazilian Electrical Matrix by the use of renewable alternative energy sources while competing with the products and systems' market leaders that use fossil sources. (author)

  19. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  20. Thermal insulation field replacement for operating high temperature oil; Substituicao in situ do revestimento isolante termico de dutos que transportam oleo combustivel aquecido, sem paralisacao operacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniero, Leo [Transpavi-Codrasa S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliver, Joao H. de L.; Pinto, Mucio E.A. C. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The in Situ rehabilitation of the thermal isolated coating of heated pipelines required a technology development for material and equipment innovation, in such way, the coating rehabilitation was conducted keeping the continuous pipeline operation at 85 deg C. The new thermal coating is applied after the following services stages: dig the trench, purge the old thermal insulation, sand blasting of the steel pipe, application of a anticorrosive coating in the metallic substratum for continuous operation at 120 deg C, application of spacers around the steel pipe, fabrication of a polyethylene (PE) casing, cut and opening of the PE casing in its own longitudinal line, setting the PE casing over the spacers, closing of the PE casing by longitudinal thermoplastic welding with the automatic machine, boring a opening in the PE casing sidelong, injection of polyurethane foam inside of the PE casing, tampon the bores by thermoplastic weld, tying-in the PE casing with the next contiguous casing with electro fusion weld. The casing-bends are made from the PE casing cut in angles, like the specific project of each bend, the casing-bends are mounted outer the steel pipeline bends follows the same sequences of stages. (author)

  1. Appearance of instabilities and fingering from interface in water-oil systems; Surgimento de instabilidades e digitacao a partir da interface em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    Many operations and procedures in the petroleum industry are related to the immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one, as the secondary recovery of petroleum and pumping operation through pipelines of high viscosity oils. In this context, an stability analysis of the water-oil interface as well as of the factors that leads to the appearance of the viscous fingering phenomenon, represented by the viscous flowing of one phase that penetrates inside of the other one in the form of one or more fingers, is of major importance for the forecast, simulation and control of operations involving this kind of system. From the theories of perturbation and unstable immiscible displacement of fluids, initially conceived for cells of parallel slabs (Hele-Shaw), the authors intend to extend the concepts and adapt the criteria for the three-dimensional geometry in macroscopic scale. (author)

  2. Heavy oil, water and air three-phase flow patterns in horizontal pipes; Padroes de escoamento trifasico de oleo pesado, agua e ar em tubulacoes horizontais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Francisco Exaltacao; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A significant extent of the Brazilian oil reserves consists of heavy oil, and its importance and economic value have been increasing in the last years. However, these oils, besides their elevated densities (API degree lower than 20), have viscosities higher than 100 mPa.s, which make it more difficult their transportation in pipelines. A solution for this problem is the injection of water in the pipe, which causes a reduction of the friction factor and, consequently, of the energy expend for a given oil flow rate. The two-phase flow of heavy oil and water has been the object of a number of recent studies, and concepts such as the core-flow technology can be useful for heavy oil transportation. But in production operations, gas is also present, initially dissolved in the oil phase then leaving the solution to form a free gas phase if the pressure drops below the bubble point pressure, the study of three-phase flow of heavy oil, water and gas is in order. The present paper presents the experimental work developed to evaluate the effect that this third phase causes on the heavy oil-water two-phase flow pattern. Initially two-phase flow of heavy and gas-water was studied to establish the flow rate ranges that cover the main patterns already known. The superficial velocities used varied from 0,04 to 0,5 m/s for water, 0,01 to 22 m/s for gas and 0,02 to 1,2 m/s for oil. After that, three-phase flow patterns were visually determined through a 2,84 cm i.d. plexiglas tube using a high-speed camera. Nine three-phase flow patterns were identified which are presented visually and described. These flow-patterns are also presented in flow maps where the effect of the gas phase can be observed. Water was the continuous phase for all flow patterns observed, ensuring a low pressure drop along the pipe. (author)

  3. Energetic analysis of experimental process in bio diesel production from chicken oil; Analise energetica do proceso experimental de producao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonometo, Ricardo Pacheco [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], E-mail: rpbonometo@yahoo.com.br; Justi, Andre Luiz [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Irrigacao e Drenagem], E-mail: aljusti@fca.unesp.br; Buchi, Alisson Teixeira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CEVAP/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peconhentos], E-mail: atbuchi@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    There is a great global concern about the depletion and the high cost of fossil fuel reserves exploitation, more than ever, it is necessary to make a profound study and take advantage of alternative sources that can be used as energy efficiency with an appropriate pricing and low environmental impact. Brazil, which has highlighted using alternative energy sources as the use of ethanol and, in recent years, has been encouraging the expansion of its energy matrix in which the biodiesel will have a strategic importance within the agrobusiness area. Biodiesel is a fuel that can replace the diesel, which is a petroleum derivative. It is an ester, produced in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils and animal greases, in an alcohol with an additional catalyst, are converted into fatty acids and result in esters with glycerol as sub products. The objective of this study was to estimate the final energy balance for the process biodiesel production from oil chicken waste. The energy balance estimation was quantified in calorific value according to the energy expenditure by calorimetric bomb method. The relationship between input and output of energy was around 0.97. In a first evaluation, the procedures adopted should be improved enough, so the process can become energetic and economically viable. (author)

  4. Emulsion, problem or solution for the flow of heavy crude oil; Emulsao, problema ou solucao para o escoamento de oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: chmc@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; rcgo@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    During the last decades, giant offshore crude oil reserves were discovered around the world. Most of them comprise heavy and high viscosity crude oils. During oil production, it is common to have co-production of emulsified water. The water may originate from the producing formation itself or be a consequence of recovery processes. The formation of water in oil emulsions (W/O) during production is highly undesirable due to the increase of the oil viscosity. Several studies have been carried out to prevent the formation of this type of emulsion or even to promote phase inversion production, creating oil in water emulsions (O/W) of low viscosity. In the present work experimental results are presented that show the influence of emulsion type on flow parameters. The flow parameters were evaluated from a flow simulator especially designed for this purpose. (author)

  5. Obtaining biodiesel from oils mixtures of corn and cotton; Obtencao de biodiesel a partir da mistura dos oleos de milho e algodao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lionete Nunes de; Santos, Jose Carlos Oliveira; Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Dantas, Manoel Barbosa; Rosenhaim, Raul; Sousa, Antonio Gouveia [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Most of the world energy consumption derives from oil, coal and natural gas. The shortage of the energy sources, especially the energy from fossil fuels, and moreover the impossibility of its renovation has motivated the development of technologies that allow for the usage of renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable and it obeys the cycle of carbon. It is defined as a blend of mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable sources, as vegetable oils and animal fats. It is obtained by means of a transesterification process, in which the transformation of triglycerides into smaller molecules of fatty acid esters takes place, and it displays physical and chemical characteristics similar to the ones of a fossil fuel-derived diesel oil. This work presents the attainment of biodiesel from the mixture of oils of corn and cotton, utilizing the homogeneous potassium hydroxide catalyst (KOH). The biodiesel was characterized on the basis of physico-chemical properties, of infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In thermogravimetric analyses, it was observed that the biodiesel presented an initial decomposition temperature of lower than that of oil, demonstrating be more volatile and bringing up the diesel. (author)

  6. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. A parametric study of VAPEX process as improved oil recovery method; Estudo parametrico do processo VAPEX como metodo de recuperaco avancada de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.; Barillas, J.L.M.; Mata, W.; Dutra Junior, T.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is still a large amount of natural resources in heavy oil reservoirs which can be explored using new methods. The world estimate of resources as heavy oil and bitumen may be 6 trillion barrels of OOIP. However, this enormous amount of hydrocarbon resources which are in these reservoirs may be explored with new concepts. The VAPEX process is a promising recovery method since its invention in 1991 by Dr. Roger Butler. The process consists of two horizontal wells, parallel between themselves, producer and injector, where vaporized solvent is injected with the objective of reducing the oil or bitumen viscosity. The purpose of this study is to examine how some important operational parameters influence the VAPEX process, in the produced oil rates, the cumulative produced oil and the recovery factor. Parameters such as the spacing between wells, the injection pressure and the type of solvent are addressed in this study. The choice of solvent to be used was the factor that showed more influence in the process and this allowed a greater recovery factor. Another important parameter was the injection pressure. (author)

  8. Technology of ceramic and polymeric membranes for oil/water separation; Tecnologia de membranas ceramicas e polimericas para separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A; Souto, K.M; Silva, Adriano A.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In last years, separation techniques by membranes and membranes grew of a laboratory simple tool for an industrial process with a considerable technical and commercial impact. Today, membranes have been being widely used in the treatment of the oily/water, because they offer chemical, thermal resistance and resistance the pressure for a wide variety of alimentation terms. Membrane can be defined as a barrier that separates two phases and that restricts, total or partially, the transportation of one or several present chemical species in the phases. The morphology of the membrane and nature of the material that constitutes are some characteristics that are going to define application kind. The ideal structure for these filters is the asymmetric, formed by one or more layers of different pores size, with gradual reduction of the pores size, when approaches the side filtrate. Having in mind that the environmental legislations more process with membranes offers a new option to face these challenges. The membranes typically used in the oil and water separation act as a barrier for the emulsified oil and solubilization. In the petroleum production and refined oil water mixed with oil is prosecuted in great volumes in lots of processes, this mixture should be treated to separate the oil of water before it can return to the environment or even to be reused in the process. This review aims relate studies done with ceramic and polymeric membranes using a separation oil/water system mounted in laboratory scale in UFCG/CCT/ANP/PHH25. The results show that filtration membranes, micro filtration and ultrafiltration were very effective in oil/water separation. (author)

  9. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  10. Challenges for the heavy oil exportation though pipelines in deep waters; Desafios da exportacao de oleos pesados atraves de oleodutos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto; Borges Filho, Jonas P.; Gaspari, Eduardo F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high pressures, low temperatures, and high viscosities involved, the heavy oil exportation in deep waters through pipelines imposes a number of challenges to be feasible. The viscosities involved in such scenarios are usually very high, which brings most of the system to a laminar flow even for the higher flow rates. In a laminar flow the viscosity is linearly and directly related to the frictional pressure drop and so its precise determination is crucial for the correct results from simulations in transient or in steady state, including the modeling thermal. This work presents some results in steady state and transient simulations of heavy oil of deg API around 16 and pipe length of approximately 20km. For the analyses in the steady state was concluded that in low outflows the required pressures can surpass the pressures in high outflows. In the transient regimen was concluded that in case of long stop, the return to the full outflow surpasses 6 days and the replacement of the fluids from the pipe by diesel is a solution to reduce significantly this time. (author)

  11. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  12. Numerical modeling of oil spill in the Patos Lagoon estuary; Modelagem numerica de derrames de oleo no estuario da Lagoa dos Patos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho, Vivian; Monteiro, Igor Oliveira; Janeiro, Joao; Fernandes, Elisa Helena Leao [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Navigation is responsible for the input of 555.000 tons of oil per year in the marine environment. The recovery of the system can take dozens of years, affecting economical, ecological and social areas. The Patos Lagoon estuary presents wide importance and high susceptibility to accidents of oil spill. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the spread of oil spills using the MOHID model, which simulates both the hydrodynamics of the estuary and the oil dispersion considering the different processes involved. Wind and water level data from May 1 to August 18, 1999 were used to simulate a hypothetic accident of involving 2000 m3 of oil MF 380 during the passage of a cold front considering high and low river discharges. Results indicate that the oil dispersion is governed by the estuarine dynamic, which is controlled by the wind action and river discharge. Thus, during southwest wind the oil is retained within the estuary, and in situations of northeast wind the oil tends to leave the estuary and sometimes can reach the inner shallow bays. (author)

  13. The influence of the remedy with diesel oil in impacted environment; A influencia da remediacao em ambiente impactado com oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Douglas M.; Baisch, Paulo; Machado, Maria I.; Costa, Jorge A.V.; Martins, Vilasia [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The conventional techniques of cleaning can be complemented with the remediation, for the use of chemical surfactant or of bio surfactant. The bioremediation minimizes the impact of recalcitrant substances in the atmosphere. The chemical surfactant can promote the fastest biodegradation of the oil, but its application should always be evaluated by professionals specialized in environment, since she can be seen as a deliberated introduction of a pollutant. The present work evaluated the influence of the use of a chemical surfactant and of a of bio surfactant (produced by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus), in controlled spill of oil diesel, happened in at spring/2003 in the Island of the Horses located in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon. The atmosphere was monitored for 6 months, being selected a place with oil diesel, another with oil diesel and chemical surfactant and another with oil diesel and of bio surfactant. The following chemical parameters were analyzed: organic carbon, nitrogen and total match of the sediment. The statistical treatment consisted of the variance analysis (ANOVA) and in the test of Tukey (p <0,01), for the analyzed nutrients. The coming hydrocarbons of the degradation of the oil diesel will be later on certain for GC-MS. The results showed that the best environmental conditions were verified where the remediation was used. (author)

  14. Chemical constituents of Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) and larvicidal activity of essential oil; Constituintes quimicos de Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) e atividade larvicida de seu oleo essencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Gregorio da S.; Almeida, Macia Cleane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma Leda G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gomes, Clerton L.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do, E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    2012-07-01

    . Analysis of essential oil from fresh leaves of Capraria biflora allowed identification of fourteen essential oil constituents among which thirteen are sesquiterpene compounds, and {alpha}-humulene (43.0%) the major constituent. The essential oil was tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypyti showing good activity, with LC{sub 50} 73.39 {mu}g/mL (2.27 g/mL). Chromatographic studies of extracts from roots and stems allowed the isolation of five compounds: naphthoquinone biflorin, sesquiterpene caprariolide B, the steroid {beta}-sitosterol, the carbohydrate D-mannitol and iridoid myopochlorin first reported in the species C. biflora. The structures of compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data, IR, MS, NMR{sup 13}C, NMR{sup 1}H, NOE, HSQC and HMBC. (author)

  15. Modeling of development and projection of the accumulated recoverable oil volume: methodology and application; Modelagem da evolucao e projecao de volume de oleo recuperavel acumulado: metodologia e aplicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Luciana Cavalcanti de; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins; Rocha, Vinicius Brito [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    A relevant problem that petroleum companies deal is the estimate of the future levels of reserves The objective of the reserve forecasting is pursued through the construction of mathematical models. Considering that the exploration process is an informed and controlled process, in order to reach the exploration targets, the exploration process is lead inside of a sequence of decisions based on the reached results. Such decisions are taken surrounded by an uncertain environment added to the random nature of the process. Another important assumption that must be taken into consideration is the dependency of the exploration on the conditions, or structure, of the discovered resources and the final potential. The modeling starts with the establishment of a general problem, when the models are being constructed, based on suppositions associated to the main concepts, and ends with the attainment of specific solutions, when the best description, or model, is selected through the estimate of the respective parameters and of the measurement adjustments. The result of this approach reflects the essence of the exploration process and how it is reflected in the incorporation of reserves and history of field discoveries. A case study is used for validation of the models and the estimates. (author)

  16. Main crops used to obtain fuel from vegetable oils in Brazil; Principais culturas para obtencao de oleos vegetais combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper tries to identify how the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel may unfold itself in different geographical areas starting from the specific characteristics for each cultivation and volume production of each plant at present. By combining the production of palm, peanut, corn, soy beans, coconut, cotton, castor beans, sunflower and canola, of each geographical area, with the average oil yield as compared with the production of 2004, it has been calculated that the potential of oil production from areas in the South (32,9%) and Middle west (40,8%), having a high per capita income, are much higher than the areas the North (3,4%) and Northeast (10,1%), mainly due to the high soy bean and corn production. Considering the participation of all these oleaginous raw materials, it has been considered that it would be necessary to increase about 5% of the actual production of these plants for a later transformation in fuel to supply the bio diesel demand. This modest growth estimate requires caution on the part of the farmers and oil crushers and converters for they must project their investments correctly, so that their production can be absorbed by the market. The oil yield per hectare and the land use per bio fuel ton are indicators which have a great importance to be considered in the national program to evaluate aspects of economic, social and environmental feasibility. (author)

  17. Performance of diesel engine fuelled with sunflower biodiesel blends; Desempenho de motor diesel com misturas de biodiesel de oleo de girassol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Ila Maria; Maziero, Jose Valdemar Gonzalez; Bernardi, Jose Augusto; Storino, Moises [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (CEA/IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Automacao; Ungaro, Maria Regina [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Graos e Fibras

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of sunflower bio diesel blends in a CI engine, direct injection. The test procedure was done in a dynamometer bench had been determined the performance of engine through power take-off (PTO) with use of diesel and sunflower bio diesel blends (B5, B10, B20 and B100). The lubricating oil was analyzed before and after period of 96 hours. The results were: D (40,7 kw; 271 g/kw.h); B5 (40,3 kw; 271 g/kw.h); B10 (39,8 kw; 277 g/kw.h); B20 (40,0 kw; 277 g/kw.h) e B100 (39,8 kw; 291 g/kw.h). It was conclude that the use of blends B5, B10, B20 and B100 decreased the power of PTO max. 2,2% and increased the fuel consumption max. 7, 3%. The analyze of lubricating oil showed that the viscosity, water content and level of iron were the parameters more affected, although it had been acceptable. (author)

  18. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer; Nanoemulsoes oleo de laranja/agua preparadas em homogeneizador de alta pressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  19. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  20. Mutagenic study of the diesel oil combustion through vegetal bioindicator; Estudo mutagenico da combustao de oleo diesel atraves de bioindicador vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Deuzuita dos Santos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Nucleo de Engenharia Termica e Fluidos (NETeF); Paula Manoel Crnkovic [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Josmar Davilson Pagliuso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento]. E-mail: deuzuita@sc.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the mutagenic potential of the exhaustion from a diesel engine, by using the bioassay Trad-SH, used as bioindicator of the air polluted. In the experiments, the diesel exhausted air have been diluted in order to reach the typical urban polluted atmosphere (50, 100 and 150 ppm of CO)

  1. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  2. Development of a extensor oil with low content of polycyclic aromatic; Desenvolvimento de oleo extensor com baixo teor de policiclicos aromaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Anie Daniela M.; Fontes, Anita Eleonora F.; Figueiredo, Joao Baptista [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a substitute product for the aromatic oil used in rubber tires. The new oil must be in according to The European Community Directive 2005/69/EC, which has the start date in January first of 2010. The directive sets limits for specific levels of polyaromatics content in the oils for rubber tires because of the mutagenic and harmful to the reproduction characteristic of some of these substances. The process of aromatics extraction was conducted on several kinds of feedstocks to obtain a product with kinematic viscosity at 100 deg C in the 40-50 cSt range and polycyclics aromatics content until 3% in mass. It is important to know that the current oils have 20% in mass of polyaromatics content. The product developed is in according with the Directive specifications and contributes to the production of tires more suitable to the environment and human health. (author)

  3. Low-visibility and night-time oil spill response operations; Operacoes noturnas e com baixa visibilidade em resposta a vazamentos com oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Geraldo Marcelo Barroso; Margem, Henrique da Cunha; Skrepnek, Clarissa Cavalheiro; Lyra, Ana Paula Lopes Coelho de Castro; Silva, Ana Claudia Andriolli Vieira da; Antoun, Augusto Resende [Hidroclean Protecao Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The expansion on E and P area and the raise on importation and exportation activities by sea, cause not only commercial benefits, but also expressive environmental risks. This fact is reaffirmed by the actions of Brazilian environmental agencies in order to control potential polluter activities. However, these agencies are against any activity related to oil spill incidents that operate at night-time or during low-visibility condition because of the elevated risk of accidents on this kind of operation. In the other hand, delays on start response operation can be expensive by reducing recovery rates and increasing environmental impacts. Thus, this paper objective is to analyze studies and reports of night-time and low-visibility oil spill response operations occurred in other countries, concluding that when the right equipment is used, it is possible to start or continue oil spill operation independent of weather. However, before choose to start an operation at night, an assessment should be make to know if the risks outweigh the benefits, remarking that safety is always the primary concern. (author)

  4. Replacement of diesel oil by hydrous ethyl alcohol in direct burning: a comparison; Substituicao do oleo diesel por alcool etilico hidratado na queima direta: uma comparacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Edgar Paz; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails: edgarpaz@feg.unesp.br, joao@feg.unesp.br, carrocci@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a study of the substitution of diesel fuel by ethyl alcohol in direct burning. The investigation is concentrated in the physical-chemical properties of the fuels, the combustion thermodynamics, the atomization, and the pollutants formation. Results show that hydrated ethyl alcohol can be an attractive alternative for diesel fuel, mainly by the benefits in the combustion process and the pollutants formation. Nevertheless, care must be taken in the substitution to prevent losses by evaporation, fire risks and material damage by corrosion. (author)

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabia M.; Correa, Paulo C.; Martins, Marcio A.; Santos, Silmara B.; Damian, Amanda D. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: copace@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, syllmara@vicosa.ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP). Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol. The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. (author)

  6. The displacement of oil polymer slug considering of adsorption effects; Deslocamento de oleo por banco de polimero considerando os efeitos de adsorcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Priscila M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, Adolfo P. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Among different Enhanced Oil Recovery methods, the injection of chemical solutions plays an important role in mature fields additional recovery. The continuous injection of this kind of fluid would be very expensive, so, the injection of chemical slugs is an attractive alternative to improve the recovery of mature oil fields. Analytical models for 1-D displacement of oil by water with chemical compounds have been developed since the 1960's. This paper presents the 1-D analytical solution of the injection of a chemical slug followed by water drive into an oil reservoir. A flow potential associated with the conservation of water phase is introduced and used as a new independent variable instead of time. This technique permits splitting the system of equations into a thermodynamic system and one transport equation. Another important application of these solutions is the prediction of chemical flooding regardless of the transport properties (relative permeabilities and viscosities). (author)

  7. Study of oil diesel degradation in soil using oxidative advanced processes; Estudo da degradacao do oleo diesel em solo utilizando processos oxidativos avancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suenia S.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta, Mauricio da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Paula Tereza de S. e; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2004-07-01

    Recently it comes if observing several accidents during the exploration, refinement, transport and operation of storage of petroleum and yours derived, such as the diesel oil and the gasoline. In this paper We do a study of the degradation of the diesel oil in a characteristic soil of the state of Pernambuco using peroxide of hydrogen and Fenton reagent. Those two processes are based on the generation of the radical hydroxyl (OH.) that has to can oxidizer loud capable to promote the destruction of recalcitrant organic compositions. The studied soil has about 16,5{+-}0,3 g/kg of total organic carbon. A factorial planning was accomplished 2{sup 3} with 2 repetitions in the central point with the objective of finding the best conditions of degradation of the pollutant. The variables and the studied levels were: FeSO{sub 4} - 0,18 M (0, 4 and 8 Ml); pH (3; without adjustment and without adjustment) and Time of exhibition in the sun (8; 12 and 16:00). The volumes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used in the rehearsals were constant, being 80 mL. Soon afterwards it accomplished a fractional experimental planning 2{sup 3-1}, repeating the variables of the first planning, they put using a smaller volume of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 40 mL, to evaluate the influence of the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used about the degradation of the diesel oil. The mass of the soil used in each experiment was of 5 g. It was observed that there were not significant differences in the degradation in relation to the peroxide volume. The best found degradation was around 87% in the following conditions (4 mL of Faith, without pH adjustment, Time of exhibition in the sun of 12:00 and 80 ml of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). That found degradation was quite satisfactory being still due to study more economical conditions. (author)

  8. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36

  9. Analysis of the alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds in fusel oil samples; Analise dos alcoois, esteres e compostos carbonilicos em amostras de oleo fusel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Eduardo R.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica Molecular. E-mail: douglas@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds were performed using HRGC and HPLC techniques in samples of fusel oils from three different Brazilian alcohol distilleries. High content of isoamyl alcohol (390 deg c g.L{sup -1})., isobutyl alcohol (158 g.L{sup -1}), ethyl alcohol (28,4 g.L{sup -1}), methyl alcohol (16,6 g.L{sup -1}) and n-propyl alcohol (11,9 g.L{sub -}{sup 1}) were found. These compounds represent 77 {+-} 8% of the approximated weight of a liter of fusel oils. The obtained results show the feasibility of using fusel oils as low-cost raw material for the synthesis of chemicals. (author)

  10. The use of tucuma of Aamazonas kernel oil in the biodiesel production; Aproveitamento do oleo das amendoas de tucuma do Amazonas na producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Banny Silva; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Barreto, Andreza Cruz [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: banny_barbosa@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: hector_ferreira86@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: andrezacb@yahoo.com.br; Silva, Joao Domingos da; Figliuolo, Roberto; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: jdomingo@inpa.gov.br, e-mail: robfigli@inpa.gov.br, e-mail: smnunomu@inpa.gov.br

    2009-06-15

    The shortage of electricity is a major reason for the low Human Development Index of isolated communities located in the Amazon basin. The biodiesel produced from vegetable oils extracted from oil seeds native species, in a sustainable way, is one of the best alternative energy for the region. The 'tucuma of Amazonas', Astrocaryum aculeatum, is an Amazon palm tree that produces a much appreciated fruit in the region, from which it obtains kernels that have high content in oil. In this study, we evaluated the production of ethyl biodiesel, from different batches of oil obtained from 'tucuma of Amazonas' kernels with high and low acidity by the transesterification process acidic and basic catalysis, respectively. Different acid catalysts (HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and concentrations of each acid (from 0.0625 to 1.000 M) were tested, with ethanol at molar ratio of 1:6 at 90 deg C for 24 h. In the basic catalysis, NaOH and KOH were tested at the concentration range of 0.5 to 2.0 % with anhydrous ethanol with molar ratio 1:12 and the reactions took place at 80 deg C for 2 h. The conversion into biodiesel and its quality was analyzed by means reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and specific gravity. Chromatographic analysis indicated that the best conversions were achieved by samples of biodiesel with lowest specific gravity (0.87 g.cm-1). The samples of biodiesel with best quality were obtained with acid catalysis at 1.0 M with yield above 90 %. In the basic catalysis, it could be obtained biodiesel with good quality with NaOH at 2.0 %, but at lower yields. However in both types of catalysis, it was possible to identify an excellent potential for the production of this important biofuel from tucuma kernel oil. (author)

  11. Brazilian clay organophilization aiming its use in oil / water removal; Organofilizacao de argila brasileira visando seu uso na remocao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, M.F.; Lima, W.S.; Oliveira, G.C.; Silva, M.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: mariaugusta.f@gmail.com, E-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Clays when subjected to modification with the addition of organic surfactant are called organoclays acquire hydrophobic character, they have an affinity for organic compounds. The organoclays can be used as adsorbents are considered promising agents in environmental control. The objective is to prepare organoclays clays from commercial use in order to remove organic contaminants. The clay used was gray, as polycationic, supplied by Süd-Chemie company and the quaternary ammonium salt was cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Cetremide). The fresh samples and organoclay were characterized by the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Cation Exchange Capacity, testing expansion and affinity with organic compounds: Swelling of Foster and adsorption capacity. The results showed appropriate conditions organophilic process. Through XRD confirmed the increase in basal spacing for the modified clay in relation to the clay in nature. (author)

  12. O oleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schauer, Verbenaceae, em ratos diabeticos The essential oil from Lippia gracilis Schauer, Verbenaceae, in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Neto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Lippia gracilis Schauer, Verbenaceae, foi examinado por CG e CG-MS. Quinze constituintes foram identificados, onde o carvacrol, p-cimeno e o γ-terpineno foram as substâncias majoritárias. No estudo in vitro, a solução a 5% do óleo de L. gracilis Schauer apresentou atividade antibacteriana para Staphylococcus aureus isolado de úlcera infectada de paciente diabético. O estudo avaliou a atividade antibacteriana da solução a 5% do óleo de L. gracilis Schauer em modelo experimental em diabetes utilizando ratos albinos Wistar machos com membro pélvico infectado com cepa de Staphylococcus aureus. No experimento foram utilizados 28 ratos Wistar distribuídos em quatro grupos (G1-branco, G2-controle negativo, G3-controle positivo, G4-teste de sete ratos. Quando comparado o grupo G4 com G3, observou-se que a solução a 5% promoveu uma redução nas CFU/mL após 24h da administração do inóculo (S.aureus sem L. gracilis Schauer 10(8 ± 313 versus S.aureus com L. gracilis Schauer 13,28 ± 4,03. Os resultados foram expressos através do cálculo da média±EPM e análise de variança (ANOVA. A diferença entre a concentração inibitória mínima no estudo in vitro foi determinada pelo teste Turkey (pThe essential oil from Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae leaves was examined by GC and GC-MS. Fifteen constituents were identified. Carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene were found to be the major components. In the in vitro study, 5% solution of the Lippia gracilis Schauer oil presented antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from diabetic patients with infected ulcers. The study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the 5% solution of the Lippia gracilis Schauer oil on the experimental model of diabetic adult male albino Wistar rats with leaft pelvic limb infected by Staphylococcus aureus strain. In this experiment, 28 diabetic Wistar rats were used, randomly distributed in four different groups of seven rats, (G1-white; G2-negative control; G3-positive control and G4-test. When comparing group G4 with G3, it was observed that the 5% solution presented a reduced CFU/mL level showing the antibacterial effect of the oil 24 hours after the administration of the inoculum (S .aureus without Lippia gracilis Schauer 108 ±313 versus S.aureus with Lippia gracilis Schauer 13.28±4.03. The results were expressed as mean±S.E.M. One-way analysis of the variance (ANOVA was used. The differences between the minimum inhibitory concentration in vitro test were determined by the Tukey test (p<0.05. The Newman-Keuls test with level of significance (p<0.05 was used to measure the results in vivo. The findings have shown that 5% solution of the Lippia gracilis Schauer oil presented antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Critical analysis in the inventories of methane in oil and gas industry; Analise critica de inventarios de metano na industria do oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmall, Vicente; Montez, Edson [PETROBRAS, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rosa, Ana Regina [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The methane contribution arising from anthropogenic activities plays a role of great significance when elevating the concentration of gases of greenhouse effect found in the atmosphere. The methane presents a global warming potential twenty one times higher than the carbon dioxide and its atmospheric lifespan is lower than the other gases of greenhouse effect. Its control is regarded as being one of the most efficient ways to mitigate the global climate changes in the short term, which requires previous quantification of its emissions. PETROBRAS, aiming at achieving its environmental excellence, is implementing a system of management and inventory of gases emission into the atmosphere. The emissions inventory of 2003, published in its Social Sustainability Report appears as a result of this effort. This paper presents a comparison between the results generated by the PETROBRAS' Management and Inventory of Emissions System and those deriving from the application of the methodology suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The impact of the chosen methodology, the aggregation level and the data availability of the emission sources on the results obtained are highlighted. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the crude oil viscosity variation in function of the demulsifiers addition; Avaliacao da variacao da viscosidade de oleo cru em funcao da adicao de desemulsificante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Jansen M.; Lucas, Elisabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Neves, Guilherme B.M. [COMAB Especialidades Quimicas Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnico@comabrio.com

