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Sample records for oleoresins

  1. 21 CFR 73.615 - Turmeric oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.615 Turmeric oleoresin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive turmeric oleoresin is the combination of flavor and color principles obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turmeric oleoresin. 73.615 Section 73.615 Food and...

  2. Ekstraksi Oleoresin dari Limbah Penyulingan Pala Menggunakan Ultrasonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normalina Arpi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh ukuran partikel limbah penyulingan pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt. dan suhu ekstraksi terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin pala yang dihasilkan pada proses ekstraksi pelarut menggunakan bantuan ultrasonik. Etanol mutu teknis (technical grade digunakan sebagai pelarut. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK Faktorial dengan ulangan sebagai kelompok yang terdiri dari ukuran partikel bahan (P yaitu P1= 10 mesh, P2= 40 mesh dan P3= 60 mesh dan suhu ekstraksi (S yaitu S1= 40oC, S2= 50oC dan S3= 60oC. Analisis oleoresin pala yang dilakukan meliputi analisis awal (kadar air dan kadar abu dan analisis akhir (bobot jenis, indeks bias, dan sisa pelarut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin yang dihasilkan. Rendemen tertinggi sebesar 7,16% diperoleh pada  ukuran partikel 10 mesh dan suhu 60oC. Hasil analisis bobot jenis oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa bobot jenis tertinggi yaitu 1,250 dihasilkan pada suhu ekstraksi 50oC. Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks bias oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi memberikan pengaruh yang sangat nyata terhadap oleoresin pala dimana ukuran partikel 40 mesh pada suhu ekstraksi 40oC dan 60oC  serta ukuran partikel 60 mesh pada suhu 50oC memiliki nilai indeks bias yang lebih tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 1,476 hingga 1,480. Hasil analisis sisa pelarut juga menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap tingginya sisa pelarut, dimana ukuran partikel 10 mesh mengandung sisa pelarut 0,229% dan suhu ekstraksi 40oC mengandung sisa pelarut 0,265%.

  3. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  4. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  5. Heritability and Seasonal Changes in Viscosity of Slash Pine Oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. McReynolds

    1971-01-01

    Oleoresin viscosity was measured in slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) trees of known genetic origin over a 1-year period. A strong broad-sense heritability of this trait was found. Seasonal variation followed a definite pattern, with the highest viscosities occurring in early spring and a gradual decline occurring in...

  6. Antifungal Activity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf Oleoresin against Dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia R. B. Raposo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are mycoses that affect keratinized tissues in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the oleoresin extracted from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against the strains Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. The antimicrobial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. Ketoconazole and terbinafine were used as reference drugs. The copaiba oleoresin showed moderate fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 (MIC and MFC = 170 μg mL−1 and weak fungicidal activity against T. rubrum CCT 5507 (MIC = 1,360 μg mL−1 and MFC = 2,720 μg mL−1. There was no activity against M. canis ATCC 32903 and M. gypseum ATCC 14683. SEM analysis revealed physical damage and morphological alterations such as compression and hyphae clustering in the structure of the fungi exposed to the action of the oleoresin. The results stimulate the achievement of in vivo assays to confirm the benefits of the application of oleoresin extracted from copaiba in the treatment of dermatophytosis, both in humans and in animals.

  7. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  8. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins.

  9. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  10. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  11. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with capsicum and turmeric oleoresin increases resistance to necrotic enteris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  12. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  13. The Effect of Kaffir Lime Leaves Distillation Residue Oleoresin Concentration on Active Paper Packaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiji; Utami, R.; Ulum, S.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue still contains some active compounds such as Citronellal, β-Citronellol, and Linalool which potential to incorporated on the active paper packaging. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin concentration on the physical characteristics, sensory characteristics, and antimicrobial activity of the active paper packaging incorporated with kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin and to determine the functional groups of active paper packaging. The concentration of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin were varied at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%. The result showed that the addition of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin increased the thickness and moisture content of the paper and decreased the tensile strengths and folding endurances of active paper packaging. The microbial inhibition tends to increase along with the higher oleoresin concentration addition. Aromatic CH group were found at a wavelength of 897.90 cm-1 of on paper packaging with 2% oleoresin indicated as functional aromatic functional group allegedly obtained from the kaffir lime leaves oleoresin.

  14. OPTIMASI YIELD ETIL P METOKSISINAMAT PADA EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN KENCUR (Kaempferia galanga MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setyawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L. banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku obat tradisional (jamu, fitofarmaka, industri kosmetika, industri makanan, dan industri insektisida. Minyak atsiri rimpang kencur mengandung etil sinnamat dan metil p-metoksi sinamat (EPMS. Ekstraksi oleoresin kencur dilakukan dengan etanol sebagai pelarut. Optimasi yield EPMS diteliti terhadap perbandingan massa serbuk kering kencur dan etanol dan waktu ekstraksi. Perbandingan kencur : etanol yang digunakan adalah 1 : 2, 1 : 3, dan 1 : 4. Waktu operasi yang digunakan adalah 2 s.d 5 jam. Tahapan proses ekstraksi oleoresin kencur adalah preparasi bahan, ekstraksi, evaporasi dan pemurnian. Oleoresin hasil ekstraksi dianalisis dengan uji GC-MS untuk mengetahui kandungan EPMS dan kandungan minyak atsiri lain dalam oleoresin kencur. Oleoresin hasil ekstraksi berwarna coklat tua dengan yield antara 6-8%. Kandungan EPMS dalam oleoresin bervariasi antara 67,77 hingga 87,57%. Massa oleoresin optimal hasil ekstraksi adalah 6,09 gram pada perbandingan kencur dan etanol 1:4 selama 4 jam. Pendekatan persamaan hasil ekperimen ekstraksi kencur dan etanol menghasilkan titik optimal EPMS pada waktu ekstraksi 3,62 dengan massa EPMS 6,04 gram Lesser galangal (Kaempferia galanga L. is widely used as a traditional medicine (herbal medicine, fitofarmaka, cosmetics industry, food industry, and insecticide industry. The essential oils in the Lesser galangal contain ethyl sinnamat and methyl p-methoxy cinnamic (EPMS. The oleoresin extraction of Lesser galangal was performed using ethanol as a solvent. Optimization of the EPMS yield was investigated to dry powder mass ratio of Lesser galangal and ethanol as well as the extraction time. The ratio of Lesser galangal : ethanol was  varied from 1: 2, 1: 3 and 1: 4. The chosen operating time were 2 to 5 hours. The procedure of the oleoresin extraction process of Lesser galangal includes the preparation of materials, extraction, evaporation and

  15. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  16. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  17. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CURCUMIN CONTENT IN DIFFERENT DOSAGE FORMS CONTAINING TURMERIC EXTRACT POWDER AND TURMERIC OLEORESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Rane Rajashree; Gangolli Divya; Patil Sushma; Ingawale Kanchan; Kundalwal Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Different dosage forms namely tablets, capsules, creams and syrups were analysed for curcumin content, by the well-known spectrophotometric method. Turmeric extract powder was used as a source of curcumin in capsule and tablet formulations. Turmeric oleoresin was used as a source of curcumin in cream formulation. Additionally, syrup formulations containing turmeric extract powder as well as turmeric oleoresin, separately, were also tested for their curcumin contents. Analytical results for cu...

  18. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Aoki, Fumiki; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Nishiyama, Tozo; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2006-11-29

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has a wide range of effects on human health. Turmeric oleoresin, an extract of turmeric, is often used for flavoring and coloring. Curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil are both contained in turmeric oleoresin, and both of these fractions have hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed the effect of turmeric oleoresin on hepatic gene expression in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Female KK-Ay mice aged 6 weeks (n = 6/group) were fed a high-fat diet containing turmeric oleoresin, curcuminoids, and essential oil for 5 weeks. The same diet without any of these fractions was used as a control diet. Ingestion of turmeric oleoresin and essential oil inhibited the development of increased blood glucose and abdominal fat mass, while curcuminoids only inhibited the increase in blood glucose. DNA microarray analysis indicated that turmeric oleoresin ingestion up-regulated the expression of genes related to glycolysis, beta-oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes was down-regulated. Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to assess the contribution of the curcuminoids and essential oil in turmeric oleoresin to the changes in expression of representative genes selected by DNA microarray analysis. This analysis suggested that curcuminoids regulated turmeric oleoresin ingestion-induced expression of glycolysis-related genes and also that curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil acted synergistically to regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation-related gene expression induced by turmeric oleoresin ingestion. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the turmeric oleoresin affected the control of both blood glucose levels and abdominal adipose tissue masses. All of these results suggest that the use of whole turmeric

  19. Oleoresin crystallization in eastern white pine: relationships with chemical components of cortical oleoresin and resistance to the white-pine weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1979-01-01

    Natural and weevil-larva-induced crystallization of oleoresin from 45 eastern white pine trees with known resin acid and monoterpene composition, and from 59 pairs of nonweeviled and heavily weeviled trees from the same seed sources, was examined in mid- and late spring. Very little difference was found between larva-induced and natural crystallization. Strobic acid-...

  20. Karakterisasi Kemasan Kertas Aktif dengan Penambahan Oleoresin Ampas Destilasi Sereh Dapur (Cymbopogon citratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Umi Khasanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin concentration (0 %, 2 %, 4 %, and 6 % b/b on the active paper packaging characteristics (sensory, water content, thickness, tensile strength, fold endurance and antimicrobial activity, to determine the functional groups of the control and selected active paper packaging, to determine the effect of days of storage (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 day on the control and selected active paper packaging characteristics (tensile strength, and fold endurance, and to determine antimicrobial activity of the control and selected active paper packaging during 20 days storage. The result showed that the concentration of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin significantly affected the color, overall, tensile strength, fold endurance, and antimicrobial activity while did not significantly affected the flavor, texture, water content, and thickness of the active paper packaging. The addition of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin increased the water content, thickness, microbial activity, while decreased the panelists preference, tensile strength and fold endurance of the active paper packaging. The spectrum of functional groups of the active paper packaging showed the presence of chitosan, cellulose, tween 80, and lemongrass oleoresin. The storage days had no significant effect on tensile strength and fold endurance of the control and selected active paper packaging. The control and selected active paper packaging were significantly different at each 5 days storage. However the 20 day of storage showed no significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of the control and selected active paper packaging.   ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur (0 %, 2 %, 4 %, dan 6 % b/b terhadap karakteristik kemasan kertas aktif (analisis sensoris, kadar air, ketebalan, ketahanan tarik, ketahanan lipat

  1. AKTIVITAS ANTI INFLAMASI OLEORESIN JAHE (Zingiber officinale PADA GINJAL TIKUS YANG MENGALAMI PERLAKUAN STRES [Anti Inflammation Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Oleoresin on Kidney of Rats Under Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite AdnyanE1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to observe the role of antioxidant content of ginger oleoresin (Zingiber officinale on inflammation in the kidney of rats under stress condition, as an anti inflammation. A total of sixty male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into twelve groups; (1 control group, without treatment of both stress and oleoresin, (2 stress group, was treated by stress only, without oleoresin treatment, while (3 and (4 are groups that were treated by stress and then fed by standard feed for three and seven days, without oleoresin. Group (5 to group (12 were treated by stress and then followed by treatment of oleoresin for three and seven days. The doses of oleoresin were 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kgBW/day. Stress condition was done by 5 days fasting and swimming for 5 minutes/day, while drinking water was provided ad libitum. The highest number of inflammatory cells in the kidney of rats was observed in the stress group. The treatment of oleoresin after fasting stress showed decreasing of the number of inflammatory cells in the tissues. The decreasing rate was higher in the higher dose of oleoresin. The treatment groups that showed the number of inflammatory cells not significantly different from that of control group are treated groups receiving oleoresin 60 mg/kgBW/day for seven days, and 80 mg/kgBW/day for three and seven days, respectively. These results showed that ginger oleoresin has anti inflammatory effect in the kidney of rats kept under stress condition.

  2. In vivo evaluation of the mutagenic potential and phytochemical characterization of oleoresin from Copaifera duckei Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis Maistro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the chemical constituents of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and used dermal application to Wistar rats to evaluated its possible mutagenic and cytotoxic activities on peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow cells. Chemical characterization of the oleoresin revealed the presence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, an unidentified neutral diterpene and diterpene acids. To evaluate mutagenicity evaluation the rats were treated with 10, 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin for three consecutive days and peripheral blood collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h for micronucleus analysis. The rats were humanly sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment and chromosome preparations made using standard techniques. At the three concentrations and the three time intervals tested we found that there were no statistically significant differences in either the mean number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs or the number of chromosomal aberrations as to the negative control. However, at 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin there was a significant decrease in the mitotic index (MI as compared to the negative control. Under our experimental conditions, C. duckei V11 oleoresin produced no mutagenic effects on bone marrow cells or in peripheral reticulocytes as assessed by chromosome aberrations and the micronucleus test respectively, but showed cytotoxic activity at high doses.

