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Sample records for oleoresin capsicum toxicology

  1. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  2. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  3. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P expression of 490 genes (280 up, 210 down), and feeding garlic botanical altered (P expression of 64 genes (33 up, 31 down), while feeding turmeric oleoresin altered (P expression of 327 genes (232 up, 95 down). Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa

  4. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes.

  5. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins increase intestinal microbiome and necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho; Kim, Geun Bae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David M

    2015-10-01

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compositions were quite distinct depending on the broiler breed type. In the absence of oleoresin diet, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was decreased in infected Cobb, and increased in Ross and Hubbard, compared with the uninfected. In the absence of oleoresin diet, all chicken breeds had a decreased Candidatus Arthromitus, while the proportion of Lactobacillus was increased in Cobb, but decreased in Hubbard and Ross. Oleoresin supplementation of infected chickens increased OTUs in Cobb and Ross, but decreased OTUs in Hubbard, compared with unsupplemented/infected controls. Oleoresin supplementation of infected Cobb and Hubbard was associated with an increased percentage of gut Lactobacillus and decreased Selenihalanaerobacter, while Ross had a decreased fraction of Lactobacillus and increased Selenihalanaerobacter, Clostridium, Calothrix, and Geitlerinema. These results suggest that dietary Capsicum/Curcuma oleoresins reduced the negative consequences of NE on body weight and intestinal lesion, in part, through alteration of the gut microbiome in 3 commercial broiler breeds.

  6. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  7. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  8. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  9. Isocratic non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of capsanthin and capsorubin in red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), paprika and oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, M; Schaeffler, I; Menagem, E; Barzilai, M; Levy, A

    1997-01-01

    A simple, rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method has been devised in order to separate and quantify the xanthophylls capsorubin and capasanthin present in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits and preparations made from them (paprika and oleoresin). A reversed-phase isocratic non-aqueous system allows the separation of xanthophylls within a few minutes, with detection at 450 nm, using methyl red as internal standard to locate the various carotenoids and xanthophylls found in plant extracts. The selection of extraction solvents, mild saponification conditions, and chromatographic features is evaluated and discussed. The method is proposed for rapid screening of large plant populations, plant selection, as well as for paprika products and oleoresin, and also for nutrition and quality control studies.

  10. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices.

  11. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  12. Use of spray-cooling technology for development of microencapsulated capsicum oleoresin for the growing pig as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics: a study of release using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J-P; Cardot, J-M; Manzanilla, E G; Wysshaar, M; Alric, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release microspheres of capsicum oleoresin as an alternative to in-feed additives. Two spray-cooling technologies, a fluidized air bed using a spray nozzle system and a vibrating nozzle system placed on top of a cooling tower, were used to microencapsulate 20% of capsicum oleoresin in a hydrogenated, rapeseed oil matrix. Microencapsulation was intended to reduce the irritating effect of capsicum oleoresin and to control its release kinetics during consumption by the animal. Particles produced by the fluidized air bed process (batch F1) ranged from 180 to 1,000 microm in size. The impact of particle size on release of capsaicin, the main active compound of capsicum oleoresin, was studied after sieving batch F1 to obtain 4 formulations: F1a (180 to 250 microm), F1b (250 to 500 microm), F1c (500 to 710 microm), and F1d (710 to 1,000 microm). The vibrating nozzle system can produce a monodispersive particle size distribution. In this study, particles of 500 to 710 microm were made (batch F2). The release kinetics of the formulations was estimated in a flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (CFC). The time to achieve a 90% dissolution value (T90%) of capsaicin for subbatches of F1 increased with the increase in particle size (P granulated vs. 32.4 +/- 1.4% when feed had not been granulated, which suggests that the feed granulation process could lead to a partial degradation of the microspheres and to a limitation of the sustained release effect. This study demonstrates the potential and the limitations of spray-cooling technology to encapsulate feed additives.

  13. Capsicum annum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of ... Pepper is the world second important vegetable ranking after tomatoes and it is the most ... Moisture, total, crude fat (oleoresin), crude fiber and total ash were.

  14. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  15. 21 CFR 73.615 - Turmeric oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.615 Turmeric oleoresin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive turmeric oleoresin is the combination of flavor and color principles obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turmeric oleoresin. 73.615 Section 73.615 Food...

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF GINGER OLEORESIN USING ULTRASOUND

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    Normalina Arpi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasound in extraction process creates novel and interesting methodologies, which are oftencomplementary to conventional extraction methods. In the present study, the use of ultrasound to extract oleoresin fromginger (Zingiber officinale R. was investigated. The extraction was performed by using ethanol as solvent in thepresence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at frequency of 42 kHz at extraction temperature of 60 oC. The oleoresinextracted was in the form of dark thick liquid with specific ginger flavor. Based on GC-MS analysis, the use ofultrasound was not give an effect on alteration of main component in ginger oleoresin. The main component inextracted ginger oleoresin was zingerone. Gingerol as one of the pungent principle of the ginger oleoresin was notdetected due to decomposition of gingerol at a temperature above 45 oC. Extraction rate of ultrasound-assistedextraction was about 1.75 times more rapid than a conventional system based on soxhlet. The scanning electronmicroscopy images provided more evidence for the mechanical effects of ultrasound, mainly appearing on cells’ wallsand shown by the destruction of cells, facilitating the release of their contents.

  18. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper transformatio

  19. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper

  20. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza; Angela Celis de Almeida; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Ana Paula Peron

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI). These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using...

  1. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

  2. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  3. Ekstraksi Oleoresin dari Limbah Penyulingan Pala Menggunakan Ultrasonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normalina Arpi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh ukuran partikel limbah penyulingan pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt. dan suhu ekstraksi terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin pala yang dihasilkan pada proses ekstraksi pelarut menggunakan bantuan ultrasonik. Etanol mutu teknis (technical grade digunakan sebagai pelarut. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK Faktorial dengan ulangan sebagai kelompok yang terdiri dari ukuran partikel bahan (P yaitu P1= 10 mesh, P2= 40 mesh dan P3= 60 mesh dan suhu ekstraksi (S yaitu S1= 40oC, S2= 50oC dan S3= 60oC. Analisis oleoresin pala yang dilakukan meliputi analisis awal (kadar air dan kadar abu dan analisis akhir (bobot jenis, indeks bias, dan sisa pelarut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin yang dihasilkan. Rendemen tertinggi sebesar 7,16% diperoleh pada  ukuran partikel 10 mesh dan suhu 60oC. Hasil analisis bobot jenis oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa bobot jenis tertinggi yaitu 1,250 dihasilkan pada suhu ekstraksi 50oC. Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks bias oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi memberikan pengaruh yang sangat nyata terhadap oleoresin pala dimana ukuran partikel 40 mesh pada suhu ekstraksi 40oC dan 60oC  serta ukuran partikel 60 mesh pada suhu 50oC memiliki nilai indeks bias yang lebih tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 1,476 hingga 1,480. Hasil analisis sisa pelarut juga menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap tingginya sisa pelarut, dimana ukuran partikel 10 mesh mengandung sisa pelarut 0,229% dan suhu ekstraksi 40oC mengandung sisa pelarut 0,265%.

  4. Α-Cyclodextrin encapsulation of supercritical CO₂ extracted oleoresins from different plant matrices: A stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Rizzi, Vito; De Caroli, Monica; Piro, Gabriella; Fini, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi; Mita, Giovanni

    2016-05-15

    Here we describe the encapsulation in α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) of wheat bran, pumpkin and tomato oleoresins, extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, to obtain freeze-dried powders useful as ready-to-mix ingredients for novel functional food formulation. The stability of tocochromanols, carotenoids and fatty acids in the oleoresin/α-CD complexes, compared to the corresponding free oleoresins, was also monitored over time in different combinations of storage conditions. Regardless of light, storage at 25°C of free oleoresins determined a rapid decrease in carotenoids, tocochromanols and PUFAs. α-CD encapsulation improved the stability of most bioactive compounds. Storage at 4°C synergized with encapsulation in preventing degradation of bioactives. Unlike all other antioxidants, lycopene in tomato oleoresin/α-CD complex resulted to be more susceptible to oxidation than in free oleoresin, likely due to its selective sequestration from the interaction with other lipophilic molecules of the oleoresin.

  5. New malabaricane triterpenes from the oleoresin of Ailanthus malabarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, Prabhakar S; Gattu, Rajesh Kumar; Belvotagi, Adavi Rao V; Akkinepally, Raghuram Rao; Bobbala, Ravi Kumar; Achanta, Appa Rao V N

    2015-01-01

    Ten malabaricane type triterpenes were isolated from the oleoresin of Ailanthus malabarica, out of which six (1-6) were new. For three of the known compounds (7-9), NMR assignments are being reported for the first time. Compound 10, a known one, is a new report from this source. The structures were established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The oleoresin and some of the isolates did not possess antimicrobial activity and did not lyse RBCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  7. Pepper, sweet (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Iris; Boutilier, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the low frequency of cells that are both susceptible for Agrobacterium infection and have the ability to regenerate. Here, we describe a protocol for the efficient regeneration of transgenic sweet pepper (C. annuum) through inducible activation of the BABY BOOM (BBM) AP2/ERF transcription factor. Using this approach, we can routinely achieve a transformation efficiency of at least 0.6 %. The main improvements in this protocol are the reproducibility in transforming different genotypes and the ability to produce fertile shoots. An added advantage of this protocol is that BBM activity can be induced subsequently in stable transgenic lines, providing a novel regeneration system for clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis.

  8. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins.

  9. Content of capsaicin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its use as an ecopesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleva-Gudeva Liljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest world trends in the scientific research are directed to production of secondary metabolites, their use and application. Capsaicin, the pungent principle of hot peppers is one of the best known natural compound. Nowadays, the research work is directed to the influence of capsaicin on physiological and biochemical processes of humans, animals, and recently plants as a biopesticide. Phytochemical studies of Capsicum annuum L. increase the application of secondary metabolites in pharmacy, food technology and medicine. In this paper, the possibilities of utilization of Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. for extracting capsaicin and its use as a biopesticide against the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in pepper culture are sublimed. The content of capsaicin was evaluated spectrophotometrically, and the ability of capsaicin for acting as biopesticide was calculated according to Abbott. Results showed that oleoresin from Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its dilution 1:20 are the most efficient as biopesticide. From these results we can say that this kind of peppers can be used as a raw material for extraction of capsaicin, because of its high concentration and efficiency.

  10. Capsicum sp.: diversidad y capsicinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Claver, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El género Capsicum, originario del continente americano (Andrews, 1984), comprende 33 especies (GRIN, 2014), de las cuales cinco, Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. chinense Jacq., C. frutescens L., y C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav., han sido domesticadas (Bosland, 1994; Bosland y Votaba, 2000). De ellas, C. annuum es la especie más cultivada en todo el mundo. Los restos más antiguos identificados como C. annuum, que podrían corresponder a las primeras evidencias de su domesticación, se encontra...

  11. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  12. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  13. OPTIMASI YIELD ETIL P METOKSISINAMAT PADA EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN KENCUR (Kaempferia galanga MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setyawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L. banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku obat tradisional (jamu, fitofarmaka, industri kosmetika, industri makanan, dan industri insektisida. Minyak atsiri rimpang kencur mengandung etil sinnamat dan metil p-metoksi sinamat (EPMS. Ekstraksi oleoresin kencur dilakukan dengan etanol sebagai pelarut. Optimasi yield EPMS diteliti terhadap perbandingan massa serbuk kering kencur dan etanol dan waktu ekstraksi. Perbandingan kencur : etanol yang digunakan adalah 1 : 2, 1 : 3, dan 1 : 4. Waktu operasi yang digunakan adalah 2 s.d 5 jam. Tahapan proses ekstraksi oleoresin kencur adalah preparasi bahan, ekstraksi, evaporasi dan pemurnian. Oleoresin hasil ekstraksi dianalisis dengan uji GC-MS untuk mengetahui kandungan EPMS dan kandungan minyak atsiri lain dalam oleoresin kencur. Oleoresin hasil ekstraksi berwarna coklat tua dengan yield antara 6-8%. Kandungan EPMS dalam oleoresin bervariasi antara 67,77 hingga 87,57%. Massa oleoresin optimal hasil ekstraksi adalah 6,09 gram pada perbandingan kencur dan etanol 1:4 selama 4 jam. Pendekatan persamaan hasil ekperimen ekstraksi kencur dan etanol menghasilkan titik optimal EPMS pada waktu ekstraksi 3,62 dengan massa EPMS 6,04 gram Lesser galangal (Kaempferia galanga L. is widely used as a traditional medicine (herbal medicine, fitofarmaka, cosmetics industry, food industry, and insecticide industry. The essential oils in the Lesser galangal contain ethyl sinnamat and methyl p-methoxy cinnamic (EPMS. The oleoresin extraction of Lesser galangal was performed using ethanol as a solvent. Optimization of the EPMS yield was investigated to dry powder mass ratio of Lesser galangal and ethanol as well as the extraction time. The ratio of Lesser galangal : ethanol was  varied from 1: 2, 1: 3 and 1: 4. The chosen operating time were 2 to 5 hours. The procedure of the oleoresin extraction process of Lesser galangal includes the preparation of materials, extraction, evaporation and

  14. Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de S. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5% at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%. Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3% and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9% at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%, kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%, kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%, and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%, respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  15. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Vargas, Fabiano; D O de Almeida, Patrícia; Aranha, Elenn Suzany P; de A Boleti, Ana Paula; Newton, Peter; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Junior, Valdir F Veiga; Lima, Emerson S

    2015-04-09

    Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  16. Estimating terpene and terpenoid emissions from conifer oleoresin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2015-07-01

    The following algorithm, which is based on the thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte partitioning, was developed to predict emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids from specific storage sites in conifers: Ei =xoriγoripi∘ where Ei is the emission rate (μg C gdw-1 h-1) and pi∘ is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of the pure liquid terpene or terpenoid, respectively, and xori and γori are the mole fraction and activity coefficient (on a Raoult's law convention), respectively, of the terpene and terpenoid in the oleoresin. Activity coefficients are calculated with Hansen solubility parameters that account for dispersive, polar, and H-bonding interactions of the solutes with the oleoresin matrix. Estimates of pi∘ at 25 °C and molar enthalpies of vaporization are made with the SIMPOL.1 method and are used to estimate pi∘ at environmentally relevant temperatures. Estimated mixing ratios of terpenes and terpenols were comparatively higher above resin-acid- and monoterpene-rich oleoresins, respectively. The results indicated a greater affinity of terpenes and terpenols for the non-functionalized and carboxylic acid containing matrix through dispersive and H-bonding interactions, which are expressed in the emission algorithm by the activity coefficient. The correlation between measured emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids for Pinus strobus and emission rates predicted with the algorithm were very good (R = 0.95). Standard errors for the range and average of monoterpene emission rates were ±6 - ±86% and ±54%, respectively, and were similar in magnitude to reported standard deviations of monoterpene composition of foliar oils (±38 - ±51% and ±67%, respectively).

  17. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  18. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  19. OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK UNTUK PRODUKSI OLEORESIN JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to optimize extraction process of ginger oleoresin using ultrasonic wave. The variables observed include ratio of ginger to ethanol solvent (X1, extraction temperature (X2, and extraction time (X3. The response surface method with central composite design (CCD was used to obtain a mathematical model in order to define correlation between yield and refractive index of ginger oleoresin to any effected variables. The optimum conditions of ginger oleoresin using ultrasonic wave was obtained at composition ratio of ginger powder to ethanol X1 at 1:3.70 g g-1, X2 at 46 oC, and X3 for 129 minutes generating 8.884% yield, and refractive index value at 1.487. A GC-MS analysis result shows that ginger oleoresin components in the best state consist of 41.65% volatile oil component and 26.2% carriers of spicy flavor. The ginger oleoresin produced in the research meets the Eoa standard No. 243. Keywords: Ginger oleoresin, extraction, ultrasound, response surface methods   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan melakukan optimasi proses ekstraksi oleoresin jahe menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik. Variabel-variabel yang dipelajari adalah: rasio jahe terhadap pelarut etanol (X1, temperatur ekstraksi (X2, dan waktu ekstraksi (X3. Metode permukaan respons dengan rancangan Central Composite Design (CCD digunakan untuk memperoleh model matematis yang menggambarkan hubungan antara rendemen dan indeks bias oleoresin jahe terhadap variabel-variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Kondisi optimum ekstraksi oleoresin jahe menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik diperoleh pada komposisi perbandingan bubuk jahe terhadap X1 sebesar 1:3,70 g g-1, X2 sebesar 46 oC, dan X3 selama 129 menit dengan rendemen sebesar 8,884%, dan nilai indeks bias sebesar 1,487. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa komponen oleoresin jahe pada kondisi terbaik, terdiri atas 41,65% komponen minyak yang mudah menguap dan 26,2% pembawa rasa pedas. oleoresin jahe yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini telah

  20. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošo Vladislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different spice oleoresins are widely used in meat industry. They contribute to the specific aroma and flavor of the end products, but they have also been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity. These properties open a plenty of possibilities to be used for defining the specific sensory profile of the product but also as natural food preservatives. This paper focuses on the antifungal activity of four oleoresins against different foodborne toxigenic Aspergillus species. Oleoresins used in the experiments were cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic and rosemary oleoresins, and they were tested against following Aspergillus species: A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor. Antifungal activity was tested using microtitre-plate-based assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth and broth microdilution-method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  1. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  2. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in C. chinense, it was above 80 %. Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum, mainly in C. baccatum, considering the low PV estimated, were significant but not impeditive for fertilization.

  3. Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L A F; de Alencar Cunha, K M; Santos, F A; Gramosa, N V; Silveira, E R; Rao, V S N

    2002-12-01

    The wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminaceae) bark was evaluated in rats on experimental wounds. The oleo-resin was tested by monitoring wound contraction in excised wounds and by measuring tensile strength in healing incision wounds. The topical application of oleo-resin at a concentration of 4% accelerated wound contraction in open wounds. The mean values of wound contraction in oleo-resin treated rats on day 9 was 84.05% +/- 2.37% as against 51.29% +/- 9.54% seen in controls and the difference was statistically significant (p contraction were observed on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. Also, the tensile strength in healing incised wounds was found to be significantly higher in the group of animals treated with 4% oleo-resin on day 5 but not on days 7 and 12 (controls: 35.95 +/- 7.44 g/cm; oleo-resin: 71.48 +/- 5.77 g/cm; p resin on wound healing and justify its traditional use for the treatment of wounds.

  4. PENGAMBILAN OLEORESIN DARI AMPAS JAHE (HASIL SAMPING PENYULINGAN MINYAK JAHE DENGAN PROSES EKSTRAKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleh Setia Budi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During this time the ginger oil distillation waste are only used as fire wood for the distillation process. It ispredicted that this waste still contain oleoresin. Oleoresin is the mixture fixed oil (3 – 4 %, essential oil (1 – 3%, resin etc. This research aims to find the most affecting variable and the optimum operation condition inthe extraction processing oleoresin from ginger oil distillation waste. The research is planned to use thefactorial design method 2 levels and 3 independent variables i.e.: temperature (30-60 oC, time (2-6 hoursand solvent volume (300/150- 700/150 ml/gr the weight of ginger waste. The experiment quantities whichmust be carried out are 8 runs. The observed parameters are weight, density and refraction index. The threeindependent variables give positive effect/ increase the product and time is the most influential variables. Thenthe optimization process is carried out to get the optimum operation condition by varying the extraction time.The optimum operation condition of oleoresin extraction is 5.5 hours, temperature 60 oC and solvent volume700ml/150 gr the weight of ginger waste. The number of oleoresin which can be obtained volume 4.1 ml,weight oleoresin 2.7 grams, density 0.67 grams/ml, and refraction index 1.4744. GCMS analysis shows thatthe zingeberence content is 14.91%.

  5. Lanostane- and cycloartane-type triterpenoids from Abies balsamea oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Lavoie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of A. balsamea oleoresin led to the isolation of three new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoids 1–3, one new cycloartane triterpenoid 4 along with fourteen known terpenoids. Structure determinations were based on extensive 1D/2D NMR, IR and MS spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against human cell lines (A549, DLD-1, WS1 and their antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Abiesonic acid (6 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against A549 (IC50 = 22 µM while compounds 1 and 4 were weakly active against S. aureus (MIC = 25 µM.

  6. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    will be small. However, ocular hypertensive effects are possible in the older population and it would be useful to conduct ophthalmologic screening ...as well as exhibiting antioxidant activity. Capsaicin is one of several dietary phytochemicals with potential chemopreventive activity. The

  7. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  8. Spaceflight Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a review of NASA Johnson Space Center's Toxicology program. The mission of this program is to protect crews from toxic exposures during spaceflight. The presentation reviews some of the health hazards. A toxicological hazard level chart is presented that reviews the rating of hazard level, irritancy, systemic effects and containability. The program also participates in the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on local and systemic immune responses following immunization of chickens with an Eimeria recombinant protein. Chickens were fed ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano-encapsulated black pepper oleoresin using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruna N; Ozdemir, Necla; Hill, Laura E; Gomes, Carmen L

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of black pepper oleoresin which is associated to its phenolic compounds and piperine. The ability of cyclodextrins to form an inclusion complex with a guest molecule could improve black pepper oleoresin application, bioavailability, and stability in foods. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) inclusion complex with black pepper olereosin were synthesized using the kneading method and characterized for its physico-chemical properties and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Inclusion complex size was 103.9 ± 7.6 nm and indicated to be a polydisperse system. The entrapment efficiency was 78.3 ± 3.6%, which suggests that other constituents in black pepper oleoresin have higher affinities for HPBCD than piperine (major compound in black pepper oleoresin). Thermograms showed the disappearance of oxidation peaks of black pepper oleoresin, proving complex formation with HPBCD. Phase solubility results indicated 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex formation and an increase of black pepper oleoresin aqueous solubility with HPBCD concentration. Nano-encapsulation with HPBCD did not affect (P > 0.05) total phenolic content; however, it enhanced (P pepper oleoresin antioxidant activity. Black pepper oleoresin and its inclusion complex were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Both free and encapsulated black pepper oleoresin effectively inhibited bacterial growth within the concentration range tested. Black pepper oleoresin encapsulated in HPBCD was able to inhibit Salmonella at lower (P pepper oleoresin-HPBCD nanocapsules could have important applications in the food industry as antimicrobial and antioxidant system.

  11. Purification of capsicum red pigments by saponification and silica gel column chromatography%皂化-硅胶柱层析法纯化辣椒红色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞敏; 王洪新; 殷飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to purify the natural capsicum red pigments,alkaline ethanol saponification was taken to remove the fatty acid from the capsicum oleoresin and silica gel column chromatography was used to separate the capsaicin from capsicum red pigments. The results showed that the optimal saponification conditions were as follows;the concentration of NaOH solution was 0.8mol/L,solid-liquid ratio was 1:15(g/mL),ethanol concentration(V/V) was 70%,the holding temperature was 50℃ and the saponification time was 2h. The optimum separation was achieved with sample volume at 1:40,diameter-length ratio at 1:10 and eluant flow rate at 1BV/h. The color value of purified capsicum red pigments was 672.%探讨了辣椒红色素的纯化工艺,首先采用碱性乙醇皂化法去除辣椒油树脂中的脂肪酸,然后经过硅胶柱层析脱除辣椒红色素中的辣椒碱.实验结果表明,最佳的皂化条件为:NaOH溶液浓度0.8mol/L,固液比1∶15(g/mL),皂化温度50℃,皂化时间2h,乙醇浓度70%(V/V),最佳的硅胶柱层析条件为:上样量1∶40(m样品∶m硅胶),径高比1∶10,洗脱流速1BV/h,得到的辣椒红色素的色价为672.

  12. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals.

  13. In vivo evaluation of the mutagenic potential and phytochemical characterization of oleoresin from Copaifera duckei Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis Maistro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the chemical constituents of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and used dermal application to Wistar rats to evaluated its possible mutagenic and cytotoxic activities on peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow cells. Chemical characterization of the oleoresin revealed the presence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, an unidentified neutral diterpene and diterpene acids. To evaluate mutagenicity evaluation the rats were treated with 10, 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin for three consecutive days and peripheral blood collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h for micronucleus analysis. The rats were humanly sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment and chromosome preparations made using standard techniques. At the three concentrations and the three time intervals tested we found that there were no statistically significant differences in either the mean number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs or the number of chromosomal aberrations as to the negative control. However, at 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin there was a significant decrease in the mitotic index (MI as compared to the negative control. Under our experimental conditions, C. duckei V11 oleoresin produced no mutagenic effects on bone marrow cells or in peripheral reticulocytes as assessed by chromosome aberrations and the micronucleus test respectively, but showed cytotoxic activity at high doses.

  14. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  15. AKTIVITAS ANTI INFLAMASI OLEORESIN JAHE (Zingiber officinale PADA GINJAL TIKUS YANG MENGALAMI PERLAKUAN STRES [Anti Inflammation Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Oleoresin on Kidney of Rats Under Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite AdnyanE1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to observe the role of antioxidant content of ginger oleoresin (Zingiber officinale on inflammation in the kidney of rats under stress condition, as an anti inflammation. A total of sixty male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into twelve groups; (1 control group, without treatment of both stress and oleoresin, (2 stress group, was treated by stress only, without oleoresin treatment, while (3 and (4 are groups that were treated by stress and then fed by standard feed for three and seven days, without oleoresin. Group (5 to group (12 were treated by stress and then followed by treatment of oleoresin for three and seven days. The doses of oleoresin were 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kgBW/day. Stress condition was done by 5 days fasting and swimming for 5 minutes/day, while drinking water was provided ad libitum. The highest number of inflammatory cells in the kidney of rats was observed in the stress group. The treatment of oleoresin after fasting stress showed decreasing of the number of inflammatory cells in the tissues. The decreasing rate was higher in the higher dose of oleoresin. The treatment groups that showed the number of inflammatory cells not significantly different from that of control group are treated groups receiving oleoresin 60 mg/kgBW/day for seven days, and 80 mg/kgBW/day for three and seven days, respectively. These results showed that ginger oleoresin has anti inflammatory effect in the kidney of rats kept under stress condition.