    2003-07-01

    One way of improving well production is the addition of demulsifier already in the gas lift. This is due to the apparent viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions being higher than apparent viscosity of crude oil, which in turn is higher than the apparent viscosity of an water-in-oil dual phase admixture and is also higher than the apparent viscosity of an oil-in-water emulsion. However, there are some situations where, in order to obtain separate flows of oil and water phases, demulsifier should be added in specific amounts in order to promote the desired phase separation. In heavy oils water and oil phase separation may be hard to obtain, however, the right demulsifier amount may imply in a considerable decrease in petroleum viscosity even without the appearance of two phases, making the flow easier. This work has evaluated the viscosity of a heavy crude having API degree 14 and BSW 52%, as a function of the addition of different amounts of DEMTROL BR 67, manufactured by Dow Quimica/Comab, Brazil, as demulsifier. (author)

  15. Chemical characterization of the oil of Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naud nuts; Caracterizacao quimica do oleo da amendoa de Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Mariana H.; Barbosa, Andrea S.; Moita Neto, Jose M. [Piaui Univ., Teresina, PI (Brazil)]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Quimica; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes total lipid content, unsaponifiable fraction and the acid, refractive, saponification and iodine indices of the oil of Sterculia striata nuts. The fatty acids, the sterols and the triterpene alcohols were determined. The percentage of cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA), determined by NMR {sup 1}H (15,5%), makes the nuts of this species unsuitable for human consumption. (author)

  16. Strategic optimization model and area planning for oil spill response; Modelo de otimizacao estrategico e de planejamento de area para resposta a derramamentos de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Luiz Rodolfo Tinoco Aboim; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with strategic aspect of the oil spill response problem, that is, with the problem of deciding where to locate adequate capability to respond to potential oil spills. In addition to locational considerations, the strategic oil spill response problem generally calls for decisions concerning the proper levels and types of equipment to be stockpiled, as well as for policies regarding the allocation of such capability among points of high oil spill potential. The oil spill optimization models can contribute with contingency plans that are prepared by responsible parties . It is described one model that address current legal requirements, in particular, the time-phasing of response, and the use of this model as a decision support by responsible parties. (author)

  17. Module II development of Espadarte Field: from the conception to the first oil; Desenvolvimento do modulo II do Campo de Espadarte: da concepcao ao primeiro oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcelo Oliveira de [Unidade de Negocios Bacia de Campos. Ativo de Producao Centro. Gerencia de Intervencoes em Pocos (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelo.andrade@petrobras.com.br

    2008-12-15

    The goal of the present article is to present the main challenges encountered in the construction of nine wells of module II of the Espadarte Field development project, a concession of the Center Production Asset of the Campos Basin Business Unit. Some innovations involved in the project will also be presented as well as some results concerning the time for the construction of the wells. (author)

  18. Calculation of oil bubble point pressure: fit sensitivity studies; Calculo da pressao de bolha de oleos: estudo de sensibilidade no seu ajuste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P.S. [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bahia]. E-mail: psrocha@petrobras.com.br; Alves, D.C.R.; Fontes, C.H.O.; Costa, G.M.N. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Petroleo e Gas Natural (CEPGN)]. E-mail: gloria.costa@unifacs.br

    2003-07-01

    Equations of state (EOS) are widely used in phase equilibrium calculations of hydrocarbon mixtures. The matching of the bubble point pressure is often used for the description of the mixture's properties. To study the sensitivity of the matching, a database, containing 50 experimental measurements of bubble point pressures, was built from several references. >From the data, we have obtained a new correlation to estimate the bubble point pressure of an oil. This correlation, unlike the usual ones, uses as independent variables the oil composition. For the calculation of the bubble point pressures we have used Soave's EOS and the SPECS simulator. The objective of this study was to develop a heuristic (rules) of the sensitivity of the adequacy between the calculated and measured bubble point pressure, related to the EOS's parameters. For each oil, the parameters of the EOS are correlated to the bubble point pressure. We selected the linear fit (usually preferred) and performed a statistical analysis relating the fitted angular and linear coefficients with the oil characteristics. This procedure allows us to consider any other kind of oil outside our database. (author)

  19. Methodology used for estimate the hydrogenation of aromatics in diesel oil; Metodologia para estimar a hidrogenacao de aromaticos em oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzacker, Erich Radeke [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mail:erichrd@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Belato, Donizeti A. Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Hidrorrefino e Processos Especiais; Pinto, Jose Carlos C.S.; Monteiro, Jose Luiz F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas em Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br and monteiro@peq.coppe.ufrj.br

    2002-12-01

    This paper shows a methodology that allows the estimation of the aromatic concentration of hydrotreated diesel oil, based on untreated feedstock and under the operating conditions of a unit. The reversibility of aromatic hydrogenation reactions adds significant complexity to the process modeling, though, it is really important to take it into account, in order to reach more precise estimate of the aromatic concentration in products. Due to the restrictions imposed by diesel oil new specifications, the Hydrogenation of Aromatic process - HDA is becoming more and more important, because aromatic are straightly associated with ignition quality and particulate material emissions. (author)

  20. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  1. Characterization and potential application of pataua vegetable oil in apatite flotation; Caracterizacao e potencial aplicacao do oleo vegetal de pataua na floracao de apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, P.S. de; Mansur, H.S.; Peres, A.E.C., E-mail: eng.priscila.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The present research characterizes the Pataua palm (Oenocarpus bataua) oil regarding to its fatty acids profile and acidity index, and evaluates its use for apatite flotation. The Pataua oil evaluated is unsaturated e predominantly composed of cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid). The mineral sample characterization revealed a material composed by a fluoroapatite deficient in fluorine, a possibly result of isomorphic substitution, and with quartz and monazite inclusions. The analysis of the mineral after reagent conditioning, by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pointed to the presence of characteristic bands of carbon chains and carboxylate group, suggesting the collector adsorption through the mechanisms of chemisorption and insoluble calcium salts precipitation. Thus, it is proposed the Pataua oil potential use in flotation systems aiming apatite recovery. (author)

  2. Evaluation of emissions in gas powered electric generator engine with vegetable oil; Avaliacao das emissoes de gases em motor gerador eletrico alimentado com oleo vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thalita C. de; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Cotrim, Suzane Santana; Brito, Gustavo Mendes; Delmond, Josue Gomes [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], E-mail: thalitacarrijo@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, either in pure form or as biodiesel. The soybean, oilseed single high-availability in Brazil, is the most viable feedstock for the production of oil and its use as a fuel because of the structure of production, distribution and grain crushing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a duty diesel generator fueled with blends of diesel and soybean oil at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75%, and soybean oil pure, 100%. During the tests we evaluated the energy consumption of the generator and the emission of greenhouse gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}), according to the demand of electric charges (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Watts) connected to the group generator. The results, using the F test, showed that the hourly consumption of fuel increased with increasing concentration in the mixture of diesel fuel and engine load demand from the generator. It follows that in the environment, increasing the oil concentration in the mixture caused a reduction in emissions, except for the emission of oxygen. The best choice for the operation for the engine generator using vegetable oil soya be provided for up to 60 % oil in the mixture and load demand up to 1000W, in which occurred lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and therefore improved efficiency in the combustion process. (author)

  3. Studies of new emulsifiers to obtention of emulsions containing naphthenic basic oils; Estudo de novos emulsificantes visando a obtencao de emulsoes com oleos basicos naftenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegado, Roberta de Melo; Alves, Davidson Willans da Silva; Dantas Neto, Afonso Avelino [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Dantas, Tereza Neuma de Castro [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Rede N/NE de Pesquisa em Combustiveis e Lubrificantes]. E-mail: tereza@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    The based naphtenic oils are produced in the Brazilian Northeast Region. They can be used in lubricant formulations specially in cutting oils. This work shows the study of the influence of the surfactants Tensiofix CS and Goldmul SF in the viscosity and the stability of formulations containing NH-10 and NH-20 oils. The best results were obtained with NH-20 oil and Goldmul SF as emulsifier. (author)

  4. Heavy and viscous oil evaluation in a deep water environment: an integrated evaluation process; Avaliacao de oleo pesado e viscoso em aguas profundas: um processo integrado de avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wesley S.; Armacanqui, Gina [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    There are many challenges related to heavy and viscous oil reserves evaluation. When this includes a deep-water offshore environment the challenges, including safety issues, increase in complexity. In this paper we share some experiences obtained during the preparation and execution of heavy oil evaluation activities. The process uses the petrophysical and fluid characterization preliminary results obtained during the logging phase as well as prior information from correlation field/wells in order to design the appropriate ESP configuration and location in the DST string as well as the sampler location which should allow monophasic sampling. During the operation a real time interpretation is performed validating the data obtained and sensitizing parameters such as pump frequency, bubble point pressure, GOR and viscosities, allowing the diagnostic of the operation and consequent appropriated flow conditions in order to provide a optimum picture supporting decisions regarding sampling time and other specific evaluation objectives. The examples presented illustrate the methodology proposed of integrated evaluation applied to heavy oil and its benefits. (author)

  5. Monitoring of NORM in the offshore production of oil and gas; Monitoramento de NORM na producao offshore de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Joao Mario Fernandes de, E-mail: jmfjesus@petrobras.com.br [Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. (UO-ES/PETROBRAS), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo

    2013-07-01

    This paper evaluates the levels of radioactivity (dose rates of gamma radiation) in the elements of the production unit FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading) process that show the presence of fouling and / or radioactive waste and its evolution over time, comparing with previous reviews. The radioactivity is detected due to the presence of NORM - Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, consisting predominantly of BaSO4, containing radio, radioactive natural element, which presents itself as the Ra-226 and Ra-228 isotopes. The detection of radioactivity in equipment/piping indicates the presence of scaling and/or sludge containing naturally radioactive material (NORM), but the absence of radioactivity does not exclude the presence of scale or sludge, as this may consist of non-radioactive material, as CaCO3. Gamma radiation has the property to pass through the construction element (steel) of the lines and equipment, allowing detection of radioactive material within them without the need of opening. This monitoring was implemented due to the history of radioactive inlays in the Espirito Santo basin. These data contribute to decision-making on strategy of dosage of anti-fouling applied in the production system, enable the classification of areas according to the norm CNEN-NN-3.01, as well as guide to the occupational safety and hygiene procedures during interventions (openings, entrances and cleaning) on the elements of process.

  6. Local content: worldwide trends and the Brazilian experience in the oil and gas sector; Conteudo local: tendencias mundiais e a experiencia brasileira no setor de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa Junior, Oswaldo A.; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores Independentes de Petroleo e Gas - ABPIP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandez y Fernandez, Eloi [Organizacao Nacional da Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years a trend on increasing requirements for local investments has been observed worldwide in the petroleum industry. Host countries expect to have increasing social and economical benefits from the development of the oil and gas industry. This expectation drives at a more comprehensive concept of local content to include commitment with social, industrial, and technological development. The Brazilian experience has shown a lot of emphasis on local industry development. Initiatives from governmental authorities and the private sector have been implemented to increase the local industry participation in the oil and gas projects. The current regulation focus on the full and fair opportunities for the local suppliers and the local content commitment established in the E and P concession agreements. A key issue on promoting local content initiatives is to assure that the competitiveness of the indigenous industry will be developed and preserved. The constraints on building up the local industry competitiveness will be addressed, focusing on the taxation overburden, lack of adequate local financing, and internal structural aspects affecting industrial productivity. In addition to this, the experiences on measuring local content for offshore construction and drilling are highlighted. Technology development and technical capability have been addressed by incentive programs for the O and G sector. Finally, the technology learning process and the regulatory requirements to invest in R and D programs conducted by Brazilian technological institutions are discussed. (author)

  7. Development of heavy oil fields onshore and offshore: resemblances and challenges; Desenvolvimento de campos de oleos pesados em terra e em mar: semelhancas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Celso Cesar Moreira; Moczydlower, Priscila [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The so called offshore heavy oils (API gravity lower than 19) and extra heavy oils (API lower than 10) are receiving increasing importance due to the light oil production decline and also to exploration difficulties. In countries like Canada, Venezuela, China and the US (California) there are immense onshore heavy oil resources sometimes classified as non conventional. Differently in Brazil, onshore heavy oil volumes are modest being important those located in offshore fields (although non comparable to the Canadian and Venezuelan ones). The issue raised in this paper is: the field location, whether onshore or offshore, is always the main constraint in the development process? Well, the question has both a 'yes' and 'no' as an answer. There are important differences but some similarities in the technologies that can be applied. In this text the authors intend to explore this point while at the same time depicting some of the main related aspects under research for proper exploitation of heavy and extra heavy oil assets. The most relevant difference between onshore and offshore heavy oil fields is the application of thermal methods for improved recovery: while worldwide spread and commercially applied to onshore fields, steam injection is not yet viable for offshore operations. The only option for improving recovery in offshore fields is water injection, which has the drawback of producing large volumes of water during the field life. Another aspect is the cost of the production wells: much cheaper onshore they allow well spacing in the order of 100 m or even 50 m whereas in offshore well spacing are in the 1000 m range. From the flow assurance point of view, inland installations can take use of solvents for heavy oil dilution, such as diesel or naphtha. Offshore this option is complicated by the long distances from the wellheads to the producing facilities in the platform, in the case of wet completions. There are also differences regarding the pumping of the oil, since offshore conditions usually consist of higher rates and pressures than onshore operations. But if there are differences, there are similarities as well: heavy oil reservoirs are usually shallow (up to 1000 m depth) and have high permeability. In both onshore and offshore fields, sandstones reservoirs are normally unconsolidated, which leads to sand production problems and geo-mechanic instabilities in many cases. This is the context of this paper. It begins with a definition of what is meant by 'heavy oil' onshore and offshore. Next some common reservoir characteristics are described. Recovery methods are compared for each case. Some aspects of well completion, pumping, flow assurance and processing are also cited. The paper is concluded by highlighting the differences that still exists for these two environments - onshore and offshore heavy oil operations - and stating that onshore fields can be used as laboratories for testing new technologies that could be used for offshore field in the (near) future. (author)

  8. Optimization of organo clay production for applications in based oil drilling fluid; Otimizacao do processo de organofilizacao para aplicacoes em fluidos de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Heber S.; Martins, Alice B.; Costa, Danubia L. da; Ferreira, Heber C.; Neves, Gelmires de A.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Teixeira Neto, Erico [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organophilic clays are widely used as an agent dispersed in the composition of oil based drilling fluids. The organophilic clays are gotten from bentonite clays treated, in watery way, with ionic surfactants, that are adsorbed in the surface of interlayer of the clays, re-covered them with a organic layer. A fundamental stage of production of the organophilic clays is the dispersion of bentonite clays, in way that variables like: speed of agitation, temperature and time of cure, influences directly in plastic and apparent viscosities of these dispersions, together with other variables of organophilization process, like, temperature and time of cure of organophilization, has direct influence in efficiency of the organophilization process. This work considers a study of these variable, using bentonite clays: Brasgel PA{sup R} and Cloisite Na{sup +R}, treated with the ionic surfactant Praepagem WB{sup R}. The organophilic clays gotten had been characterized by rays X diffraction, Foster's swelling, and the results were compared with the commercial organophilic clay VG-69{sup R}, industrially treated with ionic surfactant. Viscosities plastic and apparent of the dispersions had been measured in the midst of organic dispersant diesel oil used to obtain the oil based drilling fluids. Preliminary results of Foster's swelling and preparation of fluids show that the clays have affinity with the means liquid organic dispersants, and the fluids meet specifications of PETROBRAS (N-22581-1997 and N-2259 to 1997) for use in the of diesel oil based drilling fluids. (author)

  9. Determination of mechanical damage from wells under oil and gas flow condition; Determinacao de dano mecanico em pocos sob condicao de escoamento de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J. B.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, O. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The well bore effect is one of the most difficult variables obtained from well test analysis under two-phase condition. The presence of the gas in a well inserted in reservoir, which operates under gas drive solution, hinders the development of the analytical model to determine the mechanical damage. It is one of the reasons of the using the single phase well test analysis methodologies become suitable to the multiphase cases. The determination of the well bore effect is justified; therefore it is possible to work over in the well in order to determinate the real potential productive. The main objective of this work is to reevaluate a method of determination of the mechanical damage gotten from a well test under two-phase condition. In this work a simplified model of reservoir simulation is constructed in a commercial simulator in order to validate the methodology. The refinement of the blocks near to the well adopted in the simulation is a good representation of the well mechanical damage which occurs in a homogeneous reservoir. The types of well test analysis used in this work are two: drawdown and buildup test. The results gotten for this methodology, as will be shown, are excellent quality and the model of simulation presented here can be used for other analytical methods studies in order to determinate the mechanical damage or other variable of the reservoir. (author)

  10. Physical-chemistry characterization of oil and biodiesel from Crambe abyssinica Hochst; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do oleo e do biodiesel de DE Crambe abyssinica Hochst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Samir Paulo; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Seki, Andre Satoshi; Saath, Reni [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: jasper@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the production of biodiesel in the world is growing so rapidly, this interest and demand for biodiesel promote an increase in demand for raw materials, or lipids. Biodiesel is a substitute for diesel oil obtained by transesterification, acid or base, of the lipids present in oils and fats. The Crambe abyssinica Hochst is species plant that has attracted interest of Brazilian producers due to oil content, rusticity and mechanized cultivation, mainly as a crop of winter it becomes an option for most farmers in this period. This study aimed to characterize physical-chemical oil and biodiesel from Crambe abyssinica Hochst, in accordance with Resolution n. 42 of the ANP. The analysis of fatty acids of oil crambe showed high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which may not be suitable for the use of biodiesel in very cold regions, where it is used pure or in mixtures with diesel in large proportions. The biodiesel produced from Crambe abyssinica Hochst be revealed within the standards established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels. (author)

  11. Obtaining fuel oils from the low temperature conversion of biomass waste; Obtencao de oleo combustivel a partir da conversao a baixa temperatura de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Cinelli, Leonardo Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: paulo.senra@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers to the characterization and application of oil obtained through the 'Low Temperature Conversion Process' applied to industrial waste generated in the treatment of effluent from the petrochemical industry. Physical and chemical parameters, such as viscosity, density, sulfur content, flash point, point of fluidity were obtained. The characterization of the oil obtained indicates the possibility of classifying it as oil fuel. Also, studying the application of the oil in engines. Developed from studies on the feasibility of producing biodiesel from sludge of sewage treatment plants in Germany of the 1980s, the 'Low Temperature Conversion-LTC' technique, is a thermo chemical process, whose main goal is to extend the life of liabilities environment. The LTC is being applied in various biomass of urban, industrial and agricultural origin, looking up through the thermal conversion transform them into products of potential commercial value. Depending on the type of biomass used in the process, are obtained a fraction lipophilic and a carbonaceous solid waste in a varying of proportions, plus a fraction hydrophilic and conversion gas. The lipophilic fraction is targeted to studies about the feasibility of its application as fuel or other compounds with possible commercial application (such as greases, oils, resins, etc.), while the carbonaceous residue is directed to studies about its activation for the used as activated charcoal, in addition to the possible direct use as energy.

  12. Utilização da mínima quantidade de lubrificante (MQL) com água no processo de retificação cilíndrica em cerâmica avançada com rebolo de ligante resino cerâmico/metálico

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Wesley Rodrigues do [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    O uso do material cerâmico avançado na engenharia moderna têm sido essencial, principalmente nas áreas aeroespacial, biomédica, eletrônica, ótica e automotiva. As principais razões pela sua utilização provêm de sua composição inorgânica e não metálica que oferece grande resistência ao desgaste, assim como resistência em altas temperaturas, baixa densidade e propriedades eletromagnéticas diferenciadas. Pesquisas recentes mostraram que o processo de retificação é o mais apropriado para que se o...

  13. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  14. Reduction of gaseous pollutants and particulate materials by using fuels derived from vegetable in substitution to diesel oil; Reducao de poluentes gasosos e de material particulado por meio do uso de combustiveis a base de oleos vegetais como substitutos ao oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazaki, Carlos Kazuaki [General Motors do Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Engenharia de Chassis e Integracao Powertrain]. E-mail: carlos.yazaki@gm.com; Trielli, Mauricio Assumpcao [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: trielli@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the contribution allowed by fuels derived from vegetable oils in substitution for the diesel oil. It especially emphasizes the vegetable oil esters potential as gaseous exhaust pollutant and particulate matter reduction produced by ignition compression engines, such a conclusion has been achieved through systematization and analysis of results of experimental tests performed by several researchers that applied natural vegetable oils and their esters to this class of engines. Once the vegetable oils are the base of formation of these fuels, their direct application in these engines is also analyzed showing the advantages and disadvantages of this alternative route. This article also includes an analysis of their physical and chemical properties which help the understanding of their performance in the engines. Due to better results obtained from esters use, their industrial processing, the special characteristics of the engineering materials which they will have contact in engine, principally those used in injection systems, as well as aspects related to their storages are discussed too. (author)

  15. Environ: E00682 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available resin Obtained by steam distillation Major component: alpha-Pinene [CPD:C09880] Essential oils [BR:br08321] ...Boswellia carterii [TAX:80276] Burseraceae Boswellia carterii a natural oleo gum

  16. Building a Multilevel Modeling Network for Lipid Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Hukkerikar, Amol; Quaglia, Alberto; Sin, Gürkan; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Sarup, Bent; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The world’s fats and oils production has been growing rapidly over the past few decades, exceeding the need for human nutrition. This overproduction combined with the increasing interest among the consumers for healthier food products and bio-fuels, has led the oleo chemical industry to face in the upcoming years major challenges in terms of design and development of better products and more sustainable processes. Although the oleo chemical industry is mature and based on well established pro...

  17. Comportamiento Tribológico y Microestructural en Recubrimientos Aplicados por GTAW y HVOF (Proceso Térmico de Espreado y Usado en Recuperación de Aceros Grado Herramienta AISI/SAE D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guevara Chávez

    Full Text Available Resumen Las aleaciones de Fe-Cr-Mo se utilizan en recubrimientos para proteger componentes que están sometidos a condiciones de desgaste y corrosión. La alta velocidad de deposición del metalizado térmico (HVOF (High Velocity Oxi-Fuel aplicado en aleaciones de acero grado herramienta para trabajo en frío con la aplicación de sustratos Fe-Cr-Mo ha mostrado buenos resultados en los campos de proyección. El HOVF es un método atractivo para aplicar revestimientos y recuperar diámetros que fueron desgastados durante el proceso de operación. Nuevas superficies y materiales pueden ser provistos sin la distorsión causada por los procesos convencionales de soldadura. Para aquellos materiales que son susceptibles a agrietarse gracias a la formación de fases fuera de equilibrio duras con composiciones con altos contenidos de carbono y de cromo, debido a las condiciones del proceso que combinan una temperatura de la flama relativamente baja y con un tiempo de baja exposición. La microestructura las características del recubrimiento son determinadas por las propiedades físicas y químicas de las partículas impregnadas en el sustrato que a su vez dependen de una gran cantidad de parámetros como el diseño de pistola, la relación de oxígeno / combustible, método de inyección, tamaño de partícula y forma, entre otros La presente investigación estudia la influencia de los parámetros de procesamiento sobre las propiedades mecánicas y microestructurales del recubrimiento Diamalloy 1008 (aleación en mezcla de Fe-Cr-Mo revestimiento aplicado con Oxí-combustible de alta velocidad (HVOF y cinco diferentes tipos de electrodos aplicados por soldadura, TIG (GTAW en un acero grado herramienta para trabajo en frio. El objetivo de estos recubrimientos se utiliza habitualmente como una protección contra la corrosión y el desgaste, pero también tienen la capacidad de recuperar las zonas dañadas como es el caso de los dados de estampado de la industria automotriz. Las muestras se caracterizaron mediante microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido para evaluar la calidad del material depositado en el sustrato; microdureza Vickers y Pin-Ball Disc se utilizaron para cuantificar las propiedades mecánicas de los recubrimientos.

  18. Características e mecanismos de desgaste dos refratários MgO-C usados na linha de escória de panelas de aço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Leite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Panelas de aço são recipientes especiais que transportam o aço líquido desde o final do refino primário até a sua solidificação no lingotamento. Porém, devido à crescente demanda do mercado atual por aços de elevada limpidez, nota-se a freqüente adoção de novos procedimentos durante a etapa de refino resultando em condições cada vez mais agressivas para o revestimento refratário utilizado nestes equipamentos. Em geral, a região superior da panela onde prevalece o contato entre a escória de aciaria e o refratário (denominada linha de escória, é a mais sujeita ao processo de corrosão e desgaste. Este fato tem implicações significativas na redução da disponibilidade de panelas na produção, necessidade de reparos intermediários no revestimento, além de aumentar os custos produtivos e reduzir a segurança operacional. Neste contexto, este trabalho apresenta uma revisão dos principais fatores que interferem no processo de degradação do refratário MgO-C, o qual é o material mais amplamente utilizado nas linhas de escórias das panelas de aço do processo siderúrgico. Adicionalmente, algumas alternativas para reduzir ou inibir tal desgaste também são abordadas e discutidas.

  19. Genetic algorithms used to optimize an artificial neural network design used in neutron spectrometry; Algoritmos geneticos utilizados para optimizar un diseno de red neuronal artificial usado en espectrometria de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga A, T.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: tarcicio70@yahoo.co.uk [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Lopez Velarde 117, 98600 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Artificial neural networks (Ann) are widely used; it which consist of an input layer, one or more hidden layers and an output layer; these layers contain neurons and each has connections called weights, where the knowledge are allowed and let to Ann solve problems proposed. These Ann is used to reconstruction of the energy spectrum of neutrons from count rates and develop Bonner sphere neutron dosimetry. Currently, we have developed Ann with high performance and generalization ability. Determine your optimal architecture is usually a difficult task, an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of parameters is rarely possible further training of the neural network with random initial weights can cause two major drawbacks: it can stuck in local minima or converge very slowly. In this project it will be used Genetic Algorithms (Ga); which are based on the principle or analogy of evolution through natural selection and has shown to be very effective in optimizing complex search functions and large spaces or to find a near optimal overall efficiency. The aim is to decrease the architecture in number of hidden neurons and therefore the total number of connections is reducing. The benefits obtained by optimizing the network are that the number of connections would be considerably smaller and thus the computational complexity, hardware integration, resources will be lower such that will allow to be even more viable implemented. To use the Ga three problems must be solve: 1) coding the problem into chromosomes. 2) Construct a fitness function. 3) Proper selection of genetic operators; crossover, selection, mutation. As a result, the scientific knowledge obtained can to be applied to similar problems having a reference parameters used and their impact on the optimization would to be generated. It concluded that the input layer and output are subject to the problem; the Ga propose the optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer without losing the quality of the results. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of used vegetable oil for biogas production in Spain; Evaluacion del potencial de aceite vegetal usado para la obtencion de biogasoleo en la Comunidad de Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, G.; Tinaut, F. V.; Saez, A. R.; Vegas, L.; Briceno, Y. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This work studies the potential of the residual vegetal oil that is generated in the Community of Castilla and Leon, evaluating the one that could be destined for the production of biogas. Also, it sets out a management model that will allow to establish a suitable collection and processing of this oil. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Possibilities of biodieses prepared from used vegetable oils by their physico-chemical properties; Perpectivas de los biodiesel preparados a partir de aceites vegetales usados, en base a sus propiedades fisicoquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblet Carrilo de Albornoz, F.

    1998-12-31

    In this work are presented the possibilities that bio diesel that are prepared from used vegetable oils as fuel for Diesel engines, and the value added of these waste as sources of renewable power, for domestic and industrial sector. The most characteristics chemical-physical properties of these products mentioned in specifications no officially approved, are compared with the same properties of diesel oil, and respect with another more popular bio diesel. (Author) 3 refs.

  2. Testing methodology of diamond composite inserts to be used in the drilling of petroleum wells; Metodologia de testes de insertos compositos diamantados a serem usados na perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovnitchii, G.S.; Filgueira, M.; Skury, A.L.D.; Tardim, R.C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rtardim@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The useful life of the inserts used in the cutters of the drills for perforation of oil wells determines the quality of the perforation as well as the productivity. Therefore, the research of the wear of insert is carried through with the objective to foretell the most important properties of the inserts. Due to the fact of the UENF to be developing the processes of composites sintering to the synthetic diamond base, it is interesting to define the testing methodology of the gotten inserts. The proposed methodology is based on the evaluation of the wear suffered by de sample. For this end a micro processed 'Abrasimeter', model AB800-E, manufactured for the Contenco Company was used. The instrument capacity is 1,36 kVA; axial load applied in the cutter up to 50 kgf; rotation of table speed 20 rpm; course of the tool in radial direction speed before 2 m/min; dimensions of the granite block D = 808 mm, d = 484 mm, h = 50 mm. The gotten results show that the proposed methodology can be used for the evaluation of the inserts of the cutters applied in perforation drills. (author)

  3. O teste de sensibilidade à feniltiocarbamida (PTC usado como prática lúdica no ensino de genética - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v7i1.951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Souza Freire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensino de genética sempre foi um desafio para lecionadores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aproximar as bases conceituais da genética ao cotidiano dos indivíduos utilizando como método pedagógico o teste de sensibilidade à feniltiocarbamida. A diluição da feniltiocarbamida, em quinze soluções com gradientes decrescentes de concentração, ocorreu de acordo com Fox (1932. A prática foi desenvolvida em dois centros educacionais. Foram incluídos 154 participantes, dos quais 5,2% eram fumantes, e 90,3% sensíveis à feniltiocarbamida. A percepção ao amargo concentrou-se entre as soluções sete, oito e nove, com 48% dos indivíduos analisados, mas foi na solução oito que a maioria (20,15% percebeu o gosto amargo da proteína. Nenhum participante mostrou sensibilidade à feniltiocarbamida na solução quinze. Para a população em estudo a freqüência do alelo recessivo é de 0,31. A relação entre indivíduos fumantes, gripados e a capacidade de sentir o gosto não foi significativa.

  4. Antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of some plant crude extracts used in Northeastern folk medicine Propriedades antibacterianas e citotóxicas de alguns extratos de plantas usados na medicina popular nordestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana C. S. Ramos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 32 hexane and ethanol extracts of Protium bahianum, P. heptaphyllum, Croton sellowii, C. rhamnifolius, C. jacobinensis, C. micans and Muntingia calabura were screened for antibacterial activity by the disc-diffusion method. Cytotoxicity assays using the brine shrimp Artemia salina Leach as a model were performed to determine lethal doses for 50% of individuals (LC50 µg/mL. Antibacterial activity was found in flowers hexane extracts of M. calabura against B. subtilis, and leaves ethanol extracts against S. aureus and B. subtilis at concentration of 1mg/mL. Among 32 extracts, 19 showed low or no toxicity (LC50 > 250 µg/mL, 6 showed moderate toxicity (LC50 between 80 µg/mL and 250µg/mL, and 7 were highly toxic (LC50 No presente estudo, 32 extratos hexânicos e etanólicos de Protium bahianum, P. heptaphyllum, Croton sellowii, C. rhamnifolius, C. jacobinensis, C. micans e Muntingia calabura, foram avaliados para atividade antibacteriana, pelo método de difusão em disco. Ensaios de citoxicidade foram realizados com o modelo do microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach para determinar a concentração letal para 50% dos indivíduos (CL50 µg/mL. A presença de atividade antibacteriana foi observada com os extratos hexânicos das flores de M. calabura contra B. subtilis, e extratos etanólicos das folhas contra S. aureus and B. subtilis na concentração de 1 mg/mL. Dentre os 32 extratos, 19 apresentaram toxicidade baixa ou ausente (CL50 > 250 µg/mL, 6 mostraram toxicidade moderada (CL50 entre 80 µg/mL e 250 µg/mL e 7 foram muito tóxicos (CL50 < 80 µg/mL.