  3. Detecting and visualizing internal 3D oleoresin in agarwood by means of micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Roslan Yahya; Mat Rosol Awang

    2012-01-01

    Detection and analysis of oleoresin is particularly significant since the commercial value of agarwood is related to the quantity of oleoresins that are present. A modern technique of non-destructive may reach the interior region of the wood. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of high resolution non-destructive 3D visualization technique, X-ray micro-computed tomography, as imaging tools to visualize micro-structure oleoresin in agarwood. Investigations involving desktop X-ray micro-tomography system on high grade agarwood sample, performed at the Centre of Tomography in Nuclear Malaysia, demonstrate the applicability of the method. Prior to experiments, a reference test was conducted to stimulate the attenuation of oleoresin in agarwood. Based on the experiment results, micro-CT imaging with voxel size 7.0 μm is capable to of detecting oleoresin and pores in agarwood. This imaging technique, although sophisticated can be used for standard development especially in grading of agarwood for commercial activities. (author)

  4. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  5. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger Rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated dried ginger rhizomes were evaluated to determine the effect of radiation and storage on these constituents of ginger. Dried ginger rhizomes were subjected to 0, 5 and 10 kilogray (kGy) doses of gamma rays from 60Co source. The oleoresin and gingerol contents were monitored for 9 months. Radiation treatment (10 kGy) reduced the decrease of the oleoresin content of ginger during the storage period by 14% in unground samples and 11% in ground samples. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the 6-gingerol content of the ground ginger decreased by 65.6, 67.4 and 70.4% for the 0, 5, and 10 kGy samples, respectively, while the corresponding values for the ungrounded ginger samples were 37.8, 40.0 and 44.3% at the end of the storage period

  7. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laira Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  8. Effect of ground paprika and its oleoresin on marinated chicken breast meat quality

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    Jokanović Marija R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The still-marinating process is a simplified technology used to tenderize and to improve the flavour, colour and juiciness of meat products. The effects of marinade type, addition of ground paprika (P or paprika oleoresin (O, on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked marinated chicken fillets were investigated. It was observed that marinade uptake was greater (P > 0.05 for the fillets marinated with paprika oleoresin. Cooking loss was lowest for experimental group O, and signifycantly lower (P<0.05 comparing to control group. Determined L

  9. EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN DARI KAYU MANIS BERBANTU ULTRASONIK DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKOHOL

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    Bakti Jos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF CINNAMON OLEORESIN FROM CINNAMON BARK USING ALCOHOLS AS SOLVENTS. Cinnamon oleoresin is a complex mixture of resin and essential oil extracted from cinnamon burmanii by using organic solvent, and is primarily used as a coloring and flavoring in food products. Major component in essential oil is cinnamic aldehyde. Extraction was usually performed by percolation or soxhlet with various solvents. Several studies on the extraction of oleoresin have been completed by using polar organic solvents. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS solvents, which are safe to use in food, were considered as alternative extraction solvents. Hildebrand solubility parameter concept was also used to choose the solvent. In this research, oleoresin from cinnamon was extracted by using ultrasound assisted extraction. Methanol, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol were used as the solvent to determine the extraction time, extraction rate and the kinetic model correspond to the yield of oleoresin. The result showed that the optimal time and extraction intensity are 66 minutes and 20% respectively, oleoresin yield by using solvent extraction of methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol were 22.86%, 17.87%, and 14.64% respectively. The results were similar compared to conventional extraction. Kinetic study confirmed that the second-order kinetic model is suitable for this research and the extraction rate constant for the second-order kinetic model of these solvents were 0.098, 0.057, and 0.089 respectively.  Abstrak  Oleoresin kayu manis merupakan campuran komplek antara resin dan minyak atsiri sebagai hasil ekstraksi kayu manis dengan menggunakan pelarut organik. Oleoresin banyak digunakan sebagai pewarna dan flavor dalam industri makanan. Komponen utama dalam minyak atsiri kayu manis adalah cinnamic aldehyde. Pada umumnya ekstraksi kayu manis menggunakan cara perkolasi atau soxhlet dengan berbagai pelarut. Beberapa studi ekstraksi oleoresin yang

  10. EFFECT OF REMOVING OLEORESIN WITH VARIOUS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF KERUING WOOD (DIPTEROCARPUS SPP.

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    Bambang Wiyono

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Keruing  (Dipterocarpus spp.  was  the  second  important  wood  export of   Indonesia. Unfortunately, this wood contains oleoresin that hinders its utilization. Currently, the method used to remove oleoresin from keruing is by soaking it into bollied sodium salt solution. Result of  this method is unsatisfactory because the residual heavy oleoresin might still appear on the wood surface. The study was conducted to determine suitable chemical compounds for removing oleoresin from keruing, and the effects on physical and mechanical properties of the wood. Four types of chemical compounds were tested, i.e. sodium chloride, oxalic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid, each at the concentrations of  0.5 percent, 1.0 percent, and 1.5 percent. Wood samples were soaked in the boiling solution at different concentration level for seven hours. When the solution cooled down, the oleoresin exudated out of  the wood samples was separated. The oleoresin was weighed for recovery determination after air dried, and the wood samples were cut into smaller-sized specimens for the physical and mechanical testing (MOE, MOR, compression parallel to grain, hardness and density. Results showed that sulfuric acid was the best chemical compound for removing oleoresin, and the higher the concentration the greater the oleoresin recovery. The second best chemical compound was nitric acid at an optimum concentration of one percent. The soaking of keruing in sulfuric acid and oxalic acid solution resulted in paler wood color compare with the untreated wood sample. Nitric acid solutions caused the color of the wood surface to turn into yellow brownish. The physical and mechanical properties (MOE, MOR, compression parallel to grain, hardness and density of the oleoresin-removed keruing were slightly lower than the untreated (control samples.

  11. Paraquat Induced Changes in Reserve Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids and Oleoresin Content of Young Slash Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claud L. Brown; Terry R. Clason; Jerry L. Michael

    1976-01-01

    Paraquat was fed into the terminal leaders of five-year-old slash pine trees and collected at weekly intervals for 4 weeks.Cytological observations showed a decrease in starch levels and a corresponding increase in content of oleoresin. Quantitative analysis indicated a decrease in starch accompanying increases in fatty acids, monoterpenes, and resin acids.

  12. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  13. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  14. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of oleoresin obtained from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Fabaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovana A G; da Silva, Nazaré C; de Souza, Juarez; de Oliveira, Karen R M; da Fonseca, Amanda L; Baratto, Leopoldo C; de Oliveira, Elaine C P; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; Moraes, Waldiney P

    2017-01-15

    In view of the wide variety of the flora of the Amazon region, many plants have been studied in the search for new antimalarial agents. Copaifera reticulata is a tree distributed throughout the Amazon region which contains an oleoresin rich in sesquiterpenes and diterpenes with β-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oleoresin has demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Leishmania amazonensis. Because of this previously reported activity, this oleoresin would be expected to also have antimalarial activity. In this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of C. reticulata oleoresin. In vitro assays were done using P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains and the human fibroblast cell line 26VA Wi-4. For in vivo analysis, BALB/c mice were infected with approximately 10 6 erythrocytes parasitized by P. berghei and their parasitemia levels were observed over 7 days of treatment with C. reticulata; hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed at the end of experiment. The oleoresin of C. reticulata containing the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (41.7%) and β-bisabolene (18.6%) was active against the P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains (IC 50  = 1.66 and 2.54 µg/ml, respectively) and showed low cytotoxicity against the 26VA Wi-4 cell line (IC 50  > 100 µg/ml). The C. reticulata oleoresin reduced the parasitemia levels of infected animals and doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg/day reached a rate of parasitemia elimination resembling that obtained with artemisinin 100 mg/kg/day. In addition, treatment with oleoresin improved the hypoglycemic, hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters of the infected animals. The oleoresin of C. reticulata has antimalarial properties and future investigations are necessary to elucidate its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins increase intestinal microbiome and necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho; Kim, Geun Bae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David M

    2015-10-01

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compositions were quite distinct depending on the broiler breed type. In the absence of oleoresin diet, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was decreased in infected Cobb, and increased in Ross and Hubbard, compared with the uninfected. In the absence of oleoresin diet, all chicken breeds had a decreased Candidatus Arthromitus, while the proportion of Lactobacillus was increased in Cobb, but decreased in Hubbard and Ross. Oleoresin supplementation of infected chickens increased OTUs in Cobb and Ross, but decreased OTUs in Hubbard, compared with unsupplemented/infected controls. Oleoresin supplementation of infected Cobb and Hubbard was associated with an increased percentage of gut Lactobacillus and decreased Selenihalanaerobacter, while Ross had a decreased fraction of Lactobacillus and increased Selenihalanaerobacter, Clostridium, Calothrix, and Geitlerinema. These results suggest that dietary Capsicum/Curcuma oleoresins reduced the negative consequences of NE on body weight and intestinal lesion, in part, through alteration of the gut microbiome in 3 commercial broiler breeds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. OPTIMASI PROSES PEMBUATAN BUBUK OLEORESIN LADA (Piper nigrum MELALUI PROSES EMULSIFIKASI DAN MIKROENKAPSULASI (Optimization Process Production Powder of Oleoresin Pepper (Piper nigrum by Process of Emulsification and Microencapsulation

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    Firdaus Syafi'i

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the quality of pepper product by optimize process of emulsification and microencapsulation. The experimental design used in this study was Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The results showed that the selected emulsifier was arabic gum that had the highest solubility in water (99.78%. The optimum point of emulsification occured at 15% of concentration arabic gum and 4 minutes of homogenization time with the result was solubility in water 99.80%, and emulsion stability 97.78%. The optimum point of microencapsulation process occured at 3:1 of maltodextrin and sodium caseinate ratio, 10% of coating material concentration, and 180°C of drying temperature with the result was essential oil content 1.04%, solubility in water 98.18%, surface oil 0.20%, water content 2.45%, oil recovery 77.07%, and the yield of microcapsule 69.87% Keywords: Pepper oleoresin, RSM, emulsification, microencapsulation ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas mutu produk oleoresin lada melalui optimasi proses emulsifikasi dan mikroenkapsulasi. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahan pengemulsi yang terpilih adalah gum arab yang memiliki kelarutan tertinggi dalam air (99,78%. Titik optimum proses emulsifikasi terjadi pada konsentrasi gum arab 15% dan lama homogenisasi 4 menit yang memberikan nilai kelarutan dalam air 99,80% dan stabilitas emulsi 97,15%. Titik optimum proses mikroenkapsulasi terjadi pada rasio maltodekstrin dan natrium kaseinat (3:1, konsentrasi bahan penyalut 10%, dan suhu inlet pengeringan 180°C yang memberikan nilai kadar minyak atsiri 1,04%, kelarutan dalam air 98,18%, kadar surface oil 0,20%, kadar air 2,45%, oil recovery 77,07%, dan rendemen 69,87% Kata kunci: Oleoresin lada, RSM, emulsifikasi, mikroenkapsulasi

  17. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    interviewed and 100 resin trees were measured to examine factors affecting resin productivity. Forest-adjacent households were highly dependent on resin extraction for cash income. Households spent an average of 105 days annually on resin extraction. The mean annual household gross-income derived from liquid...... resin was USD 3,236. Solid resin contributed only a small part of household incomes except for the most remote and isolated village, Spong, in which solid resin contributed significantly to the gross-income. Resin trees yielded an average of 18 liters of oleoresin per year according to interview......The genus Dipterocarpus is the main source of marketable liquid oleoresin, which is important as a source of income for forest communities in Southeast Asia. However, deforestation and illegal as well as legal logging pose a threat to resin yielding species (Dipterocarpus spp.). There is still more...

  18. The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

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    Horváth Zs. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

  19. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

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    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  20. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

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    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THE OLEORESIN OF Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.

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    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. oleoresin (gum extracts were used against the skin allergies, diarrhea, dysentery, astringency and is wide spread in different parts of Eastern Ghats of Southern Peninsular India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and phytochemical activity of resin extract against pathogenic microorganisms. Successive petroleum ether, methanol, benzene and aqueous extracts of Shorea robusta resin were tested for their phytochemical constituents, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to be most effective against most of the tested organisms. The results confirmed the potency of this plant in the indigenous systems of medicine.

  2. Chemical analysis of turmeric from Minas Gerais, Brazil and comparison of methods for flavour free oleoresin

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    Cyleni R. A. Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa L cultivated in eight different cities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil was carried out. The levels of curcuminoid pigments varied from 1.4 to 6.14 g/100 g and of volatile oil from 0.97 to 7.55 mL/100 g (dry basis. Samples from Patrocínio, Arinos and Brasilândia contained higher pigment levels compared to the others. The sample from Patrocínio contained the highest volatile oil content. The mean levels of ethyl ether extract, protein, fiber, ash and starch were 8.51, 7.01, 7.22, 7.81 and 39.87 g/100 g dry basis, respectively. Laboratory extraction of flavour free oleoresin was performed in triplicate. A higher yield of pigment in the oleoresin was obtained when the volatile oil was extracted with water vapor and the oleoresin with ethanol. The oleoresin obtained was free of flavour and could be used in a wider range of food applications.Análise química de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L provenientes de oito municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil foi efetuada. Os teores (base seca de pigmentos curcuminóides variaram de 1,4 a 6,14 g/100 g e os de óleo volátil, de 0,97 a 7,55 mL/100 g. Amostras de Patrocínio, Arinos e Brasilândia continham os maiores teores de pigmentos e as de Patrocínio os maiores teores de óleos voláteis. Os teores médios (base seca de extrato etéreo, proteínas, fibras, cinzas e amido encontrados foram 8,51; 7,01; 7,22; 7,81 e 39,87 g/100 g, respectivamente. Com o objetivo de obter corante amarelo isento de flavor, métodos de extração em laboratório foram comparados em triplicata. Um maior rendimento de pigmento na oleoresina foi obtido extraindo-se o óleo volátil com vapor d'água e a oleoresina com etanol. A oleoresina obtida é isenta de flavor e pode ser utilizada em um número maior de aplicações na indústria alimentícia

  3. The transfer of natural Rhodamine B contamination from raw paprika fruit to capsicum oleoresin during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Lian, Yunhe; Du, Jingjing; Tie, Xiaowei

    2017-12-15

    Occurrence of Rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in paprika caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process has been reported. It may transfer during the process of active compounds extraction, and eventually exist in final products. Herein, the re-distribution of RhB during the extraction process was assessed in terms of RhB contents, as well as mass, color value and capsaicinoids yield of each process. Results revealed that natural RhB contamination at 0.55-1.11µg/kg originated from raw paprika fruit then transferred with the extraction proceeded. About 95.5% of RhB was found in red oleoresin. After separation of red oleoresin, 91.6% of RhB was remained in capsicum oleoresin, only 3.7% in paprika red. These results were consistent with total capsaicinoids recovery of each product. The RhB levels in edible capsicum oleoresin in our present study at 0.01-0.34µg/kg did not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile and Nonvolatile Constituents and Antioxidant Capacity of Oleoresins in Three Taiwan Citrus Varieties as Determined by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

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    Min-Hung Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco, Tankan (C. tankan Hayata, and Murcott (C. reticulate × C. sinensis face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to extract oleoresin from the peels of the three citrus varieties, adding alcohol as a solvent assistant to enhance the extraction rate. The supercritical fluid extraction was fractionated with lower terpene compounds in order to improve the oxygenated amounts of the volatile resins. The contents of oleoresin from the three varieties of citrus peels were then analyzed with GC/MS in order to identify 33 volatile compounds. In addition, the analysis results indicated that the non-volatile oleoresin extracted from the samples contains polymethoxyflavones (86.2~259.5 mg/g, limonoids (111.7~406.2 mg/g, and phytosterols (686.1~1316.4 μg/g. The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation, which test the oleoresin from the three kinds of citrus, exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The component polymethoxyflavones contributed the greatest share of the overall antioxidant capacity, while the limonoid and phytosterol components effectively coordinated with its effects.