  16. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern. Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), ... drugs. Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem ( ...

  17. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

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    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI. These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the squash method and Giemsa staining. The chromosome number 2n=2x=24 was verified for each of the four species. Chromosomal polymorphisms were observed for the C. frutencens accession BGC 37, which presented 12 pairs of metacentric chromosomes instead of 11 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 1 submetacentric chromosome pair present in other accessions. In the accessions BGC 01 and BGC 37, secondary constrictions were observed in the 1 and 12 as well as in the 6 and 11 homologs, respectively. The karyotypes of the studied species were asymmetrical among themselves. The results obtained in this study confirm the high genetic diversity previously described in the literature for this genus.

  18. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  19. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  20. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  1. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological character

  2. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological

  3. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Yuva Bellik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS °+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results: Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820依0.034 mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14依8.44 mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions: The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  4. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellik, Yuva

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  5. Microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin using maltodextrin as wall material by spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, P; Palaniswamy, P T; Visvanathan, R; Thirupathi, V; Subbarayan, A; Prakash Maran, J

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin by spray drying with garlic oleoresin concentration (10%, 20% and 30%) as core material, maltodextrin concentration (40%, 50% and 60%) as wall material and inlet temperature of drying air (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) as process parameters. The process in-terms of encapsulation efficiency was optimised following response surface methodology and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial regression model showed good fit of the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) along with predicted values. The relationships between the independent and dependent parameters were represented using response surface and contour plots. The optimum levels of process parameters, viz., garlic oleoresin concentration, maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature of air drying were found to be 10%, 60% and 200 °C, respectively with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.9% and desirability of 0.998. The microencapsulated garlic oleoresin powder obtained at optimized conditions was spherical with smooth surface as analysed through scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  7. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology research The Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  8. Content of capsaicin in pepper fruits(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The varieties of genus capsicum, in dependence on the type, cultivars, maturity, the effect of the light type (intensity of the solar light or fluorescent light), moisture and temperature during the vegetation, are rich with many different groups of biological active compounds. From all groups of biological active - secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only ...

  9. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum.

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    Shirani M K Widana Gamage

    Full Text Available Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms.We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R and susceptible (S capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR.DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and potential genetic engineering of resistance into Ca

  11. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  12. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e divisão assincrônica. Os acessos estudados apresentaram um índice meiótico variando de 75,6 a 93,6%, e a viabilidade polínica em todos os acessos foi superior a 90%, demonstrando que as irregularidades meióticas observadas não comprometeram a viabilidade destes.The objective of this research was to study the meiotic behavior and pollen viability in four accessions of species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum. In all accessions, twelve bivalents were observed, confirming the number and ploidy level reported in the literature for these species. The results showed a normal cell division although some abnormalities had been detected, as early chromosome migration at metaphases I and II, later chromosomes at anaphase I and asynchronous division. The studied accessions presented a meiotic index (MI that varied from 75.6 to 93.6% and the pollen viability in all accessions was higher than 90%, demonstrating that the meiotic irregularities observed didn't affect their viability.

  13. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Rooij, de H.; Vogelaar, A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in i

  14. Preparo e caracterização de microcápsulas de oleoresina de páprica obtidas por atomização Preparation and characterization of paprika oleoresin microcapsules obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Barbosa dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A páprica (Capsicum annuum L. é um corante vermelho largamente empregado na indústria de alimentos. Entretanto, por ser à base de carotenóides este produto é suscetível à oxidação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi microencapsular oleoresina de páprica, avaliar a morfologia das microcápsulas, a distribuição e o tamanho das partículas e a solubilidade. Para tanto, foi utilizado o processo de microencapsulação por atomização e os agentes encapsulantes goma arábica e grânulos porosos de amido/gelatina. A avaliação morfológica, feita por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, mostrou que as microcápsulas elaboradas com goma arábica possuíam formato arredondado, com concavidades, sem poros ou rachaduras, paredes contínuas e o recheio estava distribuído em vacúolos nas paredes; já as produzidas com grânulos porosos de amido/gelatina apresentavam formato arredondado, paredes formadas pela aglomeração dos grânulos e coladas pela gelatina, entretanto, apresentavam poros ou interstícios. A distribuição do tamanho de partículas apresentou comportamento unimodal, com tamanho médio de 16 e 20,3µm para as microcápsulas produzidas com goma e amido/gelatina, respectivamente. Portanto, foi possível microencapsular oleoresina de páprica pelo método de atomização, com os dois agentes encapsulantes testados; a análise da morfologia deu indícios de que a oleoresina estaria mais protegida quando encapsulada em goma arábica; as temperaturas utilizadas na microencapsulação foram adequadas; as microcápsulas apresentaram tamanhos dentro da faixa obtida para este tipo de processo e excelente solubilidade.Paprika (Capsicum annuum L. is a bright red coloring product of large use by the food industry. Rich in carotenoids, paprika is susceptible to oxidative degradation. Considering these aspects, this research is aimed to microencapsulate paprika oleoresin and to evaluate morphological characteristics, distribution and

  15. OPTIMASI YIELD ETIL P METOKSISINAMAT PADA EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN KENCUR (Kaempferia galanga) MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ETANOL

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Setyawan; Pandhu Putratama; Asriningtyas Ajeng; Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-01-01

    Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku obat tradisional (jamu), fitofarmaka, industri kosmetika, industri makanan, dan industri insektisida. Minyak atsiri rimpang kencur mengandung etil sinnamat dan metil p-metoksi sinamat (EPMS). Ekstraksi oleoresin kencur dilakukan dengan etanol sebagai pelarut. Optimasi yield EPMS diteliti terhadap perbandingan massa serbuk kering kencur dan etanol dan waktu ekstraksi. Perbandingan kencur : etanol yang digunakan adalah 1 : 2, 1 ...

  16. Chemodiversity of ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes in Amazonian Burseraceae oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, André L; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F

    2013-06-01

    The oleoresins exuded from species of the Burseraceae family present high potential due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The evaluation of the chemodiversity of the oleoresins of 23 Amazonian species of Burseraceae provided a profile of the principal constituents, viz., the ursane-type triterpenes α-amyrin (1), α-amyrenone (3), and brein (5) and the oleanane-type triterpenes β-amyrin (2), β-amyrenone (4), and maniladiol (6), and allowed to determine which of these species have the highest biotechnological potential and which ones are rich in other, potentially new, triterpenes or volatile compounds of interest for the cosmetics industry. The oleoresin compositions obtained by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering on principal components (HCPC), which divided the 23 samples in five clusters. Protium giganteum and Trattinnickia peruviana, constituting the first cluster, presented high oleoresin contents of 3 and 4 (28.8 and 16.3% on average, resp.). The seven species of Burseraceae composing the second cluster were potential producers of new triterpenes and volatile compounds. Dacryodes hopkinsii and five Protium species (third cluster) presented average contents for all the triterpenes analyzed. The highest contents of 5 and 6 (averages of 3.9 and 5.4%, resp.) were observed in P. heptaphyllum ssp. ullei and T. glaziovii (fourth cluster). Finally, the six Protium species forming the fifth cluster showed high contents of 1 and 2 (48.0 and 19.9% on average, resp.). Moreover, this study allowed the description of the triterpene composition of 13 not previously investigated species. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Leone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The risk of chronic diseases has been shown to be inversely related to tomato intake and the lycopene levels in serum and tissue. Cis-isomers represent approximately 50%–80% of serum lycopene, while dietary lycopene maintains the isomeric ratio present in the plant sources with about 95% of all-trans-lycopene. Supercritical CO2 extraction (S-CO2 has been extensively developed to extract lycopene from tomato and tomato processing wastes, for food or pharmaceutical industries, also by using additional plant sources as co-matrices. We compared two S-CO2-extracted oleoresins (from tomato and tomato/hazelnut matrices, which showed an oil-solid bi-phasic appearance, a higher cis-lycopene content, and enhanced antioxidant ability compared with the traditional solvent extracts. Heat-treating, in the range of 60–100 °C, led to changes in the lycopene isomeric composition and to enhanced antioxidant activity in both types of oleoresins. The greater stability has been related to peculiar lycopene isomer composition and to the lipid environment. The results indicate these oleoresins are a good source of potentially healthful lycopene.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF COATING MATERIAL DIFFERENCE AGAINST ENCAPSULATION EFFICIENCY OF RED GINGER OLEORESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin Jayanudin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different coating materials on the efficiency of red ginger oleoresin encapsulation and characterization of microcapsule surface. The encapsulation process begins by dissolving chitosan with 1 % (v/v acetic acid and dissolving sodium alginate using aquadest to be used as a coating material. Red ginger oleoresin alginate included in the solution was stirred. The mixture entered into the chitosan solution and added tween 80 was stirred using a homogenizer to emulsify. The emulsion that forms included in the spray dryer to be converted into a powder of microcapsules, and then analyzes the encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology of microcapsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Differences in the coating material used were chitosan, mixture of chitosan-alginate and mixture of chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP. Weight ratio of red ginger oleoresin and the coating material were 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3. The research results obtained were the highest encapsulation efficiency obtained from the coating material of the chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP at a ratio of 1: 3, namely by 85 %.

  19. Carotenoids, fatty acid composition and heat stability of supercritical carbon dioxide-extracted-oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The risk of chronic diseases has been shown to be inversely related to tomato intake and the lycopene levels in serum and tissue. Cis-isomers represent approximately 50%-80% of serum lycopene, while dietary lycopene maintains the isomeric ratio present in the plant sources with about 95% of all-trans-lycopene. Supercritical CO(2) extraction (S-CO(2)) has been extensively developed to extract lycopene from tomato and tomato processing wastes, for food or pharmaceutical industries, also by using additional plant sources as co-matrices. We compared two S-CO(2)-extracted oleoresins (from tomato and tomato/hazelnut matrices), which showed an oil-solid bi-phasic appearance, a higher cis-lycopene content, and enhanced antioxidant ability compared with the traditional solvent extracts. Heat-treating, in the range of 60-100 °C, led to changes in the lycopene isomeric composition and to enhanced antioxidant activity in both types of oleoresins. The greater stability has been related to peculiar lycopene isomer composition and to the lipid environment. The results indicate these oleoresins are a good source of potentially healthful lycopene.

  20. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  1. Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andrés; Masson, Lilia; Velasco, Joaquín; del Valle, José Manuel; Robert, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a natural source of astaxanthin (AX). However, AX loses its natural protection when extracted from this microalga. In this study, a supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of H. pluvialis was obtained and added to oils with different fatty acid compositions (sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO)). The oleoresins of H. pluvialis ((SO+SFE) and (HOSO+SFE)) were encapsulated with Capsul by spray drying. The stability of the oleoresins and powders were studied at 40, 50 and 70° C. AX and alpha-tocopherol (AT) degradation followed a zero-order and first-order kinetic model, respectively, for all systems. The encapsulation of oleoresins improved the stability of AX and AT to a greater extent in oleoresins with a monounsaturated fatty acid profile, as shown by the significantly lowest degradation rate constants and longest half-lives. Therefore, the encapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins is an alternative to developing a functional ingredient for healthy food design.

  2. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  3. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Main Navigation Skip to Site Sidebar National Toxicology Program http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov Home Testing ... NTP Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation Studies The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been conducting experiments in rats ...

  4. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  5. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for modern toxicology and molecular biology. A world leader in toxicology research, NTP has evaluated more than 2800 environmental substances for potential human health effects. Learn More About NTP Director Meet NTP's director Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D. Learn ...

  6. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  7. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with the High Yielding of Oleoresin in Secondary Xylem of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb by Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available Masson pine is an important timber and resource for oleoresin in South China. Increasing yield of oleoresin in stems can raise economic benefits and enhance the resistance to bark beetles. However, the genetic mechanisms for regulating the yield of oleoresin were still unknown. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome and compare the gene expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes. A total of 40,690,540 reads were obtained and assembled into 137,499 transcripts from the secondary xylem tissues. We identified 84,842 candidate unigenes based on sequence annotation using various databases and 96 unigenes were candidates for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in pine. By comparing the expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes, 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. GO enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways were related to high yield of oleoresin. Nine candidate genes were validated by QPCR analysis. Among them, the candidate genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS and (--alpha/beta-pinene synthase were up-regulated in the high oleoresin-yielding genotype, while tricyclene synthase revealed lower expression level, which was in good agreement with the GC/MS result. In addition, DEG encoding ABC transporters, pathogenesis-related proteins (PR5 and PR9, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein and ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs were also confirmed to be critical for the biosynthesis of oleoresin. The next-generation sequencing strategy used in this study has proven to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to the yield of oleoresin in masson pine. The candidate genes encoding GGPS, (--alpha/beta-pinene, tricyclene synthase, ABC transporters, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase

  9. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production of oleoresin and capsicum using solvent extraction procedures. Oleoresin is used as a colorant in the food industry and capsicum is used in the manufacture of medicaments. ..... Handbook 0. 3 7. 10. Gomez, H.I<. and Gomez, AA.

  11. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  12. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    .... Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods...

  13. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.

  14. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Pérez

    Full Text Available The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ (Spain holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2% were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles. Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern

  15. Chemical analysis of turmeric from Minas Gerais, Brazil and comparison of methods for flavour free oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyleni R. A. Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa L cultivated in eight different cities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil was carried out. The levels of curcuminoid pigments varied from 1.4 to 6.14 g/100 g and of volatile oil from 0.97 to 7.55 mL/100 g (dry basis. Samples from Patrocínio, Arinos and Brasilândia contained higher pigment levels compared to the others. The sample from Patrocínio contained the highest volatile oil content. The mean levels of ethyl ether extract, protein, fiber, ash and starch were 8.51, 7.01, 7.22, 7.81 and 39.87 g/100 g dry basis, respectively. Laboratory extraction of flavour free oleoresin was performed in triplicate. A higher yield of pigment in the oleoresin was obtained when the volatile oil was extracted with water vapor and the oleoresin with ethanol. The oleoresin obtained was free of flavour and could be used in a wider range of food applications.Análise química de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L provenientes de oito municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil foi efetuada. Os teores (base seca de pigmentos curcuminóides variaram de 1,4 a 6,14 g/100 g e os de óleo volátil, de 0,97 a 7,55 mL/100 g. Amostras de Patrocínio, Arinos e Brasilândia continham os maiores teores de pigmentos e as de Patrocínio os maiores teores de óleos voláteis. Os teores médios (base seca de extrato etéreo, proteínas, fibras, cinzas e amido encontrados foram 8,51; 7,01; 7,22; 7,81 e 39,87 g/100 g, respectivamente. Com o objetivo de obter corante amarelo isento de flavor, métodos de extração em laboratório foram comparados em triplicata. Um maior rendimento de pigmento na oleoresina foi obtido extraindo-se o óleo volátil com vapor d'água e a oleoresina com etanol. A oleoresina obtida é isenta de flavor e pode ser utilizada em um número maior de aplicações na indústria alimentícia

  16. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  17. Association genetics of oleoresin flow in loblolly pine: discovering genes and predicting phenotype for improved resistance to bark beetles and bioenergy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Jared W; Resende, Marcio F R; Munoz, Patricio; Walker, Alejandro R; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley A; Gezan, Salvador A; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M

    2013-07-01

    Rapidly enhancing oleoresin production in conifer stems through genomic selection and genetic engineering may increase resistance to bark beetles and terpenoid yield for liquid biofuels. We integrated association genetic and genomic prediction analyses of oleoresin flow (g 24 h(-1)) using 4854 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expressed genes within a pedigreed population of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) that was clonally replicated at three sites in the southeastern United States. Additive genetic variation in oleoresin flow (h(2) ≈ 0.12-0.30) was strongly correlated between years in which precipitation varied (r(a) ≈ 0.95), while the genetic correlation between sites declined from 0.8 to 0.37 with increasing differences in soil and climate among sites. A total of 231 SNPs were significantly associated with oleoresin flow, of which 81% were specific to individual sites. SNPs in sequences similar to ethylene signaling proteins, ABC transporters, and diterpenoid hydroxylases were associated with oleoresin flow across sites. Despite this complex genetic architecture, we developed a genomic prediction model to accelerate breeding for enhanced oleoresin flow that is robust to environmental variation. Results imply that breeding could increase oleoresin flow 1.5- to 2.4-fold in one generation.

  18. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  19. Toxicology: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Loralie J; Kapur, Bhushan M

    2006-05-01

    Toxicology is "the science of poisons"; more specifically the chemical and physical properties of poisons, their physiological or behavioral effects on living organisms, qualitative, and quantitative methods for their analysis and the development of procedures for the treatment of poisoning. Although the history of poisons dates to the earliest times, the study and the science of toxicology can be traced to Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Orfila (1757-1853). Modern toxicology is characterized by sophisticated scientific investigation and evaluation of toxic exposures. The 20th century is marked by an advanced level of understanding of toxicology. DNA and various biochemicals that maintain cellular functions were discovered. Our level of knowledge of toxic effects on organs and cells is now being revealed at the molecular level. This paper will review the historical progress of clinical and forensic toxicology by exploring analytical techniques in drug analysis, differing biological matrices, clinical toxicology, therapeutic drug management, workplace drug testing, and pharmacodynamic monitoring and pharmacogenetics.

  20. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of spent turmeric oleoresin, a by-product from curcumin production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V Nampoothiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of spent turmeric oleoresin (STO. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of STO evaluated by α - amylase and α - glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays. The antioxidant capacity studied by DPPH. , ABTS., superoxide radical scavenging and metal chelating activity methods. Results: The STO showed good antidiabetic activity by inhibiting key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, viz α -glucosidase and α -amylase with an IC50values of 0.71 and 0.16毺 g/mL respectively. The IC50 values for DPPH. and ABTS. assay were 58.1 and 33 毺 g/mL respectively. STO effectively scavenged the superoxide free radical with an IC50 value of 61.5毺 g/mL and showed a moderate iron chelation property. Conclusions: The above study reveals that the spent turmeric oleoresin being wasted at present can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic agent in food and neutraceutical products.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin on bacteria of clinical significance in cutaneous wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Masson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin, which has been used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, healing among others. The oleoresin was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria related to infections in cutaneous wounds. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assays. Copaiba oleoresin showed antimicrobial activity only against the Gram-positive bacteria with MIC of 200 μg/mL, 400 μg/mL and 1100 μg/mL for S. aureus, S. pyogenes and E. faecalis, respectively. MBC values were the same as MIC for S. aureus and S. pyogenes and for E. faecalis it was 1200 μg/mL. Considering that infection significantly impairs the wound healing process, we believe that the use of copaiba oleoresin as a component of a topical formulation could be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of infected wounds, mainly in the case of wounds infected by Gram-positive microorganisms.

  2. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  3. Effect of solvents and methods of stirring in extraction of lycopene, oleoresin and fatty acids from over-ripe tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Karla P; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Escárcega-Galaz, Ana A; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene and oleoresin extraction from powder of tomato over-ripe by three agitation methods and four solvents have been evaluated. Also, tomato powder and the oleoresins were characterized biochemically. On average, the moisture content of powder was found to be 4.30, ash 8.90, proteins 11.23 and lipids 4.35 g 100 g(-1). The best oleoresin extraction yield was achieved by combining sonication and acetone at 1.43 g 100 g(-1). The greatest amount of lycopene (65.57 ± 0.33 mg 100 g(-1)) was also obtained using the same treatment. The presence of trans-lycopene was positively confirmed by HPLC and FTIR. In oleoresins, linoleic acid (C18:2n6) was the predominant with 50% of total fatty acids, whereas stearic acid (C18:0) is presented in a smaller proportion (5%). A simple and suitable method for extraction of lycopene from over-ripe tomato was optimized. In industrial applications, tomato by-products are a viable source of analytes, such as lycopene and unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  6. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  7. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Humans are constantly challenged by exposure to a cocktail of chemicals that can have negative health effects, and fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, we need safer chemicals in order to reduce any potential environmental and human hazards. A solid framework to design...... safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...

  8. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  9. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  10. Pterodon emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsion as a promising tool for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anna E M F M; Duarte, Jonatas L; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Souto, Raimundo N P; Ferreira, Ricardo M A; Peniche, Taires; da Conceição, Edemilson C; de Oliveira, Leandra A R; Faustino, Silvia M M; Florentino, Alexandro C; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2017-01-03

    Preparation of nanoformulations using natural products as bioactive substances is considered very promising for innovative larvicidal agents. On this context, oil in water nanoemulsions develop a main role, since they satisfactorily disperse poor-water soluble substances, such as herbal oils, in aqueous media. Pterodon emarginatus, popularly known as sucupira, has a promising bioactive oleoresin. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies were carried out to evaluate its potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, the main vector of the tropical neglected disease called lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Thus, we aimed to investigate influence of different pairs of surfactants in nanoemulsion formation and investigate if a sucupira oleoresin-based nanoemulsion has promising larvicidal activity against this C. quinquefasciatus. We also evaluated morphological alteration, possible mechanism of insecticidal action and ecotoxicity of the nanoemulsion against a non-target organism. Among the different pairs of surfactants that were tested, nanoemulsions obtained with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate and polysorbate 80/sorbitan trioleate presented smallest mean droplet size just afterwards preparation, respectively 151.0 ± 2.252 and 160.7 ± 1.493 nm. They presented high negative zeta potential values, low polydispersity index (algae Chlorella vulgaris at low concentration (25 mg/L). Our results suggest that optimal nanoemulsions may be prepared with different surfactants using a low cost and low energy simple method. Moreover, this prototype proved to be effective against C. quinquefasciatus, being considered an ecofriendly novel nanoproduct that can be useful in integrated control programs of vector control.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  12. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  13. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for over 600 chemicals from authoritative groups worldwide Animal Testing Alternatives ALTBIB Resources on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing Archived, No Longer Updated ... cancer tests (1980-2011) GENE-TOX Genetic Toxicology ...

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  15. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi,; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  16. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supercritical CO(2)-extracted tomato Oleoresins enhance gap junction intercellular communications and recover from mercury chloride inhibition in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonella; Zefferino, Roberto; Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Zacheo, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    A nutritionally relevant phytochemical such as lycopene, found in tomatoes and other fruits, has been proposed to have health-promoting effects by modulating hormonal and immune systems, metabolic pathways, and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). This work analyzes lycopene extracts, obtained from tomato and tomato added with grape seeds by using a safe and environmentally friendly extraction process, based on supercritical carbon dioxide technology (S-CO(2)). Analysis of the innovative S-CO(2)-extracted oleoresins showed peculiar chemical composition with high lycopene concentration and the presence of other carotenoids, lipids, and phenol compounds. The oleoresins showed a higher in vitro antioxidant activity compared with pure lycopene and beta-carotene and the remarkable ability to enhance the GJIC and to increase cx43 expression in keratinocytes. The oleoresins, (0.9 microM lycopene), were also able to overcome, completely, the GJIC inhibition induced by 10 nM HgCl(2), mercury(II) chloride, suggesting a possible action mechanism.

  18. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-03

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients.

  19. Pharmacological importance of an ethnobotanical plant: Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan A; Mahmood, Tariq; Ali, Muhammad; Saeed, Abdul; Maalik, Aneela

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L., a fruit plant from tropical and subtropical regions, contains a range of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds which are known to exhibit a range of bioactivities including free radical scavenging (antioxidant), antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the literature published on pharmacological behaviours of C. annuum L.

  20. Transcription Factor Families Regulate the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin structural gene transcription requires the expression of at least one member of each of three transcription factor families - MYC, MYB and WD40. These transcription factors form a complex that binds to structural gene promoters, thereby modulating gene expression. Capsicum annuum display...

  1. Prediction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) flavour over different harvests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Pohu-Flament, L.M.M.; Wit-Maljaars, de S.C.; Willeboordse-Vos, F.; Bos, S.; Benning-de Waard, C.; Grauw-van Leeuwen, de P.J.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand and predict the complex multifactorial trait flavor, volatile and non-volatile components were measured in fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits throughout the growing season in a diverse panel of 24 breeding lines, hybrids, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank a

  2. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  3. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  4. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  5. Meiotic analysis of interspecific hybrids between Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Fernandes Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the genetic relationship between C. frutescens (UENF 1636 and C. chinense (UENF 1785 based on the meiotic behavior, on the meiotic index, and on pollen viability of their F1 hybrids. For meiotic analysis and meiotic index, flower buds were collected and fixed for 24 hours in ethanol: acetic acid (3:1, and then transferred to 70% ethanol, and stored in a freezer. Slides preparation for meiosis, meiotic index and pollen viability was carried out according to the laboratory’s protocol. Hybrid meiosis was regular, and 12 pairs of chromosomes were observed in diakinesis, as well as a few anomalies. The MI of 88.16%, as well as the pollen viability of 72.5%, were satisfactory. Given the results, it was confirmed the genetic proximity of these species, which are classified in the Capsicum annuum gene complex.