  5. Seletividade de diferentes agrotóxicos usados na cultura da soja ao parasitoide de ovos Telenomus remus Selectivity of different pesticides used in soybean to the eggs parasitoid Telenomus remus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lima do Carmo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A preservação dos agentes de controle biológico no agroecossistema é indispensável para o sucesso do manejo integrado de pragas. Entretanto, o controle químico de pragas ainda é indispensável em diversas culturas. Nesse contexto, a seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos inimigos naturais deve ser sempre considerada na escolha do melhor produto. Portanto, este estudo verificou o impacto causado por diferentes agrotóxicos na emergência do parasitoide de ovos Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, quando aplicados nas fases de larva e pupa (posturas de 100 a 150 ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae seis e 10 dias após o parasitismo, respectivamente. Três ensaios, com 11 tratamentos e cinco repetições, foram conduzidos em laboratório com inseticidas, fungicidas e herbicidas, respectivamente. Cada ensaio foi conduzido com 10 tratamentos de agrotóxicos e água como testemunha seletiva. Todos os produtos fitossanitários foram testados nas doses utilizadas na cultura da soja. Ovos de S. frugiperda parasitados por T. remus foram imersos nos tratamentos por cinco segundos e, após secagem total, foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos até a emergência dos adultos dos parasitoides. A viabilidade do parasitismo foi avaliada, e a redução na emergência dos parasitoides foi classificada segundo as normas da International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. Os resultados mostraram que os inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento, como o flufenoxurom, diflubenzurom e metoxifenozido e também os inseticidas imidacloprido + beta-ciflutrina e acefato, foram seletivos às fases imaturas do parasitoide. Espinosade foi classificado como inócuo para larvas de T. remus. Gama-cialotrina foi levemente nocivo para larvas e inócuo para pupas. Bifentrina e clorpirifós foram, respectivamente, levemente nocivo e nocivo para ambas as fases de desenvolvimento de T. remus. Com relação aos herbicidas testados, 2,4-D, S-metolacloro, flumioxazina, dicloreto de paraquate + diurom, dicloreto de paraquate e glifosato (Roundup Transorb® foram seletivos. Entretanto, glifosato + imazetapir, clomazona, glifosato (Gliz®, glifosato (Roundup Ready® foram seletivos para a fase de larva e levemente nocivos (classe 2 para a fase de pupa de T. remus. Resultados semelhantes foram obtidos com os fungicidas flutriafol + tiofanato metílico, carbenzadim, trifloxistrobina + tebuconazole e azoxistrobina + ciproconazole, que foram classificados como inócuos. Tiofanato-metílico, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina foram levemente nocivos para larvas e inócuos para pupas. Inversamente, epoxiconazole e azoxistrobina foram seletivos para a fase de larva e levemente nocivos para a fase de pupa do parasitoide. Flutriafol foi classificado como levemente nocivo para ambas as fases de T. remus.Biological control agent preservation is crucial to the integrated pest management success. However, chemical control is yet useful for crop production. Thus, pesticide selectivity to beneficial insects is a feature that must always be taken into account in order to choose the best chemical. Therefore, this research studied the impact caused by different pesticides in the egg parasitoid, Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae emergence, when sprayed on the larvae and pupae stage (Egg masses from 100 to 150 eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae six and ten days after the parasitism, respectively. Three trials, with 11 treatments and 5 repetitions, were carried out in the laboratory with insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Each test was carried out with 10 treatments of chemicals and water as control. All chemicals were tested at rates used in soybean crops. Eggs of S. frugiperda parasitized by T. remus, were immersed in the treatments for five seconds. After completely dry, they were placed in plastic bags until the emergence of adults of parasitoids. The viability of parasitism was evaluated and the reduction in the emergence of the parasitoids classified according to the rules of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The results showed that the insect growth-regulating (IGR insecticides flufenoxuron, diflubenzuron, methoxyfenozide as well as the insecticides imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin and acephate were harmless to the parasitoid immature stages . Spinosad was classified as harmless for larvae of T. remus. Gama-cyhalothrin was slightly harmful to larvae and harmless to pupa of T. remus. Bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos were, respectively, slightly harmful and harmful to both stages of development of T. remus development. Regarding to the tested herbicides, 2,4-D, s-metolachlor, flumioxazin, paraquat dichloride + diuron, paraquat dichloride and glyphosate (Roundup Transorb® were harmless. However, glyphosate + imazethapyr, clomazone, glyphosate (Gliz®, glyphosate (Roundup Ready® were harmless to the larvae stage and slightly harmful (class 2 to T. remus pupae. Similar results were obtained with the fungicides flutriafol + tiofanate, carbenzadin, tebuconazol + trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin + ciproconazol which were classified as harmless. Tiofanate-metil, tebuconazol and epoxyconazol + pyraclostrobin were slightly harmful to larvae and pupae. Inversely, epoxyconazol and azoxystrobin were harmless to larvae and slightly harmful to pupae. Flutriafol was classified as slightly harmful to both development stages of T. remus.

  6. Ácidos ciclopentênicos do óleo da sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae: o primeiro antileprótico usado no Brasil Cyclopentenyl acids from sapucainha oil (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae: the first antileprotic used in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chaoolmugra oil is one of the oldest medicines used for leprosy until the development of sulfas. In Brazil, it is known as sapucainha oil that is obtained from Carpotroche brasilienesis seeds (Flacourtiaceae. Chemical and medicinal studies of sapucainha oil were introduced in Brazil by Peckolt, Cole and Cardoso which showed that major ciclopentenyl fatty acids as chaulmoogric, hydnocarpic and gorlic were responsible for its bactericidal activity. In this work, a method for quantification of sapucainha oil acidic fraction by HRGC was established using methyl n-heptadecanoate as internal standard. The oil chemical stability was investigated by the use of GC-MS, IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and showed that the main degradation products belong to the cyclopentenyl moiety oxidation.

  7. Aging and characterization of PVC compound used as flat-panel of a low cost solar collector; Envelhecimento e caracterizacao de compostos de PVC usado em placas de coletores solares de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Pinto, Tatiana T.; Bartoli, Julio R. [Depto. de Tecnologia de Polimeros, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas. FEQ/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br; Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Regardless the excellent amount of solar irradiation in Brazil, the development and production of solar water heating systems did not reach the low-income families yet. The relatively high cost of conventional solar water heaters is still the main reason to prevent it. The development of a low cost solar water heater (around US$ 200), easy technology, was the scope of previous work. All-plastic solar collector prototypes were developed using unplasticized Poly (vinyl chloride) ceiling panels and tubes, commodities from building engineering. Nevertheless, the main thermal and photo degradation mechanisms for PVC are well known; the unusual application of PVC as solar collector materials should need a specific investigation on environmental aging. This work presents a study on outdoor aging and characterization of PVC flat-plate absorber of solar collectors after 5 years on use. (author)

  8. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter sand bed type used in the containment venting systems; Calculo hidrodinamico de un filtro tipo lecho de arena usado en los sistemas de venteo de la contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, D.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J., E-mail: delfy.cu@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The filtered venting of the containment has been adopted in European countries to mitigate the consequences of excess pressure containment during a severe accident. When venting has taken place, the fission products are released directly into the environment, unless a filter on the same path is placed, so that various types of filters are used to trap the fission products. The venting filters of the containment currently installed use different filtration technologies that involve more than one medium. Those using water as the first stage of filtration are called wet systems and are equipped with additional steps to remove water drops and fine aerosols emissions. And even they may also be equipped with an element containing certain absorption means for the filtration of gaseous iodine species. Other designs based on filtration of deep bed as the primary retention step; called dry filters, use filtration media of metal fiber, ceramic or sand to trap aerosols. This paper evaluates the hydraulic characteristics of the filter sand bed type designed by EDF as a candidate to be installed in the containment of BWR Mark II (type of primary containment of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde). The evaluation of filter sand bed type was performed using the software package of open source OpenFOAM. Models of each zone of the filtered device were generated and through a series of parametric calculations of computational fluid mechanics relevant hydrodynamic characteristics of the device were obtained, such as pressure drops against mass flow rate and pressure fields and speed at different operating conditions. On the other hand, the model validation of the sand bed filter when comparing the results of experimental tests on a sand column of PITEAS program (1985-1986) against OpenFOAM simulation was realized. The results are very close to those obtained experimentally. (Author)

  9. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter washing in liquids type used in containment venting systems; Calculo hidrodinamico de un filtro tipo lavado en liquidos usados en los sistemas de venteo de la contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes G, A. A.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J., E-mail: alejandroantonioreyess@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    From the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, the European nuclear power plants have chosen to install filters on the venting pipes of the containment, whose function is to help to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, by controlled depressurization of the containment passively through a filtered venting of the containment system. These systems are designed to relieve the internal pressure of the containment by means of the deliberate opening of pressure relief devices, either a valve or rupture disc during a severe accident and be channeled to the filter unit. In this paper the hydraulic response of a filter system of gases washing by liquid is evaluated, due to this information is necessary to estimate the effect that has the pressure increase of the contention on the discharge capacity of the venting pipes. By simulation of computational of fluid dynamics with the programs: CAELINUX-2014 and OpenFOAM, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Multi Venturi System for gases washing from the containment, which could be included in the general model of the venting pipe, were obtained. Representative models of the Venturi tubes of each concentric area that forming the washing system were generated; and using parametric calculations the average mass flow rate established through each venturi, depending on its size and depth in which it is located inside the tank was estimated. Also, the pressure and mass flow rate required to activate each concentric area depending on the pressure and mass load from the containment were calculated, to estimate the maximum flow that is established through the filter. Finally, the velocity profiles and the characteristic pressure at which each area operates as well as the pressure drop of local and global discharge also were calculated. (Author)

  10. Extracción y análisis de polímeros obtenidos a partir de varios productos naturales, para ser usados como potenciales floculantes en el tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Camareno, Maricruz; Jiménez-Antillón, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Informe Proyecto de Investigación Se evaluó la efectividad de los productos naturales moringa (Moringa oleifera), mozote de caballo (Triumfetta semitriloba) y tuna (Cactus lefaria) en la remoción de sustancias suspendidas y coloidales en agua de consumo humano. Se utilizó agua artificial a partir de agua del tubo con caolín, como patrón de turbidez, y en algunos casos con ácidos húmicos como patrón de color. Disoluciones salinas de moringa 0,25 molar mostraron remociones del 90 % para la t...

  11. Study of residual stresses in welded joints of dual phase HSLA steel used in automotive industry; Estudo das tensoes residuais em juntas soldadas de aco ARBL bifasico usado na industria automobilistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbato, D.S.; Fonseca, M.P. Cindra; Marques Junior, A.S.; Chuvas, T.C.; Pardal, J.M., E-mail: mcindra@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Berretta, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    One way of weight reduction in automotive vehicles is through the use of high strength and low alloy (HSLA) steels, which enables the use of small thickness plates. Whereas the appearance of residual stresses is intrinsic to the welding process, this study evaluates the residual stresses generated in welded joints obtained by TIG and LASER welding processes and comparing them. Residual stresses were measured by X-rays diffraction technique, using a portable device with Cr{kappa}{alpha} radiation applying the double exposure method. It also evaluates the influence of shot peening treatment applied after welding, in the bend tests conducted for both welding conditions and TIG welded joints showed higher stability of compressive stresses after welding. The metallographic analysis by optical microscopy complemented the welded joints characterization. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes; Avaliacao da potencialidade de aditivos como inibidores de corrosao do aco carbono CA-50 usado como armadura de estruturas de concreto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-07-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  13. Present scenery of cuban legislation in the field of legal verification of dosimetric instruments used in radiological protection; Panorama actual de la legislacion cubana en el campo de la verificacion legal de instrumentos dosimetricos usados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas G, Walwyn; Morales Monzon, J.A.; Hernandez Blanche, E. [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: gonzalo@cphr.edu.cu

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of legal metrology is to ensure the public guaranty from the point of view of safety, and the suitable accuracy of the measurements that are made on health, environmental applications, and trade. The International Organization of Legal Metrology included the ionizing radiation field on those for which the use of the verified measuring instruments are suggested. . The paper presents the advances of Cuban legislation in this field, promoted by issue of the Decree-Law 183 of Metrology. As part of such advances, the Cuban standards for verification NC 44:1999 'X and Gamma Radiation Measuring Instruments. Verification methods' is discussed. This standard was elaborated in the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, and it is based on the available relevant international standards. Results from verification service during the year 2000 are also provided.(author)

  14. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la producción de cucurbitáceas en Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner sobre huevos de D. hyalinata. Se evaluaron los fungicidas azoxystrobina (0.08 g ingrediente activo [ia] L-1, clorotalonil (2.00 g ia L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ia L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ia L-1 and tiofanato-metil (0.49 g ia L-1. Tarjetas con 30 huevos de D. hyalinata previamente sumergidos en los fungicidas y en agua destilada (control fueron ofrecidas a 20 hembras de T. atopovirilia con hasta 24 h de emergencia individualizadas en tubos de vidrio. Se evaluó parasitismo, reducción de parasitismo, emergencia, proporción sexual en la población y el número de individuos emergidos por huevo. Los fungicidas clorotalonil, tiofanato-metil y tebuconazol redujeron el parasitismo de T. atopovirilia en 43,37; 27,64 y 18,51%, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo con azoxistrobina (79,21% fue mayor que el control (67,37% (P ≤ 0,05. Clorotalonil, tiofanato-metilo y el tebuconazol redujo la aparición de 73,77, 75,62 y 79,35% (P ≤ 0,05, respectivamente. Azoxistrobina y tiofanato-metil reduciran la proporción de sexos de 0,77 y 0,76 (P ≤ 0,05, respectivamente. Ninguno de los fungicidas redujo el número de individuos por cada huevo. Los fungicidas azoxistrobina y mancozeb fueron selectivos para T. atopovirilia en la mayoría de los parámetros estudiados, por lo tanto, deberían tener prioridad en el manejo de enfermedades de cucurbitáceas para permitir el uso eficiente de los enemigos naturales de D. hyalinata.

  15. Piranha attacks in dammed streams used for human recreation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Ataques de piranhas em riachos represados usados para atividades de lazer, no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attacks by piranhas have become a common problem in dammed portions of rivers and streams in the State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. In two outbreaks recorded in two neighboring counties in the Northwest region of the state, 74 bathers were bitten. Only one bite per person was recorded during a short period of the year. The bites were related to parental care and/or defense of spawning territory, which confirms previous studies and demystify the attacks by these legendary fish, as they are perceived by most people. Placement of fine mesh nets and removal of aquatic vegetation stopped the attacks.Ataques por piranhas vêm se tornando um problema comum em trechos represados de rios e córregos no estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. Em dois surtos ocorridos em dois municípios vizinhos no noroeste do estado, 74 banhistas foram mordidos. Uma mordida por pessoa foi registrada, em curto período do ano. As mordidas estão relacionadas a cuidado parental e/ou defesa do território de desova, o que reforça estudos anteriores e desmistifica os ataques por este peixe lendário, da maneira como são popularmente percebidos. A colocação de redes de malha fina e a remoção de vegetação aquática cessaram os ataques.

  16. VALIDAÇÃO DO MODELO PSICROMÉTRICO COMBINADO USADO NO PROCESSAMENTO DAS TEMPERATURAS OBTIDAS PELO PSICRÔMETRO COM VENTILAÇÃO NATURAL VALIDATION OF COMBINED PSYCHROMETRIC MODEL USED IN NATURAL VENTILATED PSYCHROMETRIC DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As tabelas psicrométricas, normalmente empregadas nas estações e nos postos meteorológicos de superfície, para a determinação da umidade relativa são inadequadas ao trabalho com grande volume de registros da temperatura do ar. O obstáculo foi superado com o emprego de um modelo matemático, que combina algumas equações psicrométricas, viabilizando-se a montagem de um arquivo de acesso aleatório, contendo os registros diários de temperatura lidos no psicrômetro e nos termômetros de máxima e de mínima. O modelo combinado, acessível ao computador através de um programa executável em linguagem Pascal, fornece valores da umidade relativa em função das temperaturas de bulbo seco e de bulbo úmido, corrigidos pela média mensal da pressão barométrica local, estreitamente correlacionados com aqueles obtidos nas tabelas psicrométricas do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Outrossim, além da umidade relativa do ar ambiente, o programa permite a saída dos seguintes parâmetros: temperatura do ponto de orvalho, umidade absoluta e volume específico.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Psicrometria; processamento de dados; aeração.

    The psychrometric tables usually used in meteorological field stations to determine relative humidity are unfit to processing historical data series from long record periods. The problem was solved assembling a psychrometric mathematical model in Pascal language. The predicted relative humidity by the software was in close agreement with those obtained by the psychrometric tables. The model also permits calculation of dew-point temperature, humidity ratio and specific volume.

    KEY-WORDS: Psychrometry; data processing; aeration.

  17. Estudo da interferência de óleos essenciais sobre a atividade de alguns antibióticos usados na clínica Study of the interference of essential oils on the activity of some antibiotic used clinically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinalda A. Guerra de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica. Os ensaios foram realizados com ampicilina (10 µg/mL, cefalotina (30 µg/mL, cloranfenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicina (10 µg/mL e tetraciclina (30 µg/mL isolados e em associação com os óleos essenciais (4% v/v através do método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando discos de papel de filtro. Os resultados mostraram interferência de alguns óleos essenciais sobre a atividade dos antibióticos ensaiados. Observou-se o desenvolvimento de halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano com diferentes diâmetros quando da aplicação de antibióticos isolados e em combinação com os óleos essenciais. A ocorrência de comportamento sinérgico ou antagônico foi observada mais proeminentemente nas interações com cepas de S. aureus e S. epidermidis. De outra forma, observou-se uma menor interferência dos óleos essenciais no efeito dos antibióticos sobre as cepas Gram negativas, principalmente P. aeruginosa. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of essential oils from Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on the antibacterial effect of clinically used antibiotics. The assays were carried out with ampicillin (10 µg/mL, cephalotin (30 µg/mL, chloraphenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicin (10 µg/mL and tetracyclin (30 µg/mL isolated and associated with essential oils (4% v/v by the solid medium diffusion procedure using filter paper discs. The results showed interference of some essential oils on the antibacterial activity of the assayed antibiotics. It was observed the development of growth inhibition halo with different diameters when the antibiotics were applied alone and associated with essential oils. Synergic or antagonic behavior was more prominent in interactions with S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains. On the other hand, it was observed a smaller interference of essential oils on the effect of the antibiotics against Gram negative strains, mainly P. aeruginosa. These results show that the use of plants by-products could some times interfere on the effectiveness of antibiotics used clinically.

  18. Final report of the project 'Regeneration of activated carbon used in residual water treatment plants'; Informe final del proyecto 'Regeneracion de carbon activado usado en plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, I.; Hernandez M, V

    1992-01-15

    Among the new methods used to reactivate carbon, its are the one that uses infrared light and the one that uses accelerated electrons. The technology in both processes is novel, the energy is used but efficiently, it doesn't get lost but of 5% of carbon and its are less polluting. This report presents the one method and results obtained in the irradiation of coal. (Author)

  19. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and Beauveria bassiana (CG 425 strain was evaluated at three concentrations (FR = average field recommendation; 0.5 ´ FR and 2 ´ FR. Effects of these products on conidia germination, vegetative growth and sporulation were compared. Only five insecticides, at the FR concentration, promoted conidia viability higher than 60%. Viability should be considered the most important factor to be evaluated since it is the first step of the infection process. The insecticide formulations of Alpha-Cypermethrin, Thiamethoxam and Cyfluthrin caused the lower inhibition level on conidia germination at the two lower concentrations, with no difference in relation to the control. With respect to vegetative growth analysis, Thiamethoxam at the two lower concentrations was not found to cause radial growth inhibition. Thiamethoxam caused the smallest inhibition level with regard to conidia production. The use of Alpha-Cypermethrin and Thiamethoxam formulations in coffee IPM programs for a B. bassiana inoculum conservation strategy are recommended, since these products were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, an important natural control agent of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.Em programas de Manejo integrado de pragas (MIP deve-se considerar o controle microbiano como um importante fator de redução da densidade populacional de pragas. A utilização de produtos seletivos quando associados a patógenos, pode aumentar a eficiência de controle, reduzindo assim a quantidade de inseticidas. O efeito fungitóxico in vitro das formulações inseticidas de Tiametoxan, Ciflutrin, Deltametrin, Alfacipermetrina, Triazofos, Clorpirifós, Fenpropatrin e Endosulfan em três concentrações (RC= recomendação média para campo, 0,5 ´ RC e 2 ´ RC, foi avaliado sobre a germinação dos conídios, crescimento vegetativo e produção de conídios no fungo Beauveria bassiana. Apenas cinco formulações inseticidas, na concentração RC, proporcionaram viabilidade dos conídios acima de 60%. A viabilidade deve ser considerada o parâmetro mais importante a ser avaliado por ser o passo inicial no processo de infecção. As formulações de Alfacipermetrina, Tiametoxan e Ciflutrin, nas menores concentrações, causaram a menor inibição da germinação, sem diferença em relação à testemunha. Analisando-se o crescimento vegetativo, observou-se que a formulação de Tiametoxan nas menores concentrações, não inibiu o crescimento radial, sendo o crescimento vegetativo nos demais tratamentos inferior à testemunha. A formulação de Tiametoxan também proporcionou a menor inibição na produção de conídios. Os inseticidas com formulações de Alfacipermetrina e Tiametoxan mostraram-se compatíveis com o fungo Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, importante agente natural de controle da broca do café Hypothenemus hampei e podem ser recomendados para MIP no cafeeiro

  20. Valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado, usado na ração pré-inicial para frangos de corte Nutritional value of heat processed corn in formulating broiler pre-starter diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Freitas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.

  1. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas

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    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.

  2. Study of accelerated aging of polymeric surge arresters and insulators used in high voltage lines; Estudo sobre o envelhecimento acelerado de para-raios e isoladores polimericos usados em linhas de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Joao B. de; Castro Junior, Joao B. de; Silva, Maria Elisa S.R. e; Freitas, Roberto F.S.; Sousa, Ricardo G. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Polimeros; Souza, Breno P.G. de [CEMIG Distribuicao S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: sousarg@ufmg.br

    2011-07-01

    The use of polymeric materials in the electrical system has dramatically increased in recent years, in quantity as well as in quality. However, the use of these materials has been very empirical, being necessary a more directed and well based study towards their application in energy sector, especially concerning their early deterioration. In this study, the behavior of some surge arresters and insulators, used in power lines, after suffering aging artificial weathering chamber, was investigated. The absorption spectra in the infrared (FTIR) was used as analytical technique for study of aging. Of the five samples tested, only one showed an oxidation process after 1500 hours of artificial weathering. (author)

  3. Diseño de una herramienta pedagógica para la enseñanza de los remedios más usados en niños con Hepatitis Viral

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Palencia, Joel Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    La hepatitis viral es considerada una epidemia, con una alta incidencia en niños y que carece de un tratamiento convencional para prevenir las posibles complicaciones que se puedan presentar. Se infiere que anualmente fallecen cerca de 1,5 millones de personas debido a este cuadro infeccioso. Bajo esta perspectiva se considera de vital importancia el acercamiento claro y adecuado al diagnóstico y tratamiento de dicha enfermedad. En razón a ello, la presente propuesta consiste en el dise...

  4. Diseño e implementación de un sistema de adquisición y monitoreo de datos (shm para un rectificador de protección catódica usado en ductos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Rodríguez-Caro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Cathodic protection by impressed current is one of the methods to prevent corrosion of pipes or tanks, preserving the structural state and integrity of the material. For a cathodic protection system to function properly there must to be a control over the electrical variables involved in the process, which is why it is necessary to monitor variables such as (voltage, current and potential protection. Objective: to develop a system of data acquisition and monitoring in real time, in order to increase accessibility to electrical variables and thus improve the operation of the cathodic protection system. Methods: The monitoring and information analysis system is based on the concept of SHM (Structural Health Monitoring, which consists of an electronic system for remote acquisition and sending of signals (micro controller and GSM communications system and a system for visualization and analysis of information in a mobile system (cell using a web server for it. Given that the condition of structural integrity of the pipeline is determined by the correct operation of the rectifier. Results: It was possible to implement a monitoring and remote viewing system of the main variables of a cathodic protection system. An algorithm based on the concept of SHM was developed, allowing to correlate, generate trend and establish performance criteria for the cathodic protection system which allows to establish whether the system is ensuring the structural integrity of the crude transportation pipeline. Conclusion: the novelty of this work is to show the real-time behavior of the variables needed to analyze whether the pipeline is being properly protected and generate alarms and reports regarding cathodic protection, which is based on the concept of SHM (Structural Health Monitoring.

  5. Quantitative analysis of results of quality control tests in linear accelerators used in radiotherapy; Analise quantitativa dos resultados de testes de controle de qualidade em aceleradores lineares usados em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaro, Bruno M.; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: bruno.passaro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of three linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0.998±0.012) and (0.996±0.014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1.008±0.009) and (1.006±0.010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. The data of the calibration factors were divided into four subgroups for a more detailed analysis of behavior over the years. Through statistical analysis of calibration factors, we found that for the 600C and Clinacs 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable ranges according to TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR{sub 20},{sub 10} from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  6. ANÁLISE DA ABORDAGEM HISTÓRICA PARA A TABELA PERIÓDICA EM LIVROS DE QUÍMICA GERAL PARA O ENSINO SUPERIOR USADOS NO BRASIL NO SÉCULO XX

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    Helena S. A. Leite

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the historical approaches to the periodic table in general chemistry textbooks used in Brazilian universities in the twentieth century. Textbooks were qualitatively analyzed according to the following criteria: position of the discussion about the periodic table in the book; presence or absence of a specific chapter on the subject; presentation of attempts to classify chemical elements before Mendeleev; presentation of the construction process of the periodic table by Mendeleev; identification of problems in the original table; discussion of Mendeleev's predictions about unknown elements; organization of the periodic table; periodic properties presented and discussed; and the enunciation of the periodic law. The analysis revealed different approaches at specific periods of the twentieth century, from more descriptive approaches to emphasis on attempts to explain the periodic table in terms of atomic orbitals. These changes point to different ways of understanding chemistry during the period studied.

  7. CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA GEOGRAFIA ÀS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS: TERRITÓRIO USADO COMO CONDICIONANTE DOS PROGRAMAS DE FITOTERAPIA DO SISTEMA ÚNICO DE SAÚDE (SUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique Leandro Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    A política pública surgiu como subárea da ciência política e ferramental de ação do governo nos EUA e na Europa, na década de 1940. Iniciou-se no Brasil, com algumas especificidades, em meados dos anos de 1980 no contexto de redemocratização, mantendo, contudo, as linhas gerais e as principais características daquelas duas matrizes que lhe inspiraram: foco nas ações e nos ideários dos atores envolvidos; centralidade do Estado; multidisciplinaridade e análise das ações governamenta...

  8. Gamma radiation effects in polymers used to immobilize ion exchange resin. Part 1: properties of PEBD; Efeito da radiacao gama em polimeros usados como imobilizadores de resinas de troca ionica. Parte 1: propriedades do PEBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Daniel L.C.; Riella, Humberto G. [Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    In this work tests were performed to evaluate properties such as: density, shore D hardness, tensile strength and rupture elongation of low density polyethylene (LDPE), which is used as resin solidification agent, in function of irradiation dose and ion exchange resin concentration incorporated. It also was observed LDPE color change, due to interaction between polymer and gamma radiation. The results showed the occurrence of phenyl radical formation, deriving from amine aromatic additive, introduced by polymer producer, which is responsible by color change. Up to studied dose of 5 MGy, the aromatic chain presence gave to LDPE the good resistance to radiation. resin concentration provoked more variation on properties than radiation effect. It was possible to incorporate up to 60% wt of resin, resulting high reduction of final volume. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Gamma radiation effects on the polymers used as ion exchange resin imobilizers: Part I - properties of the low density polyethylene (LDPE); Efeito da radiacao gama em polimeros usados como imobilizadores de resinas de troca ionica. Parte 1: Propriedades do PEBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Daniel Liu Chun; Riella, Humberto G. [Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    In this work tests were realized to evaluate properties such as: density, Shore D hardness, tensile strength and rupture elongation of low density polyethylene (LDPE), which is used as resin solidification agent, in function of irradiation dose and ion exchange resin concentration incorporated. It also was observed LDPE color change, due to interaction between polymer and gamma radiation. The results showed the occurrence of phenyl radical formation, deriving from amine aromatic additive, introduced by polymer producer, which is responsible by color change. Up to studied dose of 5 MGy, the aromatic chain presence gave to LDPE the good resistance to radiation. Resin concentration provoked more variation on properties than radiation effect. It was possible to incorporate up to 60% wt of resin, resulting high reduction of final volume. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Estudo do efeito do armazenamento sobre a expressão dos antigenos eritrocitarios Fyª, Fyb, S e s em concentrados de hemacias usados para fins transfusionais

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Buchignani Calonego

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Os antígenos eritrocitários são estruturas polimórficas correspondendo glicoproteínas ou glicolípides localizados na membrana eritrocitária. Os antígenos Fya e Fyb são os mais importantes do sistema Duffy e carreados por glicoproteínas de múltipla passagem transmembrana. Os antígenos S e s, pertencentes ao sistema MNS, são carreados pela glicoforina B (GPB). Há relatos na literatura de que todos eles seriam sensíveis à ação enzimática leucocitária e assim podem apresentar alteração de...

  11. Operacionalização de adaptação transcultural de instrumentos de aferição usados em epidemiologia Operationalizing the cross-cultural adaptation of epidemological measurement instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eduardo Reichenheim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi propor uma sistemática operativa para avaliar o processo de adaptação transcultural de instrumentos desenvolvidos em outros contextos lingüístico sócio-culturais. São feitas considerações sobre a necessidade do uso de instrumentos de aferição robustos; a importância de instrumentos "universais" que permitam sintonias transculturais; e a necessidade de partir para adaptação em contraposição ao desenvolvimento de um instrumento novo. Aborda-se a existência de controvérsias e diferentes propostas processuais na literatura e apresenta-se um modelo de adaptação. Essa síntese envolve os passos operativos dos processos de avaliação de equivalência conceitual, de itens, semântica e operacional, e apresenta um roteiro de análise psicométrica que alicerça a avaliação de equivalência de mensuração. Finalmente, reforça-se a necessidade de cuidar da qualidade da informação em estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo meticulosos processos de adaptação transcultural nas agendas de pesquisas.The objective of the article was to offer an operational framework to assess cross cultural adaptation processes of instruments developed in other linguistic, social and cultural contexts. It covers the need for using robust measurement tools; the importance of 'universal' instruments that permit cross cultural fine-tuning; and stresses the need for adapting existent instruments rather than developing new ones. Existing controversies and proposals for different procedures in current literature are reviewed and a model for adapting instruments is presented. This synthesis covers the operational steps involved in evaluating concepts, semantic and operational items, and presents psychometric analysis guidelines that underlay an evaluation of measurement equivalence. Finally, the need for adequately controlling the quality of information presented in epidemiological studies, including a meticulous cross-cultural adaptation of research agendas, is reinforced.

  12. Produção de biocombustível alternativo ao óleo diesel através da transesterificação de óleo de soja usado em frituras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Neto Pedro R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the utilization of used frying oil for the production of biodiesel is presented. The performance of biodiesel in diesel engines, as well as the characterization of the emissions derived from this process, are also discussed and compared to the emissions derived from engines running on unused vegetable oils and conventional diesel.