  5. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N; Parducci V, Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L; Setzer, William N

    2017-09-23

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger , and Cryptococcus neoformans . Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p -cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p -cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans , with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (-)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil.

  6. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  7. MICROENCAPSULATION OF TURMERIC OLEORESIN IN BINARY AND TERNARY BLENDS OF GUM ARABIC, MALTODEXTRIN AND MODIFIED STARCH

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    Diana Maria Cano-Higuita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spray-drying is a suitable method to obtain microencapsulated active substances in the powdered form, resulting in powders with improved protection against environmental factors as well as with higher solubility in water, as in the case of turmeric oleoresin. The present study investigated the spray-drying process of turmeric oleoresin microencapsulated with binary and ternary mixtures of different wall materials: gum Arabic, maltodextrin, and modified corn starch. A statistical simplex centroid experimental design was used considering the encapsulation efficiency, curcumin retention, process yield, water content, solubility, and particle morphology as the analyzed responses. Wall matrices containing higher proportions of modified starch and gum Arabic resulted in higher encapsulation efficiency and curcumin retention, whereas the process yield and water content increased with higher proportions of maltodextrin and gum Arabic, respectively. Regression models of the responses were obtained using a surface response method (ANOVA way, showing statistical values of R2 > 0.790. Also, mean analysis was carried out by Tukey's test, permitting to observe some statistical differences between the blends

  8. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of spent turmeric oleoresin, a by-product from curcumin production industry

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    Suresh V Nampoothiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of spent turmeric oleoresin (STO. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of STO evaluated by α - amylase and α - glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays. The antioxidant capacity studied by DPPH. , ABTS., superoxide radical scavenging and metal chelating activity methods. Results: The STO showed good antidiabetic activity by inhibiting key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, viz α -glucosidase and α -amylase with an IC50values of 0.71 and 0.16毺 g/mL respectively. The IC50 values for DPPH. and ABTS. assay were 58.1 and 33 毺 g/mL respectively. STO effectively scavenged the superoxide free radical with an IC50 value of 61.5毺 g/mL and showed a moderate iron chelation property. Conclusions: The above study reveals that the spent turmeric oleoresin being wasted at present can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic agent in food and neutraceutical products.

  9. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria

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    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−-copalic acid (CA was the most active, displaying a very promising MIC value (3.1 µg mL−1; 10.2 µM against the key pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis involved in this infectious disease. Moreover, CA did not exhibit cytotoxicity when tested in human fibroblasts. Time-kill curve assays performed with CA against P. gingivalis revealed that this compound only inhibited the growth of the inoculums in the first 12 h (bacteriostatic effect. However, its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. It was also possible to verify an additive effect when CA and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHD, positive control were associated at their MBC values. The time curve profile resulting from this combination showed that this association needed only six hours for the bactericidal effect to be noted. In summary, CA has shown to be an important metabolite for the control of periodontal diseases. Moreover, the use of standardized extracts based on copaiba oleoresin with high CA contents can be an important strategy in the development of novel oral care products.

  10. Evaluation of the oxidative stability of Chipotle chili (Capsicum annuum L. oleoresins in avocado oil

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    L. Cerecedo-Cruz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. (Chipotle chili is a natural source of bioactive metabolites with antioxidant properties. The objective of this research was to obtain and characterize the oxidative stability under storage of Chipotle chili oleoresins extracted with cold-pressed avocado oil. The most efficient conditions obtained to extract carotenoids and phenolic compounds were at 1:3 ratio (chipotle chili: avocado oil; w:v at room temperature in darkness during 48 h. At the end of the harshest conditions (45 °C, 30 days, the extracts were stable to lipid oxidation with a final Totox value of 27.34, a carotenoid preservation of 85.6%, antioxidant activity retention of 80.66% and a color change (ΔE of 1.783. The kinetic constants obtained were higher for peroxide formation than for carotenoid degradation. The oleoresins obtained could be considered an economic and sustainable alternative to extract carotenoids with good oxidation stability that could be used in foodstuffs.

  11. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION OF COPAIBA OLEORESIN BETWEEN VALLEYS AND HILLSIDES OF THE MINING AREA OFTROMBETAS RIVER - PARÁ1

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    Jonas Gebara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN. We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58% produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.

  12. In vitro studies of the antibacterial activity of Copaifera spp. oleoresins, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a hemodialysis unit

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    Rosimara Gonçalves Leite Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. Methods The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei, C. reticulata, and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Fractionated Inhibitory Concentration Index were determined; the ability of the tested compounds/extracts to inhibit biofilm formation was evaluated by calculating the MICB50 and IC50. Results C. duckei was the most efficient among the assayed Copaifera species, and its oleoresin was more effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Copaifera oleoresins and disinfectants did not act synergistically at any of the tested combinations. Certain of C. duckei oleoresin, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite concentrations inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated 50% of the biofilm population. Conclusion C. duckei oleoresin is a potential candidate for disinfectant formulations. Based on these results and given the high incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients, it is imperative that new potential antibacterial agents like C. duckei oleoresin, which is active against Staphylococcus, be included in disinfectant formulations.

  13. In vitro studies of the antibacterial activity of Copaifera spp. oleoresins, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosimara Gonçalves Leite; Moraes, Thaís da Silva; Silva, Larissa de Oliveira; Bianchi, Thamires Chiquini; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pires, Regina Helena; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei , C. reticulata , and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Fractionated Inhibitory Concentration Index were determined; the ability of the tested compounds/extracts to inhibit biofilm formation was evaluated by calculating the MICB 50 and IC 50 . C. duckei was the most efficient among the assayed Copaifera species, and its oleoresin was more effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Copaifera oleoresins and disinfectants did not act synergistically at any of the tested combinations. Certain of C. duckei oleoresin, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite concentrations inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated 50% of the biofilm population. C. duckei oleoresin is a potential candidate for disinfectant formulations. Based on these results and given the high incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients, it is imperative that new potential antibacterial agents like C. duckei oleoresin, which is active against Staphylococcus , be included in disinfectant formulations.

  14. Antimicrobial wound dressing films containing essential oils and oleoresins of pepper encapsulated in sodium alginate films

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    Jessica Miranda Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Medicated wound dressings are important barriers to avoid contamination and, when they contain antimicrobial additives, can be used as treatment for infected wounds. There are several types of polysaccharide materials that serve as matrices for medicated wound dressings, among them, sodium alginate. For the preparation of the films studied in this paper, sodium alginate was employed in combination with essential oils/oleoresins (EO/OL of six peppers that are commonly used in cooking. The EO/OL were incorporated at three different concentrations (low, intermediate and high. Most of the films prepared had better dispersion of the EO/OL at the intermediate concentration. All films studied in this research were dissolved in water at different rates. The antibacterial activity of the prepared films showed significant results against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and demonstrated that the films studied may be a new alternative for medicated wound dressings.

  15. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

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    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  16. Resin acids as the potential growth-affecting component of pine oleoresin

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    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonvolatile fraction of the oleoresin of Pinus sihestris L. was found to contain substances which inhibit growth of wheat ceoleoptile and oat mesocotyl sections in standard bioassays. The inhibition is mainly confined to the fraction of resin acids. Among the seven authentic resin acids tested, the effects of dehydroabietic and abietic acids were most sifgnificant. Palustric, pimaric and isopimaric acids were not effective in the wheat coleoptile section straight growth test. None of the substances, in the amounts tested, except for extremely high concentration, exerted an inhibitory effect on natural or IAA-induced elongation of pine hypocotyl sections. Neither was an inhibitory effect discovered in the microbiological test with the Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. The results obtained with pine hypocotyl sections, allow the conclusion that resin acids interfering with the results of standard bioassays are probably not effective as inhibitory factors in the regulation of pine tissue growth.

  17. Composition of oleoresins from two kinds of chili pepper (habanero and tabasco) obtained by lixiviation with organic solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Gallego, Mauricio; Llanos Ríos, Natalia; Fonseca Echeverri, Carlos Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. In the development of new processes and ingredients for food industry, extraction techniques allow us to obtain active principles from natural products, good for human consuming and strongly related to the tendency towards a healthier and free of contaminants feeding. Oleoresins from vegetables allow us to work with dye and aromatic components (as in the case of peppers, for which, extraction with organic solvents is a common practice that must be refi...

  18. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ginger Oleoresin Alleviated γ-Ray Irradiation-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species via the Nrf2 Protective Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaihua; Li, Qing; Shi, Yang; Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing

    2017-01-01

    Unplanned exposure to radiation can cause side effects on high-risk individuals; meanwhile, radiotherapies can also cause injury on normal cells and tissues surrounding the tumor. Besides the direct radiation damage, most of the ionizing radiation- (IR-) induced injuries were caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which possess self-renew and multilineage differentiation capabilities, are a critical population of cells to participate in the regeneration of IR-damaged tissues. Therefore, it is imperative to search effective radioprotectors for hMSCs. This study was to demonstrate whether natural source ginger oleoresin would mitigate IR-induced injuries in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We demonstrated that ginger oleoresin could significantly reduce IR-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA strand breaks. In addition, the ROS-scavenging mechanism of ginger oleoresin was also investigated. The results showed that ginger oleoresin could induce the translocation of Nrf2 to cell nucleus and activate the expression of cytoprotective genes encoding for HO-1 and NQO-1. It suggests that ginger oleoresin has a potential role of being an effective antioxidant and radioprotective agent. PMID:29181121

  20. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

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    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  1. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  2. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

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    Lia P. NOBREGA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.O gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pertence à família Zingiberacea. É uma especiaria de grande importância comercial. Neste trabalho realizou-se extrações da oleoresina de gengibre com etanol, isopropanol e dióxido de carbono líquido e comparou-se a composição química de cada um dos extratos. A oleoresina obtida tem componentes das classes dos monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em todas as amostras. Ácidos carboxílicos foram encontrados nos extratos obtidos com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 2 horas. Os componentes que dão a característica pungente à oleoresina, os gingerois, foram detectados nas amostras obtidas com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 6 horas e, nas amostras obtidas com CO2 líquido, com 2 horas de extração.

  3. Extraction and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin using an aqueous two-phase system combined with chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Lu, Yan-Min; Yu, Bin; Tan, Cong-Ping; Cui, Bo

    2017-09-15

    Capsaicin was extracted from capsicum oleoresin using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of an ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer, salt and ethanol. Capsaicin was concentrated in the top polymer-rich phase. To determine the optimal conditions, the partitioning of capsaicin in the ATPS was investigated, considering a single-factor experiment including the salt concentration, polymer concentration, buffer pH, ethanol concentration, sample loading and extraction duration. Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effects of the polymer concentration, buffer pH and sample loading on capsaicin partitioning. A capsaicin yield of 95.5% was obtained using the optimal extraction system, which consisted of 16.3% UCON 50-HB-5100/10% K 2 HPO 4 /1% ethanol, a buffer pH of 4.35 and 0.24g of capsicum oleoresin. Capsaicin was purified from the capsaicinoid extract using a two-step macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) method. After purification using non-polar MAR ADS-17, the recovery and purity of capsaicin were 83.7% and 50.3%, respectively. After purification using weakly polar MAR AB-8, the recovery and purity of capsaicin were 88.0% and 85.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  5. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  6. Inclusion Complexes of Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne Oleoresin and Cyclodextrins: Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Jonas Gabriel de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CMO, which presents anti-inflammatory activity, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD by kneading (KND and slurry (SL methods. Physicochemical characterization was performed to verify the occurrence of interactions between CMO and the cyclodextrins. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO alone as well as complexed with CDs. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of inclusion complex of CMO with both β-CD and HP-β-CD by KND and SL methods. Carrageenan-induced paw edema test showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO was maintained after complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD, where they were able to decrease the levels of nitrite and myeloperoxidase. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to produce inclusion complexes of CMO with CDs by KND and SL methods without any change in CMO’s anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Preservation Effect of Two-Stage Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Burmanii) Oleoresin Microcapsules On Vacuum-Packed Ground Beef During Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfiana, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (0%, 0.5% and 1%) on the TPC (Total Plate Count), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), pH, and RGB color (Red, Green, and Blue) of vacuum-packed ground beef during refrigerated storage (at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days). This study showed that the addition of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules affected the quality of vacuum-packed ground beef during 16 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that the TPC value of the vacuum-packed ground beef sample with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules was lower than the value of control sample. The TPC value of the control sample, sample with additional 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were 5.94; 5.46; and 5.16 log CFU/g respectively. The TBA value of vacuum-packed ground beef were 0.055; 0.041; and 0.044 mg malonaldehyde/kg, resepectively on the 16th day of storage. The addition of two-stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules could inhibit the growth of microbia and decrease the oxidation process of vacuum-packed ground beef. Moreover, the change of vacuum-packed ground beef pH and RGB color with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were less than those of the control sample. The addition of 1% microcapsules showed the best effect in preserving the vacuum-packed ground beef.

  8. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices.

  9. Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity during treatment with azathioprine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, O.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in four patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity before and during treatment with azathioprine were estimated. It was found that the number of Leu 6+ Langerhans cells decreased during therapy. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, DR+, and Leu M2+ cells in the blood and a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, and DR+ cells in the skin. Concomitantly with the changes in the number of immunocompetent cells, the eczema cleared

  10. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

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    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  11. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and annotation of lodgepole pine and oleoresin-induced expressed sequences from the blue-stain fungus Ophiostoma clavigerum, a Mountain Pine Beetle-associated pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuistini, Scott; Ralph, Steven G; Lim, Young W; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette

    2007-02-01

    Ophiostoma clavigerum is a destructive pathogen of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in western North America. It is therefore a relevant system for a genomics analysis of fungi vectored by bark beetles. To begin characterizing molecular interactions between the pathogen and its conifer host, we created an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection for O. clavigerum. Lodgepole pine sawdust and oleoresin media were selected to stimulate gene expression that would be specific to this host interaction. Over 6500 cDNA clones, derived from four normalized cDNA libraries, were single-pass sequenced from the 3' end. After quality screening, we identified 5975 high-quality reads with an average PHRED 20 of greater than 750 bp. Clustering and assembly of this high-quality EST set resulted in the identification of 2620 unique putative transcripts. BLASTX analysis revealed that only 67% of these unique transcripts could be matched to known or predicted protein sequences in public databases. Functional classification of these sequences provided initial insights into the transcriptome of O. clavigerum. Of particular interest, our ESTs represent an extensive collection of cytochrome P450 s, ATP-binding-cassette-type transporters and genes involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis. These results are discussed in the context of detoxification of conifer oleoresins and fungal pathogenesis.

