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Sample records for older sibling features

  1. Longitudinal Links between Older Sibling Features and Younger Siblings' Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…

  2. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  3. Do Older Siblings Make a Difference? The Effects of Older Sibling Support and Older Sibling Adjustment on the Adjustment of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…

  4. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  5. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  6. The role of older siblings in infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings along with parent reports and standardized assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings' motor skills and the sibling relationship were also collected until the infants were 18months old. The motor skills, age, and sex of the older siblings were not significantly related to any measure of infant motor development. A significant correlation was revealed between perceived agonism between siblings and infant fine motor skills at 18months, suggesting the importance of considering reciprocal effects of motor development on sibling relationships. Overall, the suggestion that older siblings may provide a good model of motor skills for infants is not supported by the current data. In the future, it will be important to assess the dynamic interactions between different factors in predicting infant motor development, allowing early identification of motor difficulties, which could affect other areas of cognitive development and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. My older sibling was drunk - younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossrau-Breen, Diana; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent-adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland (mean age 15.0, SD = .93) who indicated having older siblings. Results showed that both parental factors and older siblings' drinking behaviour shape younger siblings' frequency of risky drinking. Parental monitoring showed a linear dose-response relationship, and siblings' influence had an additive effect. There was a non-linear interaction effect between parent-adolescent relationship and older sibling's drunkenness. The findings suggest that, apart from avoiding an increasingly unsatisfactory relationship with their children, parental monitoring appears to be important in preventing risky drinking by their younger children, even if the older sibling drinks in such a way. However, a satisfying relationship with parents does not seem to be sufficient to counterbalance older siblings' influence.

  8. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  9. Concordance of visual and structural features between siblings with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinmiller, Laura J; Holleschau, Ann; Summers, C Gail

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate similarities and differences in visual function and ocular structure between siblings with albinism. The medical records of all siblings diagnosed with albinism were retrospectively reviewed. Comparisons were made using examination at oldest age for younger sibling and examination closest to that age for older siblings. A total of 111 patients from 54 families were studied. Mean age was 12.9 years (range, 2 months to 44.2 years). Mean difference in ages between sibling pair examinations was 11.5 months (range, 0-87 months). Of 45 families, best-corrected visual acuity was equal in 9 (20%), within 1/2 octave in 9 (20%), >1/2 but albinism should be counseled with due caution because visual function is often disparate despite similar structural findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Family Perspectives on Siblings' Conflict Goals in Middle Childhood: Links to Hierarchical and Affective Features of Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Witwit, Ma-ab

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' and children's descriptions of older and younger siblings' conflict goals in the late preschool and middle childhood years, and how these attributions were related to sibling relationship quality. Parents and 4- to 10-year-old children from 62 families were interviewed separately about siblings' motivations in two…

  11. Older Siblings' Contributions to Young Child's Cognitive Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianhua; Heckman, James J

    2013-09-01

    This work finds that older siblings as well as early parenting influence young children's cognitive skills directly or indirectly, for example, Mathematics, and English. Our findings challenge a pervasive view in the economical literatures that early parenting play a dominant role in explaining child development. In economics, early environmental conditions are important to demonstrate the evolution of adolescent and adult cognitive skills (Knudsen, Heckman, Cameron, and Shonkoff, 2006; Cunha and Heckman, 2007), and it establishes causal impacts of early parental inputs and other environmental factors on cognitive and non-cognitive skills (Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua, 2006; Borghans, Duckworth, Heckman, and Weel, 2006; Cunha, Heckman, and Schennach, 2010). Early parenting as well as older siblings should explain a diverse array of academic and social outcomes, for example, Mathematics, English, maritage and pregnancy. In fact, older siblings' characteristics are as important, if not more important, than parenting for child development. Our analysis addresses the problems of measurement error, imperfect proxies, and reverse causality that plague conventional approach in psychology. We find that older brother contributes much more than older sister to child's mathematical achievement, while older sister contributes much more to child's english achievement. Our evidence is consistent with psychology literature, for example, Hetherington (1988), Jenkins (1992), Zukow-Goldring (1995), Marshall, Garcia-Coll, Marx, McCartney, Keffe, and Rub (1997), Maynard (2002), and Brody Ge, Kim, Murry, Simons, Gibbons, Gerrard, and Conger (2003) for siblings' direct contributions to child development, Bronfenbrenner (1997), East (1998), Whiteman and Buchanan (2002), and Brody, Ge, Kim, Murry, Simons, Gibbons, Gerrard, and Conger (2003) for siblings's indirect contributions, and Reiss, Neiderhiser, Hetherington, and Plomin (2000), Feinberg and Hetherington (2001), Kowal, Kramer, Krull

  12. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings' Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka,Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings' concordance for…

  13. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Older Sibling in the Context of Other Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Examined 11th graders' perceived relationships with older sibling in the context of adolescent-parent and adolescent-peer relationships. Found that relationships with older siblings were similar to relationships with parents and peers. Positive sibling relationships contributed to emotional and school-related support beyond the contribution of…

  14. Faecalibacterium Gut Colonization Is Accelerated by Presence of Older Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a highly abundant human gut microbe in healthy individuals, but it is present at reduced levels in individuals with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. It has therefore been suggested to constitute a marker of a healthy gut and is associated with anti......-inflammatory properties. However, factors affecting the colonization of F. prausnitzii in the human gut during early life are very poorly understood. By analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data from three separate infant study populations, we determined the colonization dynamics of Faecalibacterium and factors...... affecting its establishment in the gut. We found that in particular, the presence of older siblings was consistently associated with Faecalibacterium gut colonization during late infancy and conclude that acquisition of Faecalibacterium is very likely to be accelerated through transfer between siblings...

  15. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  16. My older sibling was drunk - Younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossrau-Breen, D.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland

  17. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research.

  18. Having Older Siblings is Associated with Less Severe Social Communication Symptoms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Zukerman, Gil; Zachor, Ditza A

    2016-11-01

    Among typically developing children, having sibling relationships promotes the development of social skills. This is a retrospective study of the effect of having sibling/s on the severity of the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study included 112 children, 99 males and 15 females, mean age 29.6 ± 9.2 months, diagnosed with ASD. The study population was composed of a group of children with ASD who had older typically developing sibling/s (n = 56) pair-matched for age and cognitive level to a group of children with ASD without sibling/s. Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment using standardized tests. The group with older sibling/s had less severe observed social deficits (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect calibrated severity scales [ADOS-SA-CSS]) and fewer reported non-verbal communication impairments (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised [ADI-R]). Regression analyses revealed that, for the ADOS-SA-CSS, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe observed social affect deficits. This model explained 32.0 % of the variance. For the ADI-R communication scores, older age, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe reported non-verbal communication impairments. This model explained 33.0 % of the variance. The main finding in this study is that a familial factor, specifically having older sibling/s, was associated with better social communication abilities in children with ASD, in addition to age and cognitive ability. Having sibling/s may offer opportunities for the child with ASD to experience social interactions with children and to acquire communication skills.

  19. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  20. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50% female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51% female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a two-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth. PMID:26590830

  1. Training Older Siblings to be Better Supervisors: An RCT Evaluating the "Safe Sibs" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Stacey L; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated a new online training program, Safe Sibs, aimed at improving supervision knowledge and behaviors of sibling supervisors. Participants included older children (7-11 years) and their younger siblings (2-5 years). A randomized controlled trial design was used, with older siblings randomly assigned to either an intervention or wait-list control group. Before and after either the intervention or wait-list period, older siblings completed measures of supervision knowledge and their supervision behaviors were unobtrusively observed when with their younger sibling. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvements in supervision knowledge (child development, knowledge of effective supervision practices, injury beliefs, intervention-specific knowledge) and in some aspects of supervision behavior (frequency of proactive safety behaviors to prevent supervisee access to injury hazards). Although adult supervision is ideal, this new program can support older children to become more knowledgeable and improved supervisors of younger ones. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prospective prediction of children's smoking transitions: role of parents' and older siblings' smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-01-01

    To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.