  13. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested tebufenozide, phosmet, methidation, chlorpyrifos, abamectin, fenpyroximate, pyridaben, captan, mancozeb (two concentrations and dithianon. To calculate the total effect (E% on the adults, it was evaluated the mortality, oviposition and viability of eggs, and for the immature ones, only the mortality. The results of E% were assessed 96 hours after the spraying. The products were classified considering the total effect (E% of toxicity proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Phosmet, tebufenozide and methidation were innocuous; abamectin, fenpyroximate, chlorpyrifos, captan, mancozeb (two concentrations, and dithianon were slightly harmful, and pyridaben was moderately harmful to the N. californicus adults. As the pesticide selectivity for the immature ones, it was verified that abamectin and pyridaben were moderately harmful, and the others were innocuous. The treatment with 320 g.a.i./100l of mancozeb was the most harmful to N. californicus. No product has been classified as harmful to N. californicus, showing tolerance to these pesticides. These results allow a choice and a more adequate handling for the pesticides used in commercial orchards of apple trees, so that the presence of this mite predator has ability to control red mite.

  14. Study of the raw materials used in the manufacture of ceramics in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos); Estudio de materiales usados en la fabricacion de las ceramicas de Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios Neira, J.; Martin de la Cruz, J. C.; Montealegre Contreras, L.

    2012-11-01

    The thermal behaviour, mineralogy, texture and micro-structure of the original rocks used as raw materials in the manufacture of ceramics of the potter community in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Tetouan, Morocco) were studied. The original rocks of the alteration deposit are metapelites and altered philites from the Units Malaguide-Gomaride in the Baetic-Rifian mountain system. The techniques used by local potters and the water used to prepare the ceramic bodies were also studied. Original rocks are metapelites or filadios and raw materials belong to levels caused by exogenous or supergene alteration (quartz-illite and chlorite type clays). The ceramics studied by microscopy exhibit anisotropy. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Metalografia, análise de oxigênio e nitrogênio e teste de dureza vickers dos materiais de fixação interna usados no esqueleto craniofacial

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Breno Meneses Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar, através de metalografia, análise da composição de gases oxigênio e nitrogênio e por meio de teste de dureza Vickers, 4 marcas de material de fixação interna utilizadas na cirurgia buco-maxilo-facial (grupo I = Leibinger; grupo II = Tóride; grupo III = Engimplan; grupo IV = Medartis). Inicialmente, foram confeccionados três corpos de prova com segmento de placa de três elos e três corpos de prova com parafusos, para cada grupo. Realizou-se prep...

  16. Evaluación de la resistencia bacteriana frente a tres antibióticos usados en la maduración del camarón marino (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    OpenAIRE

    Luna G., Diana; De León L., Jorge; Vallejo I., Adriana; Velásquez L., Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    La incidencia de las enfermedades bacteriana en camaronicultura, ha conducido a la utilización de terapéuticos, con el subsecuente problema de generación de resistencia a mediano y largo plazo, afectando la producción. Con el objetivo de evaluar la resistencia bacteriana en un sistema de maduración de Litopenaeus vannamei , fueron aisladas 18 cepas bacterianas correspondientes a V. parahaemolyticus (n=3), V. alginolyiticus (n=5), V. hollisae (n=5) y Flavobacterium spp. (n=5). ...

  17. Estimates of relative doses of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh of spherical applicators used in ophthalmic brachytherapy; Estimativas de doses relativas de aplicadores esfericos de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh usados em braquiterapia oftalmologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Eduardo de, E-mail: edup2112@gmail.com, E-mail: epaiva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Fisica Medica

    2016-11-01

    Spherical ophthalmic applicators containing the beta emitter {sup 106}Ru / {sup 106}Rh are much used in brachytherapy for the treatment of various eye diseases. However, there is great difficulty in dosimetry these sources because of its geometric shape, the short range of the beta particles and the large dose gradient, and because of that calculation methods of dose distributions around these sources take on a great importance. In this work an analytical / numerical method is used to estimate the dose rates for a function of depth for spherical sources containing {sup 106}Ru / {sup 106}Rh. The results of the doses on along the central axis for applicators models CXS, CCX, CCY, CCZ, CCD and CGD and CCC are compared with published values calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and measurement results.

  18. Avaliação da distribuição, metabolismo e nefrotoxicidade do timerosal - um conservante a base de mercúrio usado em vacinas - utilizando modelos in vivo e in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    O timerosal é um agente antisséptico utilizado em vacinas como conservante. Devido a presença de etilmercúrio (EtHg) em sua composição (com aproximadamente 49% de mercúrio (Hg) em peso), uma preocupação existe em relação aos possíveis efeitos tóxicos em humanos. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre o perfil cinético do EtHg em mamíferos. Neste sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição tecidual e meias-vidas do Hg, seu metabolismo no sangue (conversão a mercúrio inorgânico) e...

  19. ¿Análisis de los marcadores discursivos más usados en el habla de tres estudiantes extranjeros de E/LE nivel C1 tras una estancia de un mes en España?

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Domínguez, Patrícia

    2010-01-01

    En esta memoria se pretende hacer un análisis del discurso de tres estudiantes de E/LE de nivel C1 (MCER), dos italianos y una polaca. Los tres gozan de un nivel cultural alto y de experiencias de aprendizaje de español similares: estudio del español en el Instituto Cervantes (Italia) y dos estancias lingüísticas de aproximadamente un mes cada una en España: los chicos en Madrid, la chica en Granada. Se tomará como base de análisis el material recopilado en entrevistas personales con cada...

  20. Dosimetric characterization of VIPARnd gel by optical analysis to high-energy photon beam used in external radiotherapy; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de gel tipo VIPARnd atraves de analise optica para feixes de fotons de alta energia usado em radioterapia externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Juliana R.; Lima, Renata S.; Lopes, Roseany de V. Vieira; Ceschin, Artemis Marti, E-mail: juliana_rdias@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been proposed as a possibility for measurements of dose distribution in radiotherapy. This work aims to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a VIPARnd for 6 MV photon beam used in radiotherapy using optical investigations. The absorbance spectrum of irradiated gel dosimeter was optical evaluated with spectrophotometer techniques and with CMOS camera readout for dose range of 0 to 50 Gy. Data shows that the VIPARnd has a maximum absorbance at 300 to 320 nm depending on the absorbed dose. The CMOS camera readouts were obtained in RGB color, the absorbance measurements suggest a major response of dose for blue matrix verified with data. The dose-response curve for blue component showed interval of linearity from 1 Gy to 20 Gy. (author)

  1. Resistencia a tração de agentes cimentantes usados na fixação de ligas de paladio-prata e niquel-cromo a dentina

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: o propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência à tração da união de dois tipos de ligas metálicas (Litecast B e Pors-on 4) fixadas em dentina humana tratada sob três condições (condicionada por 1O segundos com ácido fosfórico 35%, ácido poliacrílico 25% e não condicionada). Os cimentos foram 1- de fosfato de zinco, 2- ionômero d vidro e, 3- cimento resinoso. Noventa molares humanos foram inseridos em resina acrílica e desgastados com lixas d'água de granulação nOs 120, 320 e 600 a...

  2. Avaliação da qualidade dos óleos de fritura usados em restaurantes, lanchonetes e similares Quality evaluation of frying oils used in restaurants and fast food shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanise Gião ANS

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fritura é uma operação importante por ser um processo de preparação rápida de alimentos e por conferir aos produtos fritos características únicas de odor e sabor. Na temperatura de fritura o óleo interage com o ar, água e componentes dos alimentos que estão sendo fritos gerando compostos responsáveis por odores desagradáveis e degradações em óleos utilizados por longos períodos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de alteração dos óleos e gorduras utilizadas nos processos de fritura de restaurantes, lanchonetes, bares e pastelarias da cidade de São José do Rio Preto-SP. Os métodos analíticos aplicados para a avaliação da alteração em 60 amostras de óleos e gorduras incluíram a determinação de compostos polares totais (%, ácidos graxos livres (%, expressos em ácido oléico e índice de peróxidos (meq/kg. Foram estabelecidos como limite de alteração 25% para compostos polares, 1% para ácidos graxos livres e 15meq/kg para índice de peróxidos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, observou-se que das 60 amostras analisadas, 30% apresentaram valores de compostos polares superiores ao limite estabelecido para descartar os óleos e gorduras de fritura. Já, para ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos, 18,3% e 8,3% das amostras, respectivamente, apresentaram valores acima do estabelecido para o descarte. Os elevados níveis de compostos polares totais encontrados (57,4% em um número significativo de amostras demonstraram a necessidade de melhorar a qualidade dos óleos e gorduras de fritura neste setor de alimentação.Deep-frying is chosen for being a rapid food preparation process and for attributing to the fried products unique characteristics of flavor. At the frying temperature oil interacts with air, water and components of the food which is being fried, producing compounds that are responsible for off-flavor development and deterioration in abused oils. The objective of this work was to determine the development of deterioration in fat and oils used in frying process in restaurants, bars and snack bars of São José do Rio Preto-SP. The analytical methods used to evaluate the alterations in 60 oil samples included determining the total polar compounds in frying oils (%, free fatty acids (%, expressed in terms of oleic acid and value peroxide (meq/kg. The established limits for alteration in frying fats were 25% for polar compounds, 1% for free fatty acids and 15 meq/kg for value peroxide. According to the results obtained, it could be observed that, from the 60 analyzed samples, 30% showed higher values of polar compounds than the established limit for discarding frying oil and fat. For the free fatty acids and value peroxide, 18.3% and 8.3% of the samples respectively, showed higher values than the established limit for discarding. The high levels of total polar compounds found (57.4% in a significant number of samples proved the necessity of making the quality of frying fat and oil better in this field of food.

  3. COMPARAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE DESCONTAMINAÇÃO USADOS NA FASE INICIAL DO ESTABELECIMENTO EM CULTURA IN VITRO DE BANANA COMPARISON AMONG DECONTAMINATION METHODS AT INITIAL PHASE OF BANANA IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Quatro métodos de descontaminação de explantes de bananeira (Musa AAB cv. Maçã cultivados in vitro foram testados utilizando-se, como fonte de explantes, rizomas provenientes de bananais comerciais. Explantes de diferentes tamanhos obtidos de brotações axilares foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações e tempo em solução de NaOCl para descontaminação. Após redução para 8mm x 5mm x 5mm, os explantes foram transferidos para meio MS modificado e mantidos em câmara escura durante dez dias e, em seguida, foram levados para câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 28°C +/- 2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos de descontaminação foram realizados em blocos de 40mm x 20mm x 20mm ou 40mm x 15mm x 15mm, com simples e dupla esterilizações, respectivamente, utilizando-se NaOCl 3,5% de cloro ativo. O aparecimento de fungos e bactérias foi mais acentuado nos primeiros quinze dias, entretanto, em concentração baixa de NaOC1 (1%, a contaminação foi quase total nos primeiros três dias (96,67%. Houve maior incidência de contaminação bacteriana do que fúngica.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Banana cv. Maçã; cultura de tecidos; esterilização superficial; Musa AAB.

    Four decontamination methods for in vitro culture of banana (Musa AAB cv. Maçã explants were compared. Commercial crop rhizomes were used as the explant source. Different sizes of explants obtained from axillary buds were submersed in different concentrations of NaOCl for each different period of time. After being reduced to 8mm x 5mm x 5mm, explants were transferred to modified MS media, which were kept in the dark for 10 days, followed by growth chamber at 28°C +/- 2°C with 16h light. Best results were obtained with 40mm x 20mm x 20mm or 40mm x 15mm x 15mm explants, immersed once or twice in 3.5% NaOCl. Higher contamination levels were observed 15 days after the beginning of the experiment; at 1% NaOCl, however, 96.67% contamination was observed after 3 days. Bacterial incidence was higher than fungal.

    KEY-WORDS: Banana cv. Maçã; tissue culture; superficial sterilization; Musa AAB.

  4. Membrana de poli (L-CO-D, L ÁCIDO LÁTICO-CO-TMC (PLDLA-TMC (70/30 com aloe vera para ser usado como curativo no tratamento de queimadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Maciel de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da história, muitos tratamentos diferentes e, por vezes bizarros, têm sido prescritos para queimaduras. Desde os tempos mais remotos até os dias atuais, existe a necessidade de buscar novas terapias e drogas que funcionem como agentes tópicos para aliviar a dor e controlar a infecção em queimaduras. Dessa maneira, uma alternativa interessante às drogas sintéticas é a utilização de plantas, como um recurso natural, as quais podem ser úteis para o desenvolvimento de novas formulações e estratégias para melhorar a qualidade de vida. Neste trabalho foi utilizado o terpolímero poli (L-co-D, L ácido lático-co-TMC (PLDLA-co-TMC como matriz polimérica para a fabricação do curativo, sendo misturado a esse curativo o extrato de Aloe Vera, uma planta tropical que pertence à família Liliaceae, sendo conhecida por ser a mais antiga planta medicinal na natureza, a qual exibe propriedades anti-cancerígena, anti-oxidante, anti-bacteriana, cicatrizante e anti-viral. Além disso, outra vantagem do uso destes materiais está relacionada ao custo, uma vez que os produtos atualmente disponíveis para o tratamento de queimaduras são importados e apresentam valor elevado, inviabilizando o uso em larga escala. Neste trabalho, o estudo in vivo foi realizado por meio de 30 animais (ratos Wistar, divididos em 02 grupos conforme o tempo dos curativos (7 dias e 15 dias. Cada um, por sua vez, foi subdividido em 03 grupos de acordo com o tratamento aplicado: um grupo controle (sem a membrana PLDLA-co-TMC, tratamento 1 (com a membrana PLDLA-co-TMC sem Aloe Vera e tratamento 2 (com a membrana PLDLA-co-TMC/Aloe Vera com concentração de 10%.

  5. Ionic implantation by plasma in titanium and stainless steels used in prosthesis and medical instruments; Implantacion ionica por plasma en titanio y aceros inoxidables usados en protesis e instrumental medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz C, A. E. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    A study of a process known as plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of nitrogen at low voltages (< 4 kV) into three kind of samples: 1) austenitic stainless AISI 316-L steel plates, 2) ferritic stainless AISI 434 steel-based dentistry drills and 3) commercially pure titanium (CPTi) disks. On the case of CPTi the study was conducted in nitrogen- oxygen calibrated mixtures: 90% N-10% O, 80% N-20% O, 70% N-30% O and in 99.5% pure oxygen and 99.9% pure nitrogen. The PIII process was carried out by using a direct current plasma source controlled both in voltage and current, a negative voltage pulse modulator, a stainless AISI 304 steel vacuum chamber and a rod of the same material, horizontally located in the upper region of the chamber, which plays the role of anode in the plasma discharge. The purpose of the nitriding is forming a relatively thick layer on the surface of the steel specimens in order to enhance their both microhardness and general corrosion performances, desirable in medical applications. This layer contains interstitial nitrogen atoms ({approx}24% at.) which gives place to a deformed lattice (expanded phase) of the steel. Vickers microhardness and potentiodynamic tests (the latter in agreement to the norm ASTM G-61-89) confirm an increase of microhardness up to three times and a decrease of general corrosion rate in one order of magnitude. The nitriding of de dentistry drills is aimed at inhibiting the pitting corrosion produced by the asepsis process which results in pit nucleations, their propagation and consequent fractures when being under cyclic stress (fatigue). Scanning electron microscope micrographs reveal the risks involved in surpassing the critical treatment simple temperature of 450 C as the PIII process itself induces pitting. On its part, cyclic (ASTM G-61) potentiodynamic tests indicate an excellent pitting corrosion resistance of the samples treated under 450 C. In turn, the treatment of CPTi was meant to develop oxidized and/or nitrided replacement layers of high biocompatibility in the form of rutile phase titanium oxide, which favours the bony-integration, along with enhanced wear resistance layers of improved microhardness. The superficial treatments of titanium largely succeed in these purposes both as for microhardness and for most parameters of the biological environment corrosion (simulated in a Hanks solution), surpassing the performance of conventional prosthetic metals, as reported in the current literature, including the Co-Cr-Mo alloy as to its wear resistance. (Author)

  6. {sup 137}Cs radioactive check device for quality and stability control of dosimeters used in radiotherapy; Controle de qualidade e estabilidade de dosimetros usados em radioterapia empregando fontes de {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, C.F.E.; Mondaini, C.V.; Leite, S.P.; Pires, E.J.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Daivd, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a shielded container to store a used brachytherapy {sup 137}Cs source. This system proposes a new option to check the periodical consistency and proper functioning of ionization chambers and electrometers used in radiotherapy. Since there is no similar equipment being produced in the Brazilian market and the chambers stability control is part of a licensing requirement this device was built to meet the needs of several radiotherapy centers without access to it. (author)

  7. Recuperação de metais de catalisadores de hidrorrefino usados via fusão com KHSO4 Recovery of elements from spent hydrorefining catalysts after fusion with KHSO4

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Carlos Afonso; Neocir da Silva; Gustavo Nascimento Salvato; Roberto Giovanini Busnardo

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a process for metal recovery from spent NiMo and CoMo/Al2O3 commercial hydrorefining catalysts. The samples were treated by fusion with potassium hydrogen sulfate (5 h, 600 ºC) with a KHSO4/catalyst mass ratio of 10:1. After fusion the solid was solubilized in water (100 ºC), leaving silicon compounds as residue. Losses of nickel and cobalt may reach 16 wt% of the amount present in the sample, depending on the silicon content. Soluble metals were isolated by selective prec...

  8. Recuperação de metais de catalisadores de hidrorrefino usados via fusão com KHSO4 Recovery of elements from spent hydrorefining catalysts after fusion with KHSO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Carlos Afonso

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a process for metal recovery from spent NiMo and CoMo/Al2O3 commercial hydrorefining catalysts. The samples were treated by fusion with potassium hydrogen sulfate (5 h, 600 ºC with a KHSO4/catalyst mass ratio of 10:1. After fusion the solid was solubilized in water (100 ºC, leaving silicon compounds as residue. Losses of nickel and cobalt may reach 16 wt% of the amount present in the sample, depending on the silicon content. Soluble metals were isolated by selective precipitation techniques (nickel, cobalt, aluminum or by solvent extraction with methyl-isobutyl ketone (molybdenum in a hydrochloric acid medium. All metals were recovered in very good yields except for nickel and cobalt in the presence of considerable amounts of silicon. Soluble wastes consist of potassium/sodium sulfates/chlorides. Solid wastes correspond to about 4 wt% of the catalyst and can be discarded in industrial dumps.

  9. Adhesive systems used for sealing contaminated surfaces: a microleakage evaluation Estudo de microinfiltração sob sistemas adesivos usados como selante em superfícies contaminadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Helena Miranda Grande

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two adhesive systems (OptiBond FL TM and OptiBond SOLO TM used as a sole material for sealing pit and fissures on contaminated surfaces with respect to microleakage. After acid etching, 56 sound teeth were contaminated with 1 µl of plasma and randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 7. The adhesives were light activated under two conditions (Optilux VCL-403TM and VCL-500TM for 30 s. Each specimen was exposed to one of the following aging treatments: thermal (4,000 X at 5-55°C for 60 s plus load cycling (225,000 X with 83.3 N or thermal plus load and pH cycling (mineralizing/demineralizing solutions. Then, they were immersed in a 50% AgNO3 aqueous solution, sectioned twice and had dye penetration measured through digitized images. ANOVA methods were used to assess the main effects of the factors as well as their interactions. The results indicated a significant difference between the adhesive systems (p O propósito deste estudo foi comparar dois sistemas adesivos (OptiBond FL TM e OptiBond SOLO TM utilizados como material único para selar superfícies oclusais contaminadas com relação à infiltração marginal. Após condicionamento ácido, 56 dentes hígidos foram contaminados com 1 µl de plasma e aleatoriamente divididos em 8 grupos (n = 7. Os adesivos foram fotoativados por 30 s sob duas condições (Optilux VCL-403TM e VCL-500TM. Cada espécime foi exposto a um de dois tratamentos de envelhecimento: ciclos térmicos (4.000 x a 5-55°C por 60 s mais ciclos mecânicos (225.000 x com carga de 83,3 N; ou ciclos térmicos, mecânicos e de pH (soluções mineralizante/desmineralizante. Os espécimes foram imersos em solução aquosa de AgNO3 a 50%, secionados, e a penetração do corante foi medida em imagem digitalizada. Usou-se ANOVA para determinar os principais efeitos dos fatores e suas interações. Os resultados indicaram diferença significante entre os adesivos (p < 0,05, sugerindo que o OptiBond FL TM apresenta um desempenho melhor com relação à microinfiltração e poderia ser indicado como material único para selamento em condições de umidade ou contaminação acidental.

  10. Sliding wear of steels (used in polished rods of oil pump jack) against polyurethane; Desgaste de deslizamento de acos (usados em hastes de unidade de bombeio de petroleo) contra poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Gelsoneide da Silva [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Engenharia de Materiais; Farias, Aline Cristina Mendes; Lima da Silva, Ruthilene Catarina; Medeiros, Joao Telesforo Nobrega [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: gelsoneidegg@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: alineastro@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ruthilene@ufrnet.br, e-mail: medeirosj2@asme.org

    2008-07-01

    Accelerated sliding tests were carried out in the steels AISI 316, AISI 4140, AISI 1045 coated and AISI 4142 coated, in the dry and lubricated with contaminated oil with 10% SiO{sub 2} conditions. Each cylindrical counterbody with angular generatrix of polyurethane slid against a stationary metallic specimen. The contact pressure changed by increment of normal loads of 10,0 and 2,3 N, velocity of 0,91 m/s and distance of 12 km. The wear rates were calculated through of the mass variation from specimens after each test. The wear morphology was characterized by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, where identified damages by abrasion at two and three bodies. The contaminated lubricant increase the wear rate due to action of the abrasive particles. (author)

  11. O RUIDO EMITIDO POR APARELHOS USADOS NAS SALAS DE OPERAÇÕES: ESTUDO PRELIMINAR SOBRE ALTERAÇÕES FÍSICAS, FISIOLÓGICAS E PSICOLÓGICAS NOS COMPONENTES DA EQUIPE CIRÚRGICA E PACIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belén Salazar Posso

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em valores globais e faixas de oitavas, nas escalas L e A, o ruido de fundo em três salas de operações de dois hospitais da cidade de São Paulo. Foi estudado também, em valores globais e faixas de oitavas, nas escalas L e A, o ruido emitido pelos seguintes aparelhos: bisturis elétricos Emai, Valleylab, Bovie e Burdick; respiradores Takaoka, Narcofolex, Aga e Oftec; aspiradores TakaokaL Medap, Card e Oftec; brocas Dremel e Kaltembach und Voigt; serra elétrica Bone Stryker Saw e cardioscópio FUNBEC. Foram comparados ainda, os ruídos emitidos por aparelhos de marcas diferentes, porém com mesma função, ou seja; respiradores, aspiradores, bisturis elétricos e brocas. Foi determinado, outrossim, a soma das médias dos ruídos emitidos por cinco dos aparelhos, se funcionassem simultaneamente. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se ser o ruído de fundo, nas salas de operações estudadas, inferior ao nível máximo preconizado para hospitais. Os resultados obtidos, comparados aos dados da literatura, permitem inferir que o ruído emitido petos aparelhos estudados é suficiente para causar alterações fisiológicas e psicológicas nos componentes da equipe cirúrgica e no paciente, porém insuficiente para provocar alterações físicas.

  12. Craqueamento termo-catalítico da mistura óleo de fritura usado-lodo de estamparia têxtil para a produção de óleo com baixo índice de acidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderléia Botton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, cracking experiments were performed to carry out the thermal conversion of the mixture of used frying oil and textile stamping sludge in continuous reactor. The textile stamping sludge was used to catalyze the reaction of thermal cracking. The physical and chemical properties of the oil produced were analyzed. Among the results of this analysis the level of acidity in the range of 12 mg KOH/g stands out. Low levels of acidity as this particular mean better quality oil. In this regard it is important that further researches on processes of conversion of residual oil occur.

  13. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial Adaptación a la cultura brasileña de los cuestionarios The O'Leary-Sant y Puf, usados para cistitis intersticial Adaptation of the O'Leary-Sant and the PUF for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis for the Brazilian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lima Victal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar à cultura brasileira os instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, utilizados no diagnóstico de cistite intersticial. Foram realizadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura internacional para a adaptação cultural. As etapas de tradução, síntese das traduções e retrotradução foram realizadas satisfatoriamente, e a avaliação das versões sintéticas pelo comitê de especialistas resultou em algumas alterações, assegurando as equivalências entre as versões originais e traduzidas. O PUF foi pré-testado entre 40 sujeitos e The O'Leary-Sant em uma amostra de 50 indivíduos, devido à necessidade de ajustes em decorrência da baixa escolaridade da população. O processo de tradução e adaptação foi realizado com sucesso e os instrumentos, após as modificações, demonstraram ser de fácil compreensão e rápido preenchimento. Entretanto, este é um estudo que antecede o processo de validação e será premente o emprego do instrumento em novas pesquisas para que sejam avaliadas suas propriedades psicométricas.Se objetivó traducir y adaptar a la cultura brasileña los instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant y PUF, utilizados para diagnosticar cistitis intersticial. Fueron efectuadas las etapas metodológicas recomendadas por la literatura internacional para adaptación cultural. Las etapas de traducción, síntesis de traducciones y retrotraducción se realizaron satisfactoriamente, la evaluación de las versiones sintetizadas por parte del comité de especialistas derivó en algunas alteraciones, asegurando las equivalencias entre versiones originales y traducidas. El PUF fue pre-testeado con 40 sujetos y The O'Leary-Sant en muestra de 50 individuos, por la necesidad de ajustes derivados de la baja escolarización de la población. El proceso de traducción y adaptación se efectuó con suceso y los instrumentos luego de las modificaciones demostraron ser de sencilla comprensión y rápido completado. Sin embargo, este estudio es previo al proceso de validación, será imprescindible el uso del instrumento en nuevas investigaciones para evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas.The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the instruments known as The O'Leary-Sant and PUF to the Brazilian culture used in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. We followed the methodological steps recommended by the international literature for cultural adaptation. The steps of translation, synthesis of translations and back translation were performed satisfactorily and evaluation the versions of the synthesis by the panel of experts has resulted in some changes, ensuring the equivalence between the original and translated versions. The PUF was pretested among 40 subjects and The O'Leary-Sant in a sample of 50 individuals due to the need for adjustments due to the low education population. The translation and adaptation process was successful and the instruments, after some modifications, proved easy to understand and complete quickly. However, this is a study prior to the validation process and will be promoting the use of the instrument in new research to assess its measurement properties.

  14. Validação de um modelo teórico usado no cuidado da família que tem um filho com cardiopatia Validación de un modelo teórico usado en el cuidado de la familia con un hijo con cardiopatia Validation of a theoretical model applied on the care of families with a child with cardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelma Jacob

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Validar o modelo teórico"Buscando preservar a integridade da unidade familiar"; aplicando-o à situação da família que vivencia a situação. A coleta de dados decorreu por meio de entrevistas com seis familiares que vivenciaram a experiência de ter um filho que sofreu uma intervenção cirúrgica cardíaca, cujas perguntas foram pautadas no referido modelo, tendo como foco a experiência familiar, durante o tempo da cirurgia cardíaca. Os dados gerados foram analisados de acordo com a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Pela análise comparativa dos resultados dos dois estudos, foi possível validar o modelo teórico para a experiência da família que vivencia a cirurgia cardíaca do filho. Em função da natureza específica da experiência, dois novos temas emergiram: vivendo uma experiência solitária e tendo superado uma etapa, ampliando o modelo teórico original.Validar el modelo teórico "Buscando preservar la integridad de la unidad familiar"; aplicándolo a la situación de la familia que vivencia la situación de cirugía cardiaca de un hijo. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas a seis familiares que vivenciaron la experiencia de tener un hijo que sofrió una intervención quirúrgica cardiaca, cuyas preguntas fueron basadas en el referido modelo, teniendo como foco la experiencia familiar, durante el tiempo de la cirugía cardiaca. Los datos generados fueron analizados de acuerdo con la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Resultados - Por el análisis comparativo de los resultados de los dos estudios, fue posible validar el modelo teórico para la experiencia de la familia que vivencia la cirugía cardiaca del hijo. En función de la naturaleza específica de la experiencia, emergieron dos nuevos temas: viviendo una experiencia solitaria y habiendo superado una etapa, ampliando así el modelo teórico original.This article is based on a survey aimed at validating the theoretical model "Trying to preserve the integrity of the family unit" by applying it to the situation of families living through the experience of having a child undergoing heart surgery. Data was collected through interviews with six family members who had gone through that experience. The questions were laid out according to the model, focusing on the family experience during the time of heart surgery. The data was analyzed according to the Grounded Theory. Results showed that it is possible to validate the theoretical model for the experience of families who had a child undergoing heart surgery through the comparative analysis of the results of both studies. Because of the specific nature of the experience, two new themes emerged: living a lonely experience and overco-ming a phase, thus widening the original theoretical model.