  13. Antibacterial and Barrier Properties of Gelatin Coated by Electrospun Polycaprolactone Ultrathin Fibers Containing Black Pepper Oleoresin of Interest in Active Food Biopackaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johana Figueroa-Lopez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of using electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL as a barrier coating and black pepper oleoresin (OR as a natural extract on the morphology, thermal, mechanical, antimicrobial, oxygen, and water vapor barrier properties of solvent cast gelatin (GEL. The antimicrobial activity of the developed multilayer system obtained by the so-called electrospinning coating technique was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus strains for 10 days. The results showed that the multilayer system containing PCL and OR increased the thermal resistance, elongated the GEL film, and significantly diminished its permeance to water vapor. Active multilayer systems stored in hermetically closed bottles increased their antimicrobial activity after 10 days by inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This study demonstrates that addition of electrospun PCL ultrathin fibers and OR improved the properties of GEL films, which promoted its potential use in active food packaging applications.

  14. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of isomers β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in copaiba oleoresin using the Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; de Souza Anselmo, Carina; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira

    2013-12-01

    The sesquiterpene isomers, β-Cariofileno (CAR) and α-Humuleno (HUM) are the primary constituents of the copaiba oleoresin species. These natural products are primarily used by the Amazonian population and marketed as phytotherapies and cosmetics. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method that simultaneously assays the isomers present in copaiba oleoresins by high performance liquid chromatography using the Box-Behnken design. After preliminary studies, the reverse phase chromatographic system was selected using a cyano column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer. The Box-Behnken design was applied at three levels and with four independent variables: flow rate (X1), gradient slope time (X2), proportion of organic compounds at the end of the gradient (X3) and at the beginning of the gradient (X4). Also, the responses of the dependent variables: CAR retention time (Y1) and the resolution between the CAR and HUM peaks (Y2) was assessed. The mathematical model obtained from the regression results was satisfactory (R(2)>0.98, n=27) and showed a quadratic relationship where the effects of interactions between the variables, was observed by response surface graphs. The simultaneous optimization method was used to establish the best compromise of the resolution between the CAR and HUM isomers while adjusting the retention time of CAR. This method was successfully optimized by BBD obtaining chromatographic peaks with good symmetry, resolution and separation efficiency. The validation of the developed method confirmed its specificity, precision, accuracy and linearity in the range of 5.0-11.0 and 0.4-1.0μg/mL for CAR and HUM, respectively, and is considered suitable for routine applications which assure quality control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  16. Funcionalidade da oleoresina de páprica microencapsulada em goma-arábica e amido de arroz/gelatina Functionality of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin in arabic gum and rice starch/gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Barbosa Santos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a funcionalidade da oleoresina de páprica microencapsulada em goma-arábica e amido de arroz/gelatina, incorporada nos sistemas-modelo bolo e gel de gelatina. Avaliou-se a cor por meio de medida instrumental e aceitação sensorial por atributos de aparência e aceitação global. O pigmento encapsulado solubilizou-se, tingiu e se distribuiu uniformemente nos bolos, os quais apresentaram boa aceitação global. Nos géis, a goma apresentou desempenho superior ao amido/gelatina quanto à aparência, porém, todos os tratamentos obtiveram baixa aceitação global. A presença da oleoresina microencapsulada não interferiu negativamente no sabor, aroma ou textura dos sistemas analisados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the functionality of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin in arabic gum and rice starch/gelatin incorporated into the model systems: cake and gelatin gel. The systems were evaluated by instrumental color and consumer test based on the appearance and global acceptance attributes. The encapsulated pigment successfully dyed the cakes as well as was uniformly distributed into the products, showing good sensory acceptance. In the gels, a superior performance was obtained when using arabic gum, however all treatments applied for gels showed low global sensory acceptance. The presence of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin had no negative effect on taste, flavor or texture of analyzed systems.

  17. Avaliação do efeito antifúngico do óleo resina e do óleo essencial de copaíba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne Evaluation of the antifungal effect of oleoresin and essential oil of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.A Deus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Óleo de Copaifera multijuga Hayne, in natura e as frações foram avaliados quanto às suas atividades fungitóxicas, frente a cinco espécies de fungos filamentosos do gênero Aspergillus e três espécies de leveduras do gênero Candida. Concentrações de óleo resina e de óleo essencial na faixa de 0,08 mg mL-1a 1,6 mg mL-1 foram usadas para as análises qualitativa e quantitativas. As amostras foram dispostas sobre discos de papel de 5 mm de diâmetro e distribuídos sobre o meio Saboraud em placas de Petri, inoculadas com esporos dos microrganismos e incubadas a 28ºC durante 10 dias. Utilizou-se uma solução com 1,6 mg mL-1 de nitrato de miconazol como controle positivo. Os resultados qualitativos mostraram que o óleo resina apresentou boa atividade, porém uma das frações do óleo essencial se mostrou altamente efetivo contra C. parapsilosis IOC - 2882, A.flavus IOC-3874 e A. tamarii IOC-187 com halos de inibição de 16,0±1,4 mm, 19,5±2,1 mm e 12,5±3,5 mm, respectivamente. Já a avaliação quantitativa mostrou que 0,3 mg mL-1 do óleo resina inibiu o crescimento de A. flavus e C. parapsilosis, enquanto que 0,08 mg mL-1 da fração do óleo essencial atingiu esta mesma atividade.Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil in natura and its fractions were evaluated as to their fungitoxic activities against five filamentous fungus species belonging to the genus Aspergillus and three yeast species of the genus Candida. Oleoresin and essential oil concentrations ranging from 0.08 mg mL-1 to 1.6 mg mL-1 were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses. The samples were placed onto 5mm-diameter paper discs distributed on Sabouraud's medium in Petri dishes inoculated with spores of the microorganisms and incubated at 28ºC for 10 days. A solution containing 1.6 mg mL-1 miconazole nitrate was used as positive control. Qualitative results showed that the oleoresin presented good activity, while a fraction of the essential oil was highly effective

  18. Análise físico-química do óleo-resina e variabilidade genética de copaíba na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós Physico-chemical analysis of the oleoresin and genetic variability of copaiba in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederly Santos Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o óleo-resina da copaíba (Copaifera reticulata e estimar, por meio de marcadores microssatélites, a variabilidade genética da espécie na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, PA. A amostragem foi realizada em duas áreas, distanciadas de 5 km, em 136 árvores. A diversidade genética foi avaliada com seis marcadores microssatélites derivados de C. langsdorffii, e o óleo obtido de 30 árvores (15 de cada área foi caracterizado em termos físicos e químicos. O óleo C. reticulata apresenta aspecto líquido, fino, odor fraco e de coloração amarelo-dourada (73,3% das plantas, com viscosidade muito variável (18 a 187 Pa-s e densidade média de 0,975±0,049 g cm-3. O índice de acidez variou de 9,62 a 10,17 mg g-1 de KOH e o de saponificação de 100,63 a 109,84 mg g-1. A análise molecular identificou 78 alelos, com média de 13 por loco. A heterozigosidade esperada variou 0,59 a 0,85 (média de 0,75, com nível de endogamia de 0,375 a 0,419. Houve pouca diferenciação genética entre as populações das diferentes áreas de coleta (F ST = 0,030, mas a variabilidade foi maior entre os grupos genéticos detectados pelo programa Structure (F ST = 0,070. Essa maior variabilidade indica que não há ameaças à conservação genética da copaíba, em médio prazo.The objective of this work was to characterize the oleoresin of copaiba (Copaifera reticulata and to estimate genetic variability of the species in the Tapajós National Forest, PA, Brazil, using microsatellite markers. Sampling was performed in two areas, 5 km apart, in 136 trees. Genetic diversity was evaluated with six microsatellite markers derived from C. langsdorffii, and the oleoresin obtained from 30 trees (15 from each area was physically and chemically characterized. Oleoresin from C. reticulate has a liquid, thin aspect, with a weak odor and yellowish-gilded color (73.3% of the plants, highly variable viscosity (18 to 187 Pa-s, and mean

  19. The Application of Modified Soybean Protein Isolate on the Microencapsulation of Black Pepper Oleoresin by Complex Coacervation%改性大豆分离蛋白在黑胡椒油树脂复凝聚微胶囊制备中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙欣; 黄国清; 肖军霞

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,soybean protein isolate (SPI) was mixed with xylose in different mass ratios and then allowed to react at 90 ℃ for 6 h to yield the Maillard reaction-modified SPI.The resultant Maillard reaction products were collected and used to microencapsulate black pepper oleoresin through coacervation with chitosan.The effects of SPI to xylose mass ratio in the Maillard reaction on the microencapsulation performance and thermal stability of the resultant microcapsules were studied.The results indicated that the SPI to xylose mass ratio of 2∶1 contributed to the highest microencapsulation efficiency,microencapsulation yield,and oleoresin retention against the 8 h-storage in 80 ℃,with values of up to 67.8%,72.07% and 75.06% respectively.Compared with native SPI,the modification greatly improved the thermal stability and microstructure compactness of the microcapsules according to thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope observation.Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry showed that the microcapsules prepared with Modified SPI was more effective in retaining volatile compounds especially alkenes.This work provided a theory basis for extending the application of SPI and increasing the stability of black pepper oleoresin microcapsules.%将大豆分离蛋白(soybean protein isolate,SPI)与木糖按不同质量比混合,于90℃下反应6h,得到美拉德反应改性的SPI,再以改性SPI和壳聚糖为复合壁材,通过复凝聚法制备黑胡椒油树脂微胶囊,研究改性SPI对黑胡椒树脂微胶囊包埋效果、热稳定性等性质的影响.结果表明,当SPI/木糖质量比为2:1时,黑胡椒油树脂微胶囊的包埋效率、产率及80℃下加热8h后的保留率最高,分别为67.8%、72.07%和75.06%.热重分析表明,与天然SPI相比,改性SPI进一步提高了黑胡椒油树脂微胶囊的热稳定性,扫描电镜分析则表明改性SPI使微胶囊的微观结构更加致密;气相色谱-质谱分析表明

  20. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  1. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L. Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum sativum L. Cumin (cummin) Cuminum cyminum L. Curacao orange peel (orange...

  2. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum... Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves...

  3. Cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic effects of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk oleoresin methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirian, M; Behrooeian, M; Ghanadian, M; Dana, N; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, H

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, play an important role in some diseases such as cancer and its metastasis. Using angiogenesis inhibitors, therefore, is one of the ways for cancer treatment and prevention of metastasis. Medicinal plants have been shown to play a major role in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this direction, cytotoxic and angiogenic effects of oleo gum resin extracts of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk from Anacardiaceae family were studied. For IC50 values, cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated at different concentrations (1, 10, 20, 40, 80,100 μg/ml) against human umbilical vein endothelial normal cell (HUVEC) and Y79 cell lines using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro tube formation on matrigel base was used to evaluate angiogenic effects in the presence of increasing concentrations (50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of the extracts. Vascular endothelium growth factor was used as angiogenesis stimulator. Gas chromatography results showed that α-pinene and β-pinene were the major essential oils constituents of all plant extracts. According to the MTT assay results, the R. coriaria resin extract was more cytotoxic than those of P. vera and P. khinjuk extracts (IC50, 9.1 ± 1.6 vs 9.8 ± 2.1 and 12.0 ± 1.9, respectively; P<0.05). Cytotoxic effects of all extracts against Y79 cell line was significantly higher than those of HUVEC used as a normal cell line (P<0.05). Tube formation assay also showed that extract of R. coriaria resin inhibited angiogenesis more significantly than other tested extracts (P<0.05). It could be concluded that R. coriaria resin extract possess cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenesis against cancer cells and as an anticancer natural product has a good potential for future studies.

  4. Oleoresin Capsicum has Potential as a Rodent Repellent in Direct Sedding Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1998-01-01

    Direct seeding of southern pines has been a versatile and inexpensive alternative to planting on many reforestation sites across the South. Successful direct seeding has required that seeds be coated with thiram to repel birds, and with endrin to repel rodents. Endrin, which is extremely toxic, is no longer produced in the United States. Therefore, a substitute is...

  5. Near-Critical Extraction of Pigments and Oleoresin from Stinging Nettle Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Bártlová, Milena; Opletal, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-224 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Urtica dioica leaves * carbon dioxide * carotenoids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2004

  6. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    observation time was too late to observe any effect , or the rabbit is not a good model for the skin irritating effect of PAVA. In an irritation study...exposures to OC, including effects on the skin of workers handling chili peppers, did not report any cases of sensitization (Stopford, 2004). This...Capsaicinoids No studies evaluating GI tract effects were identified for PAVA. Ingestion of OC (in the context of natural pepper products, such as chili

  7. CONTRIBUTION DE LA RMN 13C A L'ANALYSE D'HUILES ESSENTIELLES ET D'OLEORESINES : CARACTERISATION DE GENEVRIERS ET DU PIN MARITIME DE CORSE

    OpenAIRE

    Ottavioli , Joséphine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize various plants growing wild in Corsica (juniper, maritime pine) through the composition of their essential oils and resins. For this, we used various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, including an analytical method for complex natural mixtures based on 13C NMR spectroscopy, developed in our laboratory. Thus, we showed various aspects of this method of analysis by 13C NMR through i) the study of essential oils of the genus Cymbopogon,...

  8. Immune role of gut microbiota and effect of dietary capsicum and turmeric oleoresins on Necrotic enteritis susceptibility in three commercial broiler chicken breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is among the most economically important enteric diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. In an effort to develop alternatives to antibiotics strategies to reduce the negative impact of NE to gut health, we investigated the efficacy of a dietary phytonutrient mixtu...

  9. Effect of dietary capsicum and turmeric oleoresins on host-pathogen interaction in experimental necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler chicken breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is among the most economically important enteric diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. In an effort to develop alternatives to antibiotics strategies to reduce the negative impact of NE to gut health, we investigated the efficacy of dietary phytonutrient mixture...

  10. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  11. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other bacterial cultures Luncheon meat, hot ... Cream of tartar Lactic acid (however, lactic acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium ...