  3. Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Marshall, Jaclyn; Buikema, Ami; Bancroft, Tim; Kelly, Jonathan P; Newschaffer, Craig J

    2015-04-21

    Despite research showing no link between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), beliefs that the vaccine causes autism persist, leading to lower vaccination levels. Parents who already have a child with ASD may be especially wary of vaccinations. To report ASD occurrence by MMR vaccine status in a large sample of US children who have older siblings with and without ASD. A retrospective cohort study using an administrative claims database associated with a large commercial health plan. Participants included children continuously enrolled in the health plan from birth to at least 5 years of age during 2001-2012 who also had an older sibling continuously enrolled for at least 6 months between 1997 and 2012. MMR vaccine receipt (0, 1, 2 doses) between birth and 5 years of age. ASD status defined as 2 claims with a diagnosis code in any position for autistic disorder or other specified pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) including Asperger syndrome, or unspecified PDD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 299.0x, 299.8x, 299.9x). Of 95,727 children with older siblings, 994 (1.04%) were diagnosed with ASD and 1929 (2.01%) had an older sibling with ASD. Of those with older siblings with ASD, 134 (6.9%) had ASD, vs 860 (0.9%) children with unaffected siblings (P siblings, vs 73% (n = 1409) at age 2 years and 86% (n = 1660) at age 5 years for children with affected siblings. MMR vaccine receipt was not associated with an increased risk of ASD at any age. For children with older siblings with ASD, at age 2, the adjusted relative risk (RR) of ASD for 1 dose of MMR vaccine vs no vaccine was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.49-1.18; P = .22), and at age 5, the RR of ASD for 2 doses compared with no vaccine was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.31-1.01; P = .052). For children whose older siblings did not have ASD, at age 2, the adjusted RR of ASD for 1 dose was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.67-1.20; P = .50) and at age 5

  4. Having older siblings is associated with gut microbiota development during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first 3 years of life. Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which could contribute to the substantiation...... of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later...... in childhood....

  5. Older/Younger Sibling Pairs in the Context of a Community Outreach Children's Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, William E.; Byrnes, Suzanne R.; Aycock, Sylvia R.

    2018-01-01

    This article was designed to explore the behaviors observed and document the interactions of older and younger siblings in a children's choir rehearsal environment. Observations by a music education student observer, the director/teacher of the group, and some parent recollections indicate that the sibling interactions do have a primarily positive…

  6. Severe Human Parechovirus Infections in Infants and the Role of Older Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde

    2016-01-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a cause of severe morbidity among infants and young children. To evaluate the associations between early environmental risk factors and HPeV infections, we carried out a nationwide cohort study linking registry data on birth and sibship characteristics with a laborato...... for HPeV-3 infections. Our study is the first to suggest that having a slightly older sibling increases the risk for severe neonatal HPeV infections. This new knowledge might lead to new preventive measures........68, 95% confidence interval: 3.85, 19.53) of contracting HPeV-3 infections, but at no increased risk of contracting non-HPeV-3 infections. However, the shorter the age gap to the nearest older sibling, the higher the risk of HPeV-3 as well as non-HPeV-3 infections, although the trend was strongest...

  7. Faecalibacterium gut colonization is accelerated by presence of older siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    -inflammatory properties. However, factors affecting the colonization of F. prausnitzii in the human gut during early life are very poorly understood. By analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data from three separate infant study populations, we determined the colonization dynamics of Faecalibacterium and factors...... affecting its establishment in the gut. We found that in particular, the presence of older siblings was consistently associated with Faecalibacterium gut colonization during late infancy and conclude that acquisition of Faecalibacterium is very likely to be accelerated through transfer between siblings....... IMPORTANCEFaecalibacterium prausnitzii has been suggested to constitute a key marker of a healthy gut, yet the factors shaping the colonization of this highly oxygen-sensitive, non-spore-forming species in the intestinal environment remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence from three separate infant study...

  8. Severe Human Parechovirus Infections in Infants and the Role of Older Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2016-04-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a cause of severe morbidity among infants and young children. To evaluate the associations between early environmental risk factors and HPeV infections, we carried out a nationwide cohort study linking registry data on birth and sibship characteristics with a laboratory surveillance database, covering all HPeV infections detected in Denmark during 2009-2012 among children sibling, the higher the risk of HPeV-3 as well as non-HPeV-3 infections, although the trend was strongest for HPeV-3 infections. Our study is the first to suggest that having a slightly older sibling increases the risk for severe neonatal HPeV infections. This new knowledge might lead to new preventive measures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Neighborhood disadvantage moderates associations of parenting and older sibling problem attitudes and behavior with conduct disorders in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Ge, Xiaojia; Kim, Su Yeong; Murry, Velma McBride; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Conger, Rand D

    2003-04-01

    Data from 296 sibling pairs (mean ages 10 and 13 years), their primary caregivers, and census records were used to test the hypothesis that African American children's likelihood of developing conduct problems associated with harsh parenting, a lack of nurturant-involved parenting, and exposure to an older sibling's deviance-prone attitudes and behavior would be amplified among families residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods. A latent construct representing harsh-inconsistent parenting and low levels of nurturant-involved parenting was positively associated with younger siblings' conduct disorder symptoms, as were older siblings' problematic attitudes and behavior. These associations were strongest among families residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future research and prevention programs should focus on the specific neighborhood processes associated with increased vulnerability for behavior problems.

  10. Sibling death and death fear in relation to depressive symptomatology in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.

  11. Sibling Death and Death Fear in Relation to Depressive Symptomatology in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65--97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a s...

  12. Links between Older and Younger Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    Siblings' constructive and unstructured shared activities were examined as moderators of the links between first- and second-born siblings' adjustment across a two-year period in adolescence. Siblings (N = 189 dyads) reported on their depression, peer competency, self worth during home interviews, and their time together in constructive (e.g.,…

  13. Effects of Residential Instability on Head Start Children and Their Relationships with Older Siblings: Influences of Child Emotionality and Conflict between Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Brody, Gene H.; Churchill, Susan L.; Winn, Laura L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined influence of residential dislocations on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and quality of sibling relationships among Head Start children and their older siblings. Found that child emotionality moderated the effects of residential mobility. Caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator.…

  14. Gonadal mosaicism in ARID1B gene causes intellectual disability and dysmorphic features in three siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Sobreira, Nara; Akawi, Nadia A; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; John, Anne; Pramathan, Thachillath; Valle, David; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding the AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) has recently been shown to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with intellectual disability (ID). The phenotypic spectrums associated with variants in this gene vary widely ranging for mild to severe non-specific ID to Coffin-Siris syndrome. In this study, we evaluated three children from a consanguineous Emirati family affected with ID and dysmorphic features. Genomic DNA from all affected siblings was analyzed using CGH array and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Based on a recessive mode of inheritance, homozygous or compound heterozygous variants shared among all three affected children could not be identified. However, further analysis revealed a heterozygous variant (c.4318C>T; p.Q1440*) in the three affected children in an autosomal dominant ID causing gene, ARID1B. This variant was absent in peripheral blood samples obtained from both parents and unaffected siblings. Therefore, we propose that the most likely explanation for this situation is that one of the parents is a gonadal mosaic for the variant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gonadal mosaicism inheritance of an ARID1B variant leading to familial ID recurrence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  16. Behavioral Risk Assessment From Newborn to Preschool: The Value of Older Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plausibility of a risk prediction tool in infancy for school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. Familial aggregation has been operationalized previously as maternal psychopathology. The hypothesis was tested that older sibling (OS) psychopathology, as an indicator of familial aggregation, would enable a fair level of risk prediction compared with previous research, when combined with traditional risk factors. By using a longitudinal design, data on child and family risk factors were collected on 323 infants ( M = 2.00 months), all of whom had OSs. Infants were followed up 4.5 years later when both parents provided ratings of emotional and behavioral problems. Multiple regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted for emotional, conduct, and attention problems separately. The emotional and behavioral problems of OSs at infancy were the strongest predictors of the same problems in target children 4.5 years later. Other risk factors, including maternal depression and socioeconomic status provided extra, but weak, significant prediction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for emotional and conduct problems yielded a fair prediction. This study is the first to offer a fair degree of prediction from risk factors at birth to school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. This degree of prediction was achieved with the inclusion of the emotional and behavioral problems of OSs (thus limiting generalizability to children with OSs). The inclusion of OS psychopathology raises risk prediction to a fair level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Background: Early life infections and presence of older siblings or pets in the household are factors known to affect the risk of developing allergic diseases, and this effect is suggested to be mediated by interactions between microbes and the immune system. However, very limited research has been...... done on the effect of these factors on the developing gut microbiota in infants. Thus, we aimed to elucidate associations between older siblings, pets and early life infections, the microbial gut communities at 9 and 18 months of age and the prevalence of allergies in three year old children. Methods...... of respiratory allergy, eczema and presence of older siblings, pets and early life infections, previously collected through interviews with parents, were compared to the obtained data on bacterial taxonomy. Results: Early life infections were positively associated with the risk of developing respiratory allergy...