  6. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  7. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  8. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and freshMentha longifolia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunita Singh; Shiv Saran Das; Gurdip Singh; Marina Perotti; Carola Schuff; Csar Cataln

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and driedMentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungusAspergillus niger (1884),Aspergillus flavus (2479),Fusarium monoliforme (1893),Fusarium graminearum (2088) andPenicillium viridicatum (2007) were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790),Staphylococcus aureus (3103) (Gram-positive),Escherichia coli (1672),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942) (Gram-negative) were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results:Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities againstAspergillus andFusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils ofMentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale OLEORESIN ON THE PROFILE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD IN THE KIDNEY OF RATS UNDER STRESS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress condition has beeb reported to decrease intracellular antioxidant-superoxide dismutase(SOD in the liver and kidney of rats. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activies of ginger oleoresin on the profile of superoxide dismutase(SOD in the kidney of rats under stress condition. The stress condition was achieved by five days of fasting together with swimming for 5 min/day. Ginger oleoresin was orally administrated in a dose of 60 mg/KgBW/day for seven days. Drinking water was provided ad libitum to all groups. The treatment of ginger oleoresin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA levels and increased SOD activity, as well as immunohistochemicall, increased the content of copper, zinc-SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD in the kidney tissues compared to that of untreated group. The antioxidant content in ginger oleoresin such as shogaol, zingeron, and gingerol, etc. were shownto have activities in the kidney tissues of rats under stress condition that is increasunf the profile of SOD. Ginger oleoresin treatment in combination both before and after stress gave the best result.

  10. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraig H. Kraft; Cecil H. Brown; Gary P. Nabhan; Eike Luedeling; José de Jesús Luna Ruiz; Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge; Robert J. Hijmans; Paul Gepts

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data...

  11. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  12. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  13. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  14. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  15. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  16. Antioxidant potential of oregano (Oreganum vulgare L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.: application of oleoresins in vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out in order to increase the stability of vegetable oils due to economic and health protection reasons. There is a growing interest in the addition of natural antioxidants; especially herbs and spices. For this reason, this study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant potential of the oleoresins of oregano, basil, and thyme, as well as their behavior when applied to soybean oil under various concentrations. Firstly, the antioxidant activity was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and by the quantification of total phenolic compounds. Next, different concentrations of oleoresins (500 to 3000 mg.kg-1 were added to the soybean oil, and its antioxidant potential was analyzed using the oxidative stability through a Rancimat equipment. The value of 3000 mg.kg-1 of thyme and oregano oleoresins was the concentration that presented the greatest oxidative stability to soybean oil making them a natural alternative to vegetable oil conservation.

  17. Polimorfismo cromossômico em Capsicum chinense Jacq. Chromosome polymorphism in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alessandro Machado Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o cariótipo de quatro acessos de Capsicum chinense procedentes do Rio Janeiro, Bahia, Pará e Maranhão. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 2n=2x=24 cromossomos. Polimorfismo cromossômico foi observado no acesso procedente do Rio de Janeiro, o qual apresentou 11 pares de cromossomos metacêntricos e um par submetacêntrico, diferindo dos outros acessos, os quais apresentaram 11 pares de cromossomos metacêntricos e um par de cromossomos acrocêntrico. Todos os acessos apresentaram, em média, valores semelhantes em relação ao comprimento cromossômico. Os dados cariológicos foram submetidos a análises univariada e multivariada, com índices de dissimilaridade obtidos pela distância euclidiana média padronizada e o agrupamento pelo método de Ward, com o objetivo de estimar a divergência genética entre os acessos. A estatística multivariada usando dados citogenéticos foi efetiva para distinguir os acessos de C. chinense, considerando que foi possível alocar o acesso do Rio de Janeiro isolado dos outros acessos. Assim, o presente estudo mostrou a importância de análise multivariada em estudos de caracterização citogenética envolvendo acessos que apresentam variabilidade cromossômica.This study had the objective to determine the karyotype of four accessions of Capsicum chinense from Rio Janeiro, Bahia, Pará e Maranhão. In all accessions were observed 2n=2x=24 chromosomes. Chromosome polymorphism was observed in the accession from Rio de Janeiro, which presented 11 pairs of metacentric and 1 submetacentric pair of chromosomes, differing from the other accessions, which presented 11 pairs of metacentric and 1 acrocentric pair chromosomes. All the accessions presented the same value, on average, of chromosome length. The karyologic data was submitted to univariate and multivariate analysis with dissimilarity indexes obtained by standardized average of Euclidean distance and grouping

  18. Toxicology, an STS Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities suggested through Project L.A.B.S. that involve the topic of toxicology. Activities include suggested research, the risk benefit seesaw, human-made compounds, legislation, a historical perspective, and health. A suggested readings list is provided. (KR)

  19. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  20. Ectopic Expression of Capsicum-Specific Cell Wall Protein Capsicum annuum Senescence-Delaying 1 (CaSD1) Delays Senescence and Induces Trichome Formation in Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, SungHwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-01-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino aci...

  1. Pungency in Capsicum chinense: variation among countries of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Berke, Terry; Jarret, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    Fruits of 63 accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were analyzed for two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). The objectives of the present investigation were: (i) to quantify the major capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in fruits of Capsicum chinense accessions and (ii) to identify accessions containing great concentrations of capsaicinoids among countries of hot pepper origin. Seeds of C. chinense accessions received from Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and United States were field grown in a silty-loam soil. Mature fruits were analyzed for major capsaicinoids content. Capsaicin concentrations were generally greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Fruits of C. chinense accession PI640900 (USA) contained the greatest concentration of capsaicin (1.52 mg g(- 1) fruit) and dihydrocapsaicin (1.16 mg g(- 1) fruit), while total major capsaicinoids in the fruits of PI438648 (Mexico) averaged 2 mg g(- 1) fruit. These two accessions were identified as potential candidates for mass production of major capsaicinoids that have health-promoting properties and for use as a source of pest control agents in agricultural fields.

  2. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/

  3. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  4. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  5. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia P. NOBREGA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.O gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pertence à família Zingiberacea. É uma especiaria de grande importância comercial. Neste trabalho realizou-se extrações da oleoresina de gengibre com etanol, isopropanol e dióxido de carbono líquido e comparou-se a composição química de cada um dos extratos. A oleoresina obtida tem componentes das classes dos monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em todas as amostras. Ácidos carboxílicos foram encontrados nos extratos obtidos com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 2 horas. Os componentes que dão a característica pungente à oleoresina, os gingerois, foram detectados nas amostras obtidas com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 6 horas e, nas amostras obtidas com CO2 líquido, com 2 horas de extração.

  6. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described.

  7. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein family and its transmembrane regulator from capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Castillo, Rafael A; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; León-Félix, Josefina; Pandey, Sona

    2015-05-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have created numerous mechanisms to sense and respond to their environment. One such highly conserved mechanism involves regulation by heterotrimeric G-protein complex comprised of alpha (Gα), beta (Gβ) and gamma (Gγ) subunits. In plants, these proteins play important roles in signal transduction pathways related to growth and development including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and consequently affect yield. In this work, we have identified and characterized the complete heterotrimeric G-protein repertoire in the Capsicum annuum (Capsicum) genome which consists of one Gα, one Gβ and three Gγ genes. We have also identified one RGS gene in the Capsicum genome that acts as a regulator of the G-protein signaling. Biochemical activities of the proteins were confirmed by assessing the GTP-binding and GTPase activity of the recombinant Gα protein and its regulation by the GTPase acceleration activity of the RGS protein. Interaction between different subunits was established using yeast- and plant-based analyses. Gene and protein expression profiles of specific G-protein components revealed interesting spatial and temporal regulation patterns, especially during root development and during fruit development and maturation. This research thus details the characterization of the first heterotrimeric G-protein family from a domesticated, commercially important vegetable crop.

  8. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia.

  9. Classification of Sunflower Oil Blends Stabilized by Oleoresin Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Using Multivariate Kinetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The sunflower oil-oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) blends (SORB) at 9 different concentrations (200 to 2000 mg/kg), sunflower oil-tertiary butyl hydroquinone (SOTBHQ ) at 200 mg/kg and control (without preservatives) (SO control ) were oxidized using Rancimat (temperature: 100 to 130 °C; airflow rate: 20 L/h). The oxidative stability of blends was expressed using induction period (IP), oil stability index and photochemiluminescence assay. The linear regression models were generated by plotting ln IP with temperature to estimate the shelf life at 20 °C (SL20 ; R(2) > 0.90). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the oil blends depending upon the oxidative stability and kinetic parameters. The Arrhenius equation adequately described the temperature-dependent kinetics (R(2) > 0.90, P < 0.05) and kinetic parameters viz. activation energies, activation enthalpies, and entropies were calculated in the range of 92.07 to 100.50 kJ/mol, 88.85 to 97.28 kJ/mol, -33.33 to -1.13 J/mol K, respectively. Using PCA, a satisfactory discrimination was noted among SORB, SOTBHQ , and SOcontrol samples. HCA classified the oil blends into 3 different clusters (I, II, and III) where SORB1200 and SORB1500 were grouped together in close proximity with SOTBHQ indicating the comparable oxidative stability. The SL20 was estimated to be 3790, 6974, and 4179 h for SO control, SOTBHQ, and SORB1500, respectively. The multivariate kinetic approach effectively screened SORB1500 as the best blend conferring the highest oxidative stability to sunflower oil. This approach can be adopted for quick and reliable estimation of the oxidative stability of oil samples.

  10. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G J; McKenzie, B E

    1989-12-29

    Results of studies conducted to characterize local, systemic, reproductive, and mutagenic effects indicate that ofloxacin is well tolerated within reasonable multiples of the intended clinical dose. Quinolone-associated arthropathic effects characterized by blister, erosion, and increased synovial fluid occurred in rats and dogs and appeared to be both age- and dose-related. Maternal toxicity and embryotoxicity were noted, but there was no teratogenicity in rats or rabbits. There was no impairment of fertility, and no adverse effects on late fetal development, labor, delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of offspring occurred. Target-organ studies revealed no evidence of ocular toxicity in rats, nephrotoxicity in rabbits, or antigenicity or ototoxicity in guinea pigs. Overall, the toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin has shown this compound to be a drug with a low toxicologic potential.

  12. Assessment of food toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of ox...

  13. Assessment of food toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gosslau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation resulting in cell death, aging and degenerative diseases. Integration of food toxicology data obtained throughout biochemical and cell-based in vitro, animal in vivo and human clinical settings has enabled the establishment of alternative, highly predictable in silico models. These systems utilize a combination of complex in vitro cell-based models with computer-based algorithms. A decrease of rodent animal testing with its limitations of high costs, low throughput readouts, inconsistent responses, ethical issues and concerns of extrapolability to humans have led to an increased use of these but also alternative lower hierarchy surrogate animal models (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster; Caenorhabditis elegans or Danio rerio and efforts to integrate organotypic systems and stem cell-based assays. Despite those achievements, there are numerous challenges in various disciplines of food toxicology.

  14. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  15. Preclinical Toxicology of New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-04

    8217 . -. . . . . . 3. . ANNUAL REPORT Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4088 on PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS Report 8740-86-2 to UNITED STATES ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH...N RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUMBER 8740-86-2 /1 4. TITLE (mid Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED , ; Annual Report PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS March...9 It P V .---, - 77 T ANNUAL REPORT Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4088 on PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS Report

  16. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  17. Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Pei, Lei

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the implications of synthetic biology (SB) for toxicological sciences. Starting with a working definition of SB, we describe its current subfields, namely, DNA synthesis, the engineering of DNA-based biological circuits, minimal genome research, attempts to construct protocells and synthetic cells, and efforts to diversify the biochemistry of life through xenobiology. Based on the most important techniques, tools, and expected applications in SB, we describe the ramifications of SB for toxicology under the label of synthetic toxicology. We differentiate between cases where SB offers opportunities for toxicology and where SB poses challenges for toxicology. Among the opportunities, we identified the assistance of SB to construct novel toxicity testing platforms, define new toxicity-pathway assays, explore the potential of SB to improve in vivo biotransformation of toxins, present novel biosensors developed by SB for environmental toxicology, discuss cell-free protein synthesis of toxins, reflect on the contribution to toxic use reduction, and the democratization of toxicology through do-it-yourself biology. Among the identified challenges for toxicology, we identify synthetic toxins and novel xenobiotics, biosecurity and dual-use considerations, the potential bridging of toxic substances and infectious agents, and do-it-yourself toxin production.

  18. History of wildlife toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  19. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  1. Physical-chemistry characterization of chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de frutos de pimentas (Capsicum frutescens L.), oriundos de diferentes progênies, por meio da caracterização físico-química. Foram colhidos frutos de onze progênies de pimentas cultivadas no Município de São Benedito, CE e avaliados quanto: sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável, SS/AT, vitamina C e carotenoides totais. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com onze tratamentos e três repetições. Os...

  2. Caracterización morfologica de accesiones de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Castro, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp., procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, Salvador) y representativas de 4 especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores (6 cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; 8 de caracteres vegetativos, 3 de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla) propuestos por el IPGRI (1983). La caracterización morfológica permitió confirmar la pr...

  3. [Antidotes in clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, K

    2013-09-01

    This overview describes antidotes, and their clinical pharmacology, that have an established significance in the currently practiced clinical toxicology because of their proven effectiveness in the treatment of serious poisonings. For the proper, efficient, and targeted use of an antidote, pharmacological knowledge is required, which is a central subject of this article. Current data from the literature are used as reference along with the accumulated experiences about possible adverse effects in order to include them in therapeutic considerations. The dosage of antidotes is the subject of several other review articles and is therefore not included in this synopsis.

  4. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�). Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for the...

  5. Toxicology: Old Art, New Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the need for a science of toxicology and training at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in response to legislation controlling drugs, food additives and toxic substances in the work environment, and concern about effects on man. Stresses need for putting toxicology on a scientific base with adequate funding. (JM)

  6. Ascorbic acid Beta-Carotene and Amino acids in Capsicum (Capsicum annuum during fruit development in Himalayan Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Pant

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum varieties viz HC-201 & HC-202 developed at ARU, Almora took 35 days from fruit set to ripening. Results showed significant positive correlation for ascorbic acid and Beta-carotene with days to maturity. Out of eight ninhydrin positive products, only seven could be identified viz, hydroxyproline, proline, lysine, 5-alanine, arginine, threonine and methionine, at the later stages of the fruit development. All amino acids except methionine were found either absent or in traces at the earlier stages of fruit development.

  7. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  9. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  10. Overview: developmental toxicology: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Dana; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    Since regulatory agencies began implementing the use of standardized developmental toxicology protocols in the mid-1960s, our knowledge base of embryo-fetal development and technologies for experimentation has grown exponentially. These developmental toxicology protocols were a direct result of the thalidomide tragedy from earlier that decade, when large numbers of women were exposed to the drug and over 10,000 cases of phocomelia resulted. In preventing a recurrence of such tragedies, the testing protocols are immensely successful and the field of toxicology has been dedicated to using them to advance safety and risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, our perspectives on toxicity testing have been challenged by a growing awareness that while we have excelled in hazard identification, we are in dire need of improved methodologies for human health risk assessment, particularly with respect to the large numbers of environmental chemicals for which we have little toxicology data and to the growing sentiment that better alternatives to whole animals tests are needed. To provide a forum for scientists, researchers, and regulators, the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute organized a 2-day workshop titled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" to evaluate lessons learned over the past 30 years and discuss the future of toxicology testing. The following four articles describe different presentations and discussions that were held over the course of those 2 days.

  11. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  12. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  13. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  14. [New antidotes in toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, Régis

    2008-04-30

    New antidotes appeared in the French pharmacopoeia (fomepizole, Viperfav), and old drugs, usually unused in toxicology, saw their indications enlarged in an antidotic activity (glucose and insulin, L-carnitine, octreotide). Fomepizole is an antidote for toxic alcohol and glycol intoxications, which is much easier to handle than ethylic alcohol and as efficient as the classical antidote of this kind of intoxication. Octreotide improves the result of hypertonic glucose infusion in sulfonylurea derivatives intoxications, by blocking insulin release. The glucose-insulin association allows the myocardium to use the main energy substrate necessary for its action in the setting of beta-blocking and calcium channel blocking agents intoxications when they are associated to a cardiogenic shock. Viperfav is a polyvalent antivenom used in European adders envenomations, which showed its effectiveness and safety. Levocarnitine allows to correct the wrong metabolic pathway induced by a deficit in carnitine in valproïc acid intoxications.

  15. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  16. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  17. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Maria Passador; Edson Luiz Furtado; Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão), é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne) e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero), que após a forma...

  18. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  19. Contrasting modes for loss of pungency between cultivated and wild species of Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellari, G M; Mazourek, M; Jahn, M M

    2010-05-01

    Studies documenting the inheritance of pungency or 'heat' in pepper (Capsicum spp.) have revealed that mutations at a single locus, Pun1, are responsible for loss of pungency in cultivars of the two closely related species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense. In this study, we present the identification of an unreported null allele of Pun1 from a non-pungent accession of Capsicum frutescens, the third species in the annuum-chinense-frutescens complex of domesticated Capsicums. The loss of pungency phenotype in C. frutescens maps to Pun1 and co-segregates with a molecular marker developed to detect this allele of Pun1, pun1(3). Loss of transcription of pun1(3) is correlated with loss of pungency. Although this mutation is allelic to pun1 and pun1(2), the mutation causing loss of pungency in the undomesticated Capsicum chacoense, pun2, is not allelic to the Pun1 locus as shown by mapping and complementation studies. The different origins of non-pungency in pepper are discussed in the context of the phylogenetic relationship of the known loss of pungency alleles.

  20. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  1. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  2. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  3. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  4. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  5. Toxicology of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola-Lemaître, B

    1997-12-01

    Despite the fact that melatonin has been released for public use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration and is available over the counter nationwide, there currently is a total lack of information on the toxicology of melatonin. In Europe, melatonin has a completely different status in that it is considered a "neurohormone" and cannot be sold over the counter. Even though administration of melatonin in humans, as well as in animals (even at supraphysiological doses), has not shown evidence of toxicological effects (i.e., no deaths), a drug toxicological file still would need to be prepared and approved by the regulatory authorities. Several features that are specific to this neurohormone need to be taken into consideration. Whatever the species concerned, melatonin is secreted during the night; it is the "hormone of darkness." It presents a circadian rhythm and a circannual rhythm (in photoperiodic species). The duration of these secretions could have an impact on the reproductive system, for example, showing the importance of the pharmacodynamics of melatonin. An inappropriate time schedule of melatonin administration could induce supraphysiological concentrations of the neurohormone and a desensitization of melatonin receptors. A long duration of exposure to melatonin also could mimic an "artificial darkness" condition when a circadian rhythm with a basal zero level during the day needs to be conserved for a physiological function. Furthermore, administration of large doses of melatonin could induce high concentrations of melatonin and of different metabolites that could have deleterious effects per se. Numerous books, magazines, and articles have praised melatonin as a "miraculous cure-all" for ailments ranging from sleeplessness, to aging, without any clinical evidence of efficacy (with the exception of its chronobiotic and resynchronizing effect). Very little attention has been paid to the possible side effects of melatonin. Nightmares

  6. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  7. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  8. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  9. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  10. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  11. Genome-wide divergence and linkage disequilibrium analyses for Capsicum baccatum revealed by genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to show the distribution of these 2 important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide...

  12. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  13. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  14. Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Min Seok; Kim, Kyo Sang; Lee, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Lee, Jung-Won

    2013-12-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery.

  15. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Using Illumina Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast (cp genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp. The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  16. Characterization of some Indian Himalayan Capsicums through floral morphology and EMA-based chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Timir Baran; Saha, Partha Sarathi

    2017-03-01

    The North Eastern Himalayan (NEH) regions of India are considered as one of the major repositories of the "Capsicum annuum complex" which comprises of three cultivated species namely C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. The interspecific delimitation within this large complex is ill-defined due to poorly developed crossing barriers and lack of discontinuous morphological characters. The present study elucidates the relationship among nine different cultivars of three Capsicum species on the basis of floral morphology and karyological parameters for the first time. Different floral characteristics such as margins and constrictions of calyx, type of pedicel, flower size, and color were found to have paramount importance in the species delimitation within the studied members of "C. annuum complex." The present karyomorphometric study explicitly revealed differences between the observed chromosomal data such as karyotype formulae, ordering of satellite bearing chromosome pairs and total diploid chromatin length which aid in resolving interspecific relationship among the studied cultivars of Capsicum. The present analyses unambiguously distinguished all cultivars of C. annuum from the members of C. frutescens and C. chinense and also proposed that among the five cultivars of C. annuum, Ghee lanka was comparatively distant from the other four cultivars on the basis of their karyomorphological characteristics. For the first time karyotype of hottest Indian chili is included in this paper. Comprehensive knowledge on floral morphology and karyotypes of some Himalayan Capsicums not only help to conserve genetic diversity but also help capsicum breeders for their basic and applied research.

  17. Soil Manganese and Iron Released due to Calcium Salts:Bioavailability to Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI You-Bin; ZHOU Jing; ZHOU Dong-Mei; CHEN Huai-Man

    2004-01-01

    Releases of manganese and iron ions from an albic soil (Albic-Udic Luvisol), a yellow-red soil (Hap-Udic Ferrisol) and a yellow-brown soil (Arp-Udic Luvisol) induced by calcium salt addition and their bioavailability to pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in a pot experiment. Addition of Ca(NO3)2 decreased soil pH and increased both exchangeable and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Mn and Fe in soils. Meanwhile, total Mn accumulation in the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. on the salt-treated soils increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the control, suggesting that salt addition to soil induced Mn toxicity in Capsicum frutescens L. Although exchangeable and DTPA-extractable Fe increased also in the salt-treated soils, Fe uptake by the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased. The effect of added salts in soils on dry matter weight of pepper varied with the soil characteristics, showing different buffer capacities of the soils for salt toxicity in an order of yellow-brown soil > albic soil > yellow-red soil. Fe/Mn ratio in shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased with increasing salt addition for all the soils, which was ascribed to the antagonistic effect of Mn on Fe accumulation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in the tissue was a better indicator of the appearance of Mn toxicity symptoms than Mn concentration alone.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  19. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  20. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  1. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology,...

  3. Stress inducible proteomic changes in Capsicum annuum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore attack induces defense responses in plants, activating several signaling cascades. As a result, molecules deterrent to the herbivores are produced and accumulated in plants. Expression of defense mechanism/traits requires reorganization of the plant metabolism, redirecting the resources otherwise meant for growth. In the present work, protein profile of Capsicum annuum leaves was examined after herbivore attack/induction. Majority of proteins identified as differentially accumulated, were having roles in redox metabolism and photosynthesis. For example, superoxide dismutase and NADP oxidoreductase were upregulated by 10- and 6-fold while carbonic anhydrase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were downregulated by 9- and 4-fold, respectively. Also, superoxide dismutase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase and NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase transcripts showed a higher accumulation in induced leaf tissues at early time points. In general, proteins having role in defense and damage repair were upregulated while those involved in photosynthesis appeared downregulated. Thus metabolic reconfiguration to balance defense and tolerance was evident in the stress-induced leaves.

  4. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  5. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellismar W. da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L., variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados modelos matemáticos frequentemente utilizados para representação da higroscopicidade de produtos agrícolas. Para uma atividade de água constante o aumento da temperatura reduz o teor de água de equilíbrio higroscópico das sementes de pimenta. As isotermas de dessorção apresentam formato sigmoidal do tipo II. Os modelos de Cavalcanti Mata, Chen Clayton, Chung Pfost, Chung Pfost Modificado, Henderson e Henderson Modificado são adequados para representar a higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta Cabacinha para a faixa de temperatura de 10 a 40 °C e atividade de água de 0,213 a 0,975.

  6. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  8. Identification of Colletotrichum isolates from Capsicum chinense in Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C V S; Matos, K S; de Albuquerque, D M C; Hanada, R E; da Silva, G F

    2017-06-29

    Chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) is a great economic important culture on the State of Amazonas, and it represents, approximately, a production of 1.9 thousand tons per year. It is one of the hosts of Colletotrichum genus in the North region of Brazil. The aim of the study was to differentiate and to identify isolates of Colletotrichum collected from C. chinense in Amazon. Molecular characterization, using RFLP-PCR, ERIC-PCR and ISSR, was carried out initially for screening of morphologically similar isolates. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses were performed using combined regions: Actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) for the three isolates, INPA 2066, INPA 2286 and INPA 1858, plus superoxide dismutase (SOD2) for INPA 2066. We showed that the molecular markers were able to distinguish the isolates of Colletotrichum studied and these results were confirmed with the phylogenetic analyses, three different occurrences of Colletotrichum species (C. siamense, C. scovillei and C. brevisporum) causing anthracnose in C. chinense in the State of Amazonas. This study represents the first report of the species C. siamense and C. scovillei in this host in Brazil.

  9. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  10. HERENCIA DE CAPSAICINOIDES EN CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Los capsaicinoides son alcaloides importantes en la salud humana, alimentaria y farmaceútica, y sólo son producidos por plantas del género Capsicum. En este estudio se analizó la herencia del contenido de los tres principales capsaicinoides causantes del picor (nordihidro-, dihidro- y capsaicina), en 25 materiales genéticos de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.), que incluyen a cinco poblaciones (Huatusco, Zongolica, Tacámbaro, Puebla y Perú) más sus 20 cruzas interpoblacionales posibl...