  15. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bio-resinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Pereira, Thaissa; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj

    2011-07-01

    Locate the oil, a source of energy that took millions of years to be formed is a task that requires much knowledge and technology, and large investments. However, during its operation, storage or transportation of oil, the risk of spills occurring in potential that can cause extensive damage to the environment. Experience of major accidental oil spills has shown the importance of damage to the environment, harming marine life, fishing and tourism. Thus this study aims to evaluate the use of renewable sources to create an 'absorbent green' by using the lignin, furfural and cardanol, being catalyzed by sulfuric acid. This bio-resin synthesized shows good chemical similarity with oil, because it has both aromatic and aliphatic compounds, thereby facilitating the strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, allowing the agglomeration process in the same lake environments. (author)

  16. Comparison between different methodologies of environmental sensitivity classification for lagoons; Comparacao entre diferentes metodologias de classificacao do indice de sensibilidade do litoral a derramamentos de oleo para ambientes lagunares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carine; Cabral, Alexandre; Griep, Gilberto Henrique [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to show a brief presentation about the variation of Environmental Sensibility Index (ISL) to west coast of Patos Lagoon, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between the seasons winter and summer. Furthermore, it compares two different methodologies for Sensibility Classification: the first one, for fluvial environments, which was suggested by PETROBRAS, 2006 and other one for either coastal and tidal environments, suggested by Environmental Ministry, 2002. (author)

  17. Assimilation of the QuikScat satellite data into models of oil spill path analysis; Assimilacao dos dados do satelite QuikScat em modelos de analise de trajetoria de derrames de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Marlos Carneiro; Cabral, Alexandre Pereira; Silva Junior, Carlos Leandro [OCEANSAT - Tecnologia Espacial para Monitoramento Ambiental S/C Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: oceansat@inc.coppe.ufrj.br; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: landau@lamce.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    This work analyses the performance and reliability of the wind data measured by the QuikScat satellite. The Scatterometer data was compared with previously published results, based on data from ERS-1/2 Wind Scatterometer, meteo-ocean buoys and from re-analysis of NCEP model. To validate and applied the QuikScat data a case study was performed, on which those data was used to improve the performance of an oil trajectory analysis model, simulating and oil spill in the Campos Basin region. It was observed that the results of the modelling reached better results when wind data collected by the QuikScat satellite was used as a forcing mechanism. Together with other applications, the assimilation of these data into models can be seen as an essential tool in environmental monitoring. (author)

  18. Study of the influences of the zeolites physical and chemical characteristics in the soya oil cracking; Estudo das influencias das caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de zeolitas no craqueamento do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Frances Regiane dos

    1995-10-01

    Vegetable oils have been studied as raw materials to yield fuel hydrocarbons. The catalytic and thermal transformations of these oils have been presented as being able to generate hydrocarbons from which diesel oil and vegetable gasoline may be obtained. (author)

  19. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  20. Evaluation of specific consumption from the use of chicken oil biodiesel in one cylinder generator set; Avaliacao do consumo especifico a partir da utilizacao de biodiesel de oleo de frango em um grupo-gerador monocilindrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Lima, Paulo Peruzzo de [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Souza, Abel Alves de; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from numerous materials, including by-products of animal chain. In this scenario, the chicken's oil, that is located and an environment not explored for biodiesel production, can be a good alternative in South and Southeast Brazilian Region, where they are slaughtered around 9.100.000 chickens per day. In order to determine the specific consumption from a generator set with single cylinder 6.6 kW of power and generation capacity of 5 kW, using chicken oil biodiesel (B-100), were performed the bench test using a auxiliary tank, precision scale and an energy analyzer. Were conducted four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of generating capacity). The worst SC was the engine at 25% of generation capacity (1.5 kW) and better with 75% of maximum load (3.75 kW) with a mean of 479.34 g kWh{sup -1}. By Turkey's test ant 5% probability there was a significant difference only for the first treatment. (author)

  1. Palm oil based polymer materials obtained by romp: study by low field NMR; Materiais polimericos obtidos via ROMP a partir de oleo de palma: estudo por RMN de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Lima-Neto, Benedito S., E-mail: benedito@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica de; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Aiming to study and develop new materials synthesized from sustainable sources, several polymers were prepared using in its monomeric composition, different amounts of NPO (Norbornenyl Palm Oil) monomer. This monomer was developed based on a vegetable oil rather produced in northern Brazil, the Palm Oil. Since this oil have a low content of unsaturation, its use in developing new monomer for ROMP (Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization) is not exploited. In this regard, polymeric materials were obtained using the NOP and both the reaction process and the resulting products were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the time domain (TD-NMR) at low magnetic field. (author)

  2. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  3. Project and evaluation of a 2000 meter offshore horizontal well production extra-heavy oil; Projeto e avaliacao de um poco offshore com 2000 m de trecho horizontal produtor de oleo extra-pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Eduardo M.; Kato, Edson T.; Tinoco, Francisco L.; Vieira, Paulo M.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project was proposed to acquire reservoir data, for the development of the Member (Mb) Siri in the concession of Badejo in Campos Basin, having extra-heavy oil, through long and large bore horizontal well. The main objectives were: to obtain the petrophysical properties through continuous coring of the oil and water zones; water sampling for the characterization; to verify the effective length of the horizontal well through production logging; to obtain the reservoir productivity and permeability through formation test; to obtain the oil PVT properties through monophasic sampling and to know the lateral variability of the accumulation. New technologies were used as geochemical geosteering, diversionary acidification and chemical tracer production logging. The well test analysis showed permeability and productivity values better than as expected and making possible the development of pilot project in order to evaluate the aquifer behavior, the long term well productivity and performance of the elevation and behavior of the extra-heavy oil offloading for subsequent development of the reservoir. (author)

  4. The influence of asphaltenes of the petroleum on the rheology of O/W (Oil/Water) emulsions; Influencia de asfaltenos do petroleo sobre a reologia de emulsoes O/A (Oleo/Agua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ronaldo Goncalves dos; Mohamed, Rahoma Sadeg; Loh, Watson; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Heavy oils represent a large fraction of the Brazilian petroleum reserves and display a great potential for application as substitute to the conventional oils, provided a suitable technology for their transportation is available. The high viscosity of these heavy oils leads to high flow resistance and increase in the recovery and transportation costs. Methodologies employed to reduce these problems involve application of heat of addition of diluents or lighter oils, but are associated with high costs. Formation of low viscosity oil-in-water emulsions has been proposed as an alternative for the transportation of heavy oils, as investigated in this work. Preliminary results indicate significant viscosity decreases upon emulsification of heavy oils (viscosities greater than 1,000 cP) forming o/w emulsions with high oil content (between 50-65 vol. %), which display viscosities within 4-25 cP. Additionally, the effect of different surfactants, methodology of preparation and oil asphaltene content on the emulsion stability was also evaluated. These results confirm the potential of emulsification as a viable methodology for heavy oil transportation. (author)

  5. PRODUT - a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in the oil and gas transportation in Brazil; PRODUT - um programa tecnologico de dutos para enfrentar os desafios do transporte de oleo e gas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Ney Goncalves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Following the international tendency of the pipeline companies, PETROBRAS has been investing relevant resources in new technologies, with the objective of increasing reliability and life span, and decreasing the cost and the risk of leakage. PETROBRAS created in 1998 the pipeline technological program, PRODUT, to be responsible for coordinating the development of the company R and D projects. This paper will present PRODUT and the good results obtained in order to increase reliability and competitiveness of transportation systems, essential for global performance of the petroleum industry. (author)

  6. The effect of aging on the viscosity and stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions; Efeito do envelhecimento sobre a viscosidade e a estabilidade de emulsoes de petroleo do tipo agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao B.V.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    During the process of crude oil production, it is common for emulsions to appear formed of drops of water dispersed in crude oil and stabilized by the presence of natural emulsifiers on the interface region. These emulsions present viscosity rates higher than the dehydrated crude oil and bear influence on the sizing of equipment used in the production, processing and transfer. As these emulsions grow older, the emulsifier adsorption on the surface increase, and consequently the emulsion gets more stable. The results of laboratory tests are presented, the emulsion being synthesized with 50% water content in volume, and the dynamic viscosity and efficiency of water-oil gravitational separation is evaluated on the first day the emulsion was prepared, and then after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. An increase in viscosity and stability was observed as a result of the aging process. (author)

  7. Chemical modification of HTPB for application as polymeric additives for diesel fuel. 1 - phenyl ethers; Modificacao quimicado PBLH para aplicacao como aditivos polimericos para oleo diesel. 1. eteres fenilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Agne R.; Prezibella, Alysson M.; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum industry faces several problems related to the crystallization of paraffins, in petroleum and its derivatives, with the reduction of the service temperature. To solve this problem polymeric additives are used, of which the esters have been enough studied in several areas of the world, except in Brazil. In this work, this class of pour point depressant additives it was obtained through the chemical modification of Hydroxyl Terminate Polybutadiene (HTPB) that present a hydrocarbon chemical structure containing one double bound in each repetitive unit and hydroxyl groups of the primary and secondary allylic types - functional groups potentially reactive. The obtained products were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, and they are being tested as additive for the pour point reduction of a diesel oil samples (REPAR-PETROBRAS). (author)

  8. Steam and solvent injection as an advanced recovering method for heavy oil reservoirs; Injecao de vapor e solvente como um metodo de recuperacao avancada em reservatorios de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Edney Rafael V.P.; Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson F.; Barbosa, Janaina Medeiros D.; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes M.; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently a resource more and more used by the petroleum industry to increase the efficiency of steam flood mechanism is the addition of solvents. The process can be understood as a combination of a thermal method (steam injection) with a miscible method (solvent injection), promoting, thus, the reduction of interfacial tensions and oil viscosity. The mobility of the displaced fluid is then improved, resulting in an increase of oil recovery. To better understand this improved oil recovery method, a numerical study of the process was driven contemplating the effects of some operational parameters (distance between wells, injection fluids rate, kind of solvent and injected solvent volume) on the accumulated production of oil and recovery factor. Semisynthetic models were used in this study but reservoir data can be extrapolated for practical applications situations on Potiguar Basin. Simulations were performed in STARS (CMG, 2007.11). It was found that injected solvent volumes increased oil recovery and oil rates. Further the majority of the injected solvent was produced and can be recycled. (author)

  9. Biodegradation polyurethane derived from vegetable oil irradiated with gamma rays 25 kGy and 100 kGy; Biodegradacao de poliuretano derivado de oleo vegetal irradiado com raios gama 25 kGy e 100 kGy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonia M. dos, E-mail: amsantos@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Campus de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Elaine C. de [Universidade Federal do Parana, Campus de Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The environment requires polymers that can be degraded by the action of microorganisms. In this work was studied the biodegradation of polyurethane samples derived from vegetable oil (castor oil), which were irradiated with gamma rays 25 kGy and 100 kGy compared with the same polyurethane without being irradiated. Biodegradation of polyurethane was carried out in culture medium containing the fungus Aspergillus niger by 146 days and the result was evaluated using the technique of thermogravimetric analysis, where there was a change of behavior of the curves TGA / DTG occurred indicating that chemical modifications of molecules present in the structure of the polymer chain, thus confirming that the material has undergone the action of microorganisms. (author)

  10. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1992-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Systematic approach to the treatment of crude oil produced by small concessionaires in marginal areas of the Reconcavo Basin; Abordagem sistematizada para o tratamento do oleo produzido em campos marginais da Bacia do Reconcavo por pequenos concessionarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Edson Jorge Alves [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Araujo, Marcia Queiroz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    The establishment of the 'Petroleum Law' (Law No. 9.478/97) abolished the Exploration and Production State Monopoly in Brazil. Attaining concessions through the bidding rounds promoted by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) became the only legal means for exploring and/or producing oil and natural gas in Brazil. In order to attract small and medium companies to this niche, inactive areas with marginal accumulations were offered by the Agency. These areas were returned to ANP by PETROBRAS. Currently, six small companies operate in the Reconcavo Oil Province, extracting and processing different types of oil. The available infrastructure is mostly deteriorated and obsolete. Additionally, there are serious limitations in the separation and storage capacity. This scenario resulted in the fragmentation of the old PETROBRAS production infrastructure. A possible solution to this problem could involve the establishment of a collective treatment unit which would work as a condominium. However, the operation of this plant must take into account the diversity of oils being produced in the Reconcavo Basin (physical-chemicals characteristics). This paper is aimed at (1) establishing a preliminary characterization of the different types of oil which will be delivered by local producers; (2) the critical variables for the oil model (it includes all oils received from different areas of the Reconcavo); (3) the identification of the main stake holders within this process; and (4) suggestions for operating models for the treatment unit taking into account the potential innovations and opportunities for R and D and spin-offs. (author)

  12. Development of a new separator oil/water: adaptation of a laboratory prototype envisage an industrial application; Desenvolvimento de um novo separador oleo/agua: adaptacao do prototipo de laboratorio visando aplicacao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Gustavo de S.; Paulo, Joao B. de A.; Costa Junior, Jose A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci E. [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade RN/CE

    2008-07-01

    The present work deals with the adaptation of a new separator oil/water called Mixer Settler based on Phase Inversion of (MDIF) in scale of laboratory for future application in industrial scale. The adaptations were carried out by changing of the materials of construction and the substitution of the original system of mechanical mixing by a static or on-line mixer. The equipment works through the unit operation of liquid-liquid extraction associated with the innovative method of phase inversion to separate the fine oil droplets which appear emulsified into produced waters. The extractant solvent was QAV (aviation kerosene). A composed central design was used to evaluate the performance of the equipment, considering the separation efficiency (%) as the response variable in function of the TOG (total oil and greases). Envisaging an industrial application we plotted contour curves to determine the regions which it is possible to operate the equipment on optimized conditions in view of separate oil at low concentrations, minimizing the quantity of extractant solvent. (author)

  13. Heavy metal extraction from produced water in the petroleum industry utilizing vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant; Extracao de metais pesados a partir de aguas produzidas na industria do petroleo utilizando derivados de oleo vegetal como extratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Dulcineia de Castro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania (Brazil). Coordenacao de Mineracao], e-mail: dcs@cefetgo.br, e-mail: dcs@eq.ufrn.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: raquel@geologia.ufrn.br; Brandao, Paulo Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br; Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara. Gerencia de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br

    2007-12-15

    It is well known today that, although being a renewable resource, potable water could also be finite. In the environmental context, very often due to operational costs, the development of new water recycling techniques become significant when faced with the simple adaptation of effluent treatment before final disposal. Produced water comes from exploration operations and/or the production of oil and gas and is generally treated. Following the treatment, part of the produced water is recycled in secondary re-injection operations or steam generation. The remainder, which is the biggest amount, is expelled into the sea through underwater outlets. Millions of liters of water are expelled per day, containing heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in low concentrations. Some of this volume could be recycled for use in the irrigation of oleaginous cultures after this water has been given a suitable post-treatment. This treatment being specified in agreement with Class 3, of CONAMA Resolution No 357 (Brazil, 2005), which establishes the contents as <0,033 mg/L for Pb, <0,01 mg/L for Cd and <0,025 mg/L for Ni. Liquid-liquid extraction is a well known technology for the recovery of metals in aqueous mediums. This work studies the extraction of Pb, Cd, and Ni from a synthetic solution, using QAV solvent (aviation kerosene); and vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant. It is well known that vegetal oil derivatives have a strong complexation power on metals. A bench test basic investigation was made with the objective of studying the selectivity of coconut oil derivatives in the extraction of metals from synthetic solutions. The determination of the heavy metal concentrations in a complex matrix was made by using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique (AAS). The results of the preliminary experiments were promising. (author)

  14. Yield oil of Jatropha curcas seeds of trees irrigated and fertilized with OMM-Tech; Rendimento de oleo de sementes de pinhao manso submetido a irrigacao e adubacao com OMM-Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, Adao W.P.; Alves Junior, Jose; Barbosa, Ricardo A.F.; Frazao, Joaquim J.; Araujo, Fausto J.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Setor de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: awpego@bol.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation and application of Organo-Minerals-Marine + Biotech (OMM-Tech) in yield oil of Jatropha curcas seeds. The experiment was conducted in an experimental area located in Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design with subdivided parcels and three replications was used. The parcels were submitted to different OMM-Tech fertilizer application methods: T1 = control (no OMM-Tech); T2 = soil application (120 kg ha{sup -1} of OMM-Tech in a powder form); T3 = leaf application (OMM-Tech in a liquid form with a 5% concentration); T4 = soil + leaf application (60 kg ha{sup -1} of OMM-Tech in powder form + OMM-Tech in liquid form with a 2.5% concentration). The sub-plots received two different water management treatments: irrigated and no irrigated. A drip irrigation system with drippers spaced by 0.50 m was used. We evaluated yield oil of seeds in first production year. Jatropha trees irrigated showed a higher seeds oil yield than no irrigated trees. However, fertilization with OMM-Tech no influenced seed oil yield. Seeds oil yield of Jatropha trees irrigated was 34%, and no irrigated 27%. (author)

  15. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bioresinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Silva, Thaissa P.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Locate petroleum, an energy source which spent millions of years to be formed, requires a lot of knowledge and technology, beyond large investments. However, along extraction, storage or transport of oil, there is a real risk of spills take place, causing extensive damage to the environment. Experience acquired due to accidental oil spills shows the large extension of damage imposed to the environment, impacting marine life, fishing and even tourism. Thus this study proposes the use of renewable sources, aiming to create an {sup g}reen absorbent material{sup .} This material is obtained through a polycondensation among lignin, furfural and cardanol, catalyzed by a strong acid. Synthesized bio-resin presents a good chemical similarity with oil, due to the tuning of its aromatic / aliphatic compounds, producing a strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, making the agglomeration process easy and contributing for the cleanup of oil spilled on water. (author)

  16. Standard mapping of the environment sensibility of oil to Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Padronizacao do mapeamento da sensibilidade ambiental a derramamento de oleo para a Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Felipe C.; Griep, Gilberto H. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The intense flow of fossil fuels in the inland waters of Patos Lagoon (LP) - Rio Grande do Sul, justifies the importance of preventive actions to claims by oil and derivatives within the lagoon. The mapping and classification of coastline environmental sensitivity for oil spills (Cartas SAO) is fundamental tool for this type of action. Therefore, since 2001, the Laboratory of Geological Oceanography (LOG) of Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) has developed the mapping SAO for the LP. In this work, through review of raw data from the database of LOG, and taking into account the methodology proposed by the Ministry of Environment (MMA, 2004), gave up a strategic projection of standardized environmental sensitivity of the oil spill to Patos Lagoon. This new account also enable a better understanding of the lagoon ecosystem, enables comparisons between its different areas, facilitating the planning and decision-making, allowing the management for faster action-in response. Like, highlights the regions of the estuary of the LP, the delta of the Camaqua River and Casamento Lagoon as the areas of greater sensitivity to environmental spillage of oil from Patos Lagoon. (author)

  17. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  18. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  19. The state of art of contingency and emergency plans for oil spill in the Brazilian ports and terminals; O estado da arte dos planos de emergencia e contingencia para derramamento de oleo nos portos e terminais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Sergio R.; Wasserman, Julio C.; Lima, Gilson B.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes that the potentially polluting activities, as is the case of the ports and terminals, possess plans of emergency for spilling in order to prevent impacts to the physical, socio cultural and of the work environment. The Federal Law n. 9966, of April 2000, known as the 'Law of the Oil' established the basic principles, to be obeyed for the companies, for harmful or dangerous oil movement and other substances in ports, terminals, platforms and ships in waters under national jurisdiction. The Law defines that the emergency plans are a set of measures that determine the responsibilities and the actions to be unchained after an incident immediately, as well as define the human resources, material and adequate equipment to the prevention, has controlled and combat to the pollution of waters. The CONAMA n. 398, of June of 2008, create a standardization of those procedures, so that there is an integration among the several emergency plans in a certain area. This article has for objective to accomplish a diagnosis in the several institutional programs of emergency to identify the current situation in the organized and terminal ports specialized in liquid barns, evaluating, when possible, it rationality of support logistic, the organization of operational administration and integration. (author)

  20. Primary energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil for the conditions of Brazil and Colombia; Balanco energetico preliminar da producao do biodiesel de oleo de palma para as condicoes do Brasil e da Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Roselis Ester da; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI/MG), MG (Brazil)], Emails: roseliscosta@yahoo.com.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Yanez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Palma de Aceite (CENIPALMA), Bogota (Colombia)], Email: edgar.yanez@cenipalma.org; Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], Email: ednildo@ufba.br

    2006-07-01

    The increasing related ambient concerns to the emissions of atmospheric pollutants for fuels, alternative sources of energy are having bigger attention, mainly those that contribute in the mitigation of these emissions. Being thus, the use of the biodiesel produced by the etherification of vegetal oils with methanol and ethanol, are seen as present interesting alternative. The energy analysis of the relation of the energy invested in the production of bio diesel can contribute as tool for a posterior formularization of pointers of the technician-economic and ambient viability in the comparison between the different oleaginous, as form to diagnosis one better type of culture for the production of biodiesel. The objectives of this work is to carry the energy analysis in the production of the palm oil biodiesel, for the conditions of Brazil and Colombia, as well as showing the differences between the results found for the two cases. The presented results are shown through comparative graphs for the two cases and with the final energy balance for each company. (author)

  1. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  2. Appraisal of oil-water separation in field by injection of demulsifier through gas-lift line; Avaliacao da separacao agua-oleo em campo injetando desemulsificante atraves da linha de gas-lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2001-12-01

    During the petroleum dehydrating process, the use of demulsifiers is fundamental in the coalescing of emulsions formed in field from the produced petroleum and water. Injection of demulsifiers should be performed the most upstream possible of the processing plant, not only to allow better product performance but to avoid the formation of smaller water drops, due to shearing during flowing of production. Herein presented are the test results of the d emulsifier's performances in field, injected through the gas-lift line of petroleum producing wells. The results showed water removal in the three-phase separator, even when operating in low processing temperature and low liquid residence time inside vessel. (author)

  3. Balance of greenhouse gas emissions and oil and bio diesel of the palm oil cultivated in degraded areas in the Amazon, Brazil; Balanco de emissoes de GEE do oleo e biodiesel da palma cultivada em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Alberto Arruda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    Using the methodology proposed in this paper, it is demonstrated that the GEE emissions from the chain of the palm oil cultivated in the Amazon area does attend to these criteria when the palm oil is processed in degraded areas, but this fact do not occur when forests are not felt for this purpose.

  4. Implementation and testing of the use of vegetable oils as fuel diesel generators in the Amazon isolated communities; Implantacao e testes de utilizacao de oleo vegetal como combustivel para diesel geradores em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Gonzalez Velaquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo Grassi [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project PROVEGAM 'Implantation and test of a unit demonstration of energetic utilization of vegetable oil', tested in operational conditions of field, the functioning of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' in the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. The Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants and it's located at one hundred kilometers from the city hall by car and more 30 minutes by boat. The electric energy of this community was previously generated, by a conventional diesel engine, obsolete and very expensive to the community, because the fuel price and the transport of the diesel oil from the city to the community. The PROVEGAM project, installed an electric generation group, MWM TD229, manufactured in Brazil, adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil, working 6 hours per day. Because of the viscosity of the palm oil and its combustion point, it was necessary to heat the vegetable oil before its injection into the engine. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and to clean possible residues deposited in the interior of the engine. The use of the palm oil justifies itself for being produced in the region, which means that it doesn't have to be imported. Currently, the generating group is working in the community during 5 hours per day with palm oil, and 1 hour per day with diesel oil and it already has more than 1600 hours of testing. The results of this project, so far, have confirmed the conceived premises, and this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in other communities in the Amazon region. (author)

  5. Palm oil based polymer materials obtained by ROMP: study by low field NMR; Materiais polimericos obtidos via ROMP a partir de oleo de palma: estudo por RMN de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Lima-Neto, Benedito S., E-mail: benedito@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aiming to study and develop new materials synthesized from sustainable sources, several polymers were prepared using in its monomeric composition, different amounts of NPO (Norbornenyl Palm Oil) monomer. This monomer was developed based on a vegetable oil rather produced in northern Brazil, the Palm Oil. Since this oil have a low content of unsaturation, its use in developing new monomer for ROMP (Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization) is not exploited. In this regard, polymeric materials were obtained using the NOP and both the reaction process and the resulting products were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the time domain (TD-NMR) at low magnetic field. (author)

  6. Behaviour of steel pipe exposed to fouling by heavy oil during core-annular flow; Comportamento de tubo de aco exposto a sujeira de oleo pesado durante escoamento nucleo-anular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Adriana; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The use of water-assisted technologies such as core-annular flow to the pipelines of viscous oils has been proposed as an attractive alternative for production and transportation of heavy crudes in both onshore and offshore scenarios. Usually, core-annular flow can be created by injecting a relatively small water flow rate laterally in the pipe, so as to form a thin water annulus surrounding the viscous oil, which is pumped through the center. The reduction in friction losses obtained thanks to lubrication by water is significant, since the pressure drop in a steady state core flow becomes comparable to water flow only. For a complete assessment of core flow technology, however, unwanted effects associated with possible oil adhesion onto the pipe wall should be investigated, since these may cause severe fouling of the wall and pressure drop increase. It has been observed that oil adhesion on metallic surfaces may occur for certain types of crude and oilphilic pipe materials. In this work we present results of pressure drop monitoring during 35 hour-operation of a heavy oil-water core annular flow in a 26.08 mm. i.d. horizontal steel pipe. The oil used is described in terms of its main components and the results of static wet ability tests are also presented for comparison (author)

  7. Sustainable and economic feasibility of castor bean oil production: a methodology to support investments decision taking; Viabilidade economica e sustentabilidade da producao de oleo de mamona: uma metodologia de suporte a decisao de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Glawther Lima [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Mestrado em Logistica e Pesquisa Operacional; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean agribusiness is supported by a complex supply chain that involves several inputs, main products and other derived products. So, the control of production costs is a basic and extremely important activity for the optimization of management processes. Using literature research, case study and assessment of scenarios, the present work was developed with the objective of conceiving a methodology, based on theoretical and economical aspects, the formation of costs and the revenue forecasting, which is applied with the aid of a computational program for supporting decision taking in the castor bean small producers agribusiness. The results obtained in the case study show, for example, that about 40% of the projects are considered accepted under the criterion of recovering the invested capital in less than 2 years. Also, it reveals that 75% of the projects contribute for the increase of the producer income and about 63% of the projects provide enough profit to add value to the producer's properties. Finally, it is clear that the proposed methodology makes easier a better agricultural planning, allowing a better utilization of the raw material and it facilitates the analysis of diversifying other derived products and revenue sources in the castor bean chain. (author)

  8. Introduction of biodiesel made from cooking oil in transportation of Itajuba (MG): a case study; Introducao do biodiesel de oleo de fritura no transporte coletivo de Itajuba (MG): um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Capaz, Rafael Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The biodiesel has been presented as good alternative of the mineral diesel, with potential advantages in social and environmental terms, however it is still considered no competitive. The use of fatty residues, like used frying oils, for biodiesel production has been motivating many studies, due to the low cost of acquisition. However, when a project considers the collect of residue of commercial sector and residential sector, the feedstock's quality and the logistics to be adopted for the collection of this raw material are serious hurdles to be considered. In this work there were appreciated the volumes of residual oil originated from the commercial, residential and industrial sectors of the an average size town in Minas Gerais (Itajuba), in order to be converted in biodiesel and supply part of demand of municipal passengers transport. The offer of residual oil evaluated was of the order was up to 144 m{sup 3/}year, with a cost of the biodiesel production of R$1,214/liter. When taking into account the effects of taxation and the expenses evaluated with the collection, the cost of the biodiesel improves to values R$1,676/liter and R$1,819/liter. However, with the additional receipts originating from the marketing of the glycerine produced in the process these costs can fall to R$1,254/liter. It was calculated that the volume of biodiesel obtained can be reach 10 % of the demand in the municipal passengers transport, with limited economical impacts on the fare of bus, caring out benefits of environmental order, like the reduction of the emission of gases and the creation alternative sinks of the fatty residues, which in great part of the times is discarded in waters' bodies. (author)

  9. Study of biocompatible properties of polymeric scaffolds derived from vegetable oils for application in tissue engineering; Estudo das propriedades biocompativeis de arcaboucos polimericos derivados de oleos vegetais para aplicacao na engenharia de tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa

    2015-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have as main objective the morphologic/functional reestablishment of injured tissues and organs using cells, scaffolds, stem cells and control of immunological/biochemical responses promoted by the body. In addition, materials science seeks to develop biocompatible biomaterials that do not promote unwanted immune responses and provide the re-establishment of the functions of the tissue/organ. Polymers of natural origin stand out as biomaterials to resemble biological macromolecules, similarity to the extracellular matrix, reduced chance of inflammation and chronic pacing low or no toxicity. This study aimed the development of macromolecular arrays originated from epoxidized soybean oil (OSE), analyzing the relationship between the chemical structure/biological activity of the macromolecular arrays for use as biomaterials in tissue engineering. The synthesis of OSE was performed through the oil chemical route, whose efficiency was determined by infrared spectroscopy and the reaction yield of 85%, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. From the analysis by differential scanning calorimetry, it was detected a decrease of the glass transition temperature of the epoxidized soybean oil polymer (POSE) compared with OSE, suggesting an increase of the growth of polymer chains of POSE. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to define the OSE degradation profile, which degrades in two steps. The POSE degrades in just one step and shows higher thermal stability by the increased molecular interactions. The hydrophilicity and crosslinking of POSE was promoted by the addition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with the monomer grafting by gamma irradiation. The results showed an increased mechanical stability, gelation and water absorption with the HEMA content increasing. Finally, the degree of crystallinity for such polymers grafted with HEMA was 27.5%, estimated by X-ray diffractometry. The second stage was characterized by (I) developing POSEs with the grafting of HEMA in the proportions OSE / HEMA 90:10 and 65:35 irradiated by gamma rays at doses of 50 and 100kGy, (II) physico-chemical characterization of POSE-HEMA and (III) analysis of biological materials. By infrared spectroscopy, it was detect the epoxidized regions of POSE, as well as the successful grafting of the monomer HEMA concentrations with all radiation doses. By differential scanning calorimetry, the activation energy was calculated (E{sub a}) of the polymers. The crystallinity of the material was defined by X-ray diffraction, showing tendency of amorphous material as well as a small percentage of the increase in crystallinity with increasing intensity of radiation doses during this synthesis and a decrease in crystallinity with the increasing concentration of HEMA. The analysis of the samples did not show cytotoxicity on POSE-HEMA and confirmed the efficiency of polymer washings to remove the processing waste. The analysis of hemocompatibility showed any platelet adhesion and the cell growth on the scaffolds was positive. From the results obtained in this research, we concluded by the potential use of POSE-HEMA in tissue engineering. (author)

  10. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  11. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  12. Study of three-phase flow vertical patterns applied to the lift and transport of heavy oil; Estudo dos padroes de fluxo trifasico vertical aplicado a elevacao e transporte de oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Fernando Fabris; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The E and P activity has a great importance in the oil industry. First, it assesses hydrocarbon reserves that can be recovered in order to provide the highest revenues. Second, it supplies the forecast oil and gas production through adequate lift and transportation methods. These flows become rather difficult and requires high investments for heavy oils, which can be understood as having density larger than 934 kg/m{sup 3} (API grade smaller than about 20) and viscosity higher than 100 cP at reservoir conditions. In this work, the flow of a heavy crude oil and air mixture was made viable by injecting water in the pipe, in order to lubricate the flow and reduce pressure drop, as in the core flow technique. The main objective is to observe the three-phase flow patterns formed in the vertical pipe at different mixture compositions, for application in artificial lift. The oil flow rate was measured through a mass flow meter. Water and gas flow rates were given by rotameters. A high-speed VHS camera (1000 frames/s) attached to the pipeline was used to record the experiments for the determination of the final patterns. These are described and represented in flow maps. (author)

  13. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  14. Electricity generation using vegetal oils: the implantation model for the isolated communities in the Amazon Region; Geracao de eletricidade a partir de oleos vegetais: um modelo de implantacao para comunidades isoladas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G.; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa - CENBIO, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The territorial occupation from the Amazon region is characterized by isolated communities, which makes the conventional electric distribution economically and technically impracticable. To solve the electric problem of these communities, it is necessary for them to produce their own fuel in order to generate electric energy and promote the development. These are the premises that have guided the elaboration of the project PROVEGAM - which has as objective, the installation and performance testing of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' at the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants. The PROVEGAM project installed a diesel generator adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and cleaning possible residues. During the diesel generator installation, diesel oil emissions and performance were compared with the palm oil. Analysing the results, this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in others Amazon region communities. (author)

  15. Preliminaries studies of the technological development of biodiesel production from used frying oil; Estudos preliminares sobre desenvolvimento tecnologico da producao de biodiesel a partir de oleo residual de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasner, Cecilia; Mayerhoff, Zea D.V.L. [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Humberto [Biomarca, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Sena, Denise R. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to use the technological information available in the patent system to evaluate the technological routes used in the biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The search for patent documents was performed in two steps: patent applications in Brazil and patent applications in others countries. The method is described in the following order: choice of the patent searching databases; data parameters definition; displaying results; quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results; and data treatment. The results allowed concluding that the technological process to obtain biodiesel from waste cooking oil mostly used was the esterification followed by transesterification. Methanol was the preferable alcohol, but, there were a great number of Brazilian patents documents using ethanol. Also, there were an increasing number of patent documents concerning the development of new catalysts. The results also showed a low number of patent documents related to the pre-treatment of waste cooking oil, what suggests the need of further research to improve and standardized the raw material quality and consequently overcome the different difficulties during the biodiesel process production. (author)