  18. Sibling analysis of adolescent intelligence and chronic diseases in older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Silventoinen, Karri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-07-01

    We examined whether associations of adolescent intelligence with chronic diseases in adulthood are explained by socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, or common sources of variance in intelligence and chronic disease risk. A prospective cohort study (Wisconsin Longitudinal Study) of high school graduates and their siblings with intelligence assessed in adolescence and chronic diseases reported in adulthood (n = 10,168; mean age 53.9 and n = 9051; mean age 64.8 in two follow-ups). After adjustment for age and sex, greater intelligence was associated with lower risk of heart disease (odds ratio per 1 SD advantage in intelligence 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.87-0.99), circulation problems (0.85; 0.79-0.92), stroke (0.80; 0.70-0.91), and diabetes (0.88; 0.81-0.95). Participants' risk of stroke and circulation problems also was predicted by their sibling's intelligence, suggesting potential common causes for intelligence and cerebrovascular diseases. Sibling analysis provided no support for shared family environment in explaining associations between intelligence and disease outcomes because between-families and within-siblings regression models were not different. Adjusting for common risk factors had little impact on these associations. In contrast, adjusting for adult socioeconomic status attenuated the associations by 25%-100% (66% on average). Multiple mechanisms may link intelligence with occurrence of chronic diseases of major public health importance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ten-year stability of self-reported schizotypal personality features in patients with psychosis and their healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Fañanás, Lourdes; Rosa, Araceli; Salvatore, Paola; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-06-30

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms or features are common in patients with psychosis and their healthy relatives. However, the long-term stability of these SPD features and therefore their constituting enduring traits underlying vulnerability to psychosis remain to be clarified. Thirty-two patients with psychotic disorders and 29 of their healthy siblings were included from the long-term follow-up study of 89 nuclear families. Participants were clinically assessed by means of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, whereas the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was applied for the self-assessment of SPD symptoms. The assessments were carried out upon admission to the study and at follow-up, about 10 years later. The patients had higher scores than their siblings on the SPQ-B both at baseline and follow-up. In addition, self-reported SPD symptoms remained stable over time in total scores and in all the SPQ-B subscores, except for the SPQ-B Disorganization subscale. Self-reported SPD symptoms were stable over the long term among patients with psychotic disorders and their healthy siblings. This finding provides new support for including the SPD construct as a trait measure for studies addressing both vulnerability to psychosis in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and long-term persistence of symptoms in patients suffering from psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Older Sibling Support of Younger Siblings' Socio-Emotional Development: A Multiple-Case Study of Second-Generation Mexican and Honduran Children's Initiative and Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Yoder, Michelle; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Bergey, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Siblings play a critical role in the socialization experiences of their younger siblings. Societal values, standards, and customs are transmitted and created through the process of modeling and the construction of shared meaning. It follows, therefore, that the process of socialization may be culturally dependent. Using multiple case studies of…

  1. Having Older Siblings Is Associated with Lower Rates of Depression, ADD/ADHD, Anxiety and Behavior Problems Among Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Guillermo

    2018-05-01

    Objective Within the social determinants of mental health framework, this article investigated whether children with ASD who have older siblings are less likely to experience depression, anxiety, behavior problems or have ADD/ADHD after controlling for standard social determinants of mental health such as household income, parental education and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods Using the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012, children with ASD spectrum disorders (n = 1624) were categorized into three groups: only child, oldest child and has older siblings. Design corrected cross-tabulations, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were estimated. Results The three groups of children with ASD were comparable in demographic characteristics (except age), ACEs, and parent-reported ASD severity. Children with ASD who had older siblings were significantly less likely to experience depression, anxiety or behavior problems. They were also less likely to have been diagnosed with ADD or ADHD. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 0.12 to 0.53 indicating robust associations. Conclusions for Practice Children with ASD who have older siblings were less likely to have comorbid mental health disorders than other children with ASD. Conversely, oldest and only children with ASD were at increased risk for these disorders. Further research is needed to understand how this protection is conferred on children with ASD, and whether it can be adapted into interventions for only and oldest children with ASD.

  2. "I Am Becoming More and More Like My Eldest Brother!": The Relationship Between Older Siblings, Adolescent Gambling Severity, and the Attenuating Role of Parents in a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Siciliano, Valeria; Cutilli, Arianna; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association between having older siblings who gamble and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and how parents (i.e., parental knowledge of their whereabouts) and peers might moderate such effects. Data were drawn from the ESPAD ® Italia2012 survey (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) comprising a nationally representative Italian sample of adolescents. The analysis was carried out on a subsample of 10,063 Italian students aged 15-19 years (average age = 17.10; 55 % girls) who had at least one older sibling and who had gambled at some point in their lives. Respondents' problem gambling severity, older gambler sibling, gambler peers, parental knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. Multinomial logistic regression analyses including two- and three-way interactions were conducted. The odds of being an at-risk/problem gambler were higher among high school students with older siblings that gambled and those with peers who gambled. Higher parental knowledge (of who the adolescent was with and where they were in their leisure time) was associated with lower rates of at-risk/problem gambling. There was also an interaction between gamblers with older siblings and parental knowledge. The combination of having siblings who gambled and a greater level of parental knowledge was associated with lower levels of problem gambling. The present study confirmed the occurrence of social risk processes (older siblings and peers who gambled) and demonstrated that gambling among older siblings and peers represents an important contextual factor for increased at-risk/problem gambling. However, parental knowledge appears to be sufficient to counterbalance the influence of older siblings.

  3. Effects of residential instability on Head Start children and their relationships with older siblings: influences of child emotionality and conflict between family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Z; Brody, G H; Churchill, S L; Winn, L L

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the influence that residential dislocations have on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and the quality of sibling relations in a sample of 70 Head Start children, aged 32 to 67 months, and their older brothers and sisters, aged 48 to 155 months. This was the first study to investigate the sibling relationship in the context of high residential mobility. Information on child characteristics was obtained from mothers and teachers. Sibling data (warmth/harmony and conflict) were obtained from coding videotaped interactions. Child emotionality was found to be an important moderator of the effects of residential mobility on young, poor children and their siblings; caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator of these effects. Residential instability seemed to compromise the warmth/harmony of the sibling relationship. It was concluded that the effects of residential instability are complex and cannot be understood without considering child characteristics, such as temperament, and the family context in which the child lives.

  4. The interweaving of repartnered older adults' lives with their children and siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; Peeters, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of repartnering upon the social embeddedness of older adults' lives. The starting hypotheses, that repartnering is a stressful life event and is incompletely institutionalised, are examined using the NESTOR longitudinal survey data from The Netherlands on 4,449

  5. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…

  6. Common dental features and craniofacial development of three siblings with Ter Haar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Pabla, R; Hay, N; Ayliffe, P

    2014-02-01

    Ter Haar syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with <30 cases reported worldwide. There is nothing within the published literature regarding the dental development and dental features of these patients. This case series examines three patients with Ter Haar syndrome and tracks their dental development and identifies common dental and skeletal features. All three patients received dental treatment and regular follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital Dental Department. These patients have many common dental and craniofacial features which poses the question as to whether these features are due to Ter Haar syndrome.

  7. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…

  8. Parental Differential Treatment of Siblings in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.

  9. Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Richard P

    2007-04-01

    Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.

  10. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2011-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers’ parenting processes, youth disclosure and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a three year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and negatively related to problem behavior, and coercive parenting was negatively associated with youth disclosure and positively related to problem behavior. When the influence of olde...

  11. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  12. The Nature and Correlates of Sibling Influence in Two-Parent African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra Bernard, Julia M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study explored the nature and correlates of 2 processes of sibling influence--social learning and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included 2 adolescent-age siblings (M = 16.29 years for older siblings and M = 12.59 years for younger siblings,…

  13. The influence of parents, older siblings, and non-parental care on infant development at nine months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Sharon; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2014-11-01

    The majority of research examining the influence of social environment on early child development suggests benefits to two-parent households, but contradictory evidence for the effects of siblings. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of the child's proximal social environment, and the effects of interactions between socioeconomic status and social environment on developmental outcomes. Primary caregivers of a representative sample of 10,748 nine-month-old infants in Ireland completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and provided information on social environment. Adjustment was made for infant and maternal characteristics, household income, and area where the child was living at the time of the study. Further analyses tested for interactions between social environment and household income. Binary logistic regressions indicated no effects for number of parents in the household. However, the presence of siblings in the household was a consistent predictor of failing to reach milestones in communication, gross motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development. Furthermore, there was a gradient of increasing likelihood of failing in gross motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development with increasing numbers of siblings. Care by a grandparent decreased the likelihood of failing in communication and personal-social development. These findings do not support the majority of research that finds positive benefits for two-parent households. Similarly, the findings suggest limited effects for non-parental care. However, the observed negative effects of siblings support both the confluence and resource dilution models of sibling effect. Examination of follow-up data may elucidate current findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age  = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age  = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

  15. Siblings and the Development of Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; Munn, Penny

    1986-01-01

    Examines the capability and motivation of 18- and 24-month-old infants to share, help, comfort, and cooperate with their older siblings; the frequency of such prosocial behavior by both siblings; and the children's response to sibling distress. The relationship between prosocial and conflict behavior was also studied. (HOD)

  16. Sibling Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Green, Mary J.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, sibling incest, a type of intrafamilial incest, has received notice from mental health professionals; however, many professionals still do not recognize the seriousness of the problem. This article reviews current research on the individual and family dynamics that allow sibling incest to occur, the effects of sibling incest on victims,…

  17. The influence of parents, older siblings, and non-parental care on infant development at nine months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Cruise, Sharon; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of research examining the influence of social environment on early child development suggests benefits to two-parent households, but contradictory evidence for the effects of siblings. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of the child's proximal social environment, and the effects of interactions between socioeconomic status and social environment on developmental outcomes.Methods: Primary caregivers of a representative sample of 10,748 nine-mon...