  11. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  12. Toxicological evaluation of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out the importance of short term assays for the characterization of organic residues, specially some methods for toxicological, mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation (Vibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium and Allium cepa, used in the characterization of environmental complex mixtures lixiviates. These methods take part together with other bioassays in the evaluation by toxicological identification (VIT, which allows the evaluation of other ecotoxicological effects: a bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri; b germination and root length of Lepidum sativum; c root length of Allium cepa and Tradescantia sp.; d inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna; and e abnormalities in the development of Oryzias latipes, or medaka fish. All these assays take part in the EU battery of bioassays, applied to discriminate and select between those environmental matrixes which must be subject to more complex and specific chemical characterizations.We make a review of the methods for toxicological evaluation, used for the characterization of chemical compounds or complex mixtures, as well as the use of its results for the human and environmental risk assessment. This evaluation consists, in short, of the identification of dangers, evaluation of dose-response ratio, evaluation of exposure and risk characterization, resulting in the analysis, use and communication of this risk. It is emphasized the high predictive value for carcinogenicity of some of these bioassays.It is shown the utility of short term assays for the evaluation of substances, products and complex mixtures, which would contribute to improve the toxicological knowledge of a greater number substances. This is a vital need in the EU, due to the lack of complete toxicological information of about the 70% of the 106.000 existing and used substances.It is emphasized the great value that mutagenicity assays represent inside the toxicological tests in the basic level, which

  13. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  14. Influence of cultivar and maturity at harvest on the essential oil composition, oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in fresh ginger from northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Challa Ravi; Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Amma, K P Padmakumari; Menon, A Nirmala; Kumar, M M Sree; Venugopalan, V V

    2013-05-01

    Severe flooding of the Brahmaputra River during the monsoon season and continuous rainfall in the northeast region (NER) of India cause an enormous loss of ginger crop every year. In this context, the present study investigates the variation in the essential oil composition and oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in 10 different fresh ginger cultivars harvested at 6- and 9-month maturity from five different states of NER. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and citral composition in the essential oil were evaluated to ascertain their dependence upon the maturity of ginger. Except Mizoram Thinglaidum, Mizoram Thingria, Nagaland Nadia, and Tripura I ginger cultivars, all other cultivars showed an increase in the citral content during the maturity that was observed for the first time. At 6-month maturity, a higher undecanone level was found in Nagaland Nadia (7.36 ± 0.61%), Tripura I (6.23 ± 0.61%), and Tripura III (9.17 ± 0.76%) cultivars, and these data can be used as a benchmark to identify those immature varieties. Interestingly, the Nagaland Nadia cultivar showed higher ar-curcumene (9.57 ± 0.58%) content than zingiberene (5.84 ± 0.24%), which was unique among all cultivars. Ginger harvested at 9-month maturity from the Tripura II cultivar had the highest citral content (22.03 ± 0.49%), and the Meghalaya Mahima cultivar had the highest zingiberene content (29.89 ± 2.92%). The oleoresin content was found to decrease with maturity in all cultivars, except Assam Fibreless and Manipur I. Moreover, the highest oleoresin (11.43 ± 0.58 and 9.42 ± 0.63%) and [6]-gingerol (1.67 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.05 g) contents were observed for Tripura II and Nagaland Nadia, respectively. This study suggests that Tripura and Nagaland are the most ideal locations in NER for ginger cultivation to obtain high yields of oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents and harvesting at the 6-month maturation will compensate for the loss of ginger crop caused by the Brahmaputra River flooding in NER

  15. 叶黄素浸膏的环糊精包合作用研究%Study on the inclusion of marigold oleoresin and cyclodextrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋燕; 陈新建; 裴会娜; 任勇

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To improve the properties of marigold oleoresin included by cyclodextrins. Methods: The components of marigold oleoresin were analyzed by HSCCC (high-speed counter-current chromatography) and HPLC.The inclusion constants were tested by UV spectrophotometry.The complexes were prepared by trituration and the optimum inclusion condition was determined by the solubility and stability of the complexes. Results,The chromatography results showed that marigold oleoresin was a mixture of many different compounds.The inclusion constants also indicated strong inclusion action between xanthophyll and cyclodextrins,and mixed-cyclodextrins were superior to single cyclodextrin.Improved inclusion effects vary with different cyclodextrin,the β-cyclodextrin inclusion had poorer solubility,but better stability than HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion. Mixed- cyclodextrins inclusion excel in both solubility and stability, especially at the ratio of 9:1 (β-cyclodextrin: HP-β-cyclodextrin).Conclusion: Marigold Oleoresin included by mixed-cyclodextrin has much better properties such as solubility and stability than the simple addition of individual cyclodextrins,which can compensate the shortage of single type of cyclodextrin.%目的:研究环糊精包合时叶黄素浸膏性能的改进效果.方法:HSCCC及HPLC分析浸膏成分,紫外法测定表观包合常数,研磨法制备包合物,以溶解性及稳定性指标考察包合效果.结果:色谱分析表明,叶黄素浸膏为成分复杂的混合物;叶黄素浸膏与环糊精存在较强的包合作用,且混合环糊精优于单一环糊精;单一环糊精的包合改进效果各异,p一环糊精的增溶效果较差,但稳定性好于羟丙基-β-环糊精;混合环糊精包舍的改进效果明显,尤以β-环糊精/羟丙基-β-环糊精9:1的混合包合性能效果最佳.结论:混合环糊精包合成分复杂的叶黄素浸膏可弥补单一环糊精的不足,包舍物的溶解度和稳定性均能得到明显改善.

  16. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous.

  17. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment studies of triazophos residues on capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) using GLC-FPD and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-10-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the dissipation pattern of triazophos on capsicum and risk assessment of its residues on human beings and to suggest a waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following two applications of triazophos (Truzo 40 EC) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits were found to be 3.61 and 6.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 and 15 days at the recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The calculated values of half-life were 2.31 and 2.14 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were found to be 28.8 and 41.6 μg person(-1) day(-1) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively, and found to be below the maximum permissible intake on capsicum fruit on the 7th day. Therefore, a waiting period of 7 days is suggested for consumption of capsicum sprayed with triazophos at the recommended dosages.

  18. First report of BLTVA phytoplasma in Capsicum annuum and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in Durango and Zacatecas, Mexico, in September and October, 2014, had small, chlorotic, curled leaves, plant stunting, and/or big bud symptoms characteristic of phytoplasma infection (Lee et al. 2004). Samples from symptomatic pepper fields included 33 collected near...

  19. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  20. Genome-wide diversity and association mapping for capsaicinoids and fruit weight in Capsicum annuum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of domesticated and wild C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. Principal component analysis and identity by state...

  1. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  2. Characterization of volatile and non-volatile compounds of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds and several agronomical important parameters were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids and several genebank accessions from different Capsicum species. The sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids were chosen to

  3. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Maharijaya, A.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions

  4. Secondary Metabolites of Capsicum Species and Their Importance in the Human Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (pepper) comprises a large number of wild and cultivated species. The plants are grown all over the world, primarily in tropical and subtropical countries. The fruits are an excellent source of health-related compounds, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids (provitamin A)

  5. Genetic diversity, population structure, and heritability of fruit traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungenc...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  7. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Maharijaya, A.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions

  8. Molecular mapping of the C locus for presence of pungency in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Eyal; Liu, Kede; Mazourek, Michael; Yoo, Eun Young; Jahn, Molly; Paran, Ilan

    2002-08-01

    Pungency owing to the presence of capsaicinoids is a unique character of pepper (Capsicum spp.). Capsaicinoids are produced in the placenta and it has long been known that a single dominant gene, C, is required for pungent genotypes to produce capsaicinoids. We mapped C to pepper chromosome 2 in a cross between a pungent Capsicum frutescens wild accession and a non-pungent Capsicum annuum bell pepper. This position confirmed results from earlier studies. The RFLP marker TG 205 cosegregated with C and two additional RFLP markers were also located within 1 cM. The recessive allele at the C locus is used in breeding programs around the world focused on very diverse germplasm, hence any of these tightly linked markers may be of value as potential sources of useful markers for marker-assisted selection. To demonstrate this point, we developed a PCR-based CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) marker linked to C using the sequence of the Capsicum fibrillin gene located 0.4 cM from C. The use of molecular markers for high-throughput screening for the c allele in pepper breeding programs is discussed.

  9. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Vivian-Smith, A.; Ljung, K.; Offringa, R.; Heuvelink, E.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also appli

  10. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  11. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  12. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  13. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  14. PENGEMBANGAN AGRIBISNIS CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annuum L DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernoiz Antriyandarti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of major commodity of horticulture in Central Java Province is chili (Capsicum annuum L. As a central area for agribusiness of Chili, Magelang needs the development to stimulate investment growth potential by involving all regional agribusiness, government, farmers/ agribusiness and private groups to work together in an integrated. This study aims to (1 Determine the feasibility of chilli farm; (2 Knowing the comparative advantage of the chili farm; and (3 Formulate developing agribusiness of Chili. This research uses descriptive analytical method. On farm analysis, quantitative data are converted and tabulated in the same unit. To determine the feasibility of Chili farm used analysis of R/C ratio. The greater the value of R/C ratio was more viable farm. Determination of comparative advantage of Chili is analyzed by the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. PAM results show the individual and collective effects of price and factor policies. Furthermore, this method can analyze the comparative advantage of a commodity. The result showed that Agribusiness of Chili is profitable both the private and social, and there are no disadvantage caused by the activities of Chili agribusiness. Thus agribusiness of chili can be further developed. The nontradeable inputs of chili farming have been used efficiently and provide added value for farmers. Domestic demand of chili is more profitable supplied by domestic production rather than imports. Farmers receive chili prices lower than it should and not get product price protection. Farmers pay the nontradeable input lower than it should. As for the tradeable inputs, farmers pay higher than it should. It can be concluded that the chili agribusiness has not received adequate protection.

  15. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  16. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  17. Studies on Refining of Lycopene Oleoresin by Ultrasound-assisted Saponification%超声波辅助皂化法精制番茄红素油树脂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程; 陈芳; 赵广华; 廖小军

    2009-01-01

    采用超声波辅助皂化法精制番茄红素油树脂,单因素试验结果表明:KOH用量,皂化反应时间和超声波功率等3个主要因素对番茄红素油树脂皂化效果具有显著影响.KOH用量4.50 g、皂化反应时间2 h、超声波功率250 W为较佳的工艺条件.超声波辅助皂化可以显著提高番茄红素油树脂的纯度、色价以及清除DPPH ·自由基活性.%Ultrasonic-assisted saponification method was used to refine lycopene oleoresin. Single-factor experiment results showed that three main factors including KOH dosage, reaction time and ultrasonic power have significant impact on the refining of lycopene oleoresin. The better parameters are as follows: KOH dosage is 4.50 g, saponification reaction time is 2 h, and ultrasonic power is 250 W. The refining of lycopene oleoresin by ultrasound-assisted saponification can significantly improve the purity, color value and scavenging activity to DPPH · free radical of lycopene oleoresin.

  18. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  19. Resource Guide to Careers in Toxicology, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of Toxicology, Reston, VA.

    This resource guide was prepared by the Tox 90's Educational Issues Task Force of the Society of Toxicology. The introduction provides information on the Society of Toxicology and financial support for graduate students in toxicology. Other sections include career opportunities in toxicology, academic and postdoctoral programs in toxicology, and…

  20. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  1. Toxicología General y Aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2011-01-01

    Presentaciones de los temas de Toxicología General y Aplicada: clínica, alimentaria y ambiental impartidos en la asignatura de Toxicología de la licenciatura de Veterinaria en la Universidad de Murcia en el curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de los temas de Toxicología General y Aplicada: clínica, alimentaria y ambiental impartidos en la Facultad de Veterinaria en el curso 2011/12.

  2. Vorkommen und Einfluss von Acyl-Thioestern auf das Fettsäuremuster der Vanillylamide in Capsicum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Plants of the genus Capsicum (e.g. bell pepper and chili pepper) are among the oldest cultivated plants. Their fruits are used as spice for over 8000 years, as archaeological findings on millstones and pottery show. Pungency, a quality criterion in chili, is caused by a group of vanillylamides, the capsaicinoids. They are a unique category of alkaloids restricted to the genus Capsicum. More than 30 capsaicinoids, differing only in the fatty acid structures, have been described. Capsaicinoi...

  3. Discussion on Improvement of Toxicological Pathology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenJin

    2003-01-01

    Toxicological pathology plays a key role in drug safety assessment. To enhance the research level of toxicological pathology, the following stud-ies should be carried out urgently: setting up a standard operation procedure (SOP) for toxico-logical pathology assessment; emphasizing on immunotoxicology evaluation; adopting a new ex-periment model of replacement, featuring high speed and reliability; introducing new techniques and new models in toxicological mechanism re-search; and establishing a new appraisal system to screen innovative drug and rapid and high pre-cision methods for early security assessment, de-tection and measurement.

  4. Pre-melhoramento em capsicum: identifica??o de esp?cies, hibrida??o interespec?fica e variabilidade gen?tica em caracteres de sementes

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Silfran Rog?rio Marialva

    2015-01-01

    A presente pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar o pot?ncial da espectroscopia no infravermelho pr?ximo (NIR) para distinguir esp?cies do g?nero Capsicum, avaliar a viabilidade de cruzamento entre subamostras de Capsicum chinense Jacq. com Capsicum annuum L. e analisar a variabilidade gen?tica a partir de par?metros gen?ticos para os caracteres: germina??o e vigor de sementes de germoplasma de C. chinense Jacq.. Para o estudo da discrimina??o de esp?cies de Capsicum com espec...

  5. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández María Soledad; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Manduca Fermín Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG) fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense e...

  6. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  7. Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Manasi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and −10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and −43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating

  8. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (HE = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (HE = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher genetic

  10. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dissi, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    A wide variety of toxins cause diseases in the horse and are investigated routinely by veterinarians and veterinary pathologists to identify the cause of illness and death. A complete investigation involves performing a thorough necropsy and requires macroscopic and microscopic examination of lesions and a variety of laboratory testing to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The identification of gross lesions by equine practitioners is often the first step in formulating a diagnostic plan. This article provides a description of selected common toxins producing detectable gross lesions in horses in North America. The article is useful to equine practitioners and veterinary pathologists investigating a toxicology-related death.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of pure hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auñon-Calles, David; Canut, Lourdes; Visioli, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Of all the phenolic constituents of olives and extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol is currently being actively exploited as a potential supplement or preservative to be employed in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and food industry. In terms of safety profile, hydroxytyrosol has only been investigated as the predominant part of raw olive mill waste water extracts, due to the previous unavailability of appropriate quantities of the pure compound. We report the toxicological evaluation of hydroxytyrosol and, based on the results, propose a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 500mg/kg/d.

  12. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  13. 番茄红素油树脂中脂肪酸组成的分析%Analysis on the Content of Fatty Acids in Lycopene Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连富; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    Lycopene oleoresin is a mixture of some kinds of oil-solublecompounds extracted from tomato puree using lipophilic solvents as a medium. It may contain many kinds of lipid such as fats and fatty acids, Vitamin E, sterol and phospholipid besides lycopene. The author analyzed the type and content of fatty acids in the lycopene oleoresin through the GC/MS of the AMP derivatives of them. The results show that the fatty acids in the lycopene oleoresin include 14∶0, 16∶0,18∶0,18∶1,18∶2,and 18∶3. The contents of saturated fatty acids and the unsaturated are about 75% and 25% respectively, and all of the fatty acids are no more than 18 C.%番茄红素油树脂是以番茄皮渣为原料、以非极性溶剂为介质来进行抽提而得到的油溶性成分的混合物,其中除含有番茄红素外,还含有一定数量油脂及脂肪酸,维生素E、甾醇及磷脂等类脂性成分.本研究通过对皂化后所得脂肪酸经AMP衍生化所产生衍生产物的GC/MS法,对其中的脂肪酸组成及其含量进行了分析.结果表明,番茄红素油树脂中脂肪酸组成包括14∶0,16∶0,18∶0,18∶1,18∶2,18∶3等几种,以饱和脂肪酸为主,约占脂肪酸总量的75%,而不饱和脂肪酸仅占25%,并且所有脂肪酸的碳链均较短.

  14. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  15. DATA MINING POTENCY ESTIMATORS FROM TOXICOLOGICAL DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    Piegorsch, Walter W.; Simmons, Susan J.; Zeiger, Errol

    2004-01-01

    We discuss use of data mining techniques to study estimators of toxic potency (activity) in toxicological databases. The methods are slight variations on the standard data mining motif, but fit fully within the larger context of knowledge discovery in databases. An example illustrates the general theme of the approach, using results from a U.S. National Toxicology Program Salmonella mutagenicity database.

  16. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  18. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  19. Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, J N

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake.

  20. Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macewen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity is examined, including the effects of oxygen partial pressure variations on toxicity and oxygen effects on ozone and nitrogen dioxide toxicity. Toxicity of fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazines, are reported. Carbon monoxide, spacecraft threshold limit values, emergency exposure limits, spacecraft contaminants, and water quality standards for space missions are briefly summarized.

  1. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  2. DNA Barcoding in a Crop Genebank: Resolving the Capsicum annuum Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variability within eight cpDNA introns including trnS-trnfM, trnL-trnT, trnH-psbA, trnF-trnL, trnD-trnT, trnC-rpoB, rps16, and matK, and the nuclear waxy intron was examined in seven species of Capsicum (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. chacoense, and C. rhomboide...

  3. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  4. UJI PENAMBAHAN BERBAGAI DOSIS VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF CABAI MERAH BESAR Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zohra Hasyim; Elis Tambaru; Andi Ilham Latunra

    2015-01-01

    This research entitled " Effect of Vermicompost on growth of Capsicum annuum Chilli Red Big L. " . Is aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost on the growth of vegetative big red chili . Planting medium used is consisted of soil and vermicompost . Vermicompost derived from the cultivation of earthworms Lumbricus rubellus . Large red chilli seeds purchased from the farm shop . Large red chilli seeds germinated in vermicompost mixed soil and covered with clear plastic . This study is an ex...

  5. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.

  6. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  7. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  8. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  9. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  10. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. X-235, var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. X-235 responded better than the var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.800.16 (var. X-235, 5.000.19 (var. PC-1 and 4.800.12 (var. Pusa Jwala. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  11. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  12. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental

  13. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  14. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental access

  15. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure......Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  16. Defining the toxicology of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Jessica A; Sanoff, Hanna K; Sharpless, Norman E

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian aging is complex and incompletely understood. Although significant effort has been spent addressing the genetics or, more recently, the pharmacology of aging, the toxicology of aging has been relatively understudied. Just as an understanding of 'carcinogens' has proven crucial to modern cancer biology, an understanding of environmental toxicants that accelerate aging ('gerontogens') will inform gerontology. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the existence of mammalian gerontogens, as well as describe the biomarkers needed to measure the age-promoting activity of a given toxicant. We focus on the effects of putative gerontogens on the in vivo accumulation of senescent cells, a characteristic feature of aging that has a causal role in some age-associated phenotypes.

  17. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  18. The method and application of oleoresin distillation%松脂蒸馏的方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文彪; 车锦楷; 李前; 李伟

    2016-01-01

    松脂蒸馏的方法有滴水法、水蒸汽法、导热油法和CO2/N2循环活气法,从能量消耗、过程装备、产品质量以及“三废”排放等方面,对各种松脂蒸馏方法进行比较。结果表明,CO2/N2循环活气法比水蒸汽法节省能量消耗近一倍,减少冷却水用量13.23~16.18m3/t 松香;CO2/N2循环活气法蒸馏松脂不需要油水分离器、盐滤器,又因为不需要带走活气的冷凝热,冷凝冷却器的换热面积也减少,也不需要建造大型过热水蒸汽锅炉;CO2/N2循环活气法蒸馏松脂所得的产品不含水份,松香无结晶现象,松节油透明无混浊;而且该法蒸馏松脂无三废产生,克服了水蒸汽法排放含松节油废水、废气和工业废盐的缺点,是一种清洁的生产方法。%The distillation of oleoresin has a variety of methods, such as water drop method, direct steam method, conduction oil method and circulating CO2 or N2 method. Comparison of those methods from the point of energy consumption, process equipment, quality of product and three waste discharge. The results showed that the consumptions of energy and cooling water by circulating CO2 or N2 method were decreased the number by half and 13.23~16.18m3/t, respectively, than steam direct method. For the method of circulating CO2 or N2, the separator for oil from water, filter salt and large boiler producing overheated steam were not required, in addition, the range of heat transfer area for condensers was decreased, because the heat of condensation was not required to be taken away. Water was not contaminated in products manufactured; the rosin showed no crystallinity and turpentine was transparent without turbidity by the method of circulating CO2 or N2. Furthermore, the shortcoming of traditional steam distillation that emission of waste water with turpentine, waste gas and waste salt have been overcome. Thus, the circulating CO2 or N2 method is a kind of cleaner

  19. Polinização e fixação de frutos em Capsicum chinense Jacq. Pollinization and fruit fixation in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucifrancy Vilagelim Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia é um importante centro de diversidade de Capsicum spp., em especial de C. chinense. Informações relativas à biologia reprodutiva são importantes para o melhoramento e conservação da espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o sistema de reprodução de C. chinense. Foram avaliados cinco genótipos e quatro tratamentos: polinização natural, proteção dos botões florais, autopolinização manual e polinização cruzada manual. Os genótipos avaliados demonstraram auto-compatibilidade e reprodução como plantas autógamas.The Amazon is an important diversity center of Capsicum spp. especially C. chinense. Information about their reproductive biology is important to species breeding and conservation. The objective of this work was to study the C. chinense reproductive system. We evaluated five genotypes and four treatments: natural pollination, protection of floral bottoms, manual self pollination and manual cross pollination. The results showed that the genotypes evaluated are self-compatible and autogamous.

  20. TOXNET: A computerized collection of toxicological and environmental health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, G C; Stroup, D; Thomas, P L; Wexler, P

    2000-01-01

    The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, managed by the National Library of Medicine's Division of Specialized Information Services, provides access to a number of online bibliographic and factual computer files concerned with the toxicology, safety and handling, and environmental fate of chemicals, along with other files that cover genetic toxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and toxic chemical releases.

  1. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  2. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  3. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and in...

  4. Systems toxicology from genes to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, John; Wambaugh, John; Shah, Imran

    2013-01-01

    This unique overview of systems toxicology methods and techniques begins with a brief account of systems thinking in biology over the last century. We discuss how systems biology and toxicology continue to leverage advances in computational modeling, informatics, large-scale computing, and biotechnology. Next, we chart the genesis of systems toxicology from previous work in physiologically based models, models of early development, and more recently, molecular systems biology. For readers interested in further details this background provides useful linkages to the relevant literature. It also lays the foundations for new ideas in systems toxicology that could translate laboratory measurements of molecular responses from xenobiotic perturbations to adverse organ level effects in humans. By providing innovative solutions across disciplinary boundaries and highlighting key scientific gaps, we believe this chapter provides useful information about the current state, and valuable insight about future directions in systems toxicity.

  5. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  6. Informing mechanistic toxicology with computational molecular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Michael R; Peterson, Shane D; Chang, Daniel T; Transue, Thomas R; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Tan, Yu-Mei; Dary, Curtis C

    2012-01-01

    Computational molecular models of chemicals interacting with biomolecular targets provides toxicologists a valuable, affordable, and sustainable source of in silico molecular level information that augments, enriches, and complements in vitro and in vivo efforts. From a molecular biophysical ansatz, we describe how 3D molecular modeling methods used to numerically evaluate the classical pair-wise potential at the chemical/biological interface can inform mechanism of action and the dose-response paradigm of modern toxicology. With an emphasis on molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore/toxicophore approaches, we demonstrate how these methods can be integrated with chemoinformatic and toxicogenomic efforts into a tiered computational toxicology workflow. We describe generalized protocols in which 3D computational molecular modeling is used to enhance our ability to predict and model the most relevant toxicokinetic, metabolic, and molecular toxicological endpoints, thereby accelerating the computational toxicology-driven basis of modern risk assessment while providing a starting point for rational sustainable molecular design.

  7. Phytochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Studies of Asiasari Radix et ... three species of the genus Asarum: A. heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag., ..... third-instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Coquillett ...

  8. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  9. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  10. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Xin; Wojak, Anna; Neagu, Daniel; Ridley, Mick; Travis, Kim

    2011-01-01

    .... In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise...

  11. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  12. Food for thought ... A toxicology ontology roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    Foreign substances can have a dramatic and unpredictable adverse effect on human health. In the development of new therapeutic agents, it is essential that the potential adverse effects of all candidates be identified as early as possible. The field of predictive toxicology strives to profile the potential for adverse effects of novel chemical substances before they occur, both with traditional in vivo experimental approaches and increasingly through the development of in vitro and computational methods which can supplement and reduce the need for animal testing. To be maximally effective, the field needs access to the largest possible knowledge base of previous toxicology findings, and such results need to be made available in such a fashion so as to be interoperable, comparable, and compatible with standard toolkits. This necessitates the development of open, public, computable, and standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies so as to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. Such ontology development will support data management, model building, integrated analysis, validation and reporting, including regulatory reporting and alternative testing submission requirements as required by guidelines such as the REACH legislation, leading to new scientific advances in a mechanistically-based predictive toxicology. Numerous existing ontology and standards initiatives can contribute to the creation of a toxicology ontology supporting the needs of predictive toxicology and risk assessment. Additionally, new ontologies are needed to satisfy practical use cases and scenarios where gaps currently exist. Developing and integrating these resources will require a well-coordinated and sustained effort across numerous stakeholders engaged in a public-private partnership. In this communication, we set out a roadmap for the development of an integrated toxicology ontology

  13. Modern instrumental methods in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Vorce, Shawn P; Holler, Justin M; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2007-06-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice.