  16. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography; Analise quimica quantitativa para a padronizacao do oleo de copaiba por cromatografia em fase gasosa de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C. [Farmanguinhos - Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: siani@far.fiocruz.br; Mazzei, Jose L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ramos, Monica F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Medicamentos

    2004-04-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  17. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties; Preparo de sementes para determinacao do teor de oleo pelo metodo de RMN em seis variedades de algodoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Algodao e Fibrosas Diversas]. E-mail: gondim@cec.iac.br; Soave, Daise [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Genetica, Biologia Molecular e Fitoquimica

    1998-07-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  18. Vegetable oil as fuel for electric power generation at Rondonia, BR, small agglomerate as way of revenue generation; Oleo vegetal como combustivel para energia eletrica em pequenos aglomerados de Rondonia como forma de geracao de renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)]. E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2006-07-01

    This text approaches the question energy having as based alternative combustible reference in vegetal oils and the Decentralized Generation of Energy, for attendance of isolated systems and with small load, having as conceptual base the partner-economic-ambient sustain ability, being the economic chain of the entailed and conditional energy to the ambient, social aspects, technician, politicians, financiers and economics. This text intends to demonstrate to the mechanisms used in a research and development project (P and D) for the determination and domain of energy generation, electricity and power, from vegetal oils of suitable oleaginous to the State of Rondonia for a Extractive Reserve. Having as reference the contribution for the local and sustainable development of isolated localities, for the generation of job and income, for the energy self-sufficiency of isolated localities and to make available alternative to the companies of the electric sector of energy availability of isolated communities. (author)

  19. Flotation of agent for breach of emulsion oil/water aiming treatment of water produced for the industry petroleum; Agente de flotacao (Tanfloc) para quebra de emulsao oleo/agua visando tratamento de aguas produzidas pela industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C. de; Andrade, J.M. de; Melo, M.A.A.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work was studied the action of an agent of flotation TanFloc broken emulsion in oil / water when its concentration varies and salinity. This material is used by Petroleum brazilian for removal of turbidity in the water from the petroleum industry. For the test set up a bench in the laboratory of the Environmental Technology UFRN for simulation of tests made on the field. To do so, was studied the concentration of TanFloc and it was found that the best concentration for removal of turbidity was 11ppm such material. It was found that the level of salinity affects particularly the results of turbidity therefore this was also one of the parameters studied. (author)

  20. Using of seismic as external drift in the calculation of oil volume in petroleum reservoir; Utilizacao da sismica como deriva externa no calculo do volume de oleo de um reservatorio de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Joao Paulo Borges; Sancevero, Sergio Sacani; Remacre, Armando Zaupa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geofisica]. E-mail: joao.gomes@ige.unicamp.br; sacani@ige.unicamp.br; armando@ige.unicamp.br

    2003-07-01

    Because the detail needed to develop reservoirs exceeds the detail required to find them, the petroleum industry increase the use of 3-D seismic data. The use of this data as external drift was the solution finds to make the integration between seismic and well data. Using geostatistical techniques of sequential simulation, the objective of this paper is show the differences when use complement information to obtain the oil volume of petroleum reservoir. The geostatistical simulation was used to quantify the relationship between well data and double travel time data from seismic in the inter well locations. We generate 100 images of the top and 100 images of the bottom, resulting in two risk curves for the oil volume. These curves were comparing and then the influence of the utilization of additional information can be realized. (author)

  1. Automatic inspection of oil and gas pipe welded joints by radiographic images analyses; Analise automatica de imagens radiologicas aplicada a inspecao de juntas soldadas em tubulacoes de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Guilherme A.; Felisberto, Marcelo K.; Pilkel, Lucas V.; Centeno, Tania M.; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica (CPGEI). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas de Controle Avancado

    2004-07-01

    The reliability and integrity evaluation of structures and equipment on the petroleum and gas industry is an absolute necessary care due to economic reasons and safety. As a consequence, new supporting technologies for well known nondestructive test and evaluation methods have been developed in order to automate these inspection processes, improving their robustness, accuracy and quickness. On this way, the present work introduces solutions to overcome some obstacles to the automation of the radiographic image analysis task for the pipeline weld joint inspection, on radiographic non-destructive tests and evaluations. The main contributions are related to the improvements to techniques for the automatic weld bean segmentation and the development of an effective algorithm for the weld bean defect detection and extraction of relevant defect descriptors. (author)

  2. Treatment of produced water by means of a new technology (MDIF): application for waters containing oil at low concentrations; Tratamento de aguas produzidas por meio de nova tecnologia (MDIF): aplicacao para aguas contendo baixas concentracoes em oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS S.A., Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Ativo de Producao Mossoro]. E-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo; Moraes, Norberto Araujo de Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica). E-mails: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; norberto@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Antonio Faria; Lacerda, Geraldo de Moura [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Instalacoes, Processamento e Automacao]. E-mails: farialima@petrobras.com.br; geraldoml@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The production of oil is associated with waters which exist naturally at the reservoirs or were injected into wells. These waters, named produced waters, contain beside free oil, emulsioned or micro-emulsioned oil which can not be discharged directly at the environment. The conventional decanters are not efficient to separate this kind of oil dispersed as fine droplets. In this case, a promising alternative to solve the problem of oil/water separation is accomplished by means of the phase inversion method. This method is the basis of working of a new model of mixer-settler which has a vertical disposition and occupies a small surface area. The last characteristic becomes especially important when exist a limitation of place, for example, over the maritime platforms to explore oil. The device of laboratory of the equipment named MDIF (mixer-settler based on phase inversion) has been efficient for treat waters containing up to 2 000 mg/L of emulsioned oil. This equipment on a semi-industrial scale was installed in the entrance of oil/water separator (OWS) from effluent treatment plant from Guamare, Rio Grande do Norte (ETP/GMR) and treats produced waters contaminated with oil at low concentrations (ranging from 30 to 150 mg/L) and throughputs of 320 m3/d (47,4 m3 m-2 h-1). Good results were obtained on oil/water separation which leads to the necessary specification to discharge waters. Besides, the non dependence of the efficiency of separation in the face of the salinity of the medium becomes the equipment a new technology to treat wastewaters containing oil at low concentrations. In this condition conventional equipment do not present a good efficiency of separation, till dispersed droplets are very small (less than 100 {mu}m) requiring a long time of sedimentation. (author)

  3. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  4. Physiochemical, energy characteristics and performance of coconut fiber in the sorption of diesel and bio diesel oils; Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, energetica e desempenho da fibra de coco na sorcao de oleos diesel e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana Ferla de [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: adrianaferla@ufpr.br; Leao, Alcides Lopes [Dept. de Recursos Naturais, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Caraschi, Jose Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Itapeva, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carachi@itapeva.unesp.br; Oliveira, Luciano Caetano de [Curso de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: lucianocaetano@ufpr.br; Goncalves, Jose Evaristo [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: evaristto@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil spills and its derivatives on the soil and in hydric bodies are common and worrying once they endanger the quality of the ecosystem. An economical and efficient way of combating oil spills is the use of the sorption method using sorbent materials. There is a range of sorbent materials, however, the natural ones like biomass and vegetable fibers demonstrate interest due to the low cost and good sorbent capacity. There are works concerning the sorption of crude oil, however for diesel and bio diesel, which had their production increased, there is a little or even nothing exists in the literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the sorption capacity of coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) confronting to the fuels, diesel and biodiesel and to compare them with the peat commercially used. The bio sorbents were also submitted to the physiochemical and energy characterization. Most of the tests were performed on the granulometric size range of {<=}180 {mu}m 180-425 {mu}m; 425-850 {mu}m e 850-3350 {mu}m. The coir fiber presented capacity of diesel and bio diesel sorption similar to the commercial sorbent made of peat. The determination of the calorific power of the bio sorbents shows that they can be used for energy generation before and after they are used as sorbents. This way, those materials can be used after studies of economical viability in this sector and still to increase the economy of the areas where they are abundant. (author)

  5. The effect of the aging over the viscosity and the stability of oil emulsion kind water-oil; Efeito do envelhecimento sobre viscosidade e estabilidade de emulsoes de petroleo do tipo agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista V. Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Processamento e Transporte]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    During the process of oil producing, is common the appearance of emulsions formed by drops of water scattered in the oil, balanced by the presence of natural emulsifiers in the interface region. Those emulsions present higher viscosities to the dehydrated oil, influencing in the design of the transference, processing and production equipment. According as those emulsions get older, increase the absorption of those emulsifiers in the interface and, therefore, increase the stability of those emulsions. The results of the tests, in laboratory, are presented with the emulsion synthesized with 50% water content in volume, being appraised the dynamic viscosity and the efficiency of water-oil gravitational separation in the first day in which the emulsion was prepared, in the 15 deg C, 30 deg C, 45 deg C and 60 deg C following days, when were observed increments on the viscosity and in the emulsion stability in function of the aging. (author)

  6. Study of nanocomposites based polyurethanes obtained of the biodiesel from passion fruit with fiber cashew; Estudo de nanocompositos de poliuretanas obtidas do biodiesel do oleo de maracuja com a fibra de caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, B.R.S.; Breves, R.A.; Santos, M.A.; Lopes, R.V.V.; Macedo, J.L.; Ceschin, A.M.; Sales, M.J.A., E-mail: brendabetas2@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, polyurethanes (PUs) prepared with polyol obtained of the biodiesel from passion fruit oil (BIPFO) and composites with cashew fiber 'in natura' were developed. The synthesis of polyol (PBIPFO) consisted in the epoxidation/hydroxylation of BIOM in one step, using performic acid generated 'in situ'. The instaurations the passion fruit oil (PFO) and the reactions of obtaining the BIOM and PBIOM were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) {sup 1}H and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The PUs were prepared using PBIPFO with 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) at molar ratio [NCO]/[OH] of 1.5. PUs and composites were analyzed by FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The use of BIPFO as raw material to get PUs and composites with cashew fiber showed viability by success of the reactions throughout the process and properties of the materials obtained. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the permeability of microporous membranes polyamide 6 / clay bentonite for water-oil separation; Avaliacao da permeabilidade de membranas microporosas de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica para separacao agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.S.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L., E-mail: keilamm@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The petroleum refining industries have faced major problems in relation to the treatment of their effluents before disposal into the environment. Among the conventional technologies treatment of these effluents, the process of oil-water separation by means of membranes has been extensively used, for having enormous potentiality. Therefore, in this study, hybrid membranes of polyamide 6/ bentonite clay were produced by the technique of phase inversion and by precipitation of the solution from the nanocomposites obtained by melt intercalation. The clay was organically modified with the quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®). The nanocomposites were obtained from (PA6) with untreated (AST) and treated clay (ACT), which were subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Already membranes were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. From the XRD results, it was observed an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure for the nanocomposites and for the membranes. From SEM images it was observed that the presence of AST and ACT clays in the polymeric matrix caused changes in membrane morphology and pore formation. The flow with distilled water in the membranes showed a decrease initially and then followed by stability. All membranes tested in the process of separating emulsions of oil in water, particularly those of nanocomposites obtained a significant reduction of oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have a great potential to be applied to the water-oil separation. (author)

  8. Study on the potential of water/oil of tubular alumina ceramics through flux and turbidity analysis; Estudo do potencial de separacao agua/oleo de membranas ceramicas tubulares de alumina atraves da analise das medidas de fluxo e turbidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A; Melo, K.S. [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: adrianasilva_cg@yahoo.com.br; Maia, J.B.N.; Franca, R.V.; Silva, R.A.V.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H. [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais]. E-mail: helio@dema.ufpb.br; Franca, K.B.; Rodrigues, M.G.F [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: kepler@labdes.ufpb.br

    2003-07-01

    In the last years, a considerable attention was given to the effluents composed by contaminated water with oil and the impact on the environment . The water pollution by oleaginous hydrocarbon is specially harmful to the aquatic life, decreasing the transmission of light and disturb the normal mechanism of oxygen transfer. So, to remove oil from water is an important aspect to control the pollution from several industries. The ceramic membranes act as a barrier for the emulsified oil. It has been studied enough as a medium to separate oil/ water from stable emulsions. The objective of this work is to present an evaluation of the separation potential of a tubular alumina ceramic membrane made in laboratory from Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG). It was done test of flux and concentration of oil the permeate. The results showed that the membranes can be satisfactorily used in the oil/water separation. (author)

  9. An artificial neural network strategy for monitoring of gas/oil systems in slug flow pattern; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais no monitoramento do escoamento de sistemas gas/oleo em regime de golfadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando H.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, Rosivania P.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Nunes, Giovani C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, the design of multiphase production systems requires an accurate estimation of the gas-oil ratio (GOR) in the transporting pipelines. However, existing GOR estimation methods are often inadequate in terms of desired accuracy and application range, due to the complex phase distributions and the wide range of fluid properties encountered in production operations. In this paper, the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks in determining GOR values is evaluated, proving to be a reasonable way to monitor this property during oil transportation. (author)

  10. Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

  11. Development of a sublation system in atmospheric tank using sunflower oil surfactant to reduce oily water concentration; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de sublacao em tanque atmosferico utilizando tensoativo de oleo de girassol para reducao da concentracao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Rodrigo F. de; Dantas, Iuri A.C.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Salazar, Andres O.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reduce the rate of oil in water, was developed a system capable to be inserted in a tank and make air bubbles move to top of the tank, where is a layer of oil, similar that occurs in flotation, but in this case is called sublation. This system is composed by drilled PVC pipes and connected in way of four identical squares, joined by a high pressure hose. A compressor located in a region near to the tank supplies air to the system through the hose, that is connected in the central point of the system. The preliminary results had shown that the concentration after the sublation, without the surfactants use, decrease of 70 ppm to 35 ppm. After the sublation using surfactants this concentration decrease of 70ppm to 24,8 ppm. The efficiency of the sublation process using surfactants made of vegetal oil - OGS - was proved by the experimental results. This process, beyond allowing a bigger reutilization of the water in the tests of the laboratory, makes possible the reduction of the rate of oil in water to permitted levels by CONAMA. (author)

  12. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  13. Proposition to use 'in natura' vegetable oil and biodiesel from castor oil in thermal power plants; Proposicao de uso de oleo vegetal in natura e biodiesel de mamona em termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, B.F.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M.A.; Polizel, L.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia; Vandelli, M.V.M. [Termocabo Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil); Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of renewable fuels on thermal power plants using diesel or high sulfur fuel oil generator sets. The renewable fuels proposed to partially or fully replace the fossil fuels are castor oil in natura or transesterified (biodiesel). Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on laboratory, establishing the energetic performance of each sample. The results showed that mixtures of bio diesel-fossil fuel offers similar performance when compared to the conventional fuels, allowing its use on thermal power plants in a satisfactory basis. (author)

  14. Evaluation gamma radiation in composite sisal fiber- polyurethane derived of castor oil by bending test; Avaliacao da influencia da radiacao gama em compositos de fibra de sisal - poliuretano derivado de oleo de mamona atraves de ensaios de flexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe H. de; Geraldo, Ricardo R.; Vasco, Marina C.; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Materials used for making furniture and accessories or positioning in X -ray examination rooms should not exhale volatile organic compounds and are resistant to ionizing radiation. One solution is the use of vegetable fiber and polyurethane composites of vegetable origin, since they are biodegradable, derived from renewable raw materials and have no volatile organic compounds. The main difficulty in developing this material is fiber adhesion with the polymer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite sisal fiber composite, without further treatment, and polyurethane derived from castor oil, with a dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation, subjected to 3 points bending tests. (author)

  15. Polyurethane coating from prepolymers and Crambe oil polyesters in oxygenates and green solvents; Revestimento de poliuretano a partir de pre-polimeros e poliesteres de oleo de crambe em solventes oxigenados e verdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Elaine R.P.; Messaddeq, Younes, E-mail: elainerpp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Polito, Wagner Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Matinelli, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The PU coatings are extremely used in areas that require high-performance. For several applications PU resin, the solvent base is commonly used, the problem is the solvents with high content of volatile organic compounds (VCO) like: toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.. In this work, we were synthesized and characterized four kinds of prepolymers with low-VCO from renewable sources such as castor oil and crambe oil with oxygenate and green solvents. The PU prepolymers had been synthesized in the proportions NCO/OH 2:1 and 3:1. The curing process was carried out with atmospheric moisture in the films. Characterization was made from prepolymers, oligomers and polyesters and PU films by FTIR, TGA / DTA, NMR, GPC and GC-FID, besides this the coatings were applied on aluminum and glass plates and, subjected to analysis chamber saline, hardness and adhesion. The results indicated that the reaction occurred between the prepolymers with oligomers or polyesters, because disappearance of the NCO band at 2270 cm{sup -1}. The PU films showed good thermal stability (> 270 °C), high tensile strength and deformation. Surround the formulations, the PU films with HDI prepolymers showed the best results with polyesters from crambe oil (PEC 02 and PEC 03). (author)

  16. Semi-industrial production of organo clays to use in base oil drilling fluid; Producao em escala piloto de argilas organofilicas visando uso em fluidos de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Heber S.; Martins, Alice B.; Costa, Danubia L. da; Ferreira, Heber C.; Neves, Gelmires de A.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Teixeira Neto, Erico [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling fluids are essential to the operations of exploration of oil. The organoclays are widely used in the composition of the oil based drilling fluids and raw materials are of high value added. These clays can be obtained, traditionally, from bentonitic clay treated, in water, with ionic surfactants, however, non-ionic surfactants can be adsorbed on the surface of interlamelar bentonitic clay, naturally hydrophilic, making them organophilic. A pilot plant for production of organoclays was mounted in the Recycling Laboratory / UFCG. The bentonitic clay imported Cloisite Na{sup +R} was treated with a non-ionic surfactant in levels of 40, 50 and 60% in scale and bench-scale pilot. The commercial organoclay VG-69{sup R} was used as a standard for comparison of results. The clay obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and Foster's swelling. The oil based fluids were prepared in accordance with the standards of PETROBRAS (N-22581 1997 and N-2259, 1997). Tests show that the characterization of organoclays have obtained intercalation of non-ionic surfactant with great expansion of layers of clay, with interlayer distances more significant than the clay trade, both on clay obtained in the laboratory scale as in clays obtained by pilot scale, with results very similar for both methods. It appears that it is possible the pilot-scale production of organoclays with equivalent quality produced in the laboratory scale and quality compatible with the clay used commercially. (author)

  17. Organophilization of bentonite clays with non-ionic surfactants aiming their use in drilling fluids base oil; Organofilizacao de argilas bentoniticas com tensotivo nao-ionico visando seu uso em fluidos de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, I.A.; Costa, J.M.R.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Ferreira, H.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (DEMAT/CT/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The use of nonionic surfactants has been replacing the traditional ionic surfactants among others by its high potential for resistance to thermal degradation. This work aims at the development of organoclay by the addition of nonionic surfactants for use in drilling fluids for oil wells based oil. The bentonite clay was organophilized and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and swelling Foster, seeking the most appropriate choice of surfactant to liquid organic dispersing media: ester, diesel and paraffin. With the obtained dispersions were measured apparent viscosities and plastic. The results showed that incorporation of surfactants used in the clay interlayer spacing increased significantly and that the dispersions showed rheological properties within the specifications of PETROBRAS, for the use of organophilic clays in drilling fluids in a non-aqueous base. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the toxicity of the use of fenantrenoquinone associated to irradiation in the degrading of oil in marine spills; Avaliacao da toxicidade do uso de fenantrenoquinone associada a irradiacao na degradacao de oleo em derrames marinhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Claudia Maria Luz Lapa [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica. Dept. de Radiobiologia e Biofisica Ambiental; Nicodem, David Ernest [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Fotoquimica; Lagembach, Tomaz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Microbiologia do Solo

    1998-06-01

    A system to study the photodegradation of hydrocarbon sensitized by fenantrenoquinone (FQ) has been developed with the purpose of evaluating its use in the treatment of oil spills in the sea, as far as its toxicity is concerned and that of its photoproducts. The model-hydrocarbon used was the hexadecane (HD). The CL{sub 50} of FQ has also been calculated for the organisms Artemia salina and Brachydanio rerio, and the CE{sub 50} for the Photobacterium phosphoreum. The FQ photoproducts have shown to be much less toxic than FQ. It is interesting to note that the sun irradiation has reduced a lot the toxic effect of FQ. An evaluation of the advantages and restrictions of the use of FQ in the treatment of marine oil spills is presented herein. (author)

  20. Epoxidation of castor oil and its derivatives using VO(acac){sub 2}/TBHP as the catalytic system; Epoxidacao do oleo de mamona e derivados empregando o sistema catalitico VO(acac){sub 2}/TBHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Marta Regina dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: mrsnunes@ucs.br; Martinelli, Marcia; Pedroso, Marcelo Monteiro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    2008-07-01

    The alternative system VO(acac){sub 2}/TBHP was investigated for the epoxidation reaction of castor oil and its derivatives. Results of 88% of conversion, 73% of epoxidation and 82% of selectivity were obtained for the system containing 20% excess of TBHP and 1% of VO(acac){sub 2} catalyst, during 3 h under toluene reflux. The product was characterized by GC/MS as methyl-cis-9, 10-epoxi, 12- hydroxystearate and quantitative {sup 1}H NMR was used to calculate the data above. Preliminary results indicate that the heterogeneous system VO(acac){sub 2} grafted on K10 clay can also promote epoxidation of castor oil. (author)

  1. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  2. Development of a sublation system in atmospheric tank using sunflower oil surfactant to reduce oily water concentration; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de sublacao em tanque atmosferico utilizando tensoativo de oleo de girassol para reducao da concentracao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Rodrigo F. de; Dantas, Iuri A.C.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Salazar, Andres O.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reduce the rate of oil in water, was developed a system capable to be inserted in a tank and make air bubbles move to top of the tank, where is a layer of oil, similar that occurs in flotation, but in this case is called sublation. This system is composed by drilled PVC pipes and connected in way of four identical squares, joined by a high pressure hose. A compressor located in a region near to the tank supplies air to the system through the hose, that is connected in the central point of the system. The preliminary results had shown that the concentration after the sublation, without the surfactants use, decrease of 70 ppm to 35 ppm. After the sublation using surfactants this concentration decrease of 70ppm to 24,8 ppm. The efficiency of the sublation process using surfactants made of vegetal oil - OGS - was proved by the experimental results. This process, beyond allowing a bigger reutilization of the water in the tests of the laboratory, makes possible the reduction of the rate of oil in water to permitted levels by CONAMA. (author)

  3. Methodology to characterize an unsampled oil interval, integrating PVT (Pressure/Volumen/Temperature) analysis and production log; Metodologia para caracterizacao de oleo de intervalo nao-amostrado, integrando analise PVT e perfil de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Diogo Reato; Souza, Ana Paula Martins de; Vieira, Alexandre J.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a new methodology for characterizing an unsampled oil interval, using basically production log data and PVT analyses available in the well. The methodology was applied to a real case, where the live oil samples were collected during a well test run in three different depths, revealing some evidence of a compositional grading due to gravity. Each individual sample was a mixture of the fluid produced from the reservoir bottom to the sampling point, since the whole interval was perforated and the isolation had to be made with a packer. The first sample was corresponding to the mixture of lower and all upper oils. The other two samples are only the heavier and that oil with part of the one from the upper interval. In order to identify the fluid properties from the upper interval, needed for production development studies, the following procedure was devised: equation-of-state tuning, reproducing the sampled fluid properties; conversion of volumetric flowrates from production log into mass and molar flowrates; flowrate ratio calculation, between the upper and lower intervals; upper interval fluid composition estimative; upper interval fluid properties simulation, using the previously tuned equation-of-state, thus generating what was considered a representative, synthetic PVT analysis. (author)

  4. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation;Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de poliuretanas derivadas do oleo de mamona usadas como cimento osseo depois da irradiacao com radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, E.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DF/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Soboll, D.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lepiesnki, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DF/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DM/UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  5. Potential of production of biodiesel starting from the chicken oil in the cooperatives of the West of Parana, Brazil; Potencial de producao de biodiesel a partir do oleo de frango nas cooperativas do oeste do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], Email: ssouza@unioeste.br; Neitzke, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PIBIC/CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Email: guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Luis Fernando Souza [Colegio Estadual Presidente Castelo Branco, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], Email: luisfsg@ibest.com.br; Bariccatti, Reinaldo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CECE/UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas], Email: bariccatti@unioeste.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil occupies a prominence place in the development and use of sources renovate of energy, due to its great territorial extension, climate and several alternatives. One of these it is the bio diesel,o production which can substitute the oil diesel, decreasing the impacts to the environment. In the productive chain of chicken meat a residue, chicken oil, is generated with potential for biodiesel production. In this work they were certain characteristics physical chemistries, that can influence in the reactions of transesterification of the chicken oil. It was lifted up the potential of production of chicken oil in the cooperatives of the area west of the state of Parana and yield in biodiesel. The bio diesel production by cooperatives could be of 19.525.209,0 kg/year of bio diesel and the yield of 95%. (author)

  6. Treatment of post-consumption oils from Paraiba state - Brazil - clays for application as bio fuel; Tratamento de oleos pos-consumo a partir de argilas da Paraiba para aplicacao como biocombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Silva, D.F. da; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: elainepatriciaaraujo@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of fuels of agricultural origin in the cycle diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce dependence on importation petroleum, since these fuels are a renewable source of energy. The utilization of biodiesel as biofuel is a contribution to the environment, reducing the qualitative and quantitative form levels of environmental pollution. The recycling of post-consumption oil helps reduce the uncontrolled disposal and environmentally dangerous, than to obtain fuel with a cost / benefit and offering a competitive alternative commercial advantage. However, these oils should go through a process of decontamination and clearing up the stage of chemical conversion which is used clay to lighten the oil. This work had as its objective to make a literature revision evaluating the potential of the clearing clay modified in Paraiba, used in post-consumption oils for application as biofuel. (author)

  7. Characterization of adhesive of polyurethane from castor oil by FTIR, TGA and XRD;Caracterizacao de adesivo de poliuretano derivado do oleo de mamona por FTIR, TGA e XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Santana, Simone S. de M.; Nascimento, Eduardo M. do, E-mail: elainazeve@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Castor oil polyurethanes are an alternative to adhesives that emanate volatile compounds. This adhesive come from a renewable source and has very low toxicity. In this work the microstructural and thermal characterization is presented. This material is partially crystalline. The mass loss start at 240 deg C and the glass transition temperature is 60 deg C. Then the adhesive is adequate to be employed at temperatures lower than 60 deg C. (author)

  8. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  9. Desempenho de diferentes lipases imobilizadas na síntese de biodiesel de óleo de palma = Performance of different immobilized lipases in palm oil biodiesel synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Grazielle dos Santos Silva; Dayana Yuri Inoue; Gisanara Dors; Agenor Furigo Junior; Heizir Ferreira de Castro

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as condicoes otimizadas da sintese enzimatica de biodiesel, a partir do oleo de palma e etanol, empregando diferentes lipases imobilizadas (lipase de Pseudomonas fluorescens imobilizada em SiO2-PVA e lipase de Candida antartica imobilizada em resina acrilica - Novozym„µ 435) em meio isento de solvente. Uma matriz de planejamento fatorial foi utilizada para avaliar a influencia da temperatura (42 ¡V 58„aC) e a razao molar entre etanol e oleo de...

  10. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Lippia microphylla Cham =Atividade antibacteriana e composição química do óleo essencial de Lippia microphylla Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Lippia microphylla Cham. was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Major constituents of the oil were 1.8-cineole (18.12%, ƒÒ-ocimene (15.20%, bicyclogermacrene (11.63% and caryophyllene oxide (8.32%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was determined by gel diffusion method. The oil showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes and very good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.O oleo essencial das folhas frescas de Lippia microphylla Cham. foi obtido por hidrodestilacao e caracterizado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. O constituinte majoritario do oleo foi 1.8-cineol (18,12%, ƒÒ-ocimeno (15,20%, bicyclogermacreno (11,63% e oxido de caryophylleno (8,32%. A atividade antimicrobiana do oleo frente as bacterias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas foi determinada pelo metodo de difusao em gel. O oleo apresentou uma boa atividade antibacteriana frente a Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli e Streptococcus pyogenes sendo o melhor resultado frente a Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. The distribution and regeneration of Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogbazghi Woldeselassie,

    2001-01-01

    Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. is a deciduous gum-producing multipurpose perennial tree species growing in Sudanian and Sahelian regions. The tree is tapped on the stem for oleo-gum called olibanum (true frankincense). Land clearing for agriculture and un-regulated grazing are threatening the f

  12. AcEST: DK953559 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R Sperm protamine P1 OS=Murex brandaris PE=1 ... 30 9.7 >sp|P29110|OLEO3_BRANA Oleosin Bn-III OS=Brassica na...55_RAT Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 55 OS=... 30 9.6 sp|P83211|HSP1_MURB

  13. Substrates composition and protected environments for tamarind seedlings/Diferentes composicoes de substratos e ambientes protegidos na formacao de mudas de pe-franco de tamarindeiro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Edilson; Ferreira, Antonio Flavio Arruda; Silva, Priscilla Nataly De Lima; Nardelli, Evandro Michel Valero

    2012-01-01

    ..., encontrada em muitos paises da Asia, Africa e America do Sul. Por apresentar sistema radicular profundo, possui resistencia a secas prolongadas e, desta forma, e indicada em cultivo de regioes semiaridas. Sua utilizacao se da, principalmente na culinaria regional, bem como suas sementes servem como forragem animal, e o oleo extraido de suas sem...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  15. Cost optimization of urban public transport: buying or selling a used bus?/Otimizacao de custos do transporte publico urbano: comprar ou vender um onibus usado?/Optimizacion de costes del transporte publico urbano: ?compra o venta de un bus que se utiliza?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Costa, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Nossa, Valcemiro; Teixeira, Arilda Magna Campagnaro; Teixeira, Aridelmo Jose Campanharo

    2014-01-01

    ... robusto de alocacao de recursos para manter o padrao do servico publico. No entanto, a alocacao de recursos ideal para a compra, operacao e manutencao de uma frota de onibus e um processo decisorio complexo (MISHRA et al., 2013, p. 111). Feldens et al. (2010, p. 2) explicam que no processo de decisao as empresas do setor de transporte urba...

  16. Estudo de materiais calcários usados como corretivos do solo no estado de São Paulo. IV - O poder relativo de neutralização total The relative efficiency of limestones employed in neutralizing soil acidity in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Van Raij

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados do poder relativo de neutralização total (PRNT de calcários utilizados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo. O PRNT é uma medida da eficiência dos calcários que conjuga o poder de neutralização total com a eficiência relativa de partículas de diferentes tamanhos. No trabalho é proposto o cálculo do PRNT com utilização dos teores de cálcio e magnésio e a distribuição granulométrica determinada apenas com as peneiras 10 e 50. Os resultados de PRNT das 25 amostras de calcários analisadas variaram de 52,3 a 93,8% de CaCO3 equivalente, com um valor médio de 66,9%.The relative efficiency of limestones was calculated with data of CaO and MgO contents and of particle size distribution determined with sieves 10 and 50 (U.S.B.S.. The results of the 25 samples analysed varied between 52.3 and 93.8% CaCO3 equivalent, with an average of 66.9%.