  18. Risk Factors for Wheezing, Eczema and Rhinoconjunctivitis in the Previous 12 Months among Six-Year-Old Children in Himeji City, Japan: Food Allergy, Older Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and Parental Allergy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese children, food allergy and parents' history of allergy are risk factors for WP, ES or RS. However, early day-care attendance and presence of older siblings might be protective factors against RS. Infections in early life may affect the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in six-year-old children.

  19. Sibling influences on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; McHarg, Gabrielle; White, Naomi

    2018-04-01

    Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms. Taking a fine-grained approach to prosocial behavior, we examine these processes in relation to sibling influences on children's comforting, sharing, and helping. Emergent themes include: developmental change in the nature of sibling influences on prosocial behavior, the need to consider sibling influences in the wider family context, and the importance of individual differences in the quality of sibling relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sibling popularity: A moderator of sibling influence for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Little research, however, has investigated whether siblings' peer context is also a source of variation. The present study tested whether more popular siblings were more influential for adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data were obtained from sibling pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings indicate that older siblings have more influence on younger sibling marijuana use when they have more friends. These findings contribute to prior work examining which siblings are more influential and highlight the need to consider siblings as part of a greater peer context.

  1. Why Siblings Are Important Agents of Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Siblings and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmitia, Margarita; Hesser, Joanne

    1993-01-01

    Found that, in unstructured building sessions, kindergartners were more likely to observe, imitate, and consult their second- or third-grade siblings than their older peers. Older siblings were also more likely to provide additional explanations and positive feedback than older peers when instructing younger children. (MDM)

  2. Differential Parental Treatment, Sibling Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Harakeh, Zeena; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of the quality of the sibling relationship on the longitudinal association of parental treatment with theft, vandalism, and violence in adolescence. Participants were 416 sibling pairs which were studied over a one-year period. The younger siblings were aged 13 to 15, the older siblings 14 to 17 at…

  3. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues.

  4. Replicating distinctive facial features in lineups: identification performance in young versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with young adults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Older adults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than young adults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, older adults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that older adults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for older adults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to older adults as it is to young adults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory.

  5. Retrospective Cues Based on Object Features Improve Visual Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were either presented with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an u...

  6. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little is known about relationship factors that may explain this shift in power dynamics, however. The present study therefore examined longitudinal changes in adolescents' and their siblings' perceptions of sibling relative power from age 12 to 18 (n = 145 dyads), and examined whether different levels of sibling relationship positivity and negativity, as well as sibling structural variables, indicated different over-time changes in relative power. Multilevel models indicated that adolescents reported significant declines in their siblings' relative power across adolescence, with older siblings relinquishing the most power over time. However, only siblings with less positively involved relationships reported declines in relative power, suggesting that siblings who maintain highly involved relationships may not become more egalitarian during adolescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In patients older than 55 years with AML in first CR, should we search for a matched unrelated donor when an old sibling donor is available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peffault de Latour, R; Labopin, M; Cornelissen, J

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation is increasingly used in patients aged 55 years or more with AML. The question of whether outcomes can be improved with an allele-level 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) rather than an older HLA-matched sibling (MSD, more than 55 years) is still...... unanswered. We thus analyzed outcomes in 714 patients aged 55 years and older with AML in first CR (CR1) who received PBSCs after a reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic cell transplant from a MUD (n=310) or a MSD (n=404) in a recent period (2005-2010). The 3-year cumulative incidences (CIs) of non......-relapse mortality were 17% and 23% with MSD and MUD, respectively (P=0.17). The 3-year CIs of relapse were 37% and 30%, respectively (P=0.12), resulting in a 3-year CI of leukemia-free survival of 46% and 47%, respectively (P=0.51). The 3-year overall survival was 49% with both MSD and MUD. In conclusion, HLA...

  8. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with...

  9. Siblings exposed to intimate partner violence: linking sibling relationship quality & child adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sibship size, sibling cognitive sensitivity, and children's receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.

  11. Familial risk and sibling mentalization: Links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-09-01

    The current study explored whether older sibling mentalization moderated the relationship between familial risk for internalizing symptoms and the development of future internalizing problems in the younger siblings, referred to as target children. Data were collected on 397 older siblings at Time 1 (T1) when target children were newborn and their older siblings were on average 2.61 years old (SD = .75). Target children were on average 1.60 years old at Time 2 (T2). Internalizing problems were assessed via mother and partner reports. Familial risk was operationalized as the average of all older siblings' level of internalizing problems. Older sibling mentalization, indexed by internal state talk and reasoning, was observed and coded during a sibling pretend-play interaction at T2. Results revealed a significant interaction between familial risk of internalizing problems and older siblings' mentalizing abilities, showing that familial risk was related to target children's internalizing problems in the absence of sibling mentalization. Familial risk was not associated with target children's internalizing problems when siblings demonstrated mentalizing abilities. Findings support the need to consider sibling mentalization as a protective factor for children's internalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  13. Young Children's Personal Accounts of Their Sibling Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne E.; Smith, Melissa D.; Ross, Hildy S.; Ross, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We investigated children's personal representations of significant sibling conflicts. Forty pairs of siblings were interviewed separately about the same disputes. Although they described the same episodes, both older (M age = 7.0) and younger (M age = 4.4) siblings ascribed more serious transgressions to their opponents than to themselves. They…

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  15. Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…

  16. Longitudinal associations among parental acceptance, familism values, and sibling intimacy in Mexican-origin families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Rodríguez de Jésus, Sue A; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Prospective associations among parent-adolescent acceptance and familism values in early and middle adolescence and sibling intimacy in late adolescence and young adulthood were assessed in 246 Mexican-origin families. Older sibling gender and sibling gender constellation were investigated as moderators of these associations. Sibling intimacy was stable over time and younger siblings with older sisters reported higher levels of sibling intimacy than those with older brothers. As predicted, stronger familism values were associated with greater sibling intimacy, but this link was evident only for older sisters and for girl-girl dyads. The links from mother- and father-acceptance to sibling intimacy also depended on the gender constellation of the sibling dyad: Higher levels of maternal warmth were associated with greater sibling intimacy for older sisters and girl-girl sibling pairs but higher levels of paternal warmth were linked to greater sibling intimacy only for older siblings in mixed-gender sibling dyads. Findings are consistent with prior research on the role of gender in family relationships but extend this work to encompass the effects of both parents' and siblings' gender, as well as the role of sociocultural values in parents' socialization influences. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Karin eKeller; Karin eKeller; Larissa Maria Troesch; Alexander eGrob

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical...