  14. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  15. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  16. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  17. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão, é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero, que após a formação dos espermogônios (11 dias, apresentou manchas necróticas na região periférica aos espermogônios, aos 15 dias após a inoculação, não havendo evolução da infecção. Também foi observada reação de hipersensibilidade, de forma mais moderada em folhas C. annuum (pimenta serrano e C. baccatum (chapéu-de-frade. Com relação às outras solanáceas inoculadas (jiló e berinjela não foram observados os sintomas e sinais da infecção.The Capsicum spp. (pepper and green pepper rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia pampeana. This is an important disease in these crops which may cause complete losses in crops of several species of Capsicum. Although specific to the genus Capsicum, and despite the fact that many species within this genus are susceptible to rust, some of them have shown a hypersensitivity reaction. That was the case with Capsicum annuum (Cayenne pepper and C. chinense (datil pepper, which, after spermogonia formation (11 days, showed necrotic spots in the peripheral region of the spermogonia 15 days after inoculation, without evolution of the infection. A milder hypersensitivity reaction was also observed only in leaves of C. annuum (chili pepper and C. baccatum ("chapéu-de-frade". With regard to other solanaceous plants inoculated ("jiló" and eggplant, no symptoms or signs of infection were observed.

  18. [Modern toxicology of magnetic nanomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywińska, Monika A; Grudziński, Ireneusz P

    2012-01-01

    Current advances in nanobiotechnology have led to the development of new field of nanomedicine, which includes many applications of nano(bio)materials for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (theranostics). Major expectations and challenges are on bioengineered magnetic nanoparticles when their come to delivering drug compounds, especially to targeting anticancer drugs to specific molecular endpoints in cancer therapy. The unique physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles offer great promise in modern cancer nanomedicine to provide new technological breakthroughs, such as guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cancer cell tracking and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. Along with the expanding interest in bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts their potential toxicity has become one of the major concerns. To date, a number of recent scientific evidences suggest that certain properties of magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell membranes, resistance to biodegradation) may amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to bulk non-nanoscale counterparts. In other words, safety assessment developed for ordinary magnetic materials may be of limited use in determining the health and environmental risks of the novel bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts. In the present paper we discuss the main directions of research conducted to assess the toxicity of magnetic nanocompounds in experimental in vitro and in vivo models, pointing to the key issues concerning the toxicological analysis of magnetic nanomaterials. In addition new research directions of nanotoxicological studies elucidating the importance of developing alternative methods for testing magnetic nano(bio)products are also presented.

  19. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  20. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  1. Toxicological assessment of Ashitaba Chalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    The plant Angelica keiskei contains two main physiologically active flavonoid chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol. Known as ashitaba in Japan, powder from the sap is widely consumed for its medicinal properties in Asia as a dietary supplement. Limited previously reported mammalian studies were without evidence of toxicity. GLP studies reported here, including a bacterial reverse mutation assay, a chromosome aberration assay, and an in vivo micronucleus assay are negative for genotoxicity. A GLP- compliant 90-day repeated oral gavage study of ashitaba yellow sap powder containing 8.45% chalcones in Sprague Dawley rats resulted in expected known physiological effects on coagulation parameters and plasma lipids at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Ashitaba-related pathology included a dose-related male rat-specific alpha 2-urinary globulin nephropathy at 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/day and jejunal lymphangiectasia in both sexes at 1000 mg/kg/day. All other study parameters and histopathological changes were incidental or not of toxicological concern. Based on these studies ashitaba chalcone powder is not genotoxic with a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg in male and female rats.

  2. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  3. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Wojak, Anna; Neagu, Daniel; Ridley, Mick; Travis, Kim

    2011-07-13

    Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity) and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results). This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality) and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas) of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper, data governance is identified as the new challenge in

  5. Advances in Genetic Resources and Molecular Breeding of Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒(Capsicum spp.)遗传资源与分子育种进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣; 陈学军; 缪南生; 万新建; 胡新龙

    2004-01-01

    综述了辣椒的起源(起源于美洲热带地区)、分类(有5个栽培种:Capsicum annuum、C.chinense、C.frutescens、C.baccatum、C.pubecens和若干野生种)、遗传演化背景、种间杂交障碍(单向不亲和性、种子败育、胞质雄性不育)、染色体倍性控制以及辣椒分子育种(分子连锁遗传图谱的构建、质量性状和数量性状的分子标记)研究进展等.

  6. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-01-01

    existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology......A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other...... being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published...

  7. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for "statistical significance" is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena.

  8. Cytological and morphological variations induced in Capsicum by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash, K.; Venkat Rajam, M. (Kakatiya Univ., Warangal (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1983-06-01

    Soaked seeds of Capsicum annuum L. cultivar G5 were subjected to different doses of X-rays in order to study the effect of irradiation, including 1, 3, 5 and 10 kR. Irradiated seeds were allowed to germinate and cytological preparations were made from the root tips in order to study the chromosomal anomalies. Gross chromosomal abnormalities, mostly indicating metaphase unoriented fragments in pairs, bridges at anaphase and telophase with or without fragments or laggards and micronuclei have been noticed. Somatic pairing and cell budding were also recorded. In addition, the frequency of chlorophyll mutations, variations in chlorophyll content and height of the seedlings have been recorded.

  9. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  10. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In ...

  11. Caracteriza??o morfol?gica e produtiva de pimentas (Capsicum spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Lucifrancy Vilagelim

    2012-01-01

    As pimentas do g?nero Capsicum s?o utilizadas de diferentes formas por muitas culturas no mundo. No Brasil ? encontrada ampla variabilidade desse g?nero sendo a Amaz?nia um importante centro de diversidade, existindo uma ampla variabilidade gen?tica expressa em diversas caracter?sticas de plantas, flores e frutos. Informa??es a respeito da diversidade em cole??o de germoplasma servem para aumentar a efici?ncia de trabalhos de melhoramento de esp?cies cultivadas, por meio da caracteriza??o mor...

  12. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  13. Pungency in paprika (Capsicum annuum). 1. Decrease of capsaicinoid content following cellular disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum-Titze, Petra; Hiepler, Constanze; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2002-02-27

    The capsaicinoid content in fruits of Capsicum annuum decreased within several days to a level of only 10% of the starting value when cells were disrupted by homogenization. This decrease was not observed in fruits that were carefully cut into halves. The analysis of one half made it possible to determine the reference content at time zero for the second half. A much lower decrease was observed when minced fruits were stored under nitrogen, whereas storage under oxygen resulted in considerable losses of capsaicinoids, indicating oxidative processes as a cause for the decrease of capsaicinoid content.

  14. EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EcoTILLING technique allows polymorphisms in target genes of natural populations to be quickly analysed or identified and facilitates the screening of genebank collections for desired traits. We have developed an EcoTILLING platform to exploit Capsicum genetic resources. A perfect example of the utility of this EcoTILLING platform is its application in searching for new virus-resistant alleles in Capsicum genus. Mutations in translation initiation factors (eIF4E, eIF(iso4E, eIF4G and eIF(iso4G break the cycle of several RNA viruses without affecting the plant life cycle, which makes these genes potential targets to screen for resistant germplasm. Results We developed and assayed a cDNA-based EcoTILLING platform with 233 cultivated accessions of the genus Capsicum. High variability in the coding sequences of the eIF4E and eIF(iso4E genes was detected using the cDNA platform. After sequencing, 36 nucleotide changes were detected in the CDS of eIF4E and 26 in eIF(iso4E. A total of 21 eIF4E haplotypes and 15 eIF(iso4E haplotypes were identified. To evaluate the functional relevance of this variability, 31 possible eIF4E/eIF(iso4E combinations were tested against Potato virus Y. The results showed that five new eIF4E variants (pvr210, pvr211, pvr212, pvr213 and pvr214 were related to PVY-resistance responses. Conclusions EcoTILLING was optimised in different Capsicum species to detect allelic variants of target genes. This work is the first to use cDNA instead of genomic DNA in EcoTILLING. This approach avoids intronic sequence problems and reduces the number of reactions. A high level of polymorphism has been identified for initiation factors, showing the high genetic variability present in our collection and its potential use for other traits, such as genes related to biotic or abiotic stresses, quality or production. Moreover, the new eIF4E and eIF(iso4E alleles are an excellent collection for searching for new resistance

  15. Starch fossils and the domestication and dispersal of chili peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Linda; Dickau, Ruth; Zarrillo, Sonia; Holst, Irene; Pearsall, Deborah M; Piperno, Dolores R; Berman, Mary Jane; Cooke, Richard G; Rademaker, Kurt; Ranere, Anthony J; Raymond, J Scott; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Scaramelli, Franz; Tarble, Kay; Zeidler, James A

    2007-02-16

    Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) are widely cultivated food plants that arose in the Americas and are now incorporated into cuisines worldwide. Here, we report a genus-specific starch morphotype that provides a means to identify chili peppers from archaeological contexts and trace both their domestication and dispersal. These starch microfossils have been found at seven sites dating from 6000 years before present to European contact and ranging from the Bahamas to southern Peru. The starch grain assemblages demonstrate that maize and chilies occurred together as an ancient and widespread Neotropical plant food complex that predates pottery in some regions.

  16. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L). A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12). Band no. (11) and (5,12) are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100%) between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the...

  17. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  18. GC-MS profiling of the phytochemical constituents of the oleoresin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and a preliminary in vivo evaluation of its antipsoriatic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Cavalchini, Alberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2013-01-20

    Copaiba is the oleoresin (OR) obtained from Copaifera (Fabaceae), a neotropical tree which grows in Amazon regions. The balsam, constituted by an essential oil and a resinous fraction is used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases and for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Aim of this work was (a) to carry out a characterization by GC-MS of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. oleoresin (OR); (b) to investigate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity; (c) to evaluate its antipsoriatic effect after oral intake/topical application. The volatile fraction (yield: 22.51%, w/w) shows: α-bergamotene (48.38%), α-himachalene (11.17%), β-selinene (5.00%) and β-caryophyllene (5.47%). The OR residue (77.49%, w/w), after derivatization, showed as main constituents the following compounds: copalic, abietic, daniellic, lambertinic, labd-7-en-15-oic, pimaric, isopimaric acids and kaur16-en18-oic acid. Preincubation of LPS-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes with increasing concentrations of the OR purified fraction (OR-PF), containing diterpene acids, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in a dose-range of 0.1-10 μM. In addition, in cell culture system of human THP-1 monocytes, 1 μM OR-PF counteracts LPS-driven NF-κB nuclear translocation. In a preliminary clinical trial three patients affected by chronic psoriasis, treated with oral intake or topical application of the OR, exhibited a significant improvement of the typical signs of this disease, i.e. erythema, skin thickness, and scaliness. In conclusion, the results of this work, beside an extensive analytical characterization of the OR chemical composition, provide strong evidences that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation, and consequently of proinflammatory cytokines secretion.

  19. Reproductive toxicological study on epristeride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunZY; ZhuY

    2002-01-01

    Benign protate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in older men.Epristeride is an uncompetitive inhibitor of steroid 5α-reductase,the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT),and has been shown to retard the growth of hyperplastic prostates.The study included the toxicological effects of epristeride on prostate,vas deferens and sperm.The results were listed below.(1)The 180 days toxicity of epristeride (100mg·kg-1) on interstitial cells of Beagle dog tests and DNA in prostatic epithelial cells couldn't reverse during 60 days vonvalescence,and that the DHT and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in the gland,the volume of the grland,glandular epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area could reverse to normal during the same convalescence.(2)It was demonstrated that an apoptosis of vas deferens epithelial cell of SD rat was observed at the concentration of 0.3 and 1.0nmol·L-1 epristeride in vitro.The results of PCR showed the exkpression of bcl-2 on vas deferens epithelial cells treated or untreated with epristeride,but the sequence of bcl-2 did not altered.(3)Motility and motile rate of sperm of rat,dog and human in vitro were videotaped and analyzed with computer-assisted sperm anaysis(CASA) system after 1h and 2h incubation.MOT(the percentage of motile sperm) of Beagle dog sperm were significantly reduced after treated with 0.6,6 and 60μmol·L-1 epristeride,respectively,but no significant change occurred in SD rat and human at the same concertations of epristeride.Is a word,epristeride is a better drug against BPH though there are much reproductive toxicity.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum annuum (Bird's Eye Chili) and Capsicum chinense (Yellow Lantern Chili), Respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Savka, Michael A; Triassi, Alexander J; Wheatley, Matthew S; Naqvi, Kubra F; Foxhall, Taylor E; Anauo, Michael J; Baldwin, Mariah L; Burkhardt, Russell N; O'Bryon, Isabelle G; Dailey, Lucas K; Busairi, Nurfatini Idayu; Keith, Robert C; Khair, Megat Hazmah Megat Mazhar; Rasul, Muhammad Zamir Mohd; Rosdi, Nur Aiman Mohd; Mountzouros, James R; Rhoads, Aleigha C; Selochan, Melissa A; Tautanov, Timur B; Polter, Steven J; Marks, Kayla D; Caraballo, Alexander A; Hudson, André O

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum spp. Annotation revealed gene clusters for the synthesis of bacilysin, lichensin, and bacillibactin and sporulation killing factor (skfA) in Bacillus safensis RIT372 and turnerbactin and carotenoid in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370.

  1. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento f...

  2. Clinical toxicology: clinical science to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D N

    2005-11-01

    1. The aims of the present paper are to: (i) review progress in clinical toxicology over the past 40 years and to place it in the context of modern health care by describing its development; and (ii) illustrate the use of clinical toxicology data from Scotland, in particular, as a tool for informing clinical care and public health policy with respect to drugs. 2. A historical literature review was conducted with amalgamation and comparison of a series of published and unpublished clinical toxicology datasets from NPIS Edinburgh and other sources. 3. Clinical databases within poisons treatment centres offer an important method of collecting data on the clinical effects of drugs in overdose. These data can be used to increase knowledge on drug toxicity mechanisms that inform licensing decisions, contribute to evidence-based care and clinical management. Combination of this material with national morbidity datasets provides another valuable approach that can inform public health prevention strategies. 4. In conclusion, clinical toxicology datasets offer clinical pharmacologists a new study area. Clinical toxicology treatment units and poisons information services offer an important health resource.

  3. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  4. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum accessio

  5. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  6. Characterization of capsaicin synthase and identification of its gene (csy1) for pungency factor capsaicin in pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B C Narasimha; Kumar, Vinod; Gururaj, H B; Parimalan, R; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2006-09-05

    Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid of the plant kingdom restricted to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is the pungency factor, a bioactive molecule of food and of medicinal importance. Capsaicin is useful as a counterirritant, antiarthritic, analgesic, antioxidant, and anticancer agent. Capsaicin biosynthesis involves condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl nonenoic acid, brought about by capsaicin synthase (CS). We found that CS activity correlated with genotype-specific capsaicin levels. We purified and characterized CS ( approximately 35 kDa). Immunolocalization studies confirmed that CS is specifically localized to the placental tissues of Capsicum fruits. Western blot analysis revealed concomitant enhancement of CS levels and capsaicin accumulation during fruit development. We determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified CS, cloned the CS gene (csy1) and sequenced full-length cDNA (981 bp). The deduced amino acid sequence of CS from full-length cDNA was 38 kDa. Functionality of csy1 through heterologous expression in recombinant Escherichia coli was also demonstrated. Here we report the gene responsible for capsaicin biosynthesis, which is unique to Capsicum spp. With this information on the CS gene, speculation on the gene for pungency is unequivocally resolved. Our findings have implications in the regulation of capsaicin levels in Capsicum genotypes.

  7. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  8. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  9. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  10. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  11. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, G. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  12. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-27

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines.

  13. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  14. Pistacia lentiscus Oleoresin: Virtual Screening and Identification of Masticadienonic and Isomasticadienonic Acids as Inhibitors of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Seibert, Julia; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P; Rollinger, Judith M; Odermatt, Alex; Schuster, Daniela; Assimopoulou, Andreana N

    2015-04-01

    In traditional medicine, the oleoresinous gum of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, so-called mastic gum, has been used to treat multiple conditions such as coughs, sore throats, eczema, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Mastic gum is rich in triterpenes, which have been postulated to exert antidiabetic effects and improve lipid metabolism. In fact, there is evidence of oleanonic acid, a constituent of mastic gum, acting as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, and mastic gum being antidiabetic in mice in vivo. Despite these findings, the exact antidiabetic mechanism of mastic gum remains unknown. Glucocorticoids play a key role in regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol has been proposed as a promising approach to combat metabolic disturbances including diabetes. In this study, a pharmacophore-based virtual screening was applied to filter a natural product database for possible 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors. The hit list analysis was especially focused on the triterpenoids present in Pistacia species. Multiple triterpenoids, such as masticadienonic acid and isomasticadienonic acid, main constituents of mastic gum, were identified. Indeed, masticadienonic acid and isomasticadienonic acid selectively inhibited 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 over 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 at low micromolar concentrations. These findings suggest that inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 contributes to the antidiabetic activity of mastic gum.

  15. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Sérgio Gushiken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n=8: Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  16. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  17. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  19. Identification, validation and survey of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Claver, Ana; Fellman, Shanna Moore; Gil-Ortega, Ramiro; Jahn, Molly; Arnedo-Andrés, María S

    2007-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency was detected within an expressed sequence tag (EST) of 307 bp. This fragment was identified after expression analysis of the EST clone SB2-66 in placenta tissue of Capsicum fruits. Sequence alignments corresponding to this new fragment allowed us to identify an SNP between pungent and non-pungent accessions. Two methods were chosen for the development of the SNP marker linked to pungency: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Results showed that both methods were successful in distinguishing genotypes. Nevertheless, tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was chosen for SNP genotyping because it was more rapid, reliable and less cost-effective. The utility of this SNP marker for pungency was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish between 29 pungent and non-pungent cultivars of Capsicum annuum. In addition, the SNP was also associated with phenotypic pungent character in the tested genotypes of C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, C. eximium, C. tovarii and C. cardenasi. This SNP marker is a faster, cheaper and more reproducible method for identifying pungent peppers than other techniques such as panel tasting, and allows rapid screening of the trait in early growth stages.

  20. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile.

  1. Fabrication and properties of capsicum extract-loaded PVA and CA nanofiber patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Sila-On, Warisada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers loaded with capsicum extract (CE) for use in topical skin treatments. CE, 0.5, 1 or 2 wt %, was loaded into PVA and CA electrospun fiber mats. Various properties of the CE-loaded fiber mats as well as release and skin permeation were investigated. The average diameters of these fibers ranged from 251-368 nm. The release rate of capsaicin from CE-loaded as-spun PVA was faster than that of the CA fiber mats and increased as the CE content in CE-loaded as-spun PVA and CA increased. The release kinetics of the CA and PVA fibers followed the Higuchi equation. The percentages of CE that permeated the shed snake skin with PVA and CA fiber mats containing 2 wt % CE after 24 h were 60% and 20%, respectively. The results suggest a potential use of PVA and CA nanofibers being used to control skin permeation of capsicum extract. Our research suggests the potential application of CE-loaded PVA electrospun mats as transdermal drug delivery systems.

  2. INDEKS MITOSIS UJUNG AKAR KECAMBAH CABE BESAR (Capsicum annuum L. SETELAH PERLAKUAN SUSPENSI Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetroneLa Deno Raja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indeks mitosis ujung akar kecambah cabe besar (Capsicum annuum L. setelah perlakuan suspensi Trichoderma sp. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Udayana dari Oktober 2013-November 2013. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode squash, biji cabe untuk kontrol direndam dalam air ± 6 jam, untuk perlakuan biji setelah direndam air, direndam lagi dalam suspensi Trichoderma sp. 10-7 selama ± 6 jam, selanjutnya dikecambahkan. Ujung akar kecambah 2 mm dipotong, difiksasi dalam larutan farmer ± 2-24 jam, dihidrolisis dalam larutan 3N HCL ± 2-5 menit dan kemudian pewarnaan dengan aceto orcein ± 5 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan mikroskop binokuler, data pembelahan tiap fase mitosis dihitung (%, dicatat dan difoto, dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji paired T tes.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. berpengaruh terhadap indeks mitosis sel ujung akar Capsicum annuum L.,  pada fase metafase berbeda nyata antara kontrol dan perlakuan, sedangkan pada fase profase, anafase dan telofase berbeda tidak nyata.  Pada perlakuan persentase fase profase, metafase, anafase dan telofase (77,14%; 12,96 %; 5,88 % dan 5,23 % lebih tinggi dari kontrol (66,40 %; 5,44 %; 4,96 % dan 4,66 %.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.

  4. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian

    2008-07-02

    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  5. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  6. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  7. Biological Characteristics and Oleoresin Production of Sindora glabra in Hainan Island%海南油楠的重要生物学特性及产油特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠锋; 杨锦昌; 成铁龙; 尹光天; 许涵; 刘志龙

    2014-01-01

    Sindora glabra belongs to genus Sindora of family Caesalpiniaceae and is one of Second Class Key Protected Wild Plants in China with multiple uses. In order to further understand its biological characteristics and promote the conservation and utilization of its resources,we investigated the germplasm resources,distribution habitat,community characteristics,seed characteristics,and growing habitat of seedlings and adult plants. The oleoresin production biology was studied by drilling trunk and regularly collecting the oleoresin. The results showed that S. glabra plants distributed mainly in an attitude range of 200 -700 m downhill of the tropical lowland rain forest and the tropical ravine rain forest of Lingshui,Sanya,Wuzhishan,Ledong,Dongfang,Changjiang and Baisha. Most of them grew in yellow soil and laterite formed from granite without slope aspect preference. In the Jianfengling nature reserve S. glabra was scattered in the forest communities with the relative density of 0 . 43% and relative frequency of 0 . 87%. There was significant phenomenon of alternate bearing with mean fruiting period of 3. 5 years. The average seed length,width,thickness and grain weight of S. glabra were 1. 93 cm,1. 56 cm,1. 00 cm,2. 048 2 kg,respectively. Both seed size and grain weight were significantly different between populations and among individuals while the variation between populations was greater than that between individuals. Growth rate of one-year-old seedlings was less than 50 cm in height and about 0. 50 cm in ground diameter, indicating the S. glabra seedlings grew slowly compared with other tropical tree species. Growth speed of adult plants varied in different introducing areas of S. glabra with annual increment range of 0. 56 -1. 17 cm in DBH and 0. 22 -0. 61 m in height,respectively. S. glabra in natural forests grew slightly slower with the DBH and height increment of 0. 48 cm and 0. 17 m per year compared with in introducing areas,however it had the moderate

  8. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  9. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  10. Toward an evidence-based toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S; Hartung, T

    2006-09-01

    The increasing demands on toxicology of large-scale risk assessment programmes for chemicals and emerging or expanding areas of chemical use suggest it is timely to review the toxicological toolbox. Like in clinical medicine, where an evidence-based medicine (EBM) is critically reviewing traditional approaches, toxicology has the opportunity to reshape and enlarge its methodology and approaches on the basis of compounded scientific knowledge. Such revision would have to be based on structured reviews of current practice, ie, assessment of test performance characteristics, mechanistic understanding, extended quality assurance, formal validation and the use of integrated testing strategies. This form of revision could optimize the balance between safety, costs and animal welfare, explicitly stating and, where possible, quantifying uncertainties. After a self-critical reassessment of current practices and evaluation of the thus generated information, such an evidence-based toxicology (EBT) promises to make better use of resources and to increase the quality of results, facilitating their interpretation. It shall open up hazard and also risk assessments to new technologies, flexibly accommodating current and future mechanistic understanding. An EBT will be better prepared to answer the continuously growing safety demands of modern societies.

  11. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  12. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  13. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  14. The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kooij, A.J. van de; Slootweg, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors

  15. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-04-25

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest...

  17. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  18. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  19. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense do grupo varietal Habanero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia P Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found. The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses

  20. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication.

  1. The Toxicology Education Summit: Building the Future of Toxicology Through Education

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collabor...

  2. Statistical studies in genetic toxicology: a perspective from the U.S. National Toxicology Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Margolin, B H

    1985-01-01

    This paper surveys recent, as yet unpublished, statistical studies arising from research in genetic toxicology within the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). These studies all involve analyses of data from Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests, but the statistical methodologies are broadly applicable. Three issues are addressed: First, what is a tenable sampling model for Ames test data, and how does one best test the adequacy of the Poisson sampling assumption? Second, given that ...

  3. 超临界法萃取的黑胡椒油树脂成分分析①%Composition Profile of Black Pepper Oleoresin Obtained by Supercritical Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪敏; 朱科学; 杨继敏; 房一明; 吴桂苹; 谷风林

    2016-01-01

    在超临界CO2萃取压力为30 Mpa、萃取时间为3 h、萃取温度为50℃的静态条件下,分别萃取未做任何处理、无水乙醇处理、乙酸乙酯处理的黑胡椒原料中的油树脂,并利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对萃取得到的黑胡椒油树脂进行成分分析,同时利用保留指数和MS对物质进行定性分析。结果显示,在超临界萃取条件下,未做任何前处理的黑胡椒油树脂的香气成分有22种,采用无水乙醇进行前处理的黑胡椒油树脂的香气成分有17种,采用乙酸乙酯进行前处理的黑胡椒油树脂的香气成分有41种。%The operating conditions of the supercritical carbon dioxide process were 30 Mpa, 50℃and 3 h. Meanwhile, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the composition of the oleoresin from the different pretreatments with ethanol, ethyl acetate or without pretreatment, respectively. The compounds identification of the black pepper oleoresin was based on the database and retention index for natural products. The amounts of oleoresin compounds were 22, 17 and 41 for without pretreatment, ethanol pretreatment and the ethyl acetate pretreatment.