  17. Estudo químico, macroscópico e da resistência à flexão de placas e parafusos de titânio usados na fixação interna rígida Chemical, macroscopical and bending resistance study of titanium plates and screws used in internal rigid fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Elias TRIVELLATO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar quatro sistemas de placas e parafusos de titânio de 2,0 mm de diâmetro utilizados em fixação interna rígida, sendo duas marcas nacionais (Engimplan e Bucomax e duas importadas (Synthes e W. Lorenz. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises: composição química, através de espectrometria por dispersão de energia (EDS e espectrometria de emissão atômica (AES, macroscópica, por meio de medidas padronizadas e de resistência à flexão. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que as marcas nacionais apresentaram um comportamento inferior, em relação a padronização das dimensões das placas e parafusos avaliados, influenciando nos resultados dos testes de flexão, para os quais estas se comportaram da mesma maneira. Entretanto, a marca comercial W. Lorenz utiliza liga de titânio-6alumínio-4vanádio para a confecção dos parafusos, fato responsável pelo melhor resultado no teste de flexão que qualquer outra marca. Os demais parafusos e placas apresentaram-se constituídos de titânio comercialmente puro, de acordo com a EDS e posteriormente confirmados pela AES.The aim of this study was to compare four systems of titanium plates and screws (diameter of 2.0 mm used for internal rigid fixation. From them, two were made in Brazil (Engimplan and Bucomax, one in Switzerland (Synthes, and the other, in Germany (W. Lorenz. The following analyses were done: chemical analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES, measurement of dimensions and bending resistance test. The obtained results allow to conclude that both Brazilian systems showed inferior behavior regarding dimensional standards. The bending assay showed that the Brazilian systems are similar to each other. However, the W. Lorenz screws are made of titanium-6aluminum-4vanadium alloy, which can be the reason for their better performance in the bending assay, when compared with that of the other three systems. The remaining plates and screws are made of commercially pure titanium as confirmed by EDS and AES.

  18. Effect of the welding process on the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joint used for oil transportation pipeline; Efeito do processo de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e a microdureza de juntas soldadas de aco API 5L X80 usado em tubulacoes para transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.T.P.; Albuquerque, S.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Maciel, T.M.; Almeida, D.M.; Santos, M.A.

    2008-07-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, used for pipelines to transport oil and gas, using the Shield Metal Arc Welding process with pre- heating temperature of 200 deg C and 400 deg C and the AWS E8010G electrode as filler metal. For this, besides the microhardness of the welded joint, the weld metals percentiles of micro-constituents and of columnar and regenerated grains and the medium size and extension of the heat affected zone were evaluated. The percentage of acicular ferrite in weld metal ranged from 13% to 33% which generated values of microhardness from 114 HV to 309 HV. (author)

  19. Selectivity of phytosanitary products used in organic farming on adult of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae under laboratory conditionsSeletividade de produtos fitossanitários, usados no sistema de produção orgânica, sobre adultos de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bernardes Ourique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of pesticides with biological control is possible only if they provide some selectivity to natural enemies. In the organic production system the effect of insecticides on beneficial insects has not been extensively studied. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate in laboratory conditions the effect of pesticides used in this system on the adults of the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae. We used four treatments, which corresponded to four multiple values (0.25x, 0.5x, 2x and 1x of the concentration recommended by manufacturers of the following products: Rotenat CE®, Pironat®, Biopirol 7M®, Organic Neem®, Natuneem® and lime sulfur, which were tested in C. montrouzieri by topical application and residual exposure. None of the products, at any concentrations tested, had a significant effect on the survival of adults of C. montrouzieri, what did not differ from the distilled water control, showing that the products tested are selective to the adults of this species. However, other forms of exposure and evaluation methods must be studied.A associação do controle biológico com produtos fitossanitários só é possível se estes apresentarem alguma seletividade aos inimigos naturais. No sistema de produção orgânica, o efeito de inseticidas sobre insetos benéficos não tem sido extensivamente estudado. Assim, este trabalho objetivou avaliar em laboratório o efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados neste sistema, sobre adultos do predador Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos, os quais corresponderam quatro múltiplos (0,25x, 0,5x, 1x e 2x da concentração recomendada pelos fabricantes dos seguintes produtos comerciais: Rotenat CE®, Pironat®, Biopirol 7M®, Organic neem®, Natuneem® e calda sulfocálcica, que foram testados sobre C. montrouzieri por aplicação tópica e exposição a resíduos. Nenhum dos produtos, em qualquer das concentrações testadas, apresentou efeito significativo sobre a sobrevivência de adultos de C. montrouzieri, não diferindo da testemunha água destilada, demonstrando que os produtos testados são seletivos aos adultos dessa espécie.

  20. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  1. Estudo de materiais calcários usados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo. II - Composição química Chemical composition of limestones employed in neutralizing soil acidity in the State of São Paulo

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    Bernardo van Raij

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas determinações de óxido de cálcio (CaO, óxido de magnésio (MgO, sesquióxidos (R203, perda ao fogo (P.F., resíduo insolúvel (R.I., umidade (H20, poder de neutralização (P.N. de 16 calcários sedimentares, 11 calcários metamórficos, 1 calcário magmático e 2 escórias de siderurgia, materias utilzados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo.The contents of CaO, MgO, R2O3, loss of ignition, insoluble residue and the neutralization value of 29 limestones and 2 siderurgy slags employed in the neutralization of soil acidity in the State of São Paulo were determined. The results showed that most of the limestones studied belonged to the dolomitic type. The neutralization value was higher in the samples containing higher percentage of CaO plus MgO.

  2. Interferência de extratos da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre a atividade de antibióticos usados na clínica Interference from extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, on the activity of antibiotics used in the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilde Canton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência da fração polar e apolar, bem como do óleo essencial da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica médica. Os ensaios foram realizados com vinte e nove antibióticos em associação com os dois extratos [uma fração polar (HA 50% e uma da fração apolar (EA 25%] e com o óleo essencial. O método utilizado foi o método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando os discos de antibióticos, adquiridos comercialmente. Os resultados mostraram interferência na ação esperada do antibiótico quando associado aos extratos e ao óleo essencial da B. dracunculifolia. Em alguns casos não houve alteração da ação do antibiótico, no entanto, na maioria dos casos houve interferência sinérgica ou antagônica da ação do antibiótico. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The objective of this study was to investigate the interference of the polar and apolar fraction as well the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, about the antibiotics effects used in the medic clinic. The essays were accomplished with twenty nine antibiotics in association with two extracts [one polar fraction (HA 50% and one of apolar fraction (EA 25%] and with essential oil. The method used was the diffusion one in solid mean using the antibiotic discs, which were acquired commercially. The results showed interference in the hoped action of the antibiotic when associated to the extract and to the B. dracunculifolia essential oil. In some cases there was no alteration of the antibiotic action, however, in most of the cases there was either a synergic or an antagonic interference of the antibiotic action. These outcomes have showed that the use of derived products or plants can interfere on the effectiveness of the antibiotic use in the clinic treatment, in some situations.

  3. Alternative collimator for CdTe (model XR-100T), when it is used for a direct measurements of radiodiagnostic spectra; Colimador alternativo para um detector de CdTe (modelo XR-100T), usado em medidas diretas de espectros de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.; Guevara, M.V. Manso; Milian, F. Mas; Garcia, F., E-mail: mvictoria.mansoguevara@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (CPqCTR/UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas; Nieto, L. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    The spectrum simulation is a powerful instrument of great practical and pedagogical usefulness, because it helps to understand the technical and the instrumental limits of parameters in optimized measurements of magnitudes of interest in physics. Monte Carlo models, based on particle and radiation transport, provide easy and flexible tools for simulating complex geometries and materials. Particularly, MCNPX code is used to compare, manipulate, and quantify simulated and measured spectra. The purpose of this work is to use this tool set to estimate the characteristics of a collimation device, avoiding permanent and temporary damages into the diode-pin detector, during direct measurements of the Bremsstrahlung's spectrum, which was generated from diagnosis tubes with medical purpose. The simulations were made with a maximum voltage of 150 kVp, and typical charges used in radiological protocols in the medical area. Also, differential high pulse spectra, simulated and measured with a CdTe Detector, are reported. (author)

  4. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas Expression of tuber traits as a function of pot size used to grow potato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.In potato breeding, the exclusion of inferior genotypes by selection in early generations provides more versatility and cost reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pot size on the expression of tuber traits in potato families grown as seedling generation. Ten potato families were planted in two pot sizes, large (1 L and small (250 ml, in the greenhouse. The following tuber traits were evaluated: color, roughness, depth of eye, eyebrow, shape, uniformity of shape, pointing, curvature, flattening, tuber general appearance, total mass per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers. The larger pot provided greater expression of genetic variation for the depth of eye, eyebrow, curvature, flattening, and tuber general appearance of all yield components. Higher means for tuber number, tuber size and tuber mass were obtained in larger pots, while higher genetic coefficient of variation for tuber shape, uniformity of shape and tuber pointing were observed in the small pots.

  5. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Radionuclideos usados em medicina nuclear ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) no sistema de esgoto e no ambiente marinho da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-08-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. The radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc decays to {sup 99}Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10{sup 5} years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the {sup 131}I and {sup 99}Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10{sup 5} Bq/year of {sup 99}Tc e 7.12 x 10{sup 12} Bq/year of {sup 131}I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10{sup -6}mSv for {sup 131}I and 2.87 x 10{sup -14} mSv for {sup 99}Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10{sup -1} mSv/year for {sup 131}I and 10{sup -10} mSv/year for {sup 99}Tc, and fish consumption is the main responsible for the dose. An analysis by gamma spectrometry was carry out for determination of {sup 131} I concentration in samples from the treatment plant. The {sup 99m}Tc was qualitatively detected in samples of affluent, effluent and sludge. {sup 131}I was detected only in the sludge with the value of 9.03 Bq/kg that would result in a dose of 4.33 x 10{sup -5} mSv/year for the plant workers. The impact of radionuclide releases on biota indicated zooplankton as the species receiving the highest dose (2.35 µGy/year). The results obtained by the radionuclide determinations in the samples of affluent-sludge effluent, although in insufficient numbers for a more assertive statement, indicate that the assessed data for radionuclide releases from the clinics and subsequently, radionuclide entrances into the plant treatment may have been overestimated: or the clinics do not use all the radionuclide authorized activities or significant losses of radionuclides in the sewer system may be occurring. According to the results, the release of radiopharmaceuticals discharged into Canal Cunha would not be an exempt practice. However, a larger number of samples should be collected for a better assessment of the environmental impact. (author)

  6. La presentación de los países hispanohablantes en los libros de texto de español como lengua extranjera : Un estudio sobre libros de texto usados en el bachillerato sueco y sobre la perspectiva del profesorado

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo estudiar cómo se presentan los países del mundo hispano en los libros de texto de español como lengua extranjera utilizados en el bachillerato sueco, así como también averiguar cuál es la perspectiva del profesorado al respecto. Partimos de estudios anteriores (entre otros, Herman, 2007) donde se establece que el enfoque comunicativo exige un tratamiento profundo de los contenidos culturales en el área de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjera, y de estudio...

  7. Efecto del flujo turbulento, la condición superficial, la presencia de ácido acético y un compuesto orgánico usado como inhibidor de corrosión sobre la cinética electroquímica del acero api 5l x52 en soluciones con co2 disuelto /

    OpenAIRE

    Olvera Martínez, María Elena

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Ingeniería, presenta Maria Elena Olvera Martinez ; asesor Juan Mendoza Flores310 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Ingeniería UNAM, Facultad de Química, 2012

  8. Diametral tensile strength and water sorption of glass-ionomer cements used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatment Resistência à tração diametral e sorção de água de cimentos de ionômero de vidro usados no Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Francisca Gigo Cefaly

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to evaluate the diametral tensile strength and the water sorption of restorative (Fuji IX and Ketac Molar and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (ProTec Cem, Fuji Plus and Vitremer mixed at both manufacturer and increased powder: liquid ratio, for their use in the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment. A conventional restorative glass-ionomer (Ketac Fil was used as control. Specimens (6.0 mm in diameter x 3.0 mm in height were prepared and stored (1 hour, 1 day and 1 week for a diametral tensile strength test. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (pAvaliou-se a resistência à tração diametral e a sorção de água de cimentos de ionômero de vidro restauradores (Fuji IX e Ketac Molar e modificados por resina indicados para cimentação (ProTec Cem, Fuji Plus e Vitremer manipulados na proporção pó: líquido indicada pelo fabricante e em maior proporção para a utilização no Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático. O ionômero restaurador convencional (Ketac Fil foi utilizado como controle. Espécimes (6,0 mm de diâmetro x 3,0 mm de altura foram preparados e armazenados (1 hora, 1 dia e 1 semana para o teste de resistência à tração diametral. Os dados foram submetidos a ANOVA a dois critérios e ao teste de Tukey (p<0,05. Para o teste de sorção de água, espécimes com 15,0 mm de diâmetro x 0,5 mm de altura foram preparados e transferidos a dessecadores até a obtenção de uma massa constante. Em seguida, os espécimes foram imersos em água deionizada por 7 dias, pesados e recondicionados a uma massa constante em dessecadores. Os dados foram submetidos a ANOVA a um critério e ao teste de Tukey (p<0,05. Cinco espécimes de cada material e consistência foram preparados para cada teste. Os ionômeros modificados por resina mostraram maior resistência que os convencionais. Exceto pelo ProTec Cem, a resistência dos materiais modificados por resina significativamente aumentou da consistência cimentante para a restauradora. Exceto pelo ProTec Cem, a sorção de água dos ionômeros modificados por resina foi maior que a dos outros ionômeros. A sorção de água dos materiais modificados por resina na consistência restauradora foi significativamente menor que na consistência de cimentação. Os cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina indicados para cimentação manipulados em maior proporção pó: líquido apresentaram melhores propriedades que na consistência de cimentação.

  9. Toxicological and ultrastructural analysis of the impact of pesticides used in temperate fruit crops on two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Análises toxicológica e ultra-estrutural do impacto de agrotóxicos usados no cultivo de frutíferas de clima temperado sobre duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.Avaliaram-se os efeitos de (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,8 fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,4 e triclorfom (1,5 sobre a sobrevivência de larvas e pupas, na oviposição de adultos e viabilidade de ovos de Chrysoperla externa de duas populações (Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul. Alterações morfológicas causadas por abamectina em ovos depositados por C. externa da população de Vacaria foram avaliadas por meio de análises ultra-estruturais. Os agrotóxicos foram aplicados sobre placas de vidro. Água destilada foi utilizada como testemunha. Para avaliação da mortalidade de larvas utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 7 (duas populações x sete tratamentos e para avaliação dos efeitos dos compostos sobre a capacidade de oviposição e viabilidade de ovos utilizou-se esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas. Abamectina reduziu a viabilidade de ovos de C. externa, provenientes de larvas de terceiro ínstar de ambas as populações; entretanto, apresentou toxicidade mais elevada sobre insetos de Vacaria. Análises ultra-estruturais evidenciaram que abamectina causou deformações na micrópila e na superfície externa do córion de ovos de C. externa. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa são prejudiciais a C. externa; triclorfom é inócuo, enquanto abamectina e enxofre são inócuos e levemente prejudiciais a larvas de terceiro ínstar oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente.

  10. A utilização da gaseificação de pneus usados em leito fluidizado para a produção de energéticos Gasification of used tires in fluidized bed reactor to produce energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Goulart

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento das grandes cidades, da industrialização e do consumo, tem orçado a civilização a conviver com um processo mais intenso de degradação do meio ambiente, ameaçando os recursos naturais e energéticos, além da maior produção de resíduos sólidos, líquidos e gasosos. Isto tem trazido preocupação com relação à sustentabilidade do processo de crescimento das economias mundiais e ao futuro dos recursos esgotáveis. Desta forma, torna-se essencial a utilização de combustíveis obtidos a partir de fontes renováveis ou dos resíduos gerados pela atividade industrial e pelas cidades. Alguns dos resíduos mais representativos do processo de crescimento dos centros urbanos são os pneus automotivos que descartados sem quaisquer cuidados trazem sérias consequências ao meio ambiente e às populações. Com este objetivo apresentamos a proposta de processamento desse resíduo através da gaseificação em um reator de leito fluidizado. Os sub-produtos deste processamento possuem elevado potencial de reutilização na indústria, quer seja como insumos de processos produtivos (negro de fumo presente nas cinzas, quer seja como energéticos (voláteis e o óleo obtido a partir da condensação dos vapores da gaseificação. Este último sub-produto apresenta boas qualidades como combustível (seu PCI é de cerca de 40 MJ/kg. Este trabalho apresenta alguns dos resultados obtidos em tais experimentos.The growth of the big cities, industrialization and goods consumptions, have forced the civilization to live with more intensive environmental degradation process, threatening both the nature and energy resources, besides the bigger production of gas, liquid and solid wastes. Any energy planning aims to minimize the wastes production as well as to stimulate both the waste and the sub-products re-utilization in the several industrial processes. In order to contribute to the solution of those problems, it is presented in this work, a proposal of a reactor which uses scrap tires to fuel oil using the gasification process.

  11. Influence of the number of layers of paris bandage plasters on the mechanical properties speciments used on orthopedic splints Influência do número de camadas na propriedade mecânica de espécimes fabricados com atadura gessada usados para confeccionar splints ortopédicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Vieira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of varying numbers of layers of plaster of Paris bandages on the mechanical properties of specimens used on the construction of orthopedic splints. METHODS: Rectangular plate-shaped and cylinder-shaped specimens were constructed and assigned to two groups simulating plaster slabs and cast and further divided into six subgroups according to the number of layers used: 3, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 layers. The specimens were subjected to either a three-point bending test (plates/slab or compressive strength test (cylinders/cast. The following mechanical properties were evaluated: maximum load, elastic limit load and stiffness. Specimen weight was also calculated. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and the least significant difference (LSD tests. RESULTS: Pairwise comparisons of the subgroups 10x12 and 10x14 revealed significant differences for all mechanical properties (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar as propriedades mecânicas de amostras fabricadas a partir de ataduras de gesso que são utilizadas em órteses ortopédicas e que variam quanto ao número de camadas. MÉTODOS: Foram confeccionados espécimes em forma de placa retangular e em forma cilíndrica, divididos em dois grupos que simulavam splint e gesso circular, os quais foram divididos em seis subgrupos de acordo com o número de camadas utilizadas, ou seja, três, seis, oito, dez, 12 e 14 camadas. Os espécimes foram submetidos a um teste de inclinação de três pontos (placas/splint ou teste de resistência à compressão (cilindros/gesso circular. As seguintes propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas: carga máxima e carga no limite de elasticidade e rigidez. O peso da amostra foi calculado. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e diferença mínima significativa (DMS. Comparações pareadas entre os subgrupos 10x12 e 10x14 revelaram diferenças significativas para todas as propriedades mecânicas (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Os resultados sugerem que, quando o objetivo é construir aparelhos com alta resistência mecânica, independente do peso, tais como órteses seriadas de posicionamento para simular força gradual aplicada no tecido para a melhoria da amplitude de movimento, talas de 12 ou 14 camadas devem ser preferidas. Para os aparelhos ortopédicos que irão ser submetidos a esforços de baixa intensidade, aconselha-se a utilização de dez camadas para as órteses, porque houve uma melhor correlação entre a resistência mecânica e peso para as amostras fabricadas com dez camadas de atadura gessada comparadas com aquelas confeccionadas com seis ou oito camadas. CONCLUSÂO: Baseado nos achados deste estudo, sugere-se a utilização de dez camadas na confecção de órteses ortopédicas.

  12. Contribución al desarrollo y mejora para la cuantificación de la degradación en aceites lubricantes usados de MCIA a través de la técnica de espectrometría infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La degradación de los aceites lubricantes en MCIA ha sido durante los últimos años un tema de gran interés desde diferentes perspectivas, tanto desde el punto de vista del desarrollo de motores, formulaciones de los propios aceites, procedimientos de medida estandarizados, etc. y más aún cuando se han evidenciado diferencias significativas en los procesos degradativos atendiendo a las diferentes configuraciones: motores diesel frente a GNC, lo que ha suscitado el interés en desarrollar este t...

  13. Adição de molibdênio ao inoculante turfoso com bactérias diazotróficas usado em duas cultivares de arroz irrigado Addition of molybdenum in peat innoculum with diazotrophic bacteria used in two rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão Lima Guimarães

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de bactérias diazotróficas com ou sem molibdênio em duas cultivares de arroz com diferentes potenciais de fixação biológica de nitrogênio. Dois experimentos foram montados: o primeiro foi conduzido em condições gnotobióticas, com utilização das estirpes BR 11417 (ZAE94 - Herbaspirillum seropedicae e BR 11340 (M130 - Burkholderia sp., duas doses de molibdênio, 1,12 e 2,25 g, e duas fontes, molibdato de sódio e molibdato de amônio. As sementes foram peletizadas com inoculante turfoso com bactérias diazotróficas e o molibdênio. Em seguida as cultivares foram plantadas em tubos de ensaio com capacidade para 120 mL com 60 mL da solução de Hoagland sem nitrogênio por 30 dias. Foi avaliada a matéria seca das plantas. O segundo experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, com as mesmas estirpes e dosagens de molibdênio. Foram avaliados a produção e o N total dos grãos. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e quatro plantas por vaso. Foram observados aumentos na produção de grãos nas cultivares IR42 e IAC4440 de 88 e 57%, respectivamente, com a adição ao inoculante turfoso, das estirpes ZAE94 e M130 com molibdênio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria associated with the molybdenum in two rice cultivars. Two experiments were performed: the first one was lead under gnotobiotics conditions, using Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain BR 11417 and Burkholderia sp., strain BR 11340, two doses of molybdenum (1.12 and 2.25 g and two different sources of Mo - sodium molybdate and ammonium molybdate. The seeds were pelleted with peat containing diazotrophic bacteria and molybdenum. After inoculations were seeds planted in to test tubes with capacity for 120 mL content 60 mL Hoagland solution without nitrogen. Seedlings were harvested after 30 days and plant dry weight was evaluated. The second experiment was held in greenhouse with the same strains, sources and amount of molybdenum. The production and the total N of the rice grains were evaluated. Statistical design was completely randomized with four replication and four plants per pot were planted. Grain production increased with the inoculation in the cultivars IR42 and IAC4440 up to 88 and 57%, respectively.

  14. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen Meio de EMJH com 5-fluorouracil e ácido nalidíxico associado a técnica das diluições seriadas usados para recuperar Leptospira spp do sêmen bovino experimentalmente contaminado

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    Fabiana Miraglia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L and nalidixic acid (20mg/L, named as "selective medium" and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0% of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0% contamination and 58/376 (15% and 129/376 (34.0%, respectively. These results were statistically significant (pSêmen bovino experimentalmente contaminado com a estirpe Leptospira santarosai Sorovar Guaricura foi utilizado para verificar a porcentagem de recuperação de leptospiras, utilizando o meio de EMJH com 5-fluorouracil (300 mg/L e ácido nalidíxico (20 mg/L, denominado "meio seletivo", associado à técnica das diluições seriadas. O meio seletivo EMJH foi encontrado com porcentagem de recuperação mais elevada e com menos perda de amostras devido à contaminação com microorganismos oportunistas quando comparado com o meio EMJH não seletivo, que foram encontrados, respectivamente, com 151/376 (40.0% de crescimento positivo e 38/376 (10.0% de contaminação, 58/376 (15% e 129/376 (34.0%. Estes resultados foram estatíticamente significantes (p<0, 0001; Fisher. Diferenças foram encontradas quando as freqüências de leptospiras recuperadas foram comparadas com a técnica de diluição seriada (10-1 a 10-4 e entre os meios seletivo e não-seletivo, em diferentes níveis de diluição. À diluição de 1/10, as porcentagens encontradas foram (0%, 0/80 e (38%, 30/80; à diluição 1/100, (3%, 2/80 e (49%, 39/80; e à diluição 1/1000, (25%, 20/80 e (50%, 40/80, respectivamente. A porcentagem de recuperação de leptospiras foi diretamente proporcional às diluições empregadas. A metodologia das diluições seriadas (estabelecendo pelo menos três diluições e o uso de meio EMJH seletivo mostraram ser eficientes no isolamento de leptospiras presentes nas amostras de sêmen bovino.

  15. Avaliação de cápsulas de cerâmica e instrumentos de medida de tensão usados em tensiômetros Evaluation of ceramic capsules and instruments of tension measurement used in tensiometers

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    Neuzo B. de Moraes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de cápsulas de cerâmica procedentes do Estado do Ceará e dos Estados Unidos e testar o desempenho do transdutor de pressão acoplado a um tensiômetro de câmara de ar em condições de campo, em duas profundidades diferentes, na quantificação do potencial matricial da água no solo, em comparação com tensiômetros de manômetro de mercúrio. O trabalho de campo foi realizado em Mossoró, RN, utilizando o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, sendo eles: procedência das cápsulas; medidor de tensão e profundidades. Realizaram-se medidas pelo período de 40 dias consecutivos e se verificou que nos testes de campo a origem das cápsulas proporcionou iguais valores de tensão, embora as cápsulas do Ceará apresentassem condutância maior que as dos Estados Unidos. Os valores de tensão, obtidos pelos instrumentos de medidas de tensão, apresentaram diferença estatística, embora a diferença esteja dentro da precisão (1,0 kPa. Existe alta correlação (R² = 0,93 entre as tensões obtidas com os dois instrumentos de medida de tensão.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of ceramic capsules from the State of Ceara, Brazil, and from the United States, as well as, to test the performance of the pressure transducer coupled in the air chamber tensiometer in field conditions, in two different depths, in the quantification of the matricial potential of the water in the soil, in comparison with those of the conventional tensiometers (mercury manometer. The field work was accomplished in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design in completely randomized blocks the factor being: origin of the capsules; tension measurement and depths. Measurements were accomplished in a period of 40 consecutive days. It was verified that in the field tests the origin of the capsules provided same tension values, although the capsules from Ceara state presented higher conductance than the ones from USA. The tension values obtained by the instruments of tension measurements differed statistically, although the difference was within the precision (1.0 kPa. A high correlation exists among the tensions obtained by the two instruments of tension measurement.

  16. Evaluación y comparación de los materiales usados como elementos de divisoria interiores de vivienda, mediante la simulación y evaluación de sus residuos. Caso de usos en Sinaloa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo-Rea, Susana P.; Almaral Sánchez, Jorge Luis; Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente; Corral Higuera, Ramon; Gallardo-Sánchez, Manuel Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó y realizó un comparativo de los consumos de materiales entre dos sistemas de separación de muros verticales interiores: tabique de cerámica y block hueco de mortero-cemento, profundizando en el estudio del ámbito de los residuos, así como la relación de rendimientos entre estos sistemas constructivos. Esto se obtuvo mediante el uso informático de valoración de gestión de residuos, con el programa Net Waste Tool, de la empresa inglesa WRAP. La evaluación se hizo para la partida de m...

  17. Colorimetric test for the monitoring of microcystins in cyanobacterial culture and environmental samples from southeast - Brazil Teste colorimétrico usado para o monitoramento de microcistina em cultivo de cianobactérias e em amostras de florações ambientais do sudeste do Brasil

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    Vanessa P.S. Almeida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins are hepatotoxic heptapeptides produced by some cyanobacterial genera under determined physico-chemical conditions in the environment, which are responsible for the intoxication and death of animals and humans. The detection of microcystins in potable water or recreational water is not carried out routinely in the majority of Brazilian states. The protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 inhibition test is a simple, rapid and reproducible colorimetric method. The applicability of the PP1 inhibition test was tested using Microcystis aeruginosa (strain 1, UFRJ- toxin producer grown under controlled light and temperature condition (12/12h light/dark using 30 muE.m².s-1 at 23ºC in a bioreactor. The total concentrations of P (24, 6 and 4 muM and Fe (4 and 1 muM were varied in ASM-1medium and their effects on the growth rates and toxin production were analyzed. A standard curve of PP1 inhibition by microcystin-LR reached detection limit of 0.01 ng.mL-1. Under the highest concentrations of P (24 muM and Fe (4 muM, the production of microcystin was detected throughout the growth experiment. The highest concentration of microcystin was observed at 6 muM P while at 1 muM Fe, PP1 inhibition was not detected. Samples from environmental blooms in water reservoirs used for human and animal consumption, from southeast Brazil (Belo Horizonte/MG, were tested and quantified for microcystin presence by the PP1 colorimetric test. The concentration of microcystin varied from undetectable to 100 ng.mL-1 in the environmental samples with Microcistis flos-aquae as the predominant cyanobacterial strain.Microcistinas (MC são heptapeptídeos de ação neuro e hepatotóxica produzidas por alguns gêneros de cianobactérias em determinadas condições físico-químicas do ambiente e são responsáveis pela morte e intoxicação de animais e humanos. A detecção de MC em água destinada ao consumo no Brasil ainda não é realizada na maioria dos estados brasileiros. O teste de inibição de proteína fosfatase tipo 1 (PP1 por MC é um método colorimétrico simples, rápido e de boa reprodutibilidade. Para testar a aplicação do teste PP1 foram realizados estudos de crescimento de cianobactérias em bioreator com meio ASM-1 dentro de condições controladas de crescimento (12/12h luz/escuro usando 30 miE.m².s-1 de intensidade luminosa e temperatura constante de 23C utilizando Microcystis aeruginosa (estirpe 1., UFRJ- produtor de MC. Variaram-se as concentrações de fósforo (P em 24, 6 e 4 miM e de ferro (Fe em 4 e 1mM. Uma curva padrão de inibição de PP1 pela MC-LR foi construída, tendo como limite de detecção 0.01 ng.mL-1. Em meio normal de crescimento (24 miM P e 4 miM Fe para Microcystis aeruginosa, a produção de MC foi detectada continuamente durante o crescimento da cultura. A maior concentração de MC foi observada na concentração de 6 miM P e não foi detectada na concentração de 1 miM Fe. Amostras de florações ambientais, da região sudeste do Brasil (Belo Horizonte/MG, coletadas em corpos d'água utilizados para abastecimento e consumo humano, foram testadas e quantificadas para a presença de microcistina pelo teste colorimétrico PP1. A concentração de microcistina variou entre quantidades não detectáveis pelo método até 100 ng.mL-1 em amostras de floração da espécie Microcistis flos-aquae.

  18. Recuperação de metais de catalisadores usados de hidrotratamento (NiMo E CoMo/AL2O3 Recovery of metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts (NiMo and CoMo/ Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Afonso

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a detailed study of the leaching behavior of deactivated hydrotreating catalysts (CoMo, NiMo/Al2O3 in presence of oxalate and NH4+ ions in various media. The yield of metals recovery may be optimized by adjusting several experimental parameters (time, temperature, etc. Leaching is limited by physical factors (diffusional effects caused by coke and by the existence of silicate/spinel-like species which are poorly soluble in leaching solutions. Coke may be eliminated by an oxidation step at temperatures between 300-400ºC. Above 400ºC, solubilization of Ni and Co is drastically reduced. 50-90% wt of sulphate species and 15-30% wt of phosphate ions are solubilized during leaching. Silicon (as SiO2 is not solubilized. The best Ni-Co-Mo recoveries are in the 70-90% wt range; Fe recovery may be quantitative, whereas Al leaching may be lower than 5% wt.