  18. Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Susanne; Fegert, Jörg M; Walper, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    Siblings share the same environment and thus potentially a substantial number of risk factors for child maltreatment. Furthermore, the number of siblings and the sibling constellation itself might pose a risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about the likelihood that more than one child in a family is maltreated and which factors increase the risk. This study sought to investigate similarities and differences in maltreatment in siblings and risk factors associated with the maltreatment of more than one child from the same family. Data on maltreatment during childhood and adolescence, family background, and sibling constellation were collected from 870 pairs of siblings. In the dyadic analyses, siblings reported similar maltreatment experiences, especially when any type of maltreatment was considered. Parents' mental health problems were significant predictors for maltreatment of at least one sibling. Father's mental health problems were predictive of maltreatment of both or only the younger sibling, mother's mental health problems of both or only the older sibling. Closeness in age and same gender of siblings did not emerge as a consistent predictor. The increasing number of siblings was a risk factor for any type of maltreatment of both siblings. The results highlight the need for preventive measures for families with a large number of children and with parents with mental health problems as well as a repeated risk assessment of all siblings in a family when one sibling was maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Who Said You Could Wear My Sweater?" Adolescent Siblings' Conflicts and Associations with Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    A new measure of sibling conflict was used to identify 2 types of conflicts in 115 adolescent sibling pairs (older siblings, M = 15.59, SD = 2.01 years; younger siblings, M = 13.02, SD = 2.06 years). Conflicts overall were more frequent than intense and more likely to involve the invasion of the personal domain than conflicts involving equality…

  20. Point prevalence of suboptimal footwear features among ambulant older hospital patients: implications for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Satyan R; McRae, Prue; Stewart, Matthew J; Webster, Joan; Fenn, Mary; Haines, Terry P

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of 'suboptimal' features in footwear reported to have been used by older hospital patients when ambulating, and to explore underpinning factors for their choice of footwear. Method A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken on 95 of 149 eligible in-patients across 22 high fall-risk wards in a large metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Results Over 70% of participants experienced an unplanned admission. Although most participants had access to some form of footwear in hospital (92%), nearly all reported ambulating in footwear with 'suboptimal' features (99%). Examples included slippers (27%), backless slippers (16%) or bare feet (27%). For patients who ambulated in bare feet, only one-third reported 'lack of access to footwear' as the primary cause, with others citing foot wounds, pain, oedema and personal choice as the main reason for bare foot ambulation. Conclusions Admitted patients frequently use footwear with 'suboptimal' features for ambulation in hospital. While some footwear options (for example well-fitting slippers) could be suited for limited in-hospital ambulation, others are clearly hazardous and might cause falls. Since footwear choices are influenced by multiple factors in this population, footwear education strategies alone may be insufficient to address the problem of hazardous footwear in at-risk patients. Footwear requirements may be more effectively addressed within a multidisciplinary team approach encompassing foot health, mobility and safety. What is known about the topic? Accidental falls while ambulating are an important health and safety concern for older people. Because certain footwear characteristics have been negatively linked to posture and balance, and specific footwear types linked to falls among seniors, the use of footwear with fewer suboptimal characteristics is generally recommended as a means of reducing the risk of falling. While footwear

  1. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  2. Features of Social Dilemmas Solving in Older Adolescents with Different Levels of Intellectual Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belova S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss one of the aspects of social competence formation in older teens relevant in the light of the requirements of the second generation of Federal Educational Standards. The general hypothesis: Features of reasoning and decision-making in senior teenagers in social dilemmas are related to the level of their intellectual abilities and have sex specificity. The subject of the study was the relationship of intellectual abilities of students in grades 9-10 (N = 115, 65% were girls, 35% were boys and their activity and critical reasoning, categorical position in solving social dilemmas. We revealed that verbal intelligence in older adolescents is positively related to criticality argument. Verbal intelligence relationship with the activity of reasoning and categorical position on social dilemmas was gender-specific. Girls with higher verbal intelligence have higher activity and low categorical reasoning; boys have higher categorical position. We conclude that verbal intellectual abilities are the cognitive basis of the processes of social cognition in older teens

  3. Parents, Siblings, and Peers: Close Social Relationships and Adolescent Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, Monika; Day, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between parents, older siblings, peers, adolescents' individual characteristics, and adolescents' deviant attitudes and behaviors among inner-city families. Structural equation models showed that older deviant siblings had the strongest effect on adolescent deviance. Positive family relationships, parental support, and…

  4. "Saviour siblings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, M; Savulescu, J

    2002-10-01

    The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority has given permission to allow tissue typing in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is a new application of IVF. Not only will it allow parents to select an embryo free from serious genetic disease it will allow them to simultaneously select for a match so that the umbilical cord blood of the resulting baby can provide stem cells to treat an existing sibling who has a disease.

  5. Myocardial infarction in young versus older adults: clinical characteristics and angiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.; Noor, L.; Shahsawar; Din, S.U.; Awan, Z.A.; Hafizullah, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is now frequently encountered in young adult population. However, being a relatively uncommon entity, not many studies are available in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and angiographic features of patients less than 40 years of age with a history of myocardial infarction and compare them to patients older than 40 years. Methods: A total of 281 patients who underwent coronary angiography from April, 2009 to December, 2009, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of age. Group A included patients 40 years of age or younger. Group B included patients older than 40 years. Both the groups were compared with respect to gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and extent and severity of coronary artery disease as assessed on coronary angiography. Results: Of the total 281 patients, 45 (16%) were less than or equal to 40 years old (Group-A) and 236 (84%) were older than 40 years (Group-B). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the risk factors like gender, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. On coronary angiography, the two groups neither differed in the number of totally occluded vessels, nor in the severity of the culprit lesion. There were only 3 patients in group-A (6.7%) and 5 patients in group-B (2.1%) with normal coronaries (p=NS). Majority (60%) of the patients in group-A had no significant disease or single vessel disease while majority (69%) of the patients in group-B had two or more vessels involved (p<0.001). As far as the number of lesions in the coronary arteries is concerned, 62.3% patients had 2 or lesser lesions in group-A while 68.6% patients in group-B had three or more lesions (p=0.001). Conclusion: These data suggest that in our study, young patients with MI do not have significantly high prevalence of normal coronaries compared to older patients. Young patients are similar

  6. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814

  7. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with an attenuated relation between self-blame and anxiety. A paradoxical moderating effect was found for negative interactions; for both younger and older siblings, a relation between self-blame and anxiety was weakened in the presence of sibling negativity. Results offered support for theorized benefits of sibling relationship quality in helping early adolescents adjust to conflict between parents. PMID:24244080

  8. Sibling rivalry and the new baby: anticipatory guidance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, J A

    1997-01-01

    Sibling rivalry can be found in many families and frequently creates a stressful and challenging situation for parents. The arrival of a new baby often causes older siblings to feel displaced, frustrated, angry, and even unloved. Age, gender, personality and temperament, and parental behavior are factors that appear to influence the degree to which sibling rivalry occurs. Common reactions of older siblings to the birth of a new baby include aggression toward the newborn, behavioral regression, and attention seeking behavior, as well as independence and maturity. Anticipatory guidance is recommended to help parents adequately prepare their older child for the arrival of a new sibling. Strategies for managing sibling rivalry include open parent-child communication, equal treatment of siblings, non-intervention in sibling conflicts, distraction, and separation. Parents can minimize feelings of jealousy between siblings by providing a supportive, nurturing environment that allows each child to feel secure and loved.

  9. Associations between social understanding, sibling relationship quality, and siblings' conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated with positive conflict processes. Younger siblings' second-order false belief scores were negatively associated with constructive conflict strategies, and older siblings' narrative self-referential focus was negatively associated with compromise. Associations between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality. Results suggest that links between social understanding and conflict behavior should be considered in conjunction with the quality of children's relationships.

  10. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  11. Sibling influence on mexican-origin adolescents' deviant and sexual risk behaviors: the role of sibling modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sibling relationship quality moderates the associations between parental interventions and siblings' independent conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-08-01

    This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p sibling groups showed significantly different (p siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  14. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings’ Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka, Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’...

  15. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  16. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  17. Neuropathologic features in the hippocampus and cerebellum of three older men with fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Claudia M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the most common single-gene disorder known to be associated with autism. Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging and our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, only limited neuropathologic information on FXS is available. Methods Neuropathologic examinations were performed on post-mortem brain tissue from three older men (aged 57, 64 and 78 years who had received a clinical or genetic diagnosis of FXS. In each case, physical and cognitive features were typical of FXS, and one man was also diagnosed with autism. Guided by reports of clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities of the limbic system and cerebellum of individuals with FXS, the current analysis focused on neuropathologic features present in the hippocampus and the cerebellar vermis. Results Histologic and immunologic staining revealed abnormalities in both the hippocampus and cerebellar vermis. Focal thickening of hippocampal CA1 and irregularities in the appearance of the dentate gyrus were identified. All lobules of the cerebellar vermis and the lateral cortex of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum had decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, which were occasionally misplaced, and often lacked proper orientation. There were mild, albeit excessive, undulations of the internal granular cell layer, with patchy foliar white matter axonal and astrocytic abnormalities. Quantitative analysis documented panfoliar atrophy of both the anterior and posterior lobes of the vermis, with preferential atrophy of the posterior lobule (VI to VII compared with age-matched normal controls. Conclusions Significant morphologic changes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in three adult men with FXS were identified. This pattern of pathologic features supports the idea that primary defects in neuronal migration, neurogenesis and aging may underlie the neuropathology reported in FXS.