  4. Determination of Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Remained in Lycopene Oleoresin by Headspace GC%气相法测定番茄红素油树脂中两种溶剂残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶虹; 王伟萍; 蔺娟; 黎婉; 代立勤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for analysis of ethyl acetate and ethanol remained in lycopene oleoresin by headspace GC. Methods Ethyl acetate and aethanol remained in lycopene oleoresin were determined by headspace GC on Rtx-5 column, with FID detecter, high purity nitrogen as the carry gas, the column temperature was programmed raised. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanol were completely separated. The solvents showed good linear relationship within the concentration range examined. The recoveries were between 81%-101%. The RSD of precision was less than 5%. Conclusion This method was proved to be simple and accurate and can be used to determinate ethyl acetate and ethanol remained in lycopene oleoresin simultaneity.%目的:建立测定番茄红素油树脂中乙酸乙酯和乙醇残留量的顶空气相色谱法。方法采用顶空气相色谱法。色谱柱为交联毛细管柱(Rtx-5,30 m×0.32 mm×0.25µm),FID检测器,载气为氮气,程序升温。结果乙酸乙酯和乙醇均能有效分离;在考察的浓度范围内均呈现良好的线性关系;平均加样回收率在81%~101%之间;精密度RSD均小于5.0%。结论经方法学验证,所建立的方法简便、准确、重复性好,可同时测定番茄红素油树脂中乙酸乙酯和乙醇的残留量。

  5. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  6. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  7. Application of PCR techniques in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kazubek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biology techniques have become widely used in toxicology, leading to the creation of a new science – molecular toxicology. The goal of molecular toxicology is to detect and study the changes induced by xenobiotics at the molecular level. The research scope of molecular toxicology includes examination of mutations in genomic DNA, differences in mRNA expression and study of genotype indicating individual sensitivity.The processes of activation and detoxification of xenobiotics, drugs and environmental carcinogens involve several enzymes (xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes – XMEs. Most of the chemicals entering our bodies, regardless of whether they have medical, pathogenic or carcinogenic properties, require metabolic activation by phase I enzymes (cytochrome P-450. In the next process the phase I products are usually detoxified by phase II enzymes, mainly by epoxide hydrolase, glutathione transferase, N-acetyltransferase or sulfotransferase. PCR techniques allow precise study of the effects of xenobiotics on cells and tissues by examining the level of activation of genes coding for phase I and II enzymes, or by testing the activity of other elements of the transcriptome. Studies of sensitivity of individual cells or tissues based on examination of mutation or gene polymorphism presence are also relevant.This paper presents the possibility of using various PCR techniques in toxicology and especially in the study of genetically determined sensitivity to xenobiotics. It also covers the possibilities of applying qPCR and qRT-PCR methods in the search for exposure biomarkers with particular emphasis on individual cytochrome P450 isoforms. Furthermore, it provides information about the possibility of implementing the differential display technique in the identification of new genes activated by toxic agents.

  8. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, Jorma; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul

    2005-09-01

    RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalization of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures.

  9. Influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality of whole chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetti, Mahadev B; Deepa, G T; Antony, Roshny T; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Uppar, Dodappa S; Navalgatti, Channappa M

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out to study the influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality in red chilli. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags at two moisture levels (10 % and 12 %) in room and cold environments under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. During storage period, average room and cool chamber temperatures were 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C, respectively. Changes of moisture (Halogen moisture analyzer), capsaicin (HPLC-UV), oleoresin and total extractable colour (spectrophotometer) were analyzed at 3 months interval up to 12 months and 6 months interval from 12 to 24 months. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) and Duncan's test were applied to the analytical data to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It was observed that the vacuum packed chillies under cold storage were found to have the least per cent decline in various quality parameters. Chillies with 12 % moisture and stored in vacuum packaged bags recorded better quality parameters over 10 % moisture.

  10. Development of Spice Oleoresin Seasoning Complex for Use in Fermented Sausage%发酵香肠复合油树脂香辛料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤卫东; 朱海涛; 张淼; 吴敬涛

    2011-01-01

    为改善传统发酵香肠微末香料调味不均匀、质量不稳定、利用率低等不足,以CO2超临界流体萃取花椒、丁香、八角、莳萝籽、肉桂、山奈等1 3种香辛料油树脂为基料,通过均质、复配,制备出性能较为稳定的复合油树脂均质液,利用正交试验设计方法,研究该产品对香肠的调香、调味效果,结合感官评定确定复合油树脂香辛料的最优配比。结果表明:以花椒9%、丁香6%、山奈7%、草豆蔻6%、莳萝籽23%、肉桂10%、肉豆蔻6%、八角10%、白胡椒4%、小茴香6%、白豆蔻4%、砂仁5%、草果4%的比例(m/m)复配重组的复合油树脂香辛料,具有良好的除异增香作用,对改善香肠口感、提高产品质量的稳定性效果显著。%In order to improve the shortcomings of traditional fermented sausage such as uneven seasoning,unstable quality and low utilization rate,oleoresins extracted from 13 species of spices such as pricklyash peel,clove,anise,dill seed,cinnamon,Rhizoma Kaempferiae,white pepper,katsumade galangal seed,Fructus Amomi,Fructus Tsaoko,Semen Myristicae,Fructus Amomi Rotundus and cumin seed by supercritical fluid CO2 were homogenized and formulated for use as a seasoning in fermented sausage.Their formulation was optimized by orthogonal array design based on the sensory evaluation score of fermented sausage.The optimal formula was determined to consist of 9% pricklyash peel,6% clove,7% Rhizoma Kaempferiae,6% katsumade galangal seed,23% dill seed,10% cinnamon,6% Semen Myristicae,10% anise,4% white pepper,6% cumin seed,4% Fructus Amomi Rotundus,5% Fructus Amomi and 4% Fructus Tsaok.The optimized spice oleoresin formula could remove unpleasant odor and enhance aroma effectively.Meanwhile,it also exhibited an obvious improvement on the taste and product quality of fermented sausage.

  11. Qualitative analysis of Copaifera oleoresin using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and gas chromatography with classical and cold electron ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; Uekane, Thais M; Rezende, Claudia M; Bizzo, Humberto R; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-12-16

    Improved separation of both sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids in Copaifera multijuga Hayne oleoresin, is demonstrated by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (accTOFMS). GC×GC separation employs polar phases (including ionic liquid phases) as the first dimension ((1)D) column, combined with a lower polarity (2)D phase. Elution temperatures (Te) of diterpenic acids (in methyl ester form, DAME) increased as the (1)D McReynolds' polarity value of the column phase decreased. Since Te of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons decreased with increased polarity, the very polar SLB-IL111 (1)D phase leads to excessive peak broadening in the (2)D apolar phase due to increased second dimension retention ((2)tR). The combination of SLB-IL59 with a nonpolar column phase was selected, providing reasonable separation and low Te for sesquiterpenes and DAME, compared to other tested column sets, without excessive (2)tR. Identities of DAME were aided by both soft (30eV) electron ionisation (EI) accurate mass TOFMS analysis and supersonic molecular beam ionisation (cold EI) TOFMS, both which providing less fragmentation and increased relative abundance of molecular ions. The inter-relation between EI energies, emission current, signal-to-noise and mass error for the accurate mass measurement of DAME are reported. These approaches can be used as a basis for conducting of GC×GC with soft EI accurate mass measurement of terpenes, particularly for unknown phytochemicals.

  12. Multiple microscopic approaches demonstrate linkage between chromoplast architecture and carotenoid composition in diverse Capsicum annuum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Collins, Aaron M; Richins, Richard D; Timlin, Jerilyn A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2013-12-01

    Increased accumulation of specific carotenoids in plastids through plant breeding or genetic engineering requires an understanding of the limitations that storage sites for these compounds may impose on that accumulation. Here, using Capsicum annuum L. fruit, we demonstrate directly the unique sub-organellar accumulation sites of specific carotenoids using live cell hyperspectral confocal Raman microscopy. Further, we show that chromoplasts from specific cultivars vary in shape and size, and these structural variations are associated with carotenoid compositional differences. Live-cell imaging utilizing laser scanning confocal (LSCM) and confocal Raman microscopy, as well as fixed tissue imaging by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), all demonstrated morphological differences with high concordance for the measurements across the multiple imaging modalities. These results reveal additional opportunities for genetic controls on fruit color and carotenoid-based phenotypes.

  13. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of American bird pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-chun; Gao, Cheng-wen; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of American bird pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) is reported and characterized in this study. The genome size is 156,612 bp, containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,776 bp separated by a large single-copy region of 87,213 bp and a small single-copy region of 17,851 bp. The chloroplast genome harbors 130 known genes, including 89 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. A total of 18 of these genes are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 16 genes contain 1 intron, and 2 genes and one ycf have 2 introns.

  14. Metabolomic Characterization of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-11-04

    Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") was performed at six development stages [16, 25, 36, 38, 43, and 48 days post-anthesis (DPA)] to analyze biochemical changes. Distinct distribution patterns were observed in the changes of metabolites, gene expressions, and antioxidant activities by early (16-25 DPA), breaker (36-38 DPA), and later (43-48 DPA) stages. In the early stages, glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, shikimic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and putrescine were highly distributed but gradually decreased over the breaker stage. At later stages, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and kaempferol glycosides were significantly increased. Pathway analysis revealed metabolite-gene interactions in the biosynthesis of amino acids, capsaicinoids, fatty acid chains, and flavonoids. The changes in antioxidant activity were highly reflective of alterations in metabolites. The present study could provide useful information about nutrient content at each stage of pepper cultivation.

  15. Morphologic characterization and genetic diversity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. accessions along the upper Rio Negro - Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Malveira Fonseca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 38 accessions of the genus Capsicum from the upper Rio Negro in the Amazon regionwas characterized by 51 morphologic descriptors. The similarity of the accessions was calculated based on 17 essentialdescriptors and on the general similarity coefficient of Gower. Grouping analyses and a dispersion diagram of the accessionswere established based on the similarity coefficients using, respectively, the UPGMA method and the principal coordinateanalysis (PCO as criterion of grouping and dispersion. A great variation of classes were identified in the fruit traits: ninecolors, four shapes and a great range of variation in fruit size and weight. Only three accessions were not pungent, since thisstudy focused on the pungent accessions of the genebank. The following pepper morphotypes were identified: three olho-depeixetypes, three pimenta-de-passarinho, four dedo-de-moça, four curabiá, nine murupi and 15 pimenta-de cheiro.

  16. Equilibrium isotherms and isosteric heat of pepper variety bico (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During processing, the storage requires attention, since the moisture content is a major factor that influences the quality of raw materials and manufactured products. Equilibrium isotherm represents the relationship between the material moisture content and water activity for a given temperature, providing important information for use in industrial operations such as drying and storage. This study aimed to determine the equilibrium isotherms of peppers variety bico (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in whole and paste forms, calculate the isosteric heat of desorption and determine its behavior. To this end, we used six mathematical models to fit experimental data of desorption isotherms. The GAB model fitted well the experimental desorption data of pepper variety bico, in paste and whole forms. The isosteric heat obtained for the whole form was higher than for the paste form.

  17. APPLICATION OF WATER HYACINTH VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.BLESSY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth has been developed into biofertilizer by vermicomposting through two methods. Samples have been collected from Kanakkan Yeri, Pondicherry, India. The earthworm chosen for this study was Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermicompost has been prepared using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, two methods were followed. In one method, water hyacinth waste was collected composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the other method, the cellulose present in water hyacinth was hydrolyzed enzymatically and composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. The vermicompost was collected from both the methods and used for analyzing enzymes, physicochemical parameters, level of macro and micronutrients. The efficacy of the prepared vermicompost has been studied on the vegetable plant Capsicum annum. Germination time, growth of the plant, number of the leaves has been studied. Finally, it has been compared with the plants which were grown using chemical fertilizers (NPK.

  18. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future.

  19. Diallel Crossing Analyses of Resistance to Main Diseases in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xue-xiao; HOU Xi-lin; CHEN Wen-chao; LIU Rong-yun; ZHANG Zhu-qing; MA Yan-qing; DAI Xiong-ze; YANG Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen capsicum combinations were made with 6 parents by (1/2)n(n-1) diallel crossing. Genetic parameters in the resistance to TMV, CMV, phytophthora blight, bacterial spot of these combinations were studied by Hayman. The results indicated that the resistance to TMV, CMV and bacterial spot conformed genetically to the "additive-dominant" model but the resistance to phytophthora blight did not and significant epistatic dominance effect existed in it. F1 hybrid's resistance to CMV was controlled by homozygous dominant gene (s), but resistance to bacterial spot by heterozygous one (s). There were little, or no sum of dominant effect and genomes controlling the dominant expression of F1 hybrids in its phytophthora blight resistance.

  20. Characterization of paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract in orange juices by liquid chromatography of carotenoid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, P P; Gaydou, E M; Corsetti, J

    1999-03-01

    The carotenoid pigment profiles of authentic pure orange juices from Spain and Florida and an industrial paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract used for food coloring were obtained using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 packed column and an acetone/methanol/water eluent system. The procedure involving the carotenoid extraction is described. Both retention times and spectral properties using photodiode array detection for characterization of the major carotenoids at 430 and 519 nm are given. The influence of external addition of tangerine juice and/or paprika extract on orange juice color is described using the U.S. Department of Agriculture scale and adulterated orange juice. The procedure for quantitation of externally added paprika extract to orange juice is investigated, and the limit of quantitation, coefficient of variation, and recoveries are determined.

  1. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN VITAMIN C PADA CABAI RAWIT PUTIH (CAPSICUM FRUSTESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANI RACHMAWATI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature and length of storage on vitamin C concentration of chili (Capsicum frustescens was observed on this study. Samples were taken from farmer’s field around Gianyar Regency of Bali. The chilies were treated with temperature such as 10ºC, 20ºC, and 29ºC (room temperature and stored for 5, 10, and 15 days. Jacobs method was applied for vitamin C determination. The highest vitamin C content was obtain from control (59,9 mg/100 ml. On the other hand, the lowest was from chili that stored at room temperature for 15 days (23,6 mg/100 ml. For weight loss, the highest of loss was from chili which stored at room temperature for 15 days.

  2. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance.

  3. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  4. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  5. Toxicology: a discipline in need of academic anchoring--the point of view of the German Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, U; Barth, H; Bürkle, A; Degen, G H; Landsiedel, R

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the importance of toxicology as a discipline, its past achievements, current scientific challenges, and future development. Toxicological expertise is instrumental in the reduction of human health risks arising from chemicals and drugs. Toxicological assessment is needed to evaluate evidence and arguments, whether or not there is a scientific base for concern. The immense success already achieved by toxicological work is exemplified by reduced pollution of air, soil, water, and safer working places. Predominantly predictive toxicological testing is derived from the findings to assess risks to humans and the environment. Assessment of the adversity of molecular effects (including epigenetic effects), the effects of mixtures, and integration of exposure and biokinetics into in vitro testing are emerging challenges for toxicology. Toxicology is a translational science with its base in fundamental science. Academic institutions play an essential part by providing scientific innovation and education of young scientists.

  6. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  7. Transferability of microsatellite markers of Capsicum annuum L. to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Oliveira, I B; Amaral, Z P S; Reifschneider, F J B; Faleiro, F G; Buso, G S C

    2015-07-17

    In order to support further genetic, diversity, and phylogeny studies of Capsicum species, the transferability of a Capsicum annuum L. simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite set was analyzed for C. frutescens L. ("malagueta" and "tabasco" peppers) and C. chinense Jacq. (smell peppers, among other types). A total of 185 SSR primers were evaluated in 12 accessions from 115 C. frutescens L. and 480 C. chinense Jacq, representing different types within each species. Transferability to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. occurred for 116 primers (62.7%). Nineteen (16.37%) were polymorphic in C. frutescens L. and 36 (31.03%) in C. chinense Jacq., 17 of which were coincident and could be used to analyze samples obtained for the 2 species. Among these primers, CA49 showed a different amplitude range of alleles between the 2 species (130-132 base pairs for C. frutescens L. and 120-128 base pairs for C. chinense Jacq.), and could differentiate the species. A total of 55 alleles were identified among the 19 polymorphic SSR loci among accessions of C. frutescens L., with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 5, a mean of 2.89, and the polymorphic information content ranging from 0.30 to 0.65. The number of alleles identified in C. chinense Jacq. was 119, ranging from 2 to 5 alleles per locus, an average of 3.30, and polymorphic information content from 0.19 to 0.68. The C. annuum L. SSR primers were most often transfer-able and polymorphic for C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq., and we present a set of SSR for each species.

  8. Epistasis and inheritance of plant habit and fruit quality traits in ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M C; do Rêgo, E R; Borém, A; Nascimento, M F; Nascimento, N F F; Finger, F L; Rêgo, M M

    2014-10-31

    Two accessions of ornamental pepper Capsicum annuum L., differing in most of the characters studied, were crossed, resulting in the F1 generation, and the F2 generation was obtained through self-fertilization of the F1 generation. The backcross generations RC1 and RC2 were obtained through crossing between F1 and the parents P1 and P2, respectively. Morpho-agronomic characterization was performed based on the 19 quantitative descriptors of Capsicum. The data obtained were subjected to generation analysis, in which the means and additive variance (σa(2)), variance due to dominance deviation (σd(2)), phenotypic variance (σf(2)), genetic variance (σg(2)) and environmental variance (σm(2)) were calculated. For the full model, we estimated the mean effects of all possible homozygotes, additives, dominants, and epistatics: additive-additive, additive-dominant, and dominant-dominant. For the additive-dominant model, we estimated the additive effects, dominant effects and mean effects of possible homozygotes. The character fruit dry matter had the lowest value for broad sense heritability (0.42), and the highest values were found for fresh matter and fruit weight, 0.91 and 0.92, respectively. The lowest value for narrow sense heritability was for the minor fruit diameter character (0.33), and the highest values were found for seed yield per fruit and fresh matter, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. The additive-dominant model explained only the variation found in plant height, canopy width, stem length, corolla diameter, leaf width, and pedicel length, but in the other characters, the epistatic effects showed significant values.

  9. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C H; Pelgrom, Koen T B; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC-MS and headspace GC-MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum-C. chinense-C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  10. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgarejo Luz Marina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST, peroxidasa (PRX, 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH, aspartato amino transferasa (GOT y enzima málica (ME. Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y C. pubescens, mientras que las especies C. annuum, C. chinense y C. frutescens no mostraron un agrupamiento independiente, lo cual ya ha sido reportado en estudios por isoenzimas para el género. Varias accesiones mostraron características particulares para estudios ecológicos y evolutivos. Palabras clave: Colombia, Capsicum, banco de germoplasma, isoenzimas, ají.

  11. Toxicology in Asia--Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX), which consists of the seven national toxicology member societies of Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, and Iran, now boasts of more than 3,000 members from a variety of industries, academia, and regulatory organizations. ASIATOX congresses are spaced three years apart and rotated among the member societies. In 1995, ASIATOX joined the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) as a regional society, and now serves as the scientific voice of toxicology in Asia under the IUTOX umbrella. Since its inauguration, the society has worked diligently to handle matters deemed essential to promoting the vision set fourth by its founders. Future perspectives of ASIATOX include the establishment of education and training programs, and the certification and accreditation of toxicologists. As the leading voice of toxicology in Asia, the society seeks to extend knowledge of toxicological issues to developing nations in Asia based on the following missions and goals: (1) to provide leadership as a worldwide scientific organization that objectively addresses global issues involving the toxicological sciences, (2) to broaden the geographical base of toxicology as a discipline and profession to all countries of the world, and (3) to pursue capacity building in toxicology, particularly in developing countries, while utilizing its global perspective and network to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists.

  12. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  13. 辣椒叶片总RNA快速提取%Rapid Extraction of Total RNA from Capsicum annuum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 肖仲久; 宋培勇; 周逊; 谢语

    2011-01-01

    Trizol extraction method was modified to extract total RNA from Capsicum annuum leaves. The result of agar gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet ray photometer and RT-PCR showed that the total RNA obtained by modified Trizol method was of high quality, and suitable for downstream applications.%采用改良的Trizol法对辣椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片的总RNA进行了提取,利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度法、RT-PCR进行RNA纯度、完整性检测.结果表明,Trizol法提取可获得较高质量的辣椒叶片总RNA,能满足后续的研究需要.

  14. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum L. with Rhizobium strains. 2. Changes in sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are consumed worldwide, imparting flavor, aroma, and color to foods, additionally containing high concentrations of biofunctional compounds. This is the first report about the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Generally, inoculation with strain TVP08 led to the major changes, being observed a decrease of sterols and triterpenes and an increase of fatty acids, which are related to higher biomass, growth, and ripening of pepper fruits. The increase of volatile compounds may reflect the elicitation of plant defense after inoculation, since the content on methyl salicylate was significantly increased in inoculated material. The findings suggest that inoculation with Rhizobium strains may be employed to manipulate the content of interesting metabolites in pepper leaves and fruits, increasing potential health benefits and defense abilities of inoculated plants.

  15. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA M. AGUILERA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  16. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology.

  17. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-07-03

    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology.

  18. Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vince

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning issue is best shown by report and communications on the toxicology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT. A special workshop on the CNT has now been organized twice in Nagano (Japan and this editorial contains a summary of the most important outcomes. Finally, we take the opportunity discuss some recent reports from the nanotech literature, and more specifically a Chinese study that claims severe consequences of nanoparticle exposure.

  19. The toxicology expert: what is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, R; Vamvakas, S

    2000-03-15

    In contrast to many traditional professions, toxicologists form a group with very different backgrounds, i.e. they may have been educated to become medical doctors, veterinarians, pharmacists, chemists, biochemists or biologists. Professional competence can be gained in different ways by candidate toxicologists, and according to the European system, their training can be divided into two parts. (i) Theoretical training on several topics such as analytical methods, organ toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity can be obtained by attending courses organised by the national societies of toxicology. (ii) Spending several years on active experimental work in the fields of modern toxicology (e.g. analytical methods, toxic and genotoxic mechanisms, reproductive toxicity) is necessary to develop the capability to design and carry out experimental studies and to evaluate one's own and other people's research results. Candidate toxicologists should learn to evaluate data with a strictly scientific 'plausibility above numbers' approach.

  20. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  1. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  2. Toxicogenomic approaches in developmental toxicology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua F; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of toxicogenomic applications provides new tools to characterize, classify, and potentially predict teratogens. However, due to the vast number of experimental and statistical procedural steps, toxicogenomic studies are challenging. Here, we guide researchers through the basic framework of conducting toxicogenomic investigations in the field of developmental toxicology, providing examples of biological and technical factors that may influence response and interpretation. Furthermore, we review current, diverse applications of toxicogenomic-based approaches in teratology testing, including exposure-response characterization (dose and duration), chemical classification studies, and cross-model comparisons study designs. This review is intended to guide scientists through the challenging and complex structure of conducting toxicogenomic analyses, while considering the many applications of using toxicogenomics in study designs and the future of these types of "omics" approaches in developmental toxicology.

  3. Ethical Considerations for Perinatal Toxicology Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsman, Mindy G

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development. Concerns for unethical practices in the toxicology screening of pregnant women and their babies by risk factors that are unproven or disproven are discussed, and three goals of toxicology screening based on the ethical principles of justice and beneficence are proposed. This article will help equip neonatal nurses to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate for just screening and referral practices in their institutions and communities.

  4. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  5. In vivo models for male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2002-05-01

    In Vivo Models for Male Reproductive Toxicology (Rochelle W. Tyl, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Assessment of male reproductive function requires a specific set of evaluations of the various steps in successful mating from sperm production to copulation to fertilization to production of a viable litter. This unit outlines the measurements that are standard for determining the effects of treatment with toxicant on the reproductive capacity of male mice and rats.

  6. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques...

  7. Wind of Change Challenges Toxicological Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Tralau, Tewes; Riebeling, Christian; Pirow, Ralph; OELGESCHLÄGER, MICHAEL; Seiler, Andrea; Liebsch, Manfred; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: In biomedical research, the past two decades have seen the advent of in vitro model systems based on stem cells, humanized cell lines, and engineered organotypic tissues, as well as numerous cellular assays based on primarily established tumor-derived cell lines and their genetically modified derivatives. Objective: There are high hopes that these systems might replace the need for animal testing in regulatory toxicology. However, despite increasing pressure in recent years to red...

  8. [Effect of phosphor on accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, and physiological characterization in different varieties of Capsicum annuum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Ji-Zhen; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Han, Gui-Qi; Zeng, Hong-Jun; Lan, Chun-Tao; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Wei, Song-Qing

    2011-04-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different Phosphor (P) levels (0, 0.3% and 0.5%) on the plant growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes, accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in Capsicum annuum L. when exposed to Cd (10 mg x kg(-1)). The results showed that dry weights of leaf, fruit, roots and total dry weights of plant, and concentration and accumulation of Cd significantly differed between two varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Dry weights of fruit and total plant of Chaotianjiao increased by P (0.3% and 0.5%), while that of Yanjiao425 was inhibited. Activities of catalase (CAT) were increased at first, and then reduced in the presence of P; Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of Chaotianjiao increased with increasing levels of P, but activities of SOD and POD of Yanjiao425 decreased with increasing levels of P. Chemical forms of Cd in fruit of Capsicum annuum L. were in order of F(NaCl) > F(HAC) > F(E) > Fr > F(HC) > F(W). The total extractable Cd, ethanol-extractable Cd, hydrochloric acid-extractable Cd and residual Cd in fruit of Ynajiao425 obviously decreased in the presence of P compared to the control, while the total extractable Cd, water-extractable Cd, acetic acid-extractable Cd and residual Cd in fruit of Chaotianjiao increased. Cadmium accumulations of Capsicum annuum L. were in order of roots > stew > leaf > fruit. Cadmium accumulations in fruit and plant of Yanjiao425 were decreased by 47.7% and 58.5% , 5.5% and 13. 1% in the presence of 0.3% and 0.5% P when exposed to Cd, and Cd accumulations in fruit and plant of Chaotianjiao were decreased by 23.6% in the presence of 0.3% P.