  12. Development of Antimicrobial Biocomposite Films to Preserve the Quality of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Lopez, Kelly J; Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita María; Torres-Vargas, Olga Lucía

    2018-01-19

    This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ), and black pepper ( Piper nigrum ) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into the films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, seal strength and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased the elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining bread's quality characteristics.

  13. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W. R.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported in four research areas of solar bioconversion. The first program deals with the genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture, haploid cell lines, and somatic hybridization. The second deals with the physiology of paraquat-induced oleoresin biogenesis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the other two program areas: biochemical basis of paraquat-induced oleoresin production in pines and biochemistry of methanogenesis. (JSR)

  14. Rising trade, declining stocks: The global gugul (Commiphora wightii) trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Kulloli, R N; Schippmann, U

    2018-05-07

    Commiphora wightii is exploited in India and Pakistan for an oleo-resin (gum guggul) traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medical systems. Processed C. wightii oleo-resin products are exported from India to 42 countries, including re-export to Pakistan, for anti-inflammatory use and as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-obesity treatment considered to lower cholesterol and lipid levels. The C. wightii export trade has particular relevance to the European Union because Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom are importing countries. Demand and prices for C. wightii oleo-resin are increasing and wild stocks of C. wightii are in decline. The overexploitation of C. wightii after tapping for its commercially valuable oleo-resin is not a new problem, however, but one that has existed for over 50 years. Lopping and chopping trees to extract C. wightii oleo-resin has had a devastating impact on C. wightii populations since the 1960's. The aim of this study was to review the sustainability of the global trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. This included reviewing studies on resin tapping methods and the impacts of wild harvest on C. wightii populations in India and Pakistan. Firstly, we reviewed studies on impacts of C. wightii oleo-resin harvest and on the policy responses taken in relation to harvest and trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. Secondly, we reviewed studies on C. wightii cultivation. Thirdly, global trade data for C. wightii were analyzed. Destructive harvest to obtain the gum is the major threat facing this species. C. wightii populations are also fragmented by habitat loss through clearing for farming. Cutting and lopping in order to extract the medicinal gum are a major threat to C. wightii populations, as is poor recruitment due to grazing by livestock. As a result of over-exploitation, C. wightii oleo-resin production has declined in India. In Gujarat, a key production area, the decline over a 50-year period has

  15. Reference Genes for qPCR Analysis in Resin-Tapped Adult Slash Pine As a Tool to Address the Molecular Basis of Commercial Resinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pine oleoresin is a major source of terpenes, consisting of turpentine (mono- and sesquiterpenes and rosin (diterpenes fractions. Higher oleoresin yields are of economic interest, since oleoresin derivatives make up a valuable source of materials for chemical industries. Oleoresin can be extracted from living trees, often by the bark streak method, in which bark removal is done periodically, followed by application of stimulant paste containing sulfuric acid and other chemicals on the freshly wounded exposed surface. To better understand the molecular basis of chemically-stimulated and wound induced oleoresin production, we evaluated the stability of 11 putative reference genes for the purpose of normalization in studying Pinus elliottii gene expression during oleoresinosis. Samples for RNA extraction were collected from field-grown adult trees under tapping operations using stimulant pastes with different compositions and at various time points after paste application. Statistical methods established by geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares were consistent in pointing as adequate reference genes HISTO3 and UBI. To confirm expression stability of the candidate reference genes, expression profiles of putative P. elliottii orthologs of resin biosynthesis-related genes encoding Pinus contorta β-pinene synthase [PcTPS-(−β-pin1], P. contorta levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (PcLAS1, Pinus taeda α-pinene synthase [PtTPS-(+αpin], and P. taeda α-farnesene synthase (PtαFS were examined following stimulant paste application. Increased oleoresin yields observed in stimulated treatments using phytohormone-based pastes were consistent with higher expression of pinene synthases. Overall, the expression of all genes examined matched the expected profiles of oleoresin-related transcript changes reported for previously examined conifers.

  16. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  17. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose.

  18. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  19. SENYAWA BIOAKTIF RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscue MENINGKATKAN RESPON SITOLITIK SEL NK TERHADAP SEL KANKER DARAH K-562 IN VITRO [Ginger Root Bioactive Compounds Increased Cytolitic Response of Natural Killer (NK Cells Against Leucemic Cell Line K-562 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria 2

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell, a kind of lymphocyte cells, plays an important role in attacking infectious, immature, and cancer cell. Its function could be modulated by food bioactive compounds. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger root bioactive compounds such as oleoresin, gingerol, and shogaol on cytolitic response of NK cell in vitro. Lymphocyte cells were isolated by centrifugation on ficoll-hypaque density (1,77 ?0,001 g/ml method. Leukemic cells line K-562 as target cells(TC labelled by [3H]-timidin, together with lymphocyte as effector cell (EC were cultured in two ratio levels of EC : TC equal to 1:50 and 1:100, and two culture conditions, for 4 hours, respectively. Paraquate dichloride (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridilium dichloride 3 mM was used to induce stress oxidative circumstance. Cytolytic capacity of NK cells was determined by percentage of TC lysed by NK cells, in normal and oxidative stress conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of ginger bioactive compounds on cytolytic response of NK cell depended on the culture conditions, as shown by cultures in the presence of oleoresin, and gingerol, but not shogaol. In the lymphocyte culture without stress oxidative, oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol compounds increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC : EC equal to 1:50, with the highest increament of 65 % at oleoresin concentration of 50 ?g/ml. However, in culture at a ratio of TC : EC equals to 1:100, only oleoresin at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells with the highest increament of 8 %. Shogaol did not affect significantly NK cells cytolytic response. Under stress oxidative conditions, shogaol increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC:EC equal to 1:50, but the highest increament of 56 % , was by oleoresin at concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Meanwhile, oleoresin and gingerol did

  20. Variation in monoterpene content among geographic sources of eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Gilmore; J.J. Jokela

    1977-01-01

    Variations of monoterpenes in cortical oleoresins and foliar samples were determined for seed from 16 provenances of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The experiment was analyzed using the "raw" and the arcsine "transformed" data. Alpha-pinene, camphene, and β-pinene varied between seed sources when "raw" data were analyzed...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil...

  2. 29 CFR 501.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... borders of MSAs are not controlling in the identification of the normal commuting area; a location outside... Employer Identification Number (FEIN). Federal holiday. Legal public holiday as defined at 5 U.S.C. 6103... commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original...

  3. 20 CFR 655.1300 - Overview of subpart B and definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... place of intended employment. The borders of MSAs are not controlling in the identification of the... Identification Number (FEIN). Employment Standards Administration (ESA) means the agency within DOL that includes..., in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and gum...

  4. 29 CFR 502.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment. The borders of MSAs are not controlling in the identification of the normal commuting area; a... Certification, a valid Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN). Employment Service (ES) refers to the... commodity includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree...

  5. Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Adriano L.; Baptistela, Lucia H.B.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    A novel ent-dinorlabdane ({iota})-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known ({iota})-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)

  6. Capsicum annum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Nowadays, it is almost impossible to imagine the dishes of Asia and Pacific region ... In addition to having major role in Ethiopians daily dish, it also plays an important role in ... oleoresin, is exported to different countries and the spiced ground is .... Island (the largest of Spain's seven Canary Islands) were reported to be ...

  7. Processing of spruce and larch resins to obtain balsam for the confection industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buinova, E.F.; Yaremchenko, N.G.; Izotova, L.V.; Lepeiko, A.G.; Meteshkina, L.P.; Zhuravlev, P.I.; Chumakov, V. A.; Nikiforova, V.N.; Krylova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Modified balsam was prepared by esterification of purified and precipitated larch or spruce oleoresins with glycerol at 255-265 degrees for 4-6 hours. The modified balsams, which were obtained in 55-65% yield, can be used as a base for chewing gum manufacture.

  8. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present therein...

  9. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  10. The effect of plant extracts fed before farrowing and during lactation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of plant extracts (XTRACT. 6930), consisting of 5.4% (wt/wt) carvacrol (oregano), 3.2% cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) and 2.2% capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper), on piglet and sow performance when used as dietary supplements to the sows.

  11. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  12. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of spice. ...

  13. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

  14. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins, flammable solvents, water) are not included... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... changed-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India with...

  15. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... About 0.5 g of the extract was dissolved in 2 ml of glacial acetic acid containing .... this observation, G. kola extract compared favourably with the .... lactone and other volatile constituents of the oleoresin from seeds of. Garcinia ...

  16. East African Journal of Sciences (2009) Volume 3 (2) 189-192 Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    global spice trade and is also known as “black gold” , valued for its multiple ... and sauces, while white pepper is used primarily in cases where dark ... fertile forest soil, very suitable for coffee and perennial .... market standard range. Oleoresin ...

  17. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmad Mohamed; Shalaby, Hatem Abdel Mawgoud; El Khateeb, Rabab Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mona Said; Kutkat, Mohamed Abdel Aziz

    2013-06-01

    To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid(®)), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid(®) oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  18. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  19. Development of the gaharu oil quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Gaharu (Agar wood) is a secondary metabolite produces by the Aquilaria spp. and accumulates in the plant cell in oleoresin form. The essential oil known as gaharu oil can be extracted from this oleoresin gaharu via varies extraction method such as the water distillation, solvent extraction, pressurize extraction and etc. The gaharu oil extracted through different methods will give different fragrances. Besides, different source of materials will also give different in chemical profiles. In gaharu oil trading market, most of the buyers request quality assurance from the gaharu oil manufacturer to assure the gaharu oil purchased meets their standard requirement. Since there is a demand on gaharu oil quality assurance then it become a need to develop the gaharu oil quality control method in order to have a standard quality control of gaharu oil presented in a certificate of analysis and verified by laboratory. (author)

  20. Extración y cuantificación de capsacina a partir de cinco especies nativas del género Capsicum existentes en el Ecuador mediante cromatografía líquida de alta definición

    OpenAIRE

    Balseca Álvarez, Diana Aurelia; Rivadeneira Herrera, Lorena Anabel

    2013-01-01

    Pepper genetic resources are important for being a natural source of capsaicin. The information about the magnitude of this feature in chili are scarce native Ecuador. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify capsaicin oleoresin Capsicum species in populations collected in the provinces of Loja, Santo Domingo de la Tsáchilas, Esmeraldas, Los Ríos and Morona Santiago. A pharmacognosy study the dry fruit of the five representative species of the genus Capsicum (C. baccatum, C. chinens...

  1. ESSENTIAL OILS AND NATURAL ZEOLITE INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Hengl

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin), Arom Korm ® (ess...

  2. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  3. Cooking loss, tenderness, and sensory evaluation of chicken meat roasted after wrapping with edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközet, Ahmet Oktay; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, edible films were produced from sodium caseinate and a sodium caseinate-starch mixture and with or without oleoresins (cumin and oregano oleoresin mixture). Chicken meat was wrapped in the respective films, stored at 4 ℃ for four days, and roasted at 200 ℃ for 30 min. The cooking loss, color changes, instrumental tenderness (shear force and energy) were measured. In addition, sensory evaluation was performed. All films effectively reduced cooking loss from chicken meat. The sodium caseinate-starch-based films were the most successful in preventing cooking loss. The average shear force and shear energy values of the wrapped samples were about 40% and 30% less than those of control samples, respectively. In sensory evaluation, chicken meat roasted after wrapping with the films was considered more tender and delicious than the control. Particularly, chicken meat wrapped with the films containing oleoresin mixture was assessed as the most delicious among the samples. It was shown that the cooking quality of the chicken meat could be significantly improved by pre-wrapping the meat with edible films.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  5. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  8. EXTRAÇÃO DE OLEORESINA DE CÚRCUMA (Curcuma longa L COM CO2 SUPERCRÍTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luis M. CHASSAGNEZ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as fontes de corantes naturais mais utilizadas na indústria de alimentos, encontra-se a cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L, um rizoma do qual podem ser obtidas substâncias como a curcumina, demetoxicurcumina e bis-demetoxicurcumina. Estes pigmentos possuem coloração amarela e capacidade de substituir corantes artificiais. Com a finalidade de verificar a influência do pré-tratamento de secagem na extração, foram realizados experimentos de extração de oleoresina de cúrcuma com CO2 supercrítico, na unidade de extração do Laboratório de Engenharia Química da Universidade Federal do Pará, submetendo-se a matéria-prima a uma secagem nas temperaturas de 70 e 105oC. As extrações foram feitas a pressões de 200, 250 e 300 bar, e na temperatura de 45oC. Os resultados estão apresentados em tabelas e gráficos, em termos de rendimentos totais e teor de curcumina presente na oleoresina. A secagem a 70oC favoreceu a extração de oleoresina em termos de tempo de extração, e contribuiu para a manutenção de curcumina na matéria-prima.Turmeric (Curcuma longa L is one of the most used source of natural color in the food industry. Curcuminoids can be obtained from the roots of this plant. These pigments impact a yellow color and they might be able to substitute synthetic dyes. Turmeric oleoresin extraction experiments have been carried out with supercritical CO2 to investigate the influences of the pretreatment of the rhizomes on oleoresin. The extractions were conducted at the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Federal University of Pará (Universidade Federal do Pará. Turmeric was dried at 70ºC and 105ºC. Extractions have been carried out at pressures of 200, 250 and 300 bar and a temperature of 45ºC. Results shown the total yield and the content of curcumin present in the oleoresin. Amount of oleoresin extracted from the material dried at 70ºC was larger while most of the curcuminoids remained in the solid material.

  9. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  10. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  11. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens and Lafoensia pacari and oil resins from Copaifera sp. and Pterodon emarginatus against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marques Faria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In vitro bioassay using Sarcoptes scabiei as a test microorganism is a viable method of study for diverse drugs with acaricidal properties. A great amount of assays proves the diverse and efficient biological activity of extracts and compounds from Brazilian savanna plants. This study had as main object, test and compare the acaricidal activity of four Brazilian Cerrado bioproducts: Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart., Copaifera sp., Lafoensia pacari A. St Hil. and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, 1837. To perform this test S. scabiei mites were collected from crusts removed on ears of highly infected sows. The mites were selected and separated in Petri dishes with three different concentrations (25, 50 and 75% of each bioproduct, to evaluate their potential acaricidal activity. The mortality of the mites was counted in each Petri dish every hour, during five hours. The statistical analyses demonstrated differences between the bioproducts tested. The oleoresin of Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus presented the best results with 100% of mites mortality after treatment. The ethanolic extracts of S. adstringens and L. pacari demonstrated lower acaricidal activity when compared to the oleoresins, with little or no difference among the control groups tested. This bioassay demonstrated to be efficient, reliable, low cost and easy accomplishment. Oil resins from Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus have in vitro acaricidal activity against adult females of S. scabiei var. suis.