  18. Neuropathologic features in the hippocampus and cerebellum of three older men with fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the most common single-gene disorder known to be associated with autism. Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging and our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, only limited neuropathologic information on FXS is available. Methods Neuropathologic examinations were performed on post-mortem brain tissue from three older men (aged 57, 64 and 78 years) who had received a clinical or genetic diagnosis of FXS. In each case, physical and cognitive features were typical of FXS, and one man was also diagnosed with autism. Guided by reports of clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities of the limbic system and cerebellum of individuals with FXS, the current analysis focused on neuropathologic features present in the hippocampus and the cerebellar vermis. Results Histologic and immunologic staining revealed abnormalities in both the hippocampus and cerebellar vermis. Focal thickening of hippocampal CA1 and irregularities in the appearance of the dentate gyrus were identified. All lobules of the cerebellar vermis and the lateral cortex of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum had decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, which were occasionally misplaced, and often lacked proper orientation. There were mild, albeit excessive, undulations of the internal granular cell layer, with patchy foliar white matter axonal and astrocytic abnormalities. Quantitative analysis documented panfoliar atrophy of both the anterior and posterior lobes of the vermis, with preferential atrophy of the posterior lobule (VI to VII) compared with age-matched normal controls. Conclusions Significant morphologic changes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in three adult men with FXS were identified. This pattern of pathologic features supports the idea that primary defects in neuronal migration, neurogenesis and aging may underlie the neuropathology reported in FXS. PMID:21303513

  19. Retirement plan participation and features and standard of living of Americans 55 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2002-08-01

    This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5

  20. Relationship between siblings and psychological adjustment in adolescents:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ripoll

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and conflict and psychological adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a significant effect on both their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship and psychological adjustment. In younger siblings, there was a significant dyadic effect of the older sibling’s perceived acceptance by mother on their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship. Results are analyzed based on the literature and questions for future research are proposed.

  1. Perceptions of sibling relationships during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrmester, D; Furman, W

    1990-10-01

    Children in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 were administered the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire. Relationships were rated as progressively more egalitarian across the 4 grade groups, with adolescents reporting less dominance and nurturance by their older siblings than younger participants. Adolescents also reported less companionship, intimacy, and affection with siblings than younger participants reported. Levels of perceived conflict with younger siblings were moderately high across all 4 grades, whereas ratings of conflict with older siblings were progressively lower across the 4 grades. The findings suggested that sibling relationships: (a) become more egalitarian and less asymmetrical with age, (b) become less intense with age, and (c) encompass experiences that are partially determined by the child's standing in the family constellation.

  2. Bullying among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.

  3. "I'm an Ogre so I'm Very Hungry!" "I'm Assistant Ogre": The Social Function of Sibling Imitation in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Rosciszewska, Joanna; Persram, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    Siblings' imitative behaviors were investigated in 39 middle-class dyads during six 90-min home sessions at both Time 1 (M age: older sibling = 4.4 years; younger sibling = 2.4 years) and Time 2 (2 years later). Although younger siblings imitated most often at T1 and T2, older siblings' imitation increased proportionally over time in comparison to…

  4. Sibling Influence on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Deviant and Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Sibling Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other’s health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. Methods The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk taking behaviors in two home interviews across a two-year span. Results A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings’ perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings’ subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings’ earlier and younger siblings’ later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings’ earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Conclusions Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. PMID:24287013

  5. Sibling relationship quality and Mexican-origin adolescents' and young adults' familism values and adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: Positive, Negative and Affect-Intense. Links between profiles and youths’ familism values and adjustment were assessed using longitudinal data. Siblings in the Positive profile reported the highest familism values, followed by siblings in the Affect-Intense profile and, finally, siblings in the Negative profile. Older siblings in the Positive and Affect-Intense profiles reported fewer depressive symptoms than siblings in the Negative profile. Further, in the Positive and Negative profiles, older siblings reported less involvement in risky behaviors than younger siblings. In the Negative profile, younger siblings reported greater sexual risk behaviors in late adolescence than older siblings; siblings in opposite-sex dyads, as compared to same-sex dyads, engaged in riskier sexual behaviors. Our findings highlight sibling relationship quality as promotive and risky, depending on sibling characteristics and adjustment outcomes. PMID:28239217

  6. Cultural Teaching: The Development of Teaching Skills in Maya Sibling Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the development of teaching skills in older siblings responsible for teaching their younger siblings to become competent members of their culture among children from a Zinacantec Maya village in Chiapas, Mexico. Found that by age 4, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their younger siblings, and by 8,…

  7. Sibling fairy tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a reflection on sibling relationships starting from fairy tales. Their archetypical meaning and educative value are particularly analyzed. A selection of fairy tales having sibling relationships as their central theme is discussed.

  8. Clinical Features Associated with Delirium Motor Subtypes in Older Inpatients: Results of a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Meagher, David; Mazzone, Andrea; Bianchetti, Angelo; Ferrara, Nicola; Ferrari, Alberto; Musicco, Massimo; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To date motor subtypes of delirium have been evaluated in single-center studies with a limited examination of the relationship between predisposing factors and motor profile of delirium. We sought to report the prevalence and clinical profile of subtypes of delirium in a multicenter study. This is a point prevalence study nested in the "Delirium Day 2015", which included 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italy. Delirium was detected using the 4-AT and motor subtypes were measured with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS). A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with delirium subtypes. Of 429 patients with delirium, the DMSS was completed in 275 (64%), classifying 21.5% of the patients with hyperactive delirium, 38.5% with hypoactive, 27.3% with mixed and 12.7% with the non-motor subtype. The 4-AT score was higher in the hyperactive subtype, similar in the hypoactive, mixed subtypes, while it was lowest in the non-motor subtype. Dementia was associated with all three delirium motor subtypes (hyperactive, OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7; hypoactive, OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-6.5; mixed OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2). Atypical antipsychotics were associated with hypoactive delirium (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), while intravenous lines were associated with mixed delirium (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-6.9). The study shows that hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype among hospitalized older patients. Specific clinical features were associated with different delirium subtypes. The use of standardized instruments can help to characterize the phenomenology of different motor subtypes of delirium. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  10. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  11. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  12. The effect of siblings and family dog ownership on children's independent mobility to neighbourhood destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley E; Villanueva, Karen; Klinker, Charlotte D; Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of sibling age, gender and dog ownership on children's independent mobility and how this varies according to the destination visited. Parents reported whether their child had an older sibling; if the child and older sibling were of the same gender; the number of older siblings; if they owned a dog; and whether their child was allowed to independently travel to school, friends' or family house, park/oval/sporting field and local shop. Data were analysed for 181 children aged 8-15 years. The strongest significant sibling effect for independently mobility to school, local shop and ≥3 destinations was for having an older sibling of the same gender (p≤0.05). For independent mobility to a friend's house and park, the strongest significant sibling effect was for having one older sibling (p≤0.05). Dog ownership was associated with increased odds of being independently mobile to ≥3 destinations (OR=2.43; 95%CI=1.03-5.74). Parents may be more likely to grant children licence to travel to local places if they are accompanied by an older sibling or the family dog. Understanding the effects of siblings and dog ownership on children's independent mobility will assist in identifying strategies through which independent mobility can be encouraged. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Living with a brother or sister with epilepsy: siblings' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette; Appleton, Richard

    2009-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the impact of disability upon siblings, and very little research on the siblings of children with epilepsy. There is some evidence that siblings who have less accurate information exhibit more distress. The aim of this study was to assess siblings' response to having a brother or sister with epilepsy and to begin to develop information for them. Parents of children attending paediatric neurology outpatient departments were invited to participate in a pilot study. Parents who consented to take part were asked if they had previously received information for siblings. Parents and siblings participated in a semi-structured interview and siblings were also invited to submit a personal account of living with a brother or sister who had epilepsy. Twenty-five families with a child with epilepsy aged 2.5-15 years initially agreed to take part. None of the families stated that they had ever seen or received any information specifically for siblings. Fourteen siblings from the 25 families, aged 8-25 years, provided a personal account of what it was like living with a brother or sister with epilepsy. Siblings' accounts included both negative and positive feelings, and specifically feelings of care and love for their sibling. This initial study suggests that siblings of children with epilepsy have many positive but also early negative feelings. The results are limited by the size of the study, the fact that most siblings were older sisters, and the mean time since diagnosis was 6 years. Finally, it is hoped that the personal accounts collected in this study will be published for the benefit of other siblings of children with epilepsy.