  9. Response of cotyledon explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv. kujawianka to chosen plant growth regulators in in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Fraś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds originated directly on cotyledon explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv. Kujawianka, when Linsmaier and Skoog medium was enriched with BAP (2 mg/l. Kinetin (2 mg/l or kinetin with IAA (1 mg/l + 1 mg/l induced indirect shoot buds regeneration from callus. Rooting was obtained with explants cultivated on a medium containing NAA (0,5 mg/l. Occurrence of the early stages of differentiation was proved at the histological level.

  10. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Mohammad ASADPOUR; Jafari, Arash; Seyed Hossein MALEKPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum) were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL) of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0,...

  11. Aceptabilidad de empanizados enriquecidos con harina de pota (Dosidicus gigas), huevo de codorniz (Coturnix coturnix) y pimiento amarillo (Capsicum annuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Hurtado, Emma Del Rosario; Palomino Pezzutti, Ricardo Ramiro; Tamariz Grados, Nelly Norma; Cajaleón Asencios, Delia Haydee; Dextre Mendoza, Rodolfo Willian; Carreño Mundo, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la aceptabilidad de empanizados enriquecidos con harina de pota (Dosidicus gigas), huevo de codorniz (Coturnix coturnix) y pimiento amarillo (Capsicum annuum). Métodos: Optimizar una formulación de alimento listo para el consumo humano, conforme a requisitos: NTP NDECOPI: Harina de trigo, NTP 205. 027. 1996, NTP-CODEX STAN 166:2014 -Barritas, Porciones y Filetes de pescado empanizados o rebozados congelados. Resultados: El aroma, color y textura de los empanizados formula...

  12. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  13. [Effect of different zinc levels on accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, and physiological characterization in Capsicum annuum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-qing; Zhang, Xiao-jing; Xu, Wei-Hong; Liu, Ji-zhen; Wang, Hui-xian; Guo, Liu-ming; Chen, Lu-hao; Zhang, Hai-bo; Lan, Chun-tao; Zeng, Hong-jun; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2010-07-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different zinc (Zn) levels (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 micromol x L(-1)) on the plant growth,activities of antioxidant enzymes, contents of chlorophyll a and b, accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in Capsicum annuum L. when exposed to Cd (20 mg x kg(-1)). The results showed that dry weights of leaf, stem, fruit and root, and contents of chlorophyll a and b in Capsicum annuum L. were increased by Zn ( 400 micromol x L(-1). Cadmium concentrations in stem, fruit and root of Capsicum annuum L. were decreased by 2.7%-5.4%, 7.5%-28.1% and 7.6%-21.8% in the presence of Zn when exposed to Cd. The total extractable Cd, NaCl- extractable Cd, water-extractable Cd and ethanol-extractable Cd in fruit were reduced by 7.7%-21.8%, 4.11%-23.6%, 54.5%-66.8% and 4.8%-86.7% in the presence of Zn,while acetic acid- extractable Cd and residual Cd were increased by 28.0%-68.0% and 12.6%-25.0%.

  14. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  15. Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Project Director Penelope Jeggo

    2003-02-15

    Genetic toxicology represents a study of the genetic damage that a cell can incur, the agents that induce such damage, the damage response mechanisms available to cells and organisms, and the potential consequences of such damage. Genotoxic agents are abundant in the environment and are also induced endogenously. The consequences of such damage can include carcinogenesis and teratogenesis. An understanding of genetic toxicology is essential to carry out risk evaluations of the impact of genotoxic agents and to assess how individual genetic differences influence the response to genotoxic damage. In recent years, the importance of maintaining genomic stability has become increasingly recognized, in part by the realization that failure of the damage response mechanisms underlies many, if not all, cancer incidence. The importance of these mechanisms is also underscored by their remarkable conservation between species, allowing the study of simple organisms to provide significant input into our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It has also become clear that the damage response mechanisms interface closely with other aspects of cellular metabolism including replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Moreover, defects in many of these mechanisms, as observed for example in ataxia telangiectasia patients, confer disorders with associated developmental abnormalities demonstrating their essential roles during growth and development. In short, while a decade ago, a study of the impact of DNA damage was seen as a compartmentalized area of cellular research, it is now appreciated to lie at the centre of an array of cellular responses of crucial importance to human health. Consequently, this has become a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. The Genetic Toxicology Gordon Research Conference is biannual with an evolving change in the emphasis of the meetings. From evaluating the nature of genotoxic chemicals, which lay at the centre of the early

  16. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G

    2009-12-15

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  17. [Clinical toxicology of the Academy: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G A; Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'mich, V G; Fomichev, A V

    2013-12-01

    National toxicology school of the Kirov Military Medical Academy, demonstrates the unity of clinical and experimental approaches related to one purpose throughout its history--saving human life and health from exposure to toxic substances of chemical nature. For more than three centuries the russian science of toxicology has been steadily developing, often ahead of the world science. It helped to create the means of protection and develop methods of treatment for chemical lesions. Currently, toxicology departments of military field therapy and military toxicology and medical protection are actively involved in the current study of military medicine, restructuring policy to provide toxicological aid in the Armed Forces, the development and introduction of Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of victims of toxicological etiology.

  18. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.This paper provides a brief overview of the topic "alternative methods in toxicology" and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.

  19. Capsicum annuum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... structure and/or synthesis, alterations of sugars, acids and ... studying this process on a molecular basis may provide ... fruits on transcriptional and expression levels of the respon- ... length cDNA that accurately represents the input RNA of the bell ... exponentially by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  20. La toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla

    OpenAIRE

    IM Moreno; A. Jos; Pichardo, S.; Prieto, A.; Puerto, M.; AM Cameán

    2010-01-01

    La docencia del Área de Toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla se desarrolla en la actualidad en dos titulaciones, Farmacia y Bioquímica. En los planes de estudios actuales la carga lectiva del Área viene dada por las asignaturas de Toxicología (asignatura troncal), y Toxicología Alimentaria (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Farmacia, y de Toxicología Molecular (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Bioquímica. Una vez aprobados por la Agencia Nacional de la Evaluación de la ...

  1. 76 FR 68461 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... from recognized authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology,...

  2. 76 FR 67200 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process... the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  3. 77 FR 24714 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology, biochemistry, epidemiology, risk...

  4. 77 FR 60707 - National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors; Announcement of Meeting; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors... Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC). The NTP BSC, a federally chartered, external... authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology, biochemistry,...

  5. Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhuis, A.S.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Driessen, M.; Luijten, M.; Delft, van J.H.M.; Ven, van der L.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have employ

  6. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ..., NICEATM, and the Director of the NIEHS and NTP regarding statutorily mandated duties of ICCVAM and... Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), and the Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and NTP regarding statutorily mandated duties of ICCVAM and activities of NICEATM....

  7. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, ves

  8. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  9. Chemical mixture toxicology: from descriptive to mechanistic, and going on to in silico toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Raymond S H; El-Masri, Hisham A; Thomas, Russell S; Dobrev, Ivan D; Dennison, James E; Bae, Dong-Soon; Campain, Julie A; Liao, Kai H; Reisfeld, Brad; Andersen, Melvin E; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2004-11-01

    Because of the pioneering vision of certain leaders in the biomedical field, the last two decades witnessed rapid advances in the area of chemical mixture toxicology. Earlier studies utilized conventional toxicology protocol and methods, and they were mainly descriptive in nature. Two good examples might be the parallel series of studies conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program and TNO in The Netherlands, respectively. As a natural course of progression, more and more sophistication was incorporated into the toxicology studies of chemical mixtures. Thus, at least the following seven areas of scientific achievements in chemical mixture toxicology are evident in the literature: (a) the application of better and more robust statistical methods; (b) the exploration and incorporation of mechanistic bases for toxicological interactions; (c) the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling; (d) the studies on more complex chemical mixtures; (e) the use of science-based risk assessment approaches; (f) the utilization of functional genomics; and (g) the application of technology. Examples are given for the discussion of each of these areas. Two important concepts emerged from these studies and they are: (1) dose-dependent toxicologic interactions; and (2) "interaction thresholds". Looking into the future, one of the most challenging areas in chemical mixture research is finding the answer to the question "when one tries to characterize the health effects of chemical mixtures, how does one deal with the infinite number of combination of chemicals, and other possible stressors?" Undoubtedly, there will be many answers from different groups of researchers. Our answer, however, is first to focus on the finite (biological processes) rather than the infinite (combinations of chemical mixtures and multiple stressors). The idea is that once we know a normal biological process(es), all stimuli and insults from external stressors

  10. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic toxicology in industrial practice: general introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassignon, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, important position statements on mutagenicity testing have been issued by industrial organizations such as CEFIC (the European Council of Chemical Industry Federations) and ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre). Mutagenicity testing is of potential value as a research tool for screening new compounds, as a probe for the identification of harmful substances and as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of individuals exposed to certain chemicals. The problems inherent in mutagenicity testing include specificity and sensitivity, and meaningful interpretation of test data will depend on the strict maintenance of accepted quality standards.

  12. Genetic toxicology in industrial practice: general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassignon, J P

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, important position statements on mutagenicity testing have been issued by industrial organizations such as CEFIC (the European Council of Chemical Industry Federations) and ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre). Mutagenicity testing is of potential value as a research tool for screening new compounds, as a probe for the identification of harmful substances and as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of individuals exposed to certain chemicals. The problems inherent in mutagenicity testing include specificity and sensitivity, and meaningful interpretation of test data will depend on the strict maintenance of accepted quality standards.

  13. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Barry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals. The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation. Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure

  14. Utilization of laser-assisted analytical methods for monitoring of lead and nutrition elements distribution in fresh and dried Capsicum annuum l. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiová, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Novotný, Karel; Hartl, Martin; Kizek, Rene; Babula, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied for high-resolution mapping of accumulation and distribution of heavy metal (lead) and nutrition elements (potassium, manganese) in leaves of Capsicum annuum L. samples. Lead was added in a form of Pb(NO₃)₂ at concentration up to 10 mmol L⁻¹ into the vessels that contained tap water and where the 2-months old Capsicum annuum L. plants were grown another seven days. Two dimensional maps of the elements are presented for both laser-assisted analytical methods. Elemental mapping performed on fresh (frozen) and dried Capsicum annuum L. leaves are compared.

  15. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  16. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  17. Toxicological evaluation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Feron, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    A major objective of combination toxicology is to establish whether a mixture of chemicals will result in an effect similar to that expected on the basis of additivity. This requires understanding of the basic concepts of the combined toxicological action of the compounds of the mixture: simple

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  19. Historical milestones and discoveries that shaped the toxicology sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Antoinette N; Gilbert, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the toxic and healing properties of plants, animals, and minerals has shaped civilization for millennia. The foundations of modern toxicology are built upon the significant milestones and discoveries of serendipity and crude experimentation. Throughout the ages, toxicological science has provided information that has shaped and guided society. This chapter examines the development of the discipline of toxicology and its influence on civilization by highlighting significant milestones and discoveries related to toxicology. The examples shed light on the beginnings of toxicology, as well as examine lessons learned and re-learned. This chapter also examines how toxicology and the toxicologist have interacted with other scientific and cultural disciplines, including religion, politics, and the government. Toxicology has evolved to a true scientific discipline with its own dedicated scientists, educational institutes, sub-disciplines, professional societies, and journals. It now stands as its own entity while traversing such fields as chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology. We invite you to join us on a path of discovery and to offer our suggestions as to what are the most significant milestones and discoveries in toxicology. Additional information is available on the history section of Toxipedia (www.toxipedia.org).

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs on laboratory mice and rats. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The possible toxicological risks of Allium sativum aqueous extract upon consumption ... FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL ...

  2. Recent developments in analytical toxicology : for better or for worse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, RA

    1998-01-01

    When considering the state of the art in toxicology from an analytical perspective, the key developments relate to three major areas. (1) Forensic horizon: Today forensic analysis has broadened its scope dramatically, to include workplace toxicology, drug abuse testing, drugs and driving, doping, en

  3. Temas 27 a 31. Toxicología de plaguicidas

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Toxicología de los plaguicidas. Intoxicaciones en animales y humanos. Mecanismos de acción. Diagnóstico. Tratamiento. Aspectos legales, alimentarios y ambientales. Presentaciones de los temas 27 a 31 de Toxicología de la licenciatura de Veterinaria

  4. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  5. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  6. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C.E.I. dos; Dias, J.F.; Jobim, P.F.C.; Yoneama, M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica; Andrade, V.M. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Amaral, L.; Silva, J. da [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Toxicologia Generica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon tetrachloride is a volatile haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. It is produced commercially from chlorination of a variety of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as carbon disulfide, methanol, methane, propane, and ethylene dichloride. It is also produced by thermal chlorination in the production of tetrachloroethylene. Major uses of carbon tetrachloride have been in the recovery of tin from tin plating waste, in formulation of petrol additives and refrigerants, in metal degreasing and agricultural fumigants, in chlorination of organic compounds, in the production of semiconductors, in the reduction of fire hazard, as a solvent for rubber cement, and as a catalyst in polymer technology. Its production has been decreasing and it is no longer permitted in products intended for home use. Despite this ban, carbon tetrachloride has been detected at 314 hazardous waste sites. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of carbon tetrachloride was last prepared and added to the IRIS database in 1991. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate health effects information available for carbon tetrachloride, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for carbon tetrachloride will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity

  8. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  9. Applicability of computational systems biology in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsbak, Kristine; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    Systems biology as a research field has emerged within the last few decades. Systems biology, often defined as the antithesis of the reductionist approach, integrates information about individual components of a biological system. In integrative systems biology, large data sets from various sources and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search. However, computational systems biology offers more advantages than providing a high-throughput literature search; it may form the basis for establishment of hypotheses on potential links between environmental chemicals and human diseases, which would be very difficult to establish experimentally. This is possible due to the existence of comprehensive databases containing information on networks of human protein-protein interactions and protein-disease associations. Experimentally determined targets of the specific chemical of interest can be fed into these networks to obtain additional information that can be used to establish hypotheses on links between the chemical and human diseases. Such information can also be applied for designing more intelligent animal/cell experiments that can test the established hypotheses. Here, we describe how and why to apply an integrative systems biology method in the hypothesis-generating phase of toxicological research.

  10. Toxicological Effects of Fullerenes on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Justin; Snook, Renee; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful genetic model organism due to its simplicity and the substantial molecular, genetic, and developmental knowledge about the species. In this study, this species was used to test the toxicological effects of C60 fullerene nanoparticles. In previous studies using rats, a solution of C60 fullerenes in olive oil proved to extend the life of the subjects. The purpose of this experiment was to subject C. elegans to varying concentrations of C60 fullerenes and observe their toxicological effects. Initial findings indicate a link between fullerene exposure and enlargement of the vulva as well as the formation of a small nodule at the base of the tail in some individuals. While the fullerenes are not lethally toxic in C. elegans, results will be presented that pertain to changes in life span and progeny of the nematodes exposed to varying concentrations of fullerenes as well as the mechanisms of toxicity. High magnification imaging via SEM and/or AFM will be used to characterize the fullerene nanoparticles. Testing the toxicity of fullerenes in a wide variety of organisms will lead to a more complete understanding of the effects of fullerenes on living organisms to ultimately understand their effects in humans. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047, DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  11. Confusion of concepts in mixture toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, W H; Pieters, M N

    1996-01-01

    Regulatory limit values are generally set for single compounds. However, humans are exposed both simultaneously and sequentially to a wide variety of compounds. Some concepts on mixture toxicology are discussed in this introduction to the European Conference on Combination Toxicology. Studies on mixtures are often accompanied by statements about the type of combined action, which can be, for example, additive, synergistic or antagonistic. Unfortunately, comparison of results is hardly possible for various reasons. First, the terminology for indicating combined action is far from consistent. Bearing this in mind, researchers should be explicit in the definitions of terms. Secondly, depending on the model, different conclusions may be drawn from the same results. It is therefore important to provide clear definitions of the null hypothesis. Thirdly, adequate statistical methods should be used for testing the null hypothesis. In the past, many mixtures studies either used no statistics or used statistics incorrectly. Last, but not least, the study should be designed in such a way that it should be possible to obtain clear answers. In this introduction, it is stressed that environmental toxicologists should focus on the low-dose region of the dose-effect curves. It appears that interactions are less plausible at low doses. Dose additivity, however, cannot be excluded.

  12. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  13. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Yu, Shuixin; Gui, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Biological synthesis approach has been regarded as a green, eco-friendly and cost effective method for nanoparticles preparation without any toxic solvents and hazardous bi-products during the process. This present study reported a facile and rapid biosynthesis method for gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract in a single-pot process. The aqueous pulp extract was used as biotic reducing agent for gold nanoparticle growing. Various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and quasi-spherical shapes) were observed within range of 6-37 nm. The UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak for the formed GNPs at 560 nm after 10 min incubation at room temperature. The possible influences of extract amount, gold ion concentration, incubation time, reaction temperature and solution pH were evaluated to obtain the optimized synthesis conditions. The effects of the experimental factors on NPs synthesis process were also discussed. The produced gold nanoparticles were characterized by transform electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the as-obtained GNPs were well dispersed and stable with good catalytic activity. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract were responsible for the capping and stabilization of GNPs.

  14. Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abdel Ghafar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum samples collected from city markets in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia, calculate their pungency in Scoville heat units (SHU and evaluate the average daily intake of capsaicin for the population of Riyadh. The investigated samples consisted of hot chillies, red chillies, green chillies, green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers. Extraction of capsaicinoids was done using ethanol as solvent, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for separation, identification and quantitation of the components. The limit of detection (LOD of the method was 0.09 and 0.10 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.30 and 0.36 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. Hot chillies showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (4249.0 ± 190.3 µg/g and the highest pungency level (67984.60 SHU, whereas green peppers had the lowest detected concentration (1.0 ± 0.9 µg/g; green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers were non pungent. The mean consumption of peppers for Riyadh city population was determined to be 15.5 g/person/day while the daily capsaicin intake was 7.584 mg/person/day.

  15. Isolation and structural features of an antiradical polysaccharide of Capsicum annuum that interacts with BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Sayani; Ghosh, Kanika; Micard, Valérie; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-04-01

    Red peppers, Capsicum annuum, are used worldwide as spices, foods and medicines. Herein, we have analyzed an antiradical polysaccharide isolated from red peppers through successive acetate buffer extraction. This macromolecule was purified using graded precipitation with ethanol, α-amylase treatment, deproteination and anion-exchange chromatography. This highly-branched polysaccharide (360 kDa) was esterified with phenolic acids and contained a (1,3)-linked-β-Galp chain substituted at O-6 by (1,6)-linked-β-Galp residues. The latter was substituted at O-3 by (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked-α-Araf residues, and non-reducing end-units of α-Araf and β-Galp. The antiradical potential of this polysaccharide was comparable to standard antioxidants. The phenolic acid residues were the functional sites. This polysaccharide could form complex with bovine serum albumin having binding constant K = 5.24 × 10(6)/M and change its microenvironment. Thus, aqueous extraction method provides a macromolecule that stimulates biological responses; this emphasizes the significance of red pepper as dietary antioxidant.

  16. Differential antibiosis against Helicoverpa armigera exerted by distinct inhibitory repeat domains of Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rakesh S; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-05-01

    Plant defensive serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are known to have negative impact on digestive physiology of herbivore insects and thus have a crucial role in plant protection. Here, we have assessed the efficacy and specificity of three previously characterized inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) variants from Capsicum annuum PIs viz., IRD-7, -9 and -12 against gut proteinases from Helicoverpa armigera. Comparative study of in silico binding energy revealed that IRD-9 possesses higher affinity towards H. armigera serine proteinases as compared to IRD-7 and -12. H. armigera fed on artificial diet containing 5 TIU/g of recombinant IRD proteins exhibited differential effects on larval growth, survival rate and other nutritional parameters. Major digestive gut trypsin and chymotrypsin genes were down regulated in the IRD fed larvae, while few of them were up-regulated, this indicate alterations in insect digestive physiology. The results corroborated with proteinase activity assays and zymography. These findings suggest that the sequence variations among PIs reflect in their efficacy against proteinases in vitro and in vivo, which also could be used for developing tailor-made multi-domain inhibitor gene(s).

  17. Chemical assessment and antioxidant capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-03-01

    Capsicum annuum L. is reported to be the most widely cultivated species. Recently, waste of vegetable processing, like seeds, has been the subject of many studies as an attempt to find new, alternative and cheap resources of bioactive compounds with application in several industries. Despite their chemical, biological and ecological importance, C. annuum seeds are still poorly studied. To improve the knowledge on the metabolic profile of this matrix, a targeted metabolite analysis was performed in "sweet Italian" and "Reus long pairal" pepper seeds. Sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatile compounds were determined by different chromatographic methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed against DPPH(·), superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against all radicals. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was also evaluated, but no effect was found. Data provide evidence of great similarities between "sweet Italian" and "Reus long pairal" pepper seeds. The present study indicates that C. annuum seeds are a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds that could be used in food industry.

  18. Combining ability for yield and fruit quality in the pepper Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, N F F; do Rêgo, E R; Nascimento, M F; Bruckner, C H; Finger, F L; do Rêgo, M M

    2014-04-29

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA, respectively) of 15 characteristics and to evaluate the most promising crosses and the reciprocal effect between the hybrids of six parents of the Capsicum annuum species. Six parents, belonging to the Horticultural Germplasm Bank of Centro de Ciências Agrárias of Universidade Federal da Paraíba, were crossed in complete diallel manner. The 30 hybrids generated and the parents were then analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The data were submitted to analysis of variance at 1% probability, and the means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test at 1% probability. The diallel analysis was performed according to the Griffing method, model I and fixed model. Both additive and non-additive effects influenced the hybrids' performance, as indicated by the GCA/SCA ratio. The non-additive effects, epistasis and/or dominance, played a more important role than the additive effects in pedicel length, pericarp thickness, fresh matter, dry matter content, seed yield per fruit, fruit yield per plant, days to fructification, and total soluble solids. The GCA effects were more important than the SCA effects in the fruit weight, fruit length and diameter, placenta length, yield, vitamin C, and titratable acidity characteristics. The results found here clearly show that ornamental pepper varieties can be developed through hybridization in breeding programs with C. annuum.

  19. Antihyperglucolipidaemic and anticarbonyl stress properties in green, yellow and red sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Srishti; Kumar, Dommati Anand; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Effect of aqueous methanol extract of different colour sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) on parameters of diabesity and carbonyl stress was analysed in vitro. Yellow pepper displayed significantly (p < 0.001) higher intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than green and red pepper. Porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was significantly (p < 0.01) high in yellow and red pepper than in green pepper. Green and red pepper inhibited vesperlysine-type advanced glycation end products (AGEs) more potently than yellow pepper; however, pentosidine-type AGEs were similarly inhibited by all three peppers. Yellow and red pepper inhibited lipid peroxidation more potently (p < 0.01) than green pepper. Total polyphenol content and free radicals scavenging activities in yellow and red bell peppers were higher than in green pepper. Total flavonoid content was high in green pepper than that present in yellow and red peppers. Green pepper displayed presence of proanthocyanins; however, oligomeric anthocyanins were detected in yellow and red peppers.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Capsicum annuum varieties Mandarin and Blackcluster: assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Young-Il; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun; Woo, Jong-Gyu; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul

    2014-01-10

    Next generation sequencing technologies have proven to be a rapid and cost-effective means to assemble and characterize gene content and identify molecular markers in various organisms. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., Solanaceae) is a major staple vegetable crop, which is economically important and has worldwide distribution. High-throughput transcriptome profiling of two pepper cultivars, Mandarin and Blackcluster, using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing yielded 279,221 and 316,357 sequenced reads with a total 120.44 and 142.54Mb of sequence data (average read length of 431 and 450 nucleotides). These reads resulted from 17,525 and 16,341 'isogroups' and were assembled into 19,388 and 18,057 isotigs, and 22,217 and 13,153 singletons for both the cultivars, respectively. Assembled sequences were annotated functionally based on homology to genes in multiple public databases. Detailed sequence variant analysis identified a total of 9701 and 12,741 potential SNPs which eventually resulted in 1025 and 1059 genotype specific SNPs, for both the varieties, respectively, after examining SNP frequency distribution for each mapped unigenes. These markers for pepper will be highly valuable for marker-assisted breeding and other genetic studies.

  1. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic variation among Capsicum annuum recombinant inbred lines resistant to bacterial spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, S O; Rodrigues, R; Oliveira, H S; Medeiros, A M; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A

    2013-04-17

    A breeding program carried out under Brazilian growing conditions to obtain Capsicum annuum cultivars with disease resistance to bacterial spot (BS) produced 8 promising recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The present study aimed to characterize these RILs using phenotypic descriptors and molecular markers (inter-simple sequence repeat) and to confirm their resistance to BS. Twenty-two phenotypic descriptors and 15 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used to characterize the RILs. The parent, UENF 1381, which is resistant to BS, and 'Casca Dura Ikeda', a traditional cultivar, were used as standards. Variability among genotypes was observed considering either binary or multicategorical characteristics, such as fruit length, fruit diameter, and fruit longitudinal and transversal section. Such variability in fruit traits can be exploited to develop new genotypes with BS resistance for various types of market consumption. RILs numbered 1, 3, and 6 were the most homogenous, whereas those coded 2, 5, 8, and 11 had the same level of heterogeneity as that observed in 'Casca Dura Ikeda'. Molecular analysis clustered the genotypes into 5 groups, with RILs 1, 2, 3, and 5 allocated in isolated groups. RILs 1, 2, 6, and 8 confirmed resistance to BS. Considering homogeneity level and BS resistance, RILs 1 and 6 were suitable for use as pre-cultivars in final tests to register and release two new C. annuum cultivars.