  12. Radiation sterilization of red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.; Ogbadu, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of radapertization using 60Co gamma radiation on the chemical and organoleptic properties of ground and whole dry pungent red pepper has been investigated. The fungal population was eliminated with a dose of 7.5 kGy and a dose of 10 kGy was required to radapertize the samples. Irradiation up to 10 kGy did not produce any significant (P 0.05) changes in the contents of capsaicin and carbohydrate. Oleoresin content was significantly (P 0.05) increased from 24.45 to 31.61% and lipid from 16.80 to 19.30%. The observed effect on apparent oleoresin and lipid contents was due to enhanced extractability. Storage time had no effect on the sensory properties of the spice but rather enhanced microbial load reduction in the medium dose (5.0 and 7.5 kGy) treated samples. A dose of 10 kGy has been certified to pose no health hazard to humans; hence decontamination of red pepper with up to 10 kGy gamma radiation does not require any further toxicological study and is therefore recommended

  13. Biomass chemicals: improvement in quality and quantity with physiological regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuth, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The search for alternative biomass energy forms has centered on two approaches: (1) production of cellulose fiber in biomass of low net energy value per unit weight, such as wood and bagasse, and (2) hydrocarbons of high net energy value per unit weight for use as chemical feedstocks and substitutes for petroleum. Major plant chemical products include oleoresin from pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. palustris Mill.) rubber from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.), and guayule shrub (Parthenium argentatum Gray) and sugar from sugarcane (Saccharum species). Ethylene may be a unifying natural bioregulator that can increase deposition of biomass chemicals in all four of these systems. Examples of bioregulators include the use of paraquat, diquat, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) for stimulating the synthesis of oleoresin, CEPA for prolonging the flow of rubber and increasing rubber synthesis in the rubber tree, and triethylamines of chlorinated phenoxy compounds for stimulating rubber production in guayule. In sugarcane, gibberellic acid (GA3) increases internodal elongation. Glyphosate, CEPA and other regulators increase the deposition of sucrose, diquat and CEPA inhibit flowering, and paraquat desiccates leaves to facilitate leaf removal or burning just prior to harvest. The cellular compartmentalization for the synthesis of these plant chemicals is unique for each species, and dictates cultural and harvest techniques. The mode of action and pathways for the success of these physiological regulators are discussed. 42 references.

  14. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gaharu, from the metabolomic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Agarwood, one of the timber woody plant which has the similar response as grand fir toward external invasion and is able to produce oleoresin as the secondary metabolite from plant defense system to inhibit the invader and heal the wound. Species of agarwood found in Malaysia is known as Aquilaria malaccensis, and locally known as karas or depu. A. malaccensis is valuable due to its oleoresin (gaharu). Gaharu is a product produced in the secondary metabolic pathway known as terpenoid synthesis pathway. In order to switch on this pathway, the plant defense system need to be induced and lead to the octadecanoid pathway where the linolenic acid (LA) converts to jasmonic acid (JA). Jasmonic acid is the major key to switch the plant metabolic pathway from primary metabolic pathway to secondary metabolic pathway. To prove this hypothesis, some researches on molecular study such as gene expression and protein expression are conducted to identify key components, which will lead to the manipulation of the metabolic pathway. (Author)

  16. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  17. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  18. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Progress is reported in this multidisciplinary research program. Genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture systems leading to cloning of diploid and haploid cell lines are discussed in the Program A report. The physiological basis of enhanced oleoresin formation in southern pines when treated with sublethal concentrations of the herbicide paraquat was investigated in Program B. In Program C, metabolic changes in the stems of slash pine, in vivo, after application with paraquat were determined. The use of phdoem and xylem tissue slices as a laboratory model for studying paraquat associated- and normal-terpene synthesis in pines is discussed. The biochemistry and physiology of methane formation from cellulose during anaerobic fermentation are discussed in the Program D report. (DMC)

  19. Characterization and Identification of Natural Terpenic Resins employed in “Madonna con Bambino e Angeli” by Antonello da Messina using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural resins were frequently employed as adhesives or as components of oleo-resinous media in paintings in the past. The identification of vegetable resins is still an open problem. The aim of this paper is to analyze by GC-MS some vegetable resins frequently employed in paintings, such as Venice turpentine, dammar, copal, elemi in order to identify their main component in raw and aged samples. Some molecules are proposed as chemical “markers” to identify these natural resins. Results The results obtained on standards allowed us to successfully analyze sample collected from one work of art: the Madonna with the Infant and Angels by Antonello da Messina (XV century. Conclusion The results obtained confirm that the painting the artist originally used a mixture of linseed oil and natural resin (Venice turpentine as binding medium.

  20. Susceptibility of three clinical isolates of Actinomodura madurae to α-pinene, the bioactive agent of Pinus pinaster turpentine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro susceptibility of the turpentine oil obtained from Pinus pinaster oleoresin was evaluated against three Sudanese clinical isolates of Actinomadura madurae, which is the main causative agent of actinomycetoma. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oil ranged from 100.3 to 124.8 μL/mL, and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs were between 100.3 and 150.0 μL/mL. α-Pinene exhibited prominent bioactivity with MICs ranging between 3.3 and 5.0 μL/mL, while its MMC was 10.0 μL/mL against the same clinical isolates. Pinus pinaster turpentine oil and α-pinene might be useful agents in the treatment of mycetoma caused by A. madurae.

  1. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  2. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  3. The decrease in aqueous tear production associated with pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rifat; Kukner, Amber Senel; Sengul, Elvan Alper; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Temizsoylu, Onur; Bahcecioglu, Halil Onder

    2015-04-01

    Pepper spray is used both by civilians and by law enforcement. Burning sensation occurs when exposed to skin, pain and temporary blindness occurs when exposed to the eyes. This study focused on the effect of pepper spray on lacrimal tear production and subsequently on corneal sensitivity in a large group after an intense exposure. Ninety-six people who were exposed to pepper spray during the Gezi park protests volunteered. Subjects were asked if they wore any protective goggles and if they irrigated their eyes after exposure. They were asked to record their symptoms regarding dry eye in a standardized questionnaire. Schirmer I and II tests were performed. Eighty-two people wore protective goggles during exposure, whereas 14 people did not have any protection. Both Schirmer results in unprotected subjects were significantly lower than that in protected subjects. Schirmer I and II results of unprotected subjects were not statistically different, whereas they were statistically different in protected subjects. Thirty-five percent of unprotected subjects and 24% of protected subjects expressed symptoms of dry eye. The active ingredient of pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum. It is randomly diffused to polymodal nerve terminals, leading to opening of non-selective cationic channels and block neuronal transmission. The lower results of both Schirmer in unprotected group emphasize the importance of a protective Google glass around the eyes during exposal, serving as a barrier minimalizing the contact of the spray with the eyes. The combination of the low results and lack of symptoms could suggest that corneal reflex lacrimation in our subjects was not abundant enough. The findings of this study could not fully represent long term findings but it could be assumed that our findings could be indicative of the sensory denervation and alterations demonstrated in studies investigating the long term effects of oleoresin capsicum.

  4. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  5. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Kumar, A; Zachariah, T J

    2014-04-01

    To isolate, fermentatively evaluate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)-associated bacteria for the microbial decortication of fresh ripened berries and dried black pepper for preparation of off-odour-free white pepper. Among 45 bacterial isolates obtained from black pepper, seven of them were found to decorticate black pepper (>60%) and fresh pepper berries (98-100%) into white pepper within 5 days of immersion in bacterial suspension. The 16S rRNA genes (1500-bp amplicon) of these bacteria were sequenced, and species identity was established by closest match in GenBank. Superior-quality white pepper was obtained with Bacillus subtilis (IISR WP 33, 34, 38), Bacillus licheniformis (IISR WP 43), Acinetobacter baumanii (IISR WP 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (IISR WP 19) and Microbacterium barkeri (IISR WP25). The bacterial isolates were found to secrete multiple hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase, protease and xylanase. Bacterial cultures were deposited with International Depository Authority at Microbial Type Culture Collection, India, as patent deposits as prescribed in Budapest Treaty for microbial deposits. The white pepper, thus obtained from bacterial decortication process, was free from off-odour compound, especially skatole. Other biochemical constituents such as oleoresin, piperine and essential oils were found in the acceptable range. The bacterial decortication did not affect inherent constituents of pepper such as essential oil constituents, oleoresin and piperine content. One of the most significant findings of the work is identification of specific bacterial species for decortication of fresh berries or black pepper berries into value-added white pepper. This work paved way for developing a technological process for microbial decortication of fresh/black pepper for the production of superior-quality white pepper. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A conceptual framework: Redefining forest soil's critical acid loads under a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, Steven G.; Boggs, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Federal agencies of several nations have or are currently developing guidelines for critical forest soil acid loads. These guidelines are used to establish regulations designed to maintain atmospheric acid inputs below levels shown to damage forests and streams. Traditionally, when the critical soil acid load exceeds the amount of acid that the ecosystem can absorb, it is believed to potentially impair forest health. The excess over the critical soil acid load is termed the exceedance, and the larger the exceedance, the greater the risk of ecosystem damage. This definition of critical soil acid load applies to exposure of the soil to a single, long-term pollutant (i.e., acidic deposition). However, ecosystems can be simultaneously under multiple ecosystem stresses and a single critical soil acid load level may not accurately reflect ecosystem health risk when subjected to multiple, episodic environmental stress. For example, the Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina receive some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States, but these levels are considered to be below the critical acid load (CAL) that would cause forest damage. However, the area experienced a moderate three-year drought from 1999 to 2002, and in 2001 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in the area began to die in large numbers. The initial survey indicated that the affected trees were killed by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). This insect is not normally successful at colonizing these tree species because the trees produce large amounts of oleoresin that exclude the boring beetles. Subsequent investigations revealed that long-term acid deposition may have altered red spruce forest structure and function. There is some evidence that elevated acid deposition (particularly nitrogen) reduced tree water uptake potential, oleoresin production, and caused the trees to become more susceptible to insect colonization during the drought period

  7. Antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.

  8. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  9. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E., E-mail: anne.ware@nrel.gov; Sykes, Robert [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Peter, Gary F. [School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Davis, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  10. In vitro propagation of Rauwolfia serpentina using liquid medium, assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants, and simultaneous quantitation of reserpine, ajmaline, and ajmalicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, M K; Mehrotra, S; Kukreja, A K; Shanker, K; Khanuja, S P S

    2009-01-01

    Rauwolfia serpentina holds an important position in the pharmaceutical world because of its immense anti-hypertensive properties resulting from the presence of reserpine in the oleoresin fraction of the roots. Poor seed viability, low seed germination rate, and enormous genetic variability are the major constraints for the commercial cultivation of R. serpentina through conventional mode. The present optimized protocol offers an impeccable end to end method from the establishment of aseptic cultures to in-vitro plantlet production employing semisolid as well liquid nutrient culture medium and assessment of their genetic fidelity using polymerase chain reaction based rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. In vitro shoots multiplied on Murashige and Skoog basal liquid nutrients supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene (1.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.1 mg/L) and in-vitro rhizogenesis was observed in modified MS basal nutrient containing NAA (1.0 mg/L) and 2% sucrose. In-vitro raised plants exhibited 90-95% survival under glass house/field condition and 85% similarity in the plants regenerated through this protocol. Field established plants were harvested and extraction of indole alkaloid particularly reserpine, ajmaline and ajmalicine and their simultaneous quantitation was performed using monolithic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  11. Conifer Diterpene Resin Acids Disrupt Juvenile Hormone-Mediated Endocrine Regulation in the Indian Meal Moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Woo; Yun, Chan-Seok; Jeon, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Ji-Ae; Park, Doo-Sang; Ryu, Hyung Won; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Shin, Yunhee; Jung, Chan Sik; Shin, Sang Woon

    2017-07-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are important components of oleoresin and greatly contribute to the defense strategies of conifers against herbivorous insects. In the present study, we determined that DRAs function as insect juvenile hormone (JH) antagonists that interfere with the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC). Using a yeast two-hybrid system transformed with Met and SRC from the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella, we tested the interfering activity of 3704 plant extracts against JH III-mediated Met-SRC binding. Plant extracts from conifers, especially members of the Pinaceae, exhibited strong interfering activity, and four active interfering DRAs (7α-dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, and sandaracopimaric acid) were isolated from roots of the Japanese pine Pinus densiflora. The four isolated DRAs, along with abietic acid, disrupted the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of P. interpunctella Met and SRC, although only 7-oxodehydroabietic acid disrupted larval development. These results demonstrate that DRAs may play a defensive role against herbivorous insects via insect endocrine-disrupting activity.

  12. Genome and transcriptome analyses of the mountain pine beetle-fungal symbiont Grosmannia clavigera, a lodgepole pine pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Liao, Nancy Y; Taylor, Greg; Tanguay, Philippe; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Chan, Simon K; Hesse-Orce, Uljana; Alamouti, Sepideh Massoumi; Tsui, Clement K M; Docking, Roderick T; Levasseur, Anthony; Haridas, Sajeet; Robertson, Gordon; Birol, Inanc; Holt, Robert A; Marra, Marco A; Hamelin, Richard C; Hirst, Martin; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette

    2011-02-08

    In western North America, the current outbreak of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its microbial associates has destroyed wide areas of lodgepole pine forest, including more than 16 million hectares in British Columbia. Grosmannia clavigera (Gc), a critical component of the outbreak, is a symbiont of the MPB and a pathogen of pine trees. To better understand the interactions between Gc, MPB, and lodgepole pine hosts, we sequenced the ∼30-Mb Gc genome and assembled it into 18 supercontigs. We predict 8,314 protein-coding genes, and support the gene models with proteome, expressed sequence tag, and RNA-seq data. We establish that Gc is heterothallic, and report evidence for repeat-induced point mutation. We report insights, from genome and transcriptome analyses, into how Gc tolerates conifer-defense chemicals, including oleoresin terpenoids, as they colonize a host tree. RNA-seq data indicate that terpenoids induce a substantial antimicrobial stress in Gc, and suggest that the fungus may detoxify these chemicals by using them as a carbon source. Terpenoid treatment strongly activated a ∼100-kb region of the Gc genome that contains a set of genes that may be important for detoxification of these host-defense chemicals. This work is a major step toward understanding the biological interactions between the tripartite MPB/fungus/forest system.