  19. Physical, chemical and microbiological aspects during the dry and rainy seasons in a pond covered by macrophyte used in aquaculture water supply Aspectos físico-químicos e microbiológicos nas estações de seca e chuva em viveiro coberto por macrófitas usado no abastecimento de água para aquicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Generoso Dias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The water quality of a pond covered by macrophytes and used as a water supply for aquaculture was evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons; METHODS: Six points were established for water sampling, at water inflow and outflow. Samplings were carried out monthly between June 2008 and May 2009; RESULTS: Inflow points P1, P2 and P3 in the pond had higher nutrient concentrations and high trophic rates. Moreover, capybaras in the area caused sediment suspension and an increase in fecal coliforms. There was significant difference (p OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar durante as estações seca e estação chuvosa a qualidade da água de um viveiro, coberto por macrófitas, utilizado como sistema de abastecimento de água para aquicultura; MÉTODOS: Foram estabelecidos 6 pontos para a coleta das amostras de água na superfície do viveiro, envolvendo entradas e saídas da água. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre junho de 2008 e maio de 2009; RESULTADOS: Os pontos P1, P2 e P3 devido à entrada de água no viveiro apresentaram maiores concentrações de nutrientes com elevado estado trófico e, a entrada de capivaras nestes locais promoveu a suspensão do sedimento e aumento de coliformes fecais. Há significativas diferenças (p < 0,05 nas concentrações de nutrientes na água entre seca e chuva, com o escoamento de água gerado pela precipitação carreando material do entorno do viveiro para a água; CONCLUSÕES: O sistema estudado sofre influência direta da precipitação e da ausência de manejo adequado da área do entorno. Durante a estação chuvosa a qualidade da água ficou comprometida com aumento da concentração de nutrientes, coliformes fecais e redução do oxigênio dissolvido na água, devido ao material alóctone proveniente da área ao redor do viveiro, afetando negativamente o sistema de abastecimento.

  20. Physical, chemical and microbiological aspects during the dry and rainy seasons in a pond covered by macrophyte used in aquaculture water supply Aspectos físico-químicos e microbiológicos nas estações de seca e chuva em viveiro coberto por macrófitas usado no abastecimento de água para aquicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Generoso Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The water quality of a pond covered by macrophytes and used as a water supply for aquaculture was evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons; METHODS: Six points were established for water sampling, at water inflow and outflow. Samplings were carried out monthly between June 2008 and May 2009; RESULTS: Inflow points P1, P2 and P3 in the pond had higher nutrient concentrations and high trophic rates. Moreover, capybaras in the area caused sediment suspension and an increase in fecal coliforms. There was significant difference (p OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar durante as estações seca e estação chuvosa a qualidade da água de um viveiro, coberto por macrófitas, utilizado como sistema de abastecimento de água para aquicultura; MÉTODOS: Foram estabelecidos 6 pontos para a coleta das amostras de água na superfície do viveiro, envolvendo entradas e saídas da água. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre junho de 2008 e maio de 2009; RESULTADOS: Os pontos P1, P2 e P3 devido à entrada de água no viveiro apresentaram maiores concentrações de nutrientes com elevado estado trófico e, a entrada de capivaras nestes locais promoveu a suspensão do sedimento e aumento de coliformes fecais. Há significativas diferenças (p < 0,05 nas concentrações de nutrientes na água entre seca e chuva, com o escoamento de água gerado pela precipitação carreando material do entorno do viveiro para a água; CONCLUSÕES: O sistema estudado sofre influência direta da precipitação e da ausência de manejo adequado da área do entorno. Durante a estação chuvosa a qualidade da água ficou comprometida com aumento da concentração de nutrientes, coliformes fecais e redução do oxigênio dissolvido na água, devido ao material alóctone proveniente da área ao redor do viveiro, afetando negativamente o sistema de abastecimento.

  1. In situ ruminal degradability of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of some concentrated supplements used in the feeding of bovines/ Degradabilidade ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta de alguns suplementos concentrados usados na alimentação de bovinos

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    Marco Antônio da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Holstein steers, with permanent ruminal cannula, 650 kg of liveweight, maintained on pasture, and receiving mineral mixture “ad libtum” were used. The present study had the objective of evaluating the “in situ” ruminal degradation of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and organic matter (OM of 12 concentrated feed: whole sunflower seed (WSF, partially degreased sunflower (DSF, sunflower meal (SFM, sunflower pie pressed one time (T 1x, sunflower pie pressed two time (T 2x, for extracting of the oil, whole soybean seed (WS, partially degreased soybean (DS, soybean meal (SM, whole cottonseed (WC, cottonseed meal (CM, degreased corn germ (CG and a commercial concentrate with 36% of CP (CC. The feed were grounded in a mill equipped with a screen with sieves of 2 mm of diameter. Samples 5 g of DM from each one of the mentioned feed were incubated in nylon bags with pores of 50 micras of diameter, measuring 14 x 7 cm, for the times of 12; 20; and 33 h of ruminal fermentation. The effective degradability (ED of CP, for a passage rate of 5%/h varied from 62.08 to 95.93% for commercial concentrate and sunflower pie pressed two time for OM varied from 48.17 to 85.28% for soybean meal and whole cottonseed. The CC and CG presented the smallest ED of CP, however only the CC have larger protein escapes to be digested in the intestines, because CG presents little PB in its constitution.Foram utilizados quatro bovinos da raça holandesa, machos castrados, fistulados no rúmen, pesando em média 650kg, mantidos em pastejo e recebendo mistura mineral “ad libtum”. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a degradação ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e matéria orgânica (MO de 12 alimentos concentrados: grão de girassol integral (GI, grão de girassol parcialmente desengordurado (GD, farelo de girassol (FG, torta de girassol com uma passagem pela prensa (T 1x, torta de girassol com duas passagens pela prensa (T 2x, para retirada do óleo, grão de soja comercial (SI, grão de soja comercial parcialmente desengordurado (SD, farelo de soja (FS, caroço de algodão (CA, farelo de algodão (FA, gérmen de milho desengordurado (GM e um concentrado comercial com 36% de PB (CC. Os alimentos foram moídos em moinhos dotados com peneira com crivos de 2 mm de diâmetro. Foram incubados 5 g de MS de cada um dos alimentos citados em sacos de náilon com poros de diâmetro de 50 micras, medindo 14 x 7 cm, para os tempos de 12; 20; e 33 h de fermentação ruminal. As degradabilidades efetivas (DE da PB a uma taxa de passagem de 5%/h variaram de 62,08 a 95,93% para CC e TG2, e a MO de 85,28 a 48,17% para FS e CA. O CC e o GM apresentaram as menores DE da PB, porém somente o CC teria maiores escapes de proteína para ser digerida nos intestinos, pois o GM apresenta pouca PB em sua constituição.

  2. Physico-chemical analysis of the bricks used in the construction of the pyramid of the archaeological zone of Comalcalco, Tabasco; Analisis fisico-quimico de los ladrillos usados en la construccion de la piramide de la zona arqueologica de Comalcalco, Tabasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio G, E.; Acosta A, M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, 86680 Tabasco (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [CIE-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Trevino P, C.G. [INAOE, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The presence of clay as human hand craft is first observed in Mexico on westernmost city of the Maya region, known as Comalcalco, therefore Comalcalco comes from the nahuatl: Comali- cali-co or 'Brick house'. This city that flourish on the classical period between the centuries I b.C. to IX a.C, was contemporary to Palenque and Yaxchilan among others. Due to the lack of rocks for construction and abundance of clay in the region, the Mayas used the clay as fired clay bricks to build their palaces and ceremonial temples. On this work, we present a study using Sem, EDS and XRD on the fired clay bricks used on these constructions to induce de type clay used and temperature of firing. (Author)

  3. Post mortem analysis of burned magnesia-chromite brick used in short rotary furnace of secondary lead smelting Análise post mortem de um refratário de magnésia-cromita usado em um forno rotativo de redução de chumbo secundário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prestes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Burned magnesia-chromite bricks are the standard product for the lining of furnaces in lead industry, where the short service life is a great problem. Used sintered magnesia-chromite brick sample from short rotary furnace lining, sent by a secondary lead manufacturer, showed parallel cracks to the hot face due to structural spalling damage. The refractory infiltrated region and slag interface were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzer, and X-ray diffraction powder analysis. Crucible corrosion test was performed to evaluate the influence of slag attack. The results showed that the structural spalling was due to strong Pb-infiltration of the refractory microstructure by bath components of the furnace (metallic lead and lead sulphite during the reduction process and that the slag infiltration had little contribution due to the good resistance of the magnesia-chromite bricks to FeO rich slag attack.Os tijolos refratários queimados de magnésia-cromita são os produtos padrões para emprego no revestimento de fornos na indústria de chumbo, onde o curto tempo de vida desses refratários é um grande problema. Amostras de tijolos de magnésia-cromita sinterizados, utilizados em um forno rotativo de redução de chumbo secundário, mostraram fissuras paralelas à face quente indicando que o desgaste do revestimento ocorreu por termoclase estrutural. As regiões de interface refratário-escória e de infiltração foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva, e difração de raios X. O teste de corrosão pelo método estático foi feito para avaliar a influência do ataque por escória. Os resultados mostraram que a termoclase estrutural foi devido a forte infiltração do chumbo, proveniente dos componentes do forno (chumbo metálico e sulfeto de chumbo, na microestrutura do refratário durante o processo de redução, e que, a infiltração da escória teve pouca contribuição devido a boa resistência dos refratários de magnésia-cromita a escórias ricas em FeO.

  4. Adsorção competitiva de inibidor de corrosão usado em poços de perfuração de petróleo sobre aço, esmectita e arenito Competitive adsorption of wellbores corrosion inhibitor onto steel, esmectite and sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid A. G. A. Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial corrosion inhibitor used in petroleum production was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Predicting the adsorption behavior of corrosion inhibitor onto steel, sandstone and esmectite is the key to improve working conditions. In this study, the adsorption kinetics of inhibitor formulations in HCl 15% or in Mud Acid (HCl 13,5% and ammonium bifluoride onto steel, sandstone and esmectite was determined by means of spectrophotometry. Kinetic parameters indicated that adsorption of inhibitor in the presence of bifluoride was favored. Moreover, the adsorption constant rate was the largest when the substrate was esmectite.

  5. Influência do tamanho de grão da zircônia estabilizada com ítria e das propriedades reológicas de barbotinas anódicas sobre as características microestruturais de filmes de anodo usados em pilhas a combustível de óxidos sólidos.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurellis Carvalho Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    As pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC) são dispositivos capazes de converter energia química em energia elétrica com alta eficiência e baixo índice de poluição. Um dos componentes mais importantes da SOFC é o anodo. Nesse eletrodo ocorrem as reações eletroquímicas de oxidação do gás combustível e os elétrons resultantes são transportados para os interconectores da pilha. O composto NiO/YSZ é atualmente o material mais empregado na fabricação de filmes de anodo devido, principalmente, ...

  6. Morphometric and microscopic evaluation of the effect of gallium nitrate as a root canal dressing in rat teeth submitted to late replantation Avaliação morfométrica e microscópica do efeito do nitrato de gálio usado como curativo intracanal em dentes de ratos reimplantados tardiamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Garrido Mori

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a gallium nitrate solution, a resorption inhibitor, employed as a root canal dressing in teeth submitted to late replantation. Thirty maxillary right central incisors of rats were avulsed and kept dry for thirty minutes. The teeth were instrumented and the root surfaces were treated with 1% hypochlorite solution followed by application of 2% sodium fluoride. Thereafter, the teeth were divided into two groups according to the root canal dressing: Group I, solution of gallium nitrate; and Group II, calcium hydroxide paste. The teeth were then replanted in their respective sockets. The animals were killed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation and the samples were processed for morphometric and microscopic analysis. The results demonstrated that the gallium nitrate solution and the calcium hydroxide paste limited the root resorption, yet they did not impair its occurrence. It may be concluded that gallium nitrate solution and calcium hydroxide paste demonstrated similar performance.Este trabalho tem como objetivo testar a solução de nitrato de gálio, um inibidor da reabsorção, como curativo intracanal para dentes reimplantados tardiamente. Trinta incisivos centrais superiores direitos de ratos foram avulsionados e mantidos a seco por trinta minutos. Todos os dentes tiveram os canais radiculares instrumentados e a superfície radicular tratada com hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, seguido de fluoreto de sódio a 2%. Após isso, os dentes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a medicação intracanal: no grupo I, foi usada solução de nitrato de gálio e grupo II, pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. Todos os dentes foram, então, reimplantados em seus respectivos alvéolos. Passados 15, 30 e 60 dias do reimplante, os animais foram sacrificados e as peças obtidas, processadas em laboratório para análise microscópica e morfométrica. Os resultados mostraram que a solução de nitrato de gálio e a pasta de hidróxido de cálcio limitaram a reabsorção radicular, mas não impediram a sua ocorrência. Conclui-se que ambos os medicamentos têm ação semelhante.

  7. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  8. Kinetic behavior of nitrification in the post-treatment of poultry wastewater in a sequential batch reactor Comportamento cinético da nitrificação em um reator em bateladas sequenciais usado no pós-tratamento de efluente avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B. R. Mees

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential batch reactor with suspended biomass and useful volume of 5 L was used in the removal of nutrients and organic matter in workbench scale under optimal conditions obtained by central composite rotational design (CCRD, with cycle time (CT of 16 h (10.15 h, aerobic phase, and 4.35 h, anoxic phase and carbon: nitrogen ratio (COD/NO2--N+NO3--N equal to 6. Complete cycles (20, nitrification followed by denitrification, were evaluated to investigate the kinetic behavior of degradation of organic (COD and nitrogenated (NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N matter present in the effluent from a bird slaughterhouse and industrial processing facility, as well as to evaluate the stability of the reactor using Shewhart control charts of individual measures. The results indicate means total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N+NO2- -N+NO3--N removal of 84.32±1.59% and organic matter (COD of 53.65±8.48% in the complete process (nitrification-denitrification with the process under statistical control. The nitrifying activity during the aerobic phase estimated from the determination of the kinetic parameters had mean K1 and K2 values of 0.00381±0.00043 min-1 and 0.00381±0.00043 min-1, respectively. The evaluation of the kinetic behavior of the conversion of nitrogen indicated a possible reduction of CT in the anoxic phase, since removals of NO2--N and NO3--N higher than 90% were obtained with only 1 h of denitrification.Um reator em bateladas sequenciais com biomassa em suspensão e volume útil de 5L, aplicado para remoção de nutrientes e matéria orgânica, foi operado em escala de bancada, nas condições ótimas obtidas a partir de um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR, tempo de ciclo (TC de 16 h (10h15 fase aeróbia e 4h35 fase anóxica e relação carbono:nitrogênio (DQO/N-NO2-+N-NO3- de 6. Avaliaram-se 20 ciclos completos, nitrificação seguida de desnitrificação, com o objetivo de efetuar o estudo do comportamento cinético de degradação da matéria orgânica (DQO e nitrogenada (N-NH4+, N-NO2- e N-NO3- presentes no efluente proveniente do abate e industrialização de aves, bem como avaliar a estabilidade do reator através de gráficos de controle Shewhart para medidas individuais. Os resultados apontaram valores médios de remoção de nitrogênio inorgânico total (N-NH4++N-NO2-+N-NO 3- de 84,32±1,59% (C.V.=1,89% e de matéria orgânica (DQO de 53,65±8,48% (CV= 15,81%, no processo completo (nitrificação-desnitrificação, estando o processo sob controle estatístico. A atividade nitrificante estimada, durante a fase aeróbia, pela determinação dos parâmetros cinéticos, apresentou valores médios para K1 e K2, de 0,00381±0,00043 min-1 e 0,00249±0,00056 min-1, respectivamente. A avaliação do comportamento cinético de conversão do nitrogênio indicou possível redução no TC da fase anóxica, uma vez que foram alcançadas remoções de N-NO2- e N-NO3-, superiores a 90%, em apenas uma hora de desnitrificação.

  9. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal; Metodologia baseada em sistemas de informacao geografica e analise multicriterio para a selecao de areas para a construcao de um repositorio para o combustivel nuclear usado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-07-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  10. Estudo comparativo da biocompatibilidade da submucosa intestinal porcina e pericárdio bovino usados como enxertos na veia cava de cães Comparative study of the biocompatibility of the porcine intestinal submucosa and bovine pericardium used as grafts in the inferior cava vein of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a biocompatibilidade entre submucosa de intestino delgado (SID porcino e o pericárdio bovino como enxerto no reparo de lesões criadas na veia cava inferior de cães. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis cães foram submetidos a laparotomia. Após a abertura da cavidade abdominal a veia cava foi identificada e em seguida procedeu-se com a retirada de um segmento elíptico de 1,5X3cm de sua parede anterior. Em 8 animais o defeito foi reparado com SID porcino (grupo A e nos 8 animais restantes o defeito foi reparado com pericárdio bovino (grupo B.No 30° dia de P.O. realizou-se uma ultra-sonografia e a eutanásia foi realizada no 40°dia de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Observou-se estenose da veia cava em 1 cão do grupo do grupo A e em 2 animais do grupo B além de trombose em 1 cão desse mesmo grupo. A análise microscópica revelou um processo inflamatório crônico moderado em ambos os grupos. A endotelização do enxerto, regeneração de fibras musculares lisas e depósito de colágeno também foi similar nos 2 grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A SID provou ser um excelente substrato para a regeneração vascular quando implantado em veia cava superior, contudo os resultados encontrados não diferem daqueles observados com o uso de pericárdio bovino.PURPOSE: To compare the biocompatibility of the bovine pericardium and the small intestine submucosa (SIS when used to repair a created defect in the inferior vena cava of dogs. METHODS: Sixteen male mongrel dogs were submitted to a midline laparotomy incision. An elliptical segment (1,5 X 3,0 cm of the inferior vena cava, below the renal veins, was excised. In 8 dogs, the A group, a patch of porcine small bowel submucosa was used to repair the defect. In the 8 remaining dogs, the B group, a bovine pericardium was implanted in the vena cava. On the 30th post-operative day an ultrasound was performed in order to identify stenosis. The euthanasia was accomplished in the 40th post-operative day. Stenosis of the vein was observed in 1 dog of A group and in 2 of the B group. RESULTS: Partial thrombosis with collateral circulation was evidenced in 1 dog of the bovine pericardium group. A moderated chronic inflammatory process was evidenced in both groups. Microscopic evaluation, regarding endothelization of the implant, collagen deposition, smooth muscle growth, was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: SIS proved to be a functional graft patch for possessing local vena cava remodeling and its biocompatibility was similar to bovine pericardium.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of different plastics used to seal nylon cDNA arrays Avaliação da performance de diferentes plásticos usados para selar arranjos de cDNA em náilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulino da Costa Netto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cDNA arrays are a powerful tool for discovering gene expression patterns. Nylon arrays have the advantage that they can be re-used several times. A key issue in high throughput gene expression analysis is sensitivity. In the case of nylon arrays, signal detection can be affected by the plastic bags used to keep membranes humid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of five types of plastics on the radioactive transmittance, number of genes with a signal above the background, and data variability. A polyethylene plastic bag 69 μm thick had a strong shielding effect that blocked 68.7% of the radioactive signal. The shielding effect on transmittance decreased the number of detected genes and increased the data variability. Other plastics which were thinner gave better results. Although plastics made from polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl chloride (both 13 μm thick and polyethylene (29 and 7 μm thick showed different levels of transmittance, they all gave similarly good performances. Polyvinylidene chloride and polyethylene 29 mm thick were the plastics of choice because of their easy handling. For other types of plastics, it is advisable to run a simple check on their performance in order to obtain the maximum information from nylon cDNA arrays.Os arranjos de cDNA são uma poderosa ferramenta para o estudo de padrões de expressão gênica. Os arranjos em membranas de náilon apresentam ainda a vantagem de poderem ser reutilizados diversas vezes. Porém, um ponto bastante delicado em estudos de expressão gênica em larga escala é a sensibilidade. No caso de arranjos em membranas de náilon, a detecção dos sinais pode ser afetada pelo envoltório plástico utilizado para manter as membranas úmidas. Nesse estudo, nós avaliamos os efeitos de cinco tipos de plásticos na transmissão radioativa detectada, no número de genes com sinal acima da emissão de fundo e na variabilidade dos dados. O plástico produzido com polietileno com 69 μm de espessura apresentou uma forte interferência na emissão radioativa, bloqueando 68.7% do sinal detectado. Este bloqueio na transmitância diminuiu o numero de genes detectados e aumentou a variabilidade dos dados. Outros plásticos mais finos tiveram resultados melhores. Apesar de plásticos feitos de cloreto de polivinilideno e cloreto de polivinila (ambos com 13 μm de espessura e polietileno (29 e 7 μm de espessura terem diferentes níveis de transmitância, todos apresentaram performances semelhantes nos testes realizados. Cloreto de polivinilideno e polietileno com 29 μm de espessura foram os plásticos escolhidos devido à facilidade de manuseio. Para outros tipos de plásticos, é recomendável realizar um teste de suas performances antes de utilizá-los para envolver membranas de náilon, de forma a obter o máximo de informação dos experimentos com arranjos de cDNA.

  12. Bulas de medicamentos usados por idosos com hipertensão: adequação da informação à regulamentação sanitária e possíveis implicações para a saúde Medication leaflets used by elderly with hypertension: adequacy of information for sanitary regulation and possible implications for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divaldo Pereira de Lyra Junior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As bulas representam a principal fonte de informação escrita fornecida aos pacientes, especialmente aos idosos. O presente trabalho visou analisar o conteúdo das bulas dos medicamentos frequentemente prescritos para idosos com hipertensão, bem como a sua adequação à regulamentação sanitária e possíveis implicações para a saúde. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo em duas etapas: etapa A, em julho de 2002, e B em julho de 2007. Em cada etapa foram analisadas 34 bulas de sete fármacos anti-hipertensivos que constam na Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (2006. Entre as 68 bulas analisadas, a maioria não continha todas as informações exigidas pela Portaria n° 110/1997 na etapa A (89,5% e pela RDC n°140/2003 na B (100%. Alguns itens importantes como via de administração, modo de uso e superdose não constavam em 76% das bulas analisadas. A falta dessas informações é relevante para a segurança dos pacientes. Com base nos dados obtidos, foi possível constatar o não cumprimento da legislação vigente nas duas etapas do estudo. Logo, é necessária maior atuação da Anvisa para assegurar o uso racional dos medicamentos e a redução dos riscos à saúde dos idosos.The medication leaflets represent the main source of written information supplied to the patients, in special to the elderly. This study aimed to analyze the content of the leaflets of drugs often prescribed for elderly people with hypertension, as well as their adequacy to the sanitary regulations and possible health implications. A descriptive study was conducted in two stages: A, in July 2002, and B, in July 2007. In each stage were analyzed 34 medication leaflets of seven antihypertensive drugs of the National Essential Drugs List (2006. Among the 68 leaflets analyzed, most did not contain all the information required by Portaria nº 110/1997 (89.5% in the stage A and the RDC nº 140/2003 (100% in B. In 100% of the leaflets, the legislation had not been fulfilled. Some important topics as way of administration, how to use and overdose had been absent in 76% of the leaflets, the lack of this information has an impact in the security of the antihypertensive users. Based on these data, it was possible to evidence inadequate contents of the medication leaflets. So, it is necessary greater surveillance by Anvisa, to ensure the rational use of medicines and the reduction of the risks to the elderly health.

  13. Caracterização dos argilominerais usados em matéria-prima cerâmica, da formação Rio do Rasto, Bacia do Paraná, no município de Turvo, SC Characterization of clay minerals used in the ceramic industry, from Rio do Rasto formation, Paraná basin, exploitation in Turvo, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No sudeste de Santa Catarina existem inúmeras minas de exploração de argilas destinadas à indústria cerâmica da região. Para o conhecimento desta matéria prima foi realizada a caracterização em detalhe de uma frente de lavra em atividade. A exploração é realizada em terrenos sedimentares da Formação Rio do Rasto (Permiano Superior na Bacia do Paraná que afloram como morros testemunho. Foram coletadas quatorze amostras representativas dos níveis desta mina composta de argilitos com intercalação de siltitos de pequena espessura. As amostras foram analisadas por difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó na rocha total e na fração In the southeastern part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, many mines of clays used as raw material for the ceramic industry are found. A detail study of this material was developed in a mine in activity. The exploitation of clays is held in sedimentary rocks of Rio do Rasto Formation (Upper Permian in the Paraná Basin. The outcrops are in hills testimonies. Fourteen samples were collected and represent the levels of this mine which consisted of argillites with intercalation of slim siltite layer. These samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using the powder method and in the fraction < 4 µm. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petrographic observations in thin section were also performed. Scanning electron microscope images was obtained in samples fragments by secondary electron method. Electron microprobe microanalysis was performed in one thin section. The results showed large vertical variation in the mineralogy and it has been identified three different levels. Up to 2.00 m there is a predominance of smectite. Between 5.50 m 2.00 m the smectite is the main clay mineral, but with significant amounts of illite/mica and above 5.50 m occurs large increase in K-feldspar and detrital mica. Studies in detail by X-ray diffraction (determination of the b-parameter and microanalysis by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy have identified montmorillonite clay mineral as the smectite mineral specie.

  14. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil Características de um motor de trator alimentado com combustíveis mineral e biodisel misturados com óleo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Godeša

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unfavourable characteristics of crude vegetable oil when used as the fuel is the high viscosity. To improve this weakness, oil can be blended with mineral diesel or biodiesel fuels. This study was designed to evaluate how the use of mineral diesel or biodiesel blend with cold pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus oil affects the engine power, torque and fuel consumption. A tractor equipped with direct injection, water cooling system and three-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiment. Fuels used were standard diesel fuel (diesel, rapeseed oil methyl ester - biodiesel (B100 and their mixtures with 10, 30 and 50 vol. % of cold pressed rapeseed oil (RO. Increased portion of RO in diesel fuel blends had almost no effect on the torque measured on the tractor PTO shaft; it however decreased the maximal power. Fuel blends with B100 and rising RO content (up to 50% gave a positive correlation with maximal torque and power. By increasing the portion of RO from 0 to 50%, the minimal specific fuel consumption increased by 6.65% with diesel and decreased by 2.98% with B100 based fuel.Uma das características mais desfavoráveis dos óleos vegetais crus usados como combustível é a alta viscosidade. Para melhorar este ponto fraco, o óleo pode ser misturado com diesel mineral ou biodiesel. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar como o uso de diesel mineral ou biodiesel misturado a oleo de colza (Brassica napus extraído por pressão a frio afeta a potência do motor, o torque e o consumo de combustível, empregando um trator equipado com injeção direta, sistema de refrigeração de água e um motor de três cilindros. Os combustíveis utilizados foram o diesel padrão (diesel, éster metílico de óleo de sementes de colza - biodiesel (B100 e suas misturas com 10, 30 e 50 % vol. de óleo de semente de colza pressionado a frio (RO. Maiores proporções de RO nas misturas de diesel praticamente não tiveram efeito sobre o torque

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) using in the detection of oil spills on the ocean surface, from texture classification at the Campos Basin region, RJ, Brazil; Uso de radar de abertura sintetica na deteccao de manchas de oleo na superficie do mar a partir de classificacao textural na regiao da Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Luciana de Souza [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lsoler@ltid.inpe.br; Freitas, Corina da Costa [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Processamento de Imagens]. E-mail: corina@dpi.inpe.br; Lorenzzetti, Joao Antonio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Oceanografia por Satelite]. E-mail: loren@ltid.inpe.br

    2001-07-01

    The search for oil reserves and oil production along offshore has caused an increase in oil and its derivatives transportation by ships. As a result, the oil spills have showed a serious threat to ocean healthy and preservation. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) capability in detecting ocean healthy and preservation. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) capability in detecting ocean surface waves, allows the oil spills identification due the damping of gravity and capillary waves. The wave damping causes allow roughness, thus a low signal return to radar. However, some ocean features, as low wind areas and rain cells (so-called oil spill look-alike), have similar responses to oil spill. This fact is considered the main problem in SAR contribution development in oil spill man made monitoring. It was used 4 RADARSAT/SAR images in Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro state. Two different textural classifiers were applied to separate oil, water, ships and oil spill look-alike. It was observed that both classifiers had relatively a good performance in separating oil, water and ships. However, in some classifications, it was observed a relative confusion between oil spill and its look-alike due to their similar responses. In spite of this limitation, it was concluded that SAR has a great potential in the oil spill detection in ocean surface. (author)

  16. Synthesis of ceramics membranes using ZrO{sub 2} obtained by Pechini method aiming it application in oil/water separation; Sintese de membranas ceramicas utilizando ZrO{sub 2} obtido pelo metodo Pechini visando sua aplicacao na separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, D.F.; Lira, H.L.; Vilar, M.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Gama, L.

    2004-07-01

    The water produced in the oil production presents emulsified oil drops of difficult separation causing problems in the reinjection and the discarding. The conventional methods used in the separation oil/water don't clean all the water with efficiency and low cost. Thus, the ceramic membranes appear as a new option for being material very resistant chemistry and thermal, of high perm selective and high efficiency in use in processes of micro filtration and ultrafiltration separation. The zirconia is considered an adequate material to obtain of such membranes and the Pechini method is one promising technique in the attainment of after ultrafine with controlled characteristics. Thus the objective of this work was to prepare ceramic membranes from after synthesized by the Pechini method. The results had shown that the Pechini method was efficient in the attainment of ZrO{sub 2} powder, nanometric, with size of crystal of 7,2 nm and with average diameter of agglomerated 4,94{mu}, indicating that this material can be used in the attainment of membranes of micro filtration and ultrafiltration, adjusted to the separation oil/water The micrographs of the obtained membranes show a homogeneous surface where if it can visualize pores uniformly distributed. (author)

  17. The environmental public policy context in the prevention and control aspects of oil incidents for the exploration and production phases in Brazil; O contexto das politicas publicas ambientais nos aspectos de prevencao e controle dos incidentes com oleo durante as etapas de exploracao e producao de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert Junior, Carlos Alberto; Walter, Tatiana; Nicolodi, Joao Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It is not possible to state that Brazil is unprepared to respond oil incidents emergencies, in Coastal Zone, Continental Shelf and EEZ oil E and P, without an analysis with clear premises. First, we need to understand the context that lays this question, which it is not limited in the National Contingency Plan, as lately evidenced in media. Thus, we note that Brazil has a complex political and legal arrangements targeted to oil incidents prevention and control. In this context, comes this paper, in order to reveal this curtain, listing actors, legislation and other aspects that underlie the public policy governance in reference. (author)

  18. Trimerization process of vegetables oils and fats and its application in additives for synthetic fluids used in the perforation of petroleum well bore; Processo de trimerizacao de oleos vegetais e acidos graxos e sua aplicacao em aditivos para fluidos sinteticos utilizados na perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Viviane X.; Souza, Roberta C.R.; Coelho, Anderson S.; Lopes, Grazielle; Yoshida, Renan O.; Goncalves, Gizelle de Fatima G.D.V.; Silva, Sandra Regina da [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Poland Quimica Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Derivatives of vegetable oils and fatty acids such epoxides, polyols and fatty acid dimmers are industrially used for a variety of polymer applications, such as additives for plastics and composites and in filtration control aid in in perforation fluids as well as in the synthesis of polyamides and polyurethanes. In this article a vegetable oil was chemically modified by trimerization and used as filtration control and in a paraffin based perforation fluid. The rheology and filtration parameters were studied and the results were compared to desired specifications to maintenance of stability of well bore. (author)

  19. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)