  14. Sibling Gender Configuration and Family Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Lotte D.; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the effects of sibling gender configuration on family processes during early childhood. In a sample of 369 two-parent families with two children (youngest 12 months, oldest about 2 years older), both siblings’ noncompliant and oppositional behaviors and fathers’ and

  15. Sibling influences on adolescent substance use: the role of modeling, collusion, and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Shortt, Joann Wu; Snyder, James

    2012-02-01

    The longitudinal associations of older sibling substance use as well as dyadic sibling conflict and collusion to younger sibling substance use were examined in a community-based sample of 244 same-sex sibling pairs. Indirect effects of older siblings on younger sibling substance use were hypothesized via younger sibling deviant peer affiliation and conflict with friends. Adolescents, parents, friends, and teachers completed measures of substance use, conflict, and deviant peer involvement. Observational data were used for both measures of collusion and conflict. Findings suggest that older sibling substance use has a direct effect on younger sibling use, but relationship dynamics and reinforcement played a significant role as well. Specifically, collusion and conflict in the sibling relationship both had indirect effects through younger siblings' deviant peer affiliation. Findings validate the powerful socializing role of both siblings and peers, and elucidate the complex mechanisms through which socialization occurs. Furthermore, data underscore the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of socialization operate in the elaboration of antisocial behavior.

  16. Sibling influences on adolescent substance use: The role of modeling, collusion, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOW, SABINA; SHORTT, JOANN WU; SNYDER, JAMES

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal associations of older sibling substance use as well as dyadic sibling conflict and collusion to younger sibling substance use were examined in a community-based sample of 244 same-sex sibling pairs. Indirect effects of older siblings on younger sibling substance use were hypothesized via younger sibling deviant peer affiliation and conflict with friends. Adolescents, parents, friends, and teachers completed measures of substance use, conflict, and deviant peer involvement. Observational data were used for both measures of collusion and conflict. Findings suggest that older sibling substance use has a direct effect on younger sibling use, but relationship dynamics and reinforcement played a significant role as well. Specifically, collusion and conflict in the sibling relationship both had indirect effects through younger siblings' deviant peer affiliation. Findings validate the powerful socializing role of both siblings and peers, and elucidate the complex mechanisms through which socialization occurs. Furthermore, data underscore the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of socialization operate in the elaboration of antisocial behavior. PMID:22293010

  17. Siblings of Disabled Children: Birth Order and Age-Spacing Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi

    1982-01-01

    Siblings (N=237) of disabled children were compared to 248 siblings from a random family sampling to examine the effects of relative birth order and age spacing on psychological functioning. Younger males scored higher than older males on psychological impairment, while younger females were psychologically better off than older females. (CL)

  18. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L; Marquez, David X; Brown, David R; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-03-01

    Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking.

  19. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  20. Factors associated with and prevalence of depressive features amongst older adults in an urban city in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems have become serious for older Chinese adults who have lived through the process of urbanisation. This current research aimed to determine the prevalence of and associated factors for depressive features in a community-based sample of older adults in China. Methods: A community-based survey of 4077 adults aged 60 or older was conducted in Suzhou, China. Information including demographic characteristics, health behaviours, social support, disease histories and physical function was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire. Depressive features were assessed using the self-rating depression scale. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associated factors for depression. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive features in the surveyed population was 47.4% (45.9% in men and 48.5% in women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant variables of depressive features were no fixed occupation (odds ratio [OR] = 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21–0.37, doing non-technical and service work (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.19–0.28 or being a manager and technical personnel (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.19–0.32, physical activities (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61–0.82, never taking dietary supplements (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58–0.91, not having hobbies (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15–1.56, never interacting with neighbours (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.28–2.50, cold relationship with a spouse (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.18–9.45 and limited activities of daily living (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.91–2.69. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for public policy interventions to address depression in elderly people located in Suzhou in China.

  1. "Because if You Don't Put the Top On, It Will Spill": A Longitudinal Study of Sibling Teaching in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Della Porta, Sandra; Recchia, Holly; Ross, Hildy

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic dyadic sequences of teaching and learning involving older and younger siblings were investigated in 39 middle-class dyads over a 2-year period in early childhood. Siblings were observed during ongoing interactions in the home setting for 6 90-min sessions at both Time 1 (older sibling "M" age = 4.4 years; younger sibling…

  2. Faller Classification in Older Adults Using Wearable Sensors Based on Turn and Straight-Walking Accelerometer-Based Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Dylan; Howcroft, Jennifer; Kofman, Jonathan; Lemaire, Edward D

    2017-06-07

    Faller classification in elderly populations can facilitate preventative care before a fall occurs. A novel wearable-sensor based faller classification method for the elderly was developed using accelerometer-based features from straight walking and turns. Seventy-six older individuals (74.15 ± 7.0 years), categorized as prospective fallers and non-fallers, completed a six-minute walk test with accelerometers attached to their lower legs and pelvis. After segmenting straight and turn sections, cross validation tests were conducted on straight and turn walking features to assess classification performance. The best "classifier model-feature selector" combination used turn data, random forest classifier, and select-5-best feature selector (73.4% accuracy, 60.5% sensitivity, 82.0% specificity, and 0.44 Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC)). Using only the most frequently occurring features, a feature subset (minimum of anterior-posterior ratio of even/odd harmonics for right shank, standard deviation (SD) of anterior left shank acceleration SD, SD of mean anterior left shank acceleration, maximum of medial-lateral first quartile of Fourier transform (FQFFT) for lower back, maximum of anterior-posterior FQFFT for lower back) achieved better classification results, with 77.3% accuracy, 66.1% sensitivity, 84.7% specificity, and 0.52 MCC score. All classification performance metrics improved when turn data was used for faller classification, compared to straight walking data. Combining turn and straight walking features decreased performance metrics compared to turn features for similar classifier model-feature selector combinations.

  3. Siblings of children with cystic fibrosis: quality of life and the impact of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, T; Wuytack, L; Deboel, J; Tijtgat, A; Malfroot, A; De Boeck, C; Proesmans, M

    2011-03-01

    To asses self-reported quality of life (QoL) and perception of impact of illness on siblings of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The Child Health Questionnaire was used to assess QoL. The Sibling Perception Questionnaire was used to assess impact of illness. Siblings of children with CF (n= 39) rated their QoL higher than siblings of healthy children on most QoL domains (e.g. Physical Functioning, Behavior, Mental Health). Siblings older than the child with CF reported a higher impact of CF than younger siblings. Perceived impact of illness was higher when the child with CF had been hospitalized or was intermittent or chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Siblings of children with CF reported a good QoL. QoL and impact of illness were related to indices of CF severity. Insight into sibling-issues helps CF teams to provide family-oriented care. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  5. The Development of Empathic Concern in Siblings: A Reciprocal Influence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, Marc; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, André; Daniel, Ella; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2018-02-20

    This study utilized actor-partner interdependence modeling to examine the bidirectional effects of younger (M age  = 18 months) and older siblings (M age  = 48 months) on later empathy development in a large (n = 452 families), diverse (42% immigrant) Canadian sample. Controlling for parenting, demographic characteristics, sibling relationship quality, and within-child stability in empathic concern, both younger and older siblings' observed empathic concern uniquely predicted relative increases in the other's empathy over a period of 18 months. The strength of the partner effects did not differ by birth order. Sex composition moderated the younger sibling partner effect, whereas age gap moderated the older sibling partner effect. This study highlights the important role that siblings play in enhancing the development of care and concern for others. © 2018 The Authors. Child Development © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.05) interaction quality, and lower sibling conflict during play (p <.01) than comparison pairs. Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p <.001). Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p <.05). Data suggest that the PSB intervention is a promising approach to reduce conflict and promote parental mediation which together may reduce

  7. Pretense of parentage by siblings in immigration: Polesky's paradox reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Robert E; Shao, Alison

    2014-02-01

    Older and younger siblings occasionally attempt to impersonate parent and child to expedite immigration under US family-based visa policies. The rate with which full siblings escape detection by current relationship tests is unknown. Retrospective study of full-sibling immigrant pairs was undertaken to determine the proportion that show insufficient genetic evidence to exclude parentage. Sibship and parentage indices (SI and PI) were compared/case in unexcluded sibling cases and true parent-child cases. Alleles shared per short-tandem-repeat locus were compared in sibling and parent-child pairs. The proportion of successful parentage fraud by siblings was estimated from the parentage exclusion rate among immigrants and the proportion of sibships without genetic inconsistencies (GIs). When 11 to 25 independent loci were tested per two-sibling case to verify or refute parentage, tests failed to demonstrate any GI in 9% and PI was greater than SI in seven of 10 of these cases. Another 29% of full-sibling pairs demonstrated insufficient evidence (fewer than two GIs) to exclude parentage. Thus, 0.4% of sibling pairs could falsely claim a parent-child relationship and show no GIs. Another 1.4% could make that false claim and not present sufficient evidence to be excluded. At present, with no evidence of parentage exclusion in a full-sibling pair, the relative magnitudes of PI and SI are misleading relationship indicators because too few loci are examined and rates of sharing one and two alleles/locus vary greatly in parentage and sibling pairs. Only evidence of exclusion ascertains false parentage claims by siblings. Nevertheless, the expected rate of successful fraud is quite low. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation.