  13. Experimental results for the extraction of essential oil from Lippia sidoides cham. using pressurized carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa EMBD.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The odoriferous species Lippia sidoides Cham. is abundant in the Brazilian Northeast. Its essential oil possesses antiseptic activity due to the presence of thymol. In this work, thermodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined for the CO2 + L. sidoides system. Solubility was determined using the dynamic method at pressures of 66.7 and 78.5 bar and temperatures of 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 295.15, and 298.15 K. SFE kinetic data were obtained at 288.15 K and 66.7 bar. The composition of the multicomponent solute mixture was determined by GC-MS and compared to the composition of both the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation and the oleoresin obtained using ethanol. The SFE process yield was higher than the yield of either the steam distillation or the ethanol extraction. The solubilities were correlated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with one binary interaction parameter for the attractive term, considering the essential oil as a pseudo-component. Sovová?s model quantitatively described the overall extraction curve.

  14. Different effectiveness of two pastas supplemented with either lipophilic or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants in affecting serum as evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pasqualone, Antonella; Lenucci, Marcello S; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Pastore, Donato

    2017-04-15

    Effectiveness in improving serum antioxidant status of two functional pastas was evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance (AOB) parameter, calculated as Antioxidant Capacity (AC)/Peroxide Level ratio, assessed here for the first time. In particular, Bran Oleoresin (BO) and Bran Water (BW) pastas, enriched respectively with either lipophilic (tocochromanols, carotenoids) or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants extracted from durum wheat bran, were studied. Notably, BO pasta was able to improve significantly (+65%) serum AOB during four hours after intake similarly to Lisosan G, a wheat antioxidant-rich dietary supplement. Contrarily, BW pasta had oxidative effect on serum so as conventional pasta and glucose, thus suggesting greater effectiveness of lipophilic than hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants under our experimental conditions. Interestingly, no clear differences between the two pastas were observed, when AC measurements of either serum after pasta intake or pasta extracts by in vitro assays were considered, thus strengthening effectiveness and reliability of AOB approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gaschromatographic and mass spectroscopic investigations of tall oil rosin acids and diterpenioc compounds and modified diterpene acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, M.

    1984-12-01

    Diterpene resin acids are important constituents of the coniferous wood. The composition of these nonvolatile extractives have been studied by a number of investigations; both naturally occurring resins (oleoresin) and distillation products of the alkaline sulfate pulping process (tall oil) were analyzed. These mixtures find important uses in chemical intermediates, paper sizes, ester gums, coatings and numerous other applications. Owing to the more ameliorate physical properties a major part of tall oil resin acids is chemically modified and is used in intermediate chemicals. Such modifications are the disproportionation in the presence of certain catalysts and the formation of Diels-Alder adducts. The present study was undertaken to obtain detailed information of the overall composition of diterpenoid compounds and to achieve a separation of the complex natural and tall oil mixtures using high resolution glass capillary columns. Furthermore, one objective was to characterize the identified diterpene compounds and Diels-Alder adducts by relative retention values. Additionally the presence of some major adduct components in the modified samples was checked by comparison with pure specimens, independently synthesized or purified by crystallization and the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction was investigated. A compilation of the mass spectra of the substances detected in the different samples closes this work. (Author)

  16. Association between Aquilaria distribution, geographic characteristics, edaphic factors and water availability in natural tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Chong Saw Peng

    2006-01-01

    Oud or gaharu is a fragrant resin produced from Aquilaria trees as a response to injury, wounding and/or a fungal infection. Proliferation of Aquilaria under plantation system is essential to ensure continuous supply of gaharu. Even though the plantation of Aquilaria is aggressively conducted nowadays, there are still lack of details information and knowledge in terms of plant agronomy and oleoresin production. Understanding of plant, soil, water and environment relationship in natural habitat is important in order to provide guidelines and strategies for growers to adopt new agroforestry approaches that can lead to the best management practices for Aquilaria plantation. A study on soil physical and chemical characteristics, topographic condition, soil moisture and climate has been carried out to investigate the plant distribution pattern and resin production potential of 178 stand of Aquilaria in MINT Tech-Park tertiary forest and Gunung Tebu Forest Reserve. Result show that Aquilaria distributions concentrate at slope areas of gradient between 10 degrees to 15 degrees, the soil type is the stony low fertility sandy loam to sandy clay and this area receives a high density of rainfall which is more than 2500 mm/year. For the potential of resin production analysis, slope with high gradient show a significant potential of resin production probably due to the plant stress condition factors

  17. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity.

  18. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. [10]-gingerol induces apoptosis and inhibits metastatic dissemination of triple negative breast cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ana Carolina B M; Fuzer, Angelina M; Becceneri, Amanda B; da Silva, James Almada; Tomasin, Rebeka; Denoyer, Delphine; Kim, Soo-Hyun; McIntyre, Katherine A; Pearson, Helen B; Yeo, Belinda; Nagpal, Aadya; Ling, Xiawei; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vieira, Paulo Cézar; Cominetti, Marcia R; Pouliot, Normand

    2017-09-22

    There is increasing interest in the use of non-toxic natural products for the treatment of various pathologies, including cancer. In particular, biologically active constituents of the ginger oleoresin ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been shown to mediate anti-tumour activity and to contribute to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties of ginger. Here we report on the inhibitory properties of [10]-gingerol against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in vitro and in vivo . We show that [10]-gingerol concentration-dependently induces apoptotic death in mouse and human TNBC cell lines in vitro . In addition, [10]-gingerol is well tolerated in vivo , induces a marked increase in caspase-3 activation and inhibits orthotopic tumour growth in a syngeneic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, using both spontaneous and experimental metastasis assays, we show for the first time that [10]-gingerol significantly inhibits metastasis to multiple organs including lung, bone and brain. Remarkably, inhibition of brain metastasis was observed even when treatment was initiated after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Taken together, these results indicate that [10]-gingerol may be a safe and useful complementary therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and warrant further investigation of its efficacy, either alone or in combination with standard systemic therapies, in pre-clinical models of metastatic breast cancer and in patients.

  20. Baby Shampoo to Relieve the Discomfort of Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Winslow III

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, and tear gas (CS are used by police and the military and produce severe discomfort. Some have proposed that washing with baby shampoo helps reduce this discomfort. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine if baby shampoo is effective in reducing the severity and duration of these effects. Study subjects included volunteers undergoing OC or CS exposure as part of their police or military training. After standardized exposure to OC or CS all subjects were allowed to irrigate their eyes and skin ad lib with water. Those randomized to the intervention group were provided with baby shampoo for application to their head, neck, and face. Participants rated their subjective discomfort in two domains on a scale of 0–10 at 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. We performed statistical analysis using a two-tailed Mann-Whitney Test. Results: There were 58 participants. Of 40 subjects in the OC arm of the study, there were no significant differences in the ocular or respiratory discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=19 and intervention (n=21 groups. Of 18 subjects in the CS arm, there were no significant differences in the ocular or skin discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=8 and intervention (n=10 groups. Conclusion: Irrigation with water and baby shampoo provides no better relief from OC- or CS-induced discomfort than irrigation with water alone.

  1. Baby Shampoo to Relieve the Discomfort of Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Winslow, James E; Johnson, James C; Hill, Keith D; Bozeman, William P

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray, and tear gas (CS) are used by police and the military and produce severe discomfort. Some have proposed that washing with baby shampoo helps reduce this discomfort. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine if baby shampoo is effective in reducing the severity and duration of these effects. Study subjects included volunteers undergoing OC or CS exposure as part of their police or military training. After standardized exposure to OC or CS all subjects were allowed to irrigate their eyes and skin ad lib with water. Those randomized to the intervention group were provided with baby shampoo for application to their head, neck, and face. Participants rated their subjective discomfort in two domains on a scale of 0-10 at 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. We performed statistical analysis using a two-tailed Mann-Whitney Test. There were 58 participants. Of 40 subjects in the OC arm of the study, there were no significant differences in the ocular or respiratory discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=19) and intervention (n=21) groups. Of 18 subjects in the CS arm, there were no significant differences in the ocular or skin discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=8) and intervention (n=10) groups. Irrigation with water and baby shampoo provides no better relief from OC- or CS-induced discomfort than irrigation with water alone.

  2. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  3. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  4. Differential effect of soil and environment on metabolic expression of turmeric (Curcuma longa cv. Roma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, I S; Sanghamitra, Nayak; Sujata, Mohanty

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) is known for its uses in medicine, cosmetics, food flavouring and textile industries. The secondary metabolites of turmeric like essential oil, oleoresin and curcumin are important for its multipurpose uses. These traits of turmeric vary from place to place due to the influence of environment, soil and agro-climatic conditions. Here, we analyzed turmeric from different agroclimatic regions for influence of various factors on its growth and yield of important phytochemicals. A high curcumin yielding cultivar i.e., Roma was collected from high altitude research station, Koraput (HARS) and planted in nine agroclimatic regions of Odisha. Analysis of soil texture, pH, organic carbon, micro and macro nutrients were done from all the studied zones up to 2nd generation. Plants grown in their released station i.e., Eastern Ghat High Land showed 5% of curcumin and were taken as control. Plants grown in different agroclimatic zones showed a range of 1.4-5% of curcumin and 0.3-0.7% of rhizome essential oil and 0.3-1% of leaf essential oil content. Gas chromatography and mass spectra analysis showed tumerone and alpha phellandrene as the major compounds in all the zones with 10-20% variation. The present study will be immensely helpful for standardization and management of environmental and ecological factors for high phytochemical yield in turmeric plant.

  5. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  6. Isolation and evaluation of antiglycation potential of polyalthic acid (furano-terpene from Daniella oliveri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Atolani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A furano-diterpene (polyalthic acid was isolated as a major stable compound for the first time from the oleoresin of the Daniella oliveri of the family Caesalpiniacea through column chromatography fractionation. Polyalthic acid was characterized using data obtained from EIMS, HREIMS, ESI-MS, MALDI-MS as well as 1D and 2D NMR and it was evaluated for its potential to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs using a standard in vitro antiglycation procedure. Polyalthic acid indicated a negative antiglycation potential compared to standard inhibitor that has 85% inhibition, which is an indication that polyalthic acid may not contribute to the antiglycation activity of the plant as acclaimed in folkloric medicine. The negative antiglycation observed could indicate that the polyalthic acid could trigger glycation, thereby subjecting users to various degrees of complications. The bioactivity evaluation on molinspiration evaluator indicated that polyalthic acid could be a potential drug candidate. The biological and chemical insights gained on polyalthic acid provide a good basis for future research. Keywords: Daniella oliveria, Polyalthic acid, Furano-diterpene, Antiglycation, Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI

  7. An optimization study of solid-state fermentation: xanthophylls extraction from marigold flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Navarrete-Bolaños José; Hugo, Jiménez-Islas; Enrique, Botello-Alvarez; Ramiro, Rico-Martínez; Octavio, Paredes-López

    2004-09-01

    Marigold flowers are the main natural source of xanthophylls, and marigold saponified extract is used as an additive in several food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the use of a solid-state fermentation (ensilage) process for increasing the yield of xanthophylls extracted from fermented marigold flowers was examined. The process consisted of a mixed culture of three microorganisms (Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans), part of the normal microbiota associated with the marigold flower. These microorganisms had been previously isolated, and were identified as relevant for the ensilage process due to their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes. Based on experimental design strategies, optimum operation values were determined for aeration, moisture, agitation, and marigold-to-inoculum ratio in the proposed solid-state fermentation equipment, leading to a xanthophylls yield of 17.8-g/kg dry weight. The optimum achieved represents a 65% increase with respect to the control. HPLC analysis indicated conservation of extracted oleoresin. Based on the experimental results, interactions were identified that could be associated with the heat and mass-transfer reactions taking place within the bioreactor. The insight gained allows conditions that limit growth and metabolic activity to be avoided.

  8. The Mind of the Copaíba Tree: Notes on Extractivism, Animism, and Ontology from Southern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan DeVore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes ritualized prescriptions for harvesting oleoresin or “oil” from the copaíba tree in Brazil. These harvesting prescriptions involve increasingly complex attributions of mind to the copaíba tree itself. The copaíba tree is widespread throughout the Americas, and for centuries has been well-known for the medicinal oil that can be extracted from its trunk. In Brazil, contemporary knowledge of the copaíba tree is bound up with colonial history and what were often destructive extractivist economies. Whereas historical accounts of the copaíba tree are often limited to mechanistic descriptions for extracting oil, this article examines attributions of mind that harvesters make to the copaíba tree. These attributions can be read from procedures for extracting oil. Such procedures are concerned with moon cycles, tree marking, sexual activity, and gaze. The article shows that such prescriptions have a wide transregional and interethnic distribution, from the Amazon Basin in northern Brazil to the Atlantic Forest on Bahia’s southern coast. New evidence from southern Bahia also involves prescriptions concerning speech and naming, which presuppose that the copaíba tree is sensitive to intentionality and human language. These mind attributions are inferred through pragmatic analysis of the (ontological presuppositions that are embedded by harvesting prescriptions. The contribution concludes with reflections on the implications of this presuppositional analytic approach for debates concerned with animism and the “ontological turn.”

  9. Construction of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE equipment: validation using annatto and fennel and extract analysis by thin layer chromatography coupled to image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Flores JOHNER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work describes setting up a laboratory unit for supercritical fluid extraction. In addition to its construction, a survey of cost was done to compare the cost of the homemade unit with that of commercial units. The equipment was validated using an extraction of annatto seeds’ oil, and the extraction and fractionation of fennel oil were used to validate the two separators; for both systems, the solvent was carbon dioxide. The chemical profiles of annatto and fennel extracts were assessed using thin layer chromatography; the images of the chromatographic plates were processed using the free ImageJ software. The cost survey showed that the homemade equipment has a very low cost (~US$ 16,000 compared to commercial equipment. The extraction curves of annatto were similar to those obtained in the literature (yield of 3.8% oil. The separators were validated, producing both a 2.5% fraction of fennel seed extract rich in essential oils and another extract fraction composed mainly of oleoresins. The ImageJ software proved to be a low-cost tool for obtaining an initial evaluation of the chemical profile of the extracts.