  3. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  4. Embryogenesis in the anthers of different ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, P A; Rêgo, M M; Rêgo, E R; Soares, W S

    2015-10-27

    The aim of this study was to relate flower bud size with microspore developmental stages and the induction of embryos in the anthers of different ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes. Flower buds were randomly collected and visually divided into three classes based on both petal and sepal size. The length and diameter of the bud as well as the length of the petal, sepal, and anther were then measured. The microspore stage was also determined for each anther of the bud where it was found. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.01), and the means were separated by Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.01). The broad sense heritability, the CVg/CVe relation, and the Pearson correlation between characters were also determined. Anthers from 10 C. annuum genotypes were cultivated in four culture media types for the induction of embryos. The data were transformed by Arcsin (x) and subjected to analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.01), and the means were separated by Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.01). The majority of anthers in the second class had uninucleate microspores. No correlation was observed between bud size and the number of uninucleate microspores. Genotype 9 specimens grown in M2 medium induced the highest number of embryos (16) compared to the other treatments, which indicates a significant interaction effect between culture media and genotypes.

  5. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  6. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  7. Crossability and evaluation of incompatibility barriers in crosses between Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the crossability rate in combinations of and assess the occurrence of incompatibility barriers between Capsicum species. The species C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. baccatum were crossed and the number of hand-pollinations and of resulting fruits and plants was registered. The resulting hybrids were evaluated for their pollen viability and in the crosses that produced no hybrids, the in vivo germination of pollen grains was assessed. Some crosses generated hybrids, while others produced no fruit or, despite generating fruits, no plants grew from them. The crossability rate between species of the complex C. annuum and C. baccatum ranged from 2.2% to 3.7%, and was 14.6% between species of the complex C. annuum. A pre-fertilization barrier was observed in the non-germination of pollen grains, as well as post-fertilization barriers consisting of embryo death, lack of vigor and hybrid sterility

  8. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  9. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  10. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. under Ambient Storage

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    Qumer Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g. Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05 declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality.

  11. Capsicum annuum L. trypsin inhibitor as a template scaffold for new drug development against pathogenic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Silva, Marciele S; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme; Mello, Erica O; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Rodrigues, Rosana; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2012-03-01

    A 6,000 Da peptide, named CaTI, was isolated from Capsicum annuum L. seeds and showed potent inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CaTI on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Kluyveromyces marxiannus cells. We observed that CaTI inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae, K. marxiannus as well as C. albicans and induced cellular agglomeration and the release of cytoplasmic content. No effect on growth was observed in C. tropicalis but morphological changes were noted. In the spot assay, different degrees of sensitivity were shown among the strains and concentrations tested. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. cerevisiae, K. marxiannus and C. albicans, in the presence of CaTI, exhibited morphological alterations, such as the formation of pseudohyphae, cellular aggregates and elongated forms. We also show that CaTI induces the generation of nitric oxide and interferes in a dose-dependent manner with glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium mediated by H(+)-ATPase of S. cerevisiae cells.

  12. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  13. Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Andean Ajı′ (Capsicum baccatum L.

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    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the importance of Andean Ajı′/Chilli (Capsicum baccatum L. mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which favors for green chemistry and escape us from the use of hazardous chemicals. UV–visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of AuNPs. Further, as synthesized AuNPs were characterized using Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and X-ray diffraction. It produced spherical AuNPs at λmax = 540 nm of average size 23.9 ± 9.7 nm without any aggregation. Ajı′ extract (aq was the good reducing and capping agent in terms of conversion to Au3+ to AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs, also enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (>50%, k = 1.9585 × 10−3 min−1 under direct solar light irradiation. In addition, the experimental approach is benign, ecofriendly, and inexpensive for industrial-scale production of nanoparticles using Aji extract as natural bioreductant.

  14. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

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    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  15. SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE Capsicum sp EN EL CONTEXTO URBANO

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    María de los A. Pino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La selección participativa de variedades da opciones a los agricultores en condiciones ambientales específicas, promueve los enfoques participativos para sus pruebas, así como permite escoger y difundir la variedad preferida. Con ese objetivo se realizó una feria de variedades, donde se aplicó la metodología de selección participativa en especies del género Capsicum sp, presentándose 14 variedades entre picantes y dulces, de las cuales los agricultores podían seleccionar seis para probar en sus condiciones específicas, teniendo en cuenta sus criterios de selección. Los resultados mostraron el mayor interés por cuatro variedades de pimiento y una de ají, predominando como criterios el número de frutos/planta, la altura de las plantas, el vigor y su aceptación en el mercado; se observó la diferencia entre los criterios de selección de los agricultores de Ciudad de La Habana y provincia de La Habana.

  16. Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluru, Maneesha R; Mazourek, Michael; Landry, Laurie G; Curry, Jeanne; Jahn, Molly; O'Connell, Mary A

    2003-07-01

    The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were characterized. Transcription of these three genes was placental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency. Kas and Acl were mapped to linkage group 1 and Fat to linkage group 6. None of the genes is linked to the pungency locus, C, on linkage group 2. KAS accumulation was positively correlated with pungency. Western blots of placental extracts and histological sections both demonstrated that the accumulation of this enzyme was correlated with fruit pungency and KAS was immunolocalized to the expected cell layer, the placental epidermis. Enzyme activity of the recombinant form of the placental-specific KAS was confirmed using crude cell extracts. These FAS components are fruit-specific members of their respective gene families. These genes are predicted to be associated with Capsicum fruit traits, for example, capsaicinoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis necessary for placental development.

  17. Determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum fruit samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Othman, Zeid Abdullah; Ahmed, Yacine Badjah Hadj; Habila, Mohamed Abdelaty; Ghafar, Ayman Abdel

    2011-10-24

    The aim of the present study was to determine the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum samples collected from city markets in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), calculate their pungency in Scoville heat units (SHU) and evaluate the average daily intake of capsaicin for the population of Riyadh. The investigated samples consisted of hot chillies, red chillies, green chillies, green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers. Extraction of capsaicinoids was done using ethanol as solvent, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for separation, identification and quantitation of the components. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.09 and 0.10 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.30 and 0.36 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. Hot chillies showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (4249.0 ± 190.3 µg/g) and the highest pungency level (67984.60 SHU), whereas green peppers had the lowest detected concentration (1.0 ± 0.9 µg/g); green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers were non pungent. The mean consumption of peppers for Riyadh city population was determined to be 15.5 g/person/day while the daily capsaicin intake was 7.584 mg/person/day.

  18. Physiological quality and gene expression during the development of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, H O; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, I V; Dutra, S M F; Andrade, T; Guimarães, R M

    2015-05-12

    Phytohormones have different characteristics and functions, and they may be subject to changes in their gene expression and synthesis during seed development. In this study, we evaluated the physiological qualities of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) during seed development and the expression of genes involved in germination. Seeds were obtained from fruits harvested at different stages of development [i.e., 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days after anthesis (DAA)]. Immediately after harvesting, the seeds were subjected to various tests to determine moisture content, germination, first count germination, and seedling emergence. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of various genes, including MAN2, NCED, B73, ICL6, and GA3ox. Electrophoresis was used to assess the expression of various enzymes, including α-amylase, isocitrate-lyase, and endo-β-mannanase. Habanero peppers harvested at 70 DAA and subjected to 7 days of rest exhibited higher germination rates and vigor compared to those harvested at all other developmental stages. Peppers harvested at 63 DAA without drying exhibited higher α amylase and AmyB73 gene expression levels. Peppers harvested at 70 DAA with 7 days of rest exhibited higher endo-β-mannanase expression levels. MAN2 gene expression increased during the development of non-dried seeds until 70 DAA. Peppers harvested at 42 DAA exhibited the highest isocitrate-lyase and ICL6 gene activity levels in comparison to those at all other developmental stages.

  19. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, A. P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 {mu}m were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T{sub M}-T{sub STOP} method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  20. Capsicum annuum enhances L-lactate production by Lactobacillus acidophilus: implication in curd formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Smriti; Jain, Sriyans; Nair, Girija N; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-07-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used lactic acid bacteria for producing fermented milk products. In general household practice, curdling is known to occur faster in the presence of red chili. Herein we analyzed the enhanced effect of red chili (Capsicum annuum) and its major component, capsaicin, on Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) in the production of L-lactate in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium at various temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 37°C). The addition of red chili showed significant increase in the amount of L-lactate produced by L. acidophilus compared with the control at all temperatures. Similar results were observed with addition of capsaicin alone. This was accompanied by an increase in the consumption of d-glucose. Capsazepine, a known antagonist of capsaicin, inhibited the production of L-lactate by L. acidophilus in the presence of both capsaicin and red chili. Because no increase occurred in the growth of L. acidophilus in the presence of red chili, the enhanced production of L-lactate in the presence of red chili or capsaicin is due to increased metabolic activity.

  1. Generic characterization of apolar metabolites in red chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) by orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Zhani, Kaouther; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-05-21

    The aim of the present study was to develop a generic analytical method for the identification and quantitation of apolar plant metabolites in biomass using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS). During this study, a single generic sample preparation protocol was applied to extract apolar plant metabolites. Compound identification was performed using a single generic screening method for apolar compounds without the need for dedicated fractionation. Such a generic approach renders vast amounts of information and is virtually limited by only the solubility and detector response of the metabolites of interest. Method validation confirmed that this approach is applicable for quantitative purposes. Furthermore, an identification-quantitation strategy based on amMS and molar extinction coefficients was used for carotenoids, eliminating the need for reference standards for each carotenoid. To challenge the validated method, chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) were analyzed to unravel their complex phytochemical composition (carotenoids, glycolipids, glycerolipids, capsaicinoids, lipid-soluble vitamins).

  2. The color and size of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) influence Hep-G2 cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, David G; Sia, Sharon Y; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Mon L

    2014-11-01

    Four types of chili (Capsicum annuum) extracts, categorized according to color; green and red, and size; small and large were studied in Hep-G2 cells. Red small (RS) chili had an LC50 value of 0.378 ± 0.029 compared to green big (GB) 1.034 ± 0.061 and green small (GS) 1.070 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Red big (RB) was not cytotoxic. Capsaicin content was highest in RS and produced a greater percentage sub-G1 cells (6.47 ± 1.8%) after 24 h compared to GS (2.96 ± 1.3%) and control (1.29 ± 0.8%) cells. G2/M phase was reduced by GS compared to RS and control cells. RS at the LC50 concentration contained 1.6 times the amount of pure capsaicin LC50 to achieve the same effect of capsaicin alone. GS and GB capsaicin content at the LC50 value was lower (0.2 and 0.66, respectively) compared to the amount of capsaicin to achieve a similar reduction in cell growth.

  3. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-09-16

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  4. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  5. An improved plant regeneration and Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, B; Chakraborty, S

    2012-10-01

    Capsicum annuum (red pepper) is an important spice cum vegetable crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Here, we report an effective and reproducible auxin free regeneration method for six different red pepper cultivars (ACA-10, Kashi Anmol, LCA-235, PBC-535, Pusa Jwala and Supper) using hypocotyl explants and an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol. The explants (hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves and leaf discs) collected from axenic seedlings of six red pepper cultivars were cultured on either hormone free MS medium or MS medium supplemented with BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Inclusion of IAA in the regeneration medium resulted in callus formation at the cut ends of explants, formation of rosette leaves and ill defined shoot buds. Regeneration of shoot buds could be achieved from hypocotyls grown in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP unlike other explants which failed to respond. Incorporation of GA3 in shoot elongation medium at 0.5 mg/l concentration enhanced the elongation in two cultivars, LCA-235 and Supper, while other cultivars showed no significant response. Chilli cultivar, Pusa Jwala was transformed with βC1 ORF of satellite DNA β molecule associated with Chilli leaf curl Joydebpur virus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene integration in putative transformants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.

  6. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  7. Drug screening in clinical or forensic toxicology: are there differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2010-09-01

    Legal and medical practitioners need to remember that, with respect to drug analysis, there are two distinct disciplines in analytical toxicology concerned with human biological matrices, namely clinical and forensic toxicology. Both fields use similar analytical techniques designed to detect and quantify drugs, chemicals and poisons in fluids or tissues. In clinical toxicology, analytical results help to specify the appropriate treatment of a poisoned or intoxicated patient. In forensic toxicology, the results often play a vital role in determining the possible impairment or behavioural changes in an individual, or the contribution of drugs or poisons to death in a medico-legal investigation. This column provides an overview of the similarities and differences inherent in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  8. Evaluación de genotipos de ajíes (Capsicum spp) resistentes a pudriciones radicales causadas por Fusarium sp y Phythophtora capsici.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Arce, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluó la resistencia a Phytophthora capsici Leonian y Fusarium spp Link responsables de causar enfermedades conocidas como pudriciones radicales, en 30 accesiones de Capsicum spp procedentes de la colección del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, un genotipo resistente a P. capsici evaluado por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira y una variedad de pimentón Capsicum annuum var Nathalie, la cual, se usó como testigo susceptible a los dos pa...

  9. Overview Of Forensic Toxicology, Yesterday, Today And In The Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heesun; Choe, Sanggil

    2017-06-22

    The scope of forensic toxicology has been tremendously expanded over the past 50 years. From two general sections forensic toxicology can be further classified into 8-9 sections. The most outstanding improvement in forensic toxicology is the changes brought by instrumental development. The field of forensic toxicology was revolutionized by the development of immunoassay and bench-top GC-MS in the 1980's and LC-MS-MS in 2000's. Detection of trace amounts of analytes has allowed the use of new specimens such as hair and oral fluids, along with blood and urine. Over a longer period of time, continuous efforts have been made to efficiently extract and separate drug and poison from biological fluids. International endeavors to develop high quality standards and guidelines for drugs and poisons in biological specimens and to promote them in order to increase reliability of laboratories are also part of the recent advancement of forensic toxicology. Interpretation of postmortem toxicology encompasses various factors including postmortem redistribution and stability. Considering the recent trend, the interpretation of toxicological results should account for autopsy findings, crime scene information, and related medical history. The fields of forensic toxicology will continuously develop to improve analysis of target analytes from various specimens, quality assurance program, and results interpretation. In addition, the development of analytical techniques will also contribute further advancement of forensic toxicology. The societies of forensic toxicologists, such as TIAFT, will play an important role for the advancement of forensic toxicology by collaborating and sharing ideas between toxicologists from both developed and developing countries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum sp. sobre quatro bactérias toxinfectivas alimentares In vitro antibacterial activity of hot and sweet peppers (Capsicum sp. on four food toxinfective bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se in vitro a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB, através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos, de extratos de oito pimentas do gênero Capsicum, etnograficamente acessadas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS/BR, frente a inóculos bacterianos padronizados (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, respectivamente Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076 e Escherichia coli (11229, em doses-desafio = 10(7 UFC mL-1. Quatro destas plantas, pimenta calabresa ("pool" Capsicum sp, pimenta-de-jardim (C.annuum, pimenta dedo-de-moça (C. baccatum e pimenta malagueta (C. frutescens, apresentaram atividades de inibição e inativação seletivas, em ordem decrescente, para salmonela, coliforme fecal, enterococo e estafilococo. As demais, pimenta cambuci (C. baccatum e os pimentões (C. annuum amarelo, verde e vermelho, apresentaram nenhuma atividade. Discute-se a validade da ferramenta etnográfica na prospecção de fatores de proteção anti-bacteriana em plantas, bem como a influência da inibição/inativação na preditividade do diagnóstico bacteriológico.The intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and the intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB of extracts of eight peppers of the genus Capsicum, ethnographically located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were assessed in vitro through Dilution Tests in Multiple Tube Series against standardized bacterial inocula (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076, and Escherichia coli (11229, respectively, at challenge doses = 10(7 CFU mL-1. Four of these species, cayenne pepper (Capsicum sp pool, garden pepper (C. annuum, ají pepper (C. baccatum, and malagueta pepper (C. frutescens, had

  11. 胡椒幼果与黑、白胡椒香气成分的比较研究%Comparison of aroma components from oleoresin of green,black and white pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭墨亭; 黄雪松

    2012-01-01

    为比较胡椒幼果与黑、白胡椒香气成分的差异,按照L9(34)正交实验设计,通过超声波处理提取胡椒幼果、黑胡椒和白胡椒的胡椒油树脂,再采用GC-MS测定比较其香气成分。结果表明:胡椒幼果油树脂中分离出25种物质,鉴定出20种;黑、白胡椒油树脂中均分离出28种物质,鉴定出23种;胡椒油树脂香味成分主要是α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、3-蒈烯、D-柠檬油精、4-乙烯基-4-甲基-3-(1-甲基乙烯基)环己烯、石竹烯和胡椒碱等;胡椒幼果具有比黑、白胡椒更为清新、丰满的香气,油树脂得率最高,且其香气成分的相对含量只是略低于黑胡椒和白胡椒,因此可用胡椒幼果油树脂代替黑、白胡椒油树脂开发新型胡椒类产品。%In order to compare the oleoresin from green,black and white pepper,the extraction conditions were optimized by the L9(34)orthogonal experiment with the raw materials.Soaking and ultrasonic time,solute volume was optimized for processing oleoresin.The com

  12. 辣椒炭疽病抗性资源筛选%Screening on the Resistance Resources of Capsicum anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆丽; 秦刚

    2013-01-01

    调查了46份辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)材料对辣椒炭疽病(Collectotrichum sp.)的田间抗性表现.结果表明,19份材料对辣椒炭疽病有较强的抗性.以成都及近郊县的主要致病菌胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)为接种菌源,采用针刺接种法对绿色成熟果(青熟果)和红色成熟果(红熟果)的23份辣椒资源进行辣椒炭疽病抗性筛选.结果表明,9份材料表现为抗病,6份材料表现为耐病,8份材料表现为感病.室内抗性筛选结果与田间抗性表现基本一致.%Field resistance performance of 46 pepper materials on Capsicum anthracnose was investigated.It showed that 19 materials had a C.resistance to Capsicum anthracnose.For further acquiring resistance resources of C.anthracnose,23 pepper materials were inoculated the primary pathogen(C.gloeosporioides) of Chengdu and suburbancounty by green and red mature fruit acupuncture inoculation method.The results indicated that 9 materials showed resistant,6 materials had tolerance of the disease,8 materials were susceptible to the disease.The results of interior resistance screening were basically consistent with the field resistance performance.

  13. Functional loss of pAMT results in biosynthesis of capsinoids, capsaicinoid analogs, in Capsicum annuum cv. CH-19 Sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yaqin; Kisaka, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Nomura, Kenzo; Morita, Akihito; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yazawa, Susumu; Miwa, Tetsuya

    2009-09-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the spicy flavor of pungent peppers (Capsicum). The cultivar CH-19 Sweet is a non-pungent pepper mutant derived from a pungent pepper strain, Capsicum annuum CH-19. CH-19 Sweet biosynthesizes capsaicinoid analogs, capsinoids. We determined the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of capsinoid biosynthesis in this cultivar. We analyzed the putative aminotransferase (pAMT) that is thought to catalyze the formation of vanillylamine from vanillin in the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. Enzyme assays revealed that pAMT activity catalyzing vanillylamine formation was completely lost in CH-19 Sweet placenta tissue. RT-PCR analysis showed normal mRNA transcription of the pAMT gene; however, SNP analysis of the cDNA sequence showed a T nucleotide insertion at 1291 bp in the pAMT gene of CH-19 Sweet. This insertion formed a new stop codon, TGA, that prevented normal translation of the gene, and the pAMT protein did not accumulate in CH-19 Sweet as determined using Western blot analysis. We developed a dCAPS marker based on the T insertion in the pAMT gene of CH-19 Sweet, and showed that the pAMT genotype co-segregated with the capsinoid or capsaicinoid fruit phenotype in the F(2) population. The T insertion was not found in other pungent and non-pungent Capsicum lines, suggesting that it is specific to CH-19 Sweet. CH-19 Sweet's pAMT gene mutation is an example of a nonsense mutation in a single gene that alters a secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway, resulting in the biosynthesis of analogs. The dCAPS marker will be useful in selecting lines with capsinoid-containing fruits in pepper-breeding programs.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Metabolites and Pungency Candidate Genes Expression between Bhut Jolokia and Other Capsicum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Sarpras; Gaur, Rashmi; Sharma, Vineet; Chhapekar, Sushil Satish; Das, Jharna; Kumar, Ajay; Yadava, Satish Kumar; Nitin, Mukesh; Brahma, Vijaya; Abraham, Suresh K.; Ramchiary, Nirala

    2016-01-01

    Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency) biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India. Significant intra and inter-specific variations for fruit morphological traits, fruiting habits and 65 fruit metabolites were observed in the collected Capsicum germplasm belonging to three Capsicum species i.e., Capsicum chinense (Bhut jolokia, 63 accessions), C. frutescens (17 accessions) and C. annuum (56 accessions). The pungency level, measured in Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) and antioxidant activity measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay showed maximum levels in C. chinense accessions followed by C. frutescens accessions, while C. annuum accessions showed the lowest value for both the traits. The number of different fruit metabolites detected did not vary significantly among the different species but the metabolite such as benzoic acid hydroxyl esters identified in large percentage in majority of C. annuum genotypes was totally absent in the C. chinense genotypes and sparingly present in few genotypes of C. frutescens. Significant correlations were observed between fruit metabolites capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, hexadecanoic acid, cyclopentane, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, comparative expression analysis (through qRT-PCR) of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway revealed many fold higher expression of

  15. Carcterización biológica de chiles criollos (Capsicum annuum L.) del sur del estado de Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Bañuelos, Sara Hirán

    2012-01-01

    Dado el valor agronómico y cultural del chile en México se planteó el estudio de la diversidad biológica del chile criollo (Capsicum annuum L.) en el estado de Puebla, mediante la caracterización y evaluación de 43 poblaciones en términos de su variación morfológica, en el contenido de capsaicinoides y la resistencia genética al fitopatógeno Phythophthora capsici Leo. El análisis multivariado considerando 41 atributos morfológicos permitió la clasificación de las poblacion...

  16. Análisis del crecimiento y calidad de semillas de tres tipos de chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Villegas, Misael Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El chile es una de las hortalizas más importante a nivel mundial. México es de los países con mayor producción y al ser centro de origen y domesticación de la especie Capsicum annuum L. tiene una amplia diversidad de materiales agrupados en tipos. Los estudios referentes al crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta y semilla de chile, son escasos y no son recientes. Aquí, se comparó el crecimiento de la planta de los tipos de árbol, ancho y guajillo y se evaluó la calidad de semillas durante su d...

  17. Compuestos volátiles que median la interacción entre Anthonomus eugenii Cano y Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez González, Julio César

    2011-01-01

    Dado que el picudo del chile es el principal problema fitosanitario en el cultivo de Capsicum spp., y las medidas de control no han logrado mitigar de forma eficiente las poblaciones de este insecto, se estudiaron los siguientes objetivos con el fin de conocer las interacciones planta insecto. Primero se valido un método de recolecta de volátiles, el cual demostró ser eficiente bajo las diferentes variables analíticas estudiadas, con % de recobro de 90-100 y DER menores a 10%. En segundo luga...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Metabolites and Pungency Candidate Genes Expression between Bhut Jolokia and Other Capsicum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Sarpras; Gaur, Rashmi; Sharma, Vineet; Chhapekar, Sushil Satish; Das, Jharna; Kumar, Ajay; Yadava, Satish Kumar; Nitin, Mukesh; Brahma, Vijaya; Abraham, Suresh K; Ramchiary, Nirala

    2016-01-01

    Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency) biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India. Significant intra and inter-specific variations for fruit morphological traits, fruiting habits and 65 fruit metabolites were observed in the collected Capsicum germplasm belonging to three Capsicum species i.e., Capsicum chinense (Bhut jolokia, 63 accessions), C. frutescens (17 accessions) and C. annuum (56 accessions). The pungency level, measured in Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) and antioxidant activity measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay showed maximum levels in C. chinense accessions followed by C. frutescens accessions, while C. annuum accessions showed the lowest value for both the traits. The number of different fruit metabolites detected did not vary significantly among the different species but the metabolite such as benzoic acid hydroxyl esters identified in large percentage in majority of C. annuum genotypes was totally absent in the C. chinense genotypes and sparingly present in few genotypes of C. frutescens. Significant correlations were observed between fruit metabolites capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, hexadecanoic acid, cyclopentane, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, comparative expression analysis (through qRT-PCR) of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway revealed many fold higher expression of

  19. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BUNGA FLAMBOYAN (Delonix regia Hook Raf TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI MERAH BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royana Pakpahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reach aim to the effect of flamboyant (Delonix regia Hook Raf. flower extract on the growth of large red pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., for use a land under of flamboyant trees. The research design used was Random Block Design, with five treatments extract concentration, control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, each treatment was repeated five time. Observations were made during the 15 weeks. The results showed the percentage of germination and plant height are effect significant, while the number of leaves, root length and dry weight of the plant does not provide effect for the growth of large red pepper plant. Keywords : flamboyant, allelopathy, large red pepper

  20. Statistical studies in genetic toxicology: a perspective from the U.S. National Toxicology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, B H

    1985-11-01

    This paper surveys recent, as yet unpublished, statistical studies arising from research in genetic toxicology within the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). These studies all involve analyses of data from Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests, but the statistical methodologies are broadly applicable. Three issues are addressed: First, what is a tenable sampling model for Ames test data, and how does one best test the adequacy of the Poisson sampling assumption? Second, given that nonmonotone dose-response curves are fairly common in the Salmonella assay, what new statistical techniques or modifications of existing ones seem appropriate to accommodate to this reality? Finally, an intriguing question: How can the extensive NTP Ames test data base be used to assess the characteristics of any mutagen-nonmutagen decision rule? The last issue is illustrated with the commonly used "two-times background" rule.