  10. Differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Wirt, Ursula; Bamedi, Ameneh

    2002-01-02

    Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCIMS) was employed for the identification of eight lutein monoesters, formed by incomplete enzymatic saponification of lutein diesters of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) by Candida rugosa lipase. Additionally, the main lutein diesters naturally occurring in marigold oleoresin were chromatographically separated and identified. The LC-MS method allows for characterization of lutein diesters occurring as minor components in several fruits; this was demonstrated by analysis of extracts of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The assignment of the regioisomers of lutein monoesters is based on the characteristic fragmentation pattern: the most intense daughter ion generally results from the loss of the substituent (fatty acid or hydroxyl group) bound to the epsilon-ionone ring, yielding an allylic cation. The limit of detection was estimated at 0.5 microg/mL with lutein dimyristate as reference compound. This method provides a useful tool to obtain further insight into the biochemical reactions leading to lutein ester formation in plants.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites.

  12. Effect of simulated resistance, fleeing, and use of force on standardized field sobriety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Nystrom, Paul; Moore, Johanna; Steinberg, Lila; Tilton, Annemarie; Miner, James

    2015-07-01

    When a law enforcement officer (LEO) stops a suspect believed to be operating (a vehicle) while impaired (OWI), the suspect may resist or flee, and the LEO may respond with force. The suspect may then undergo a Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) to gauge impairment. It is not known whether resistance, fleeing, or actions of force can create an inaccurate SFST result. We examined the effect of resistance, fleeing, and force on the SFST. Human volunteers were prospectively randomized to have a SFST before and after one of five scenarios: (1) five-second conducted electrical weapon exposure; (2) 100-yard (91.4 m) sprint; (3) 45-second physical fight; (4) police dog bite with protective gear; and (5) Oleoresin Capsicum spray to the face with eyes shielded. The SFST was administered and graded by a qualified LEO. After the SFST, the volunteer entered their scenario and was then administered another SFST. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. SFST performance was compared before and after using chi-square tests. Fifty-seven subjects enrolled. Three received a single-point penalty during one component of the three-component SFST pre-scenario. No subject received a penalty point in any components of the SFST post-scenario (p = 0.08). This is the first human study to examine the effects of physical resistance, flight, and use of force on the SFST result. We did not detect a difference in the performance of subjects taking the SFST before and after exposure to resistance, flight, or a simulated use of force. © Australian Council for Educational Research 2014.

  13. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-01

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N 2 ), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N 2 -packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization

  14. ESSENTIAL OILS AND NATURAL ZEOLITE INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Hengl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin, Arom Korm ® (essential oil combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus limon, zeolite and a combination of zeolite with XTRACTTM or Aroma Korma ® on the fattening performance of chickens, their immunostimulating effect, the impact on the antioxidant status of the blood and muscle tissue, the impact on intestine micropopulation of chickens, effect on microbial contamination of meat, the impact on processing performances of broiler chicken and meat properties, and impact on the sensory quality of the chicken meat. The experiment was conducted on Ross 308 broilers, divided into 6 groups (control and treatment groups depending on the different supplements of essential oils, zeolites, or combinations thereof. The fattening lasted 42 days and total of 288 both sex chicks were included (48 per in each group. Influence of the addition of essential oils and natural zeolite had a different impact on the observed individual values. Separately added XTRACTTM and Aroma Korm ® had a good effect on the observed properties of fattening, the technological properties of meat, chicken health status, antioxidant parameters of blood and meat, microbiological contamination and organoleptic properties. Zeolite, as a standalone supplement, had the lowest impact on the observed properties, but in combination with Aroma Korm ® or XTRACTTM, Zeolite improved their activity.

  15. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  16. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs.

  17. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, NR; Ray, Madhur

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons. PMID:18826584

  18. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Cristine; Fontanive, Tiago Oselame; Enzweiler, Barbara Grade; de Bona, Laura Renata; Massoni, Thalita; Apel, Miriam Anders; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Richter, Marc François; Ardenghi, Patrícia; Suyenaga, Edna Sayuri

    2011-03-01

    Copaiba oil is an oleoresin made up of resin acids and volatile compounds, and it is obtained by tapping the trunks of trees that are members of the Copaifera L. (Leguminoseae) genus and are found in tropical parts of Latin America. This study analyzed the chemical composition of Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil and conducted preclinical trials to investigate anti-inflammatory effects and any action it may have on the central nervous system (CNS) of rats. The chemical analysis was carried out using gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by leucocytes mobilization, by chemotaxis assay in Boyden's chamber, and by pleurisy model in rats. CNS effect was determined by plus maze and open-field assays. The statistical test applied was analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test or ANOVA followed by Duncan's test. The oil was composed of sesquiterpenes with the predominance of β-caryophyllene (36.0%), followed by α-copaene (18.8%), β-bisabolene (8.5%), and α-trans-bergamotene (7.0%). Data demonstrated that at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses and at a concentration of 200 μl/ml copaiba essential oil presented anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro based on reduced leukocyte migration to the rats' pleural cavity and to the chemotactic agent lipopolysaccharide solution, respectively. During the experiments investigating CNS effects, locomotive and exploratory activities were reduced and the animals' anxiety increased at 100 and 200 mg/kg. The results obtained suggest that copaiba oil has an interesting anti-inflammatory effect and important effect on the CNS.

  20. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  1. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Pesticides on the Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Nathan J; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2017-06-01

    Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O. insidiosus survival and predation on western flower thrips adults under laboratory conditions. The number of live and dead O. insidiosus adults was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results of the study indicate that the fungicides (aluminum tris, azoxystrobin, fenhexamid, and kresoxim-methyl), insect growth regulators (azadirachtin, buprofezin, kinoprene, and pyriproxyfen), botanicals (Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil; and rosemary, rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and cottonseed oil), and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) were minimally directly harmful to adult O. insidiosus, with 80% to 100% adult survival. However, abamectin, spinosad, pyridalyl, chlorfenapyr, tau-fluvalinate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam directly affected O. insidiosus survival after 96 h (0-60% adult survival). The pesticide mixtures of abamectin + spinosad and chlorfenapyr + dinotefuran reduced adult survival (20% and 0%, respectively, after 48 h). Furthermore, the surfactants were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus adults. All western flower thrips adults were killed by the surviving adult O. insidiosus after 48 h, indicating no indirect effects of the pesticides on predation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-15

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N{sub 2}), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N{sub 2}-packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization.

  4. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  6. Extracción con CO2 supercrítico de oleorresina y otras fracciones de pimentón dulce y picante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Trujillo, J. Pablo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Paprika extraction by supercritical CO2 (ESCO2 dependson sample pretreatment (milling, pelletization, the static ordynamic conditions of the pressure, temperature, extraction time, solvent flow and density, the steps of the extractions, or the use of cosolvents. The best conditions according to the literature are prepelletizing samples and extracting at 40 °C in two steps: 13,8-15 MPa for aroma volatiles and β-carotene, followed by 40 MPa for other carotenoids (capsorubin,capsanthine, zeaxanthine, and β-cryptoxanthine. In general, supercritical CO2 extract better the capsaicinoids andtocopherols than the red xanthophylls. To extractcapsaicinoids, 32-40 MPa y 40-55 °C have been used, and for chlorophyll pigments in some cultivars and stages of maturity 36 MPa and 45 °C. For tocopherols, 20 MPa and 55 °C or the above conditions have been advised. Depending on the raw paprika composition and the optimum conditions used for the extraction, the yields are variable: 5,2-17,4% (total, 2-3%carotenoids, 0,7–8,6% capsaicinoids in pungent oleoresin and 370-400 μg tocopherols • g-1 oleoresin (mainly the atocopherolisomer. The recovery of the compounds ofinterest by fractionation and optimization of the raw materialand extraction process is 90-100%. Ethanol, water and aceticacid are used as cosolvents to extract capsaicinoids, and forβ-carotene the 2,2-dimethoxypropane or ESCO2 plus adsorption in silica gel. The ESCO2 allows extracting anoleoresin free from paprika contaminants. The main hazards and critical control point are derived from the high pressure of the CO2, the homogeneity of the solute distribution depending on the previous pretreatments, and the variability of the results in pigment composition compared with that obtained by means of conventional extraction, as well as the difficult to reproduce laboratory results to an industrial scale. The innovations in paprika ESCO2 extract are the aromatized extracts

  7. Morphoanatomical and physicochemical profile of Piper callosum: valuable assessment for its quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf J.F. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper callosum Ruiz & Pav., Piperaceae, popularly known as “elixir-paregórico” and “matricá” in Brazil, is used in folk medicine to treat gonorrhea, general pain, and digestive disorders, and has repellent, astringent, diuretic, depurative, and haemostatic properties. Despite the fact that this plant is sold as a traditional phytotherapeutic product, we did not find reports on its quality control. We, therefore, performed macroscopic, microscopic, histochemical, and physicochemical analyses using standard methods to establish botanical authentication and purity degree parameters for leaves and stem of this species in two forms: medicinal plant and herbal drug. We observed the size, shape, color, texture, fracture surface and transection characteristics, leaf venation patterns, and calluses are valuable diagnostic characters to identify the herbal drugs when they are not ground or powdered. Since medicinal plants and herbal drugs did not differ anatomically, the following key anatomical characters for P. callosum can be used for diagnostic purposes of both types raw plant materials: epicuticular wax and cuticular flanges patterns; collenchyma features; fibers in the midrib; arrangement pattern of the vascular bundles of the midrib and petiole; shape of the midrib, leaf margin, petiole, and stem; occurrence of raphides; and morphology of the starch grains. Acid lipids, essential oils, oleoresins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids were histochemically identified. Total ash (leaves: 11.25%; stem: 5.25%, sulphated ash (leaves: 68.02%; stem: 12.50%, acid-insoluble ash (leaves: 2.82%; stem: 0.27%, moisture (leaves: 8.60%; stem: 6.10%, loss on drying (leaves: 11.08%; stem: 8.58%, and pH (leaves: 5.57, stem: 5.28 values were determined. The order of analyzed metal levels in leaf and stem herbal drugs was Al > V > Cu > Mn > Cr > Ni. Similar levels of Cd and Co and low levels of Hg were found. The results obtained can be used as quality

  8. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOLSBY, TOMMY D.; SCOTT, STEVEN H.

    1999-01-01

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be

  9. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might

  10. Light microscopic study of the effect of new antischistosmal drug (myrrh extract) on the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; el Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of purified oleo-resin extract of myrrh derived from Commiphora molmol tree, (known as Mirazid) was studied against an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Seventy adult male mice were used in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: G.I: consisted of control noninfected nontreated mice. G.II: comprised the noninfected treated mice and was subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup II-A: included mice which received Myrrh extract dissolved in cremophore EL and subgroup II-B: included mice which were treated with cremophore EL. G.III: consisted of the infected nontreated animals and G.IV: included infected mice which were treated with myrrh extract. The drug was given 8 weeks post infection in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 successive days. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Liver paraffin sections were prepared and stained with H&E, Masson's Trichrome stain, PAS stain and Wilder's technique. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of the granulomas. Area percentage of the total collagen content around central veins as well as in portal areas was also estimated. The livers of the animals in G.II which received either myrrh extract (subgroup II-A) or cremophore EL (subgroup II-B) showed a more or less normal histological profile when compared to G.I (noninfected-nontreated group). G.IV (Infected treated G.) showed complete preservation of the hepatic architecture. Most of the hepatocytes appeared almost normal. The reticular network in the central part of the granulomas as well as in the portal tracts appeared rarefied. The hepatic reticular network was preserved. A significant decrease in the number and size of granulomas with significant reduction in the collagen content deposition in portal tracts and around central veins was detected when compared to G.III (infected nontreated mice). The data of this study proved the efficacy of myrrh as a promising

  11. Journal Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Korkut Gülmen

    1996-07-01

    ŞEN SEREBRAL ENFARKTÜS VE İNTRAKRANİYAL ARTER DİSEKSİYONU Cerebral infarction and intracranial arterial dissection in closed head injury Rutherfoord GS, Dada MA, NelJP. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996; 17(1: 53-57. Bu rapor beyin ödemi ve herniasyon ile birlikte se- rebral infarktüs sebebi ile ölen 3 kapalı kafa travması olgusunun otopsi bulgularını tanımlamaktadır. Her bir olguda enfarktüs sebebinin intrakraniyal anterior arterlerin subintimal diseksiyonu olduğu bulunmuştur. Otopsi bulguları, makroskobik olarak trombüs oluşmuş görünümdeki damarların histolojik incelemesinin önemi vurgulanmıştır. Olguların meydana gelmesini etkileyen faktörler tartışılmış, bu lezyonların gerçek patogenezindeki problemlerden kısaca bahsedilmiştir. OLEORESİN CAPSICUM (PEPPER SPREYİ VE “GÖZLEM ALTINDA ÖLÜMLER” Oleoresin Capsicum (Pepper spray and “In-custody deaths” Steffee CH, LantzPE, Flanrıagan LM, Hoomsen RL, Jason DR. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995; 16(3: 185-192. “Oleoresin Capsicum” (OC cihazlarının (örneğin., pepper spray, OC, capsaicin şüpheli şahısların ölümcül olmayan bir metot ile kontrolü için güvenlik kuvvetlerince kullanılması bu irritan maddenin (capsaicin gözlem altındaki ölümlere katkısı olabileceği sonucunu gündeme getirmiştir. Capsaicin mukozalarda nociresep- törleri uyararak özellikle konjonktivada aşırı ağrı ve bu aşırı rahatsızlık ile uyumlu fizyolojik ve davranışsal cevaplar oluşturur. Pepper spreyinin geçici olarak kullanılmasından sonra meydana gelen 2 gözlem altında ölüm olgusu sunulmuştur. Diğer gözlem altındaki ölümler gibi tam bir otopsi ve toksikolojik analiz, premortem olaylar zincirinin değerlendirilmesi, uygulamadan sonraki semptomlar, diğer doğal hastalıkların şiddeti ile ilgili bilgiler oleoresin capsicum’un ölümde ilişkisiz mi yoksa ölüme neden mi olduğunu açıklamada faydalı olacaktır. KUZEY VE BATI LONDRA’DA UYUŞTURUCU BA