  9. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings’ Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka, Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’ delinquency. However, perceptions of older sibling popularity directly predicted reduced delinquency for girls with older sisters. A significant interaction effect was found for girls with older brothers. Older brother delinquency predicted girls’ delinquency for girls who perceived their older brother to be relatively popular. There was no delinquency concordance for girls who perceived their older brothers to be less popular. PMID:20305731

  10. Conflict and Friendship in Sibling Relationships: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research findings about the nature and development of typical sibling relationships. Discusses two important themes, the role of children's social cognition skills, and the role of the demands of the relationship. Addresses two questions: (1) the prevalence and features of sibling rivalry and conflict; and (2) the characteristics of…

  11. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.

  12. Sibling differentiation: sibling and parent relationship trajectories in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Cumsille, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    Studied here were the links between sibling differences in trajectories of change in the qualities of parent-child relationships and the qualities of sibling relationships across a 2-year period in adolescence. Participants were first- and second-born siblings (M age = 14.94 years for firstborns and M age = 12.46 years for secondborns) from 185 predominantly White, working and middle-class families. In home interviews, siblings reported on their dyadic family relationships. For reports of parent-child warmth but not parent-child conflict, results were consistent with sibling differentiation theory: Increasing differences between siblings over time in parent-child warmth were linked to trajectories of increasing warmth and decreasing conflict in the sibling relationship as reported by firstborns, and increasing warmth in the sibling relationship as reported by secondborns. The findings support the view that sibling differentiation may be a strategy for managing sibling conflict and rivalry.

  13. Caregiving, perceptions of maternal favoritism, and tension among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Johnson, Kaitlin; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Studies of later-life families have revealed that sibling tension often increases in response to parents' need for care. Both theory and research on within-family differences suggest that when parents' health declines, sibling relations may be affected by which children assume care and whether siblings perceive that the parent favors some offspring over others. In the present study, we explore the ways in which these factors shape sibling tension both independently and in combination during caregiving. In this article, we use data collected from 450 adult children nested within 214 later-life families in which the offspring reported that their mothers needed care within 2 years prior to the interview. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that providing care and perceiving favoritism regarding future caregiving were associated with sibling tension following mothers' major health events. Further, the effects of caregiving on sibling tension were greater when perceptions of favoritism were also present. These findings shed new light on the conditions under which adult children are likely to experience high levels of sibling tension during caregiving. Understanding these processes is important because siblings are typically the individuals to whom caregivers are most likely to turn for support when assuming care of older parents, yet these relationships are often a major source of interpersonal stress. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  15. Using manipulated photographs to identify features of streetscapes that may encourage older adults to walk for transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Cauwenberg

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence of environmental features important for physical activity is challenging to procure in real world settings. The current study aimed to investigate the causal effects of environmental modifications on a photographed street's appeal for older adults' walking for transport. Secondly, we examined whether these effects differed according to gender, functional limitations, and current level of walking for transport. Thirdly, we examined whether different environmental modifications interacted with each other. Qualitative responses were also reported to gain deeper insight into the observed quantitative relationships. Two sets of 16 panoramic photographs of a streetscape were created, in which six environmental factors were manipulated (sidewalk evenness, traffic level, general upkeep, vegetation, separation from traffic, and benches. Sixty older adults sorted these photographs on appeal for walking for transport on a 7-point scale and reported qualitative information on the reasons for their rankings. Sidewalk evenness appeared to have the strongest influence on a street's appeal for transport-related walking. The effect of sidewalk evenness was even stronger when the street's overall upkeep was good and when traffic was absent. Absence of traffic, presence of vegetation, and separation from traffic also increased a street's appeal for walking for transport. There were no moderating effects by gender or functional limitations. The presence of benches increased the streetscape's appeal among participants who already walked for transport at least an hour/week. The protocols and methods used in the current study carry the potential to further our understanding of environment-PA relationships. Our findings indicated sidewalk evenness as the most important environmental factor influencing a street's appeal for walking for transport among older adults. However, future research in larger samples and in real-life settings is needed to

  16. Using manipulated photographs to identify features of streetscapes that may encourage older adults to walk for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Holle, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; Goubert, Liesbet; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence of environmental features important for physical activity is challenging to procure in real world settings. The current study aimed to investigate the causal effects of environmental modifications on a photographed street's appeal for older adults' walking for transport. Secondly, we examined whether these effects differed according to gender, functional limitations, and current level of walking for transport. Thirdly, we examined whether different environmental modifications interacted with each other. Qualitative responses were also reported to gain deeper insight into the observed quantitative relationships. Two sets of 16 panoramic photographs of a streetscape were created, in which six environmental factors were manipulated (sidewalk evenness, traffic level, general upkeep, vegetation, separation from traffic, and benches). Sixty older adults sorted these photographs on appeal for walking for transport on a 7-point scale and reported qualitative information on the reasons for their rankings. Sidewalk evenness appeared to have the strongest influence on a street's appeal for transport-related walking. The effect of sidewalk evenness was even stronger when the street's overall upkeep was good and when traffic was absent. Absence of traffic, presence of vegetation, and separation from traffic also increased a street's appeal for walking for transport. There were no moderating effects by gender or functional limitations. The presence of benches increased the streetscape's appeal among participants who already walked for transport at least an hour/week. The protocols and methods used in the current study carry the potential to further our understanding of environment-PA relationships. Our findings indicated sidewalk evenness as the most important environmental factor influencing a street's appeal for walking for transport among older adults. However, future research in larger samples and in real-life settings is needed to confirm current

  17. Atypical presentation of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 8 in a sibling pair and review of the eye findings and neurological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana L. Sanchez

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: and Importance: Pathogenic variants in CLN8 account for the retinitis pigmentosa and seizures in our patients however, currently, they do not have regression or neurocognitive decline. The presentation of NCL can be very diverse and it is important for ophthalmologists to consider this in the differential diagnosis of retinal disorders with seizures or other neurological features. Molecular genetic testing of multiple genes causing isolated and syndromic eye disorders using NGS panels and aCGH along with additional complementary testing may often be required to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.

  18. Relationships between adult siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents learning in private relationships between adult siblings. A concept of a family as microculture is presented, which is a source for giving explanation for random and opportunist learning. The author has used a biographic method of research. Using thematic life stories, which she has familiarized herself with through thematicalbiographical interviews is a basis to establish which events have served for learning in relationships between siblings.

  19. Associations between colorectal cancer molecular markers and pathways with clinicopathologic features in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, N Jewel; Vierkant, Robert A; Tillmans, Lori S; Wang, Alice H; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Laird, Peter W; Lynch, Charles F; Anderson, Kristin E; French, Amy J; Haile, Robert W; Potter, John D; Slager, Susan L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cerhan, James R; Limburg, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal tumors have a large degree of molecular heterogeneity. Three integrated pathways of carcinogenesis (ie, traditional, alternate, and serrated) have been proposed, based on specific combinations of microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. We used resources from the population-based Iowa Women's Health Study (n = 41,836) to associate markers of colorectal tumors, integrated pathways, and clinical and pathology characteristics, including survival times. We assessed archived specimens from 732 incident colorectal tumors and characterized them as microsatellite stable (MSS), MSI high or MSI low, CIMP high or CIMP low, CIMP negative, and positive or negative for BRAF and/or KRAS mutations. Informative marker data were collected from 563 tumors (77%), which were assigned to the following integrated pathways: traditional (MSS, CIMP negative, BRAF mutation negative, and KRAS mutation negative; n = 170), alternate (MSS, CIMP low, BRAF mutation negative, and KRAS mutation positive; n = 58), serrated (any MSI, CIMP high, BRAF mutation positive, and KRAS mutation negative; n = 142), or unassigned (n = 193). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. Patients' mean age (P = .03) and tumors' anatomic subsite (P = .0001) and grade (P = .0001) were significantly associated with integrated pathway assignment. Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality was not associated with the traditional, alternate, or serrated pathways, but was associated with a subset of pathway-unassigned tumors (MSS or MSI low, CIMP negative, BRAF mutation negative, and KRAS mutation positive) (n = 96 cases; relative risk = 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.89, compared with the traditional pathway). We identified clinical and pathology features associated with molecularly defined CRC subtypes. However, additional studies are needed to determine how these features

  20. Siblings' mediated learning strategies in families with and without children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Hanuka-Levy, Dikla

    2014-11-01

    Dyads of siblings in which the younger sibling had an intellectual disability (ID, n  =  25) were videotaped interacting. The ID group was compared with typically developing sibling dyads matched on mental age (n  =  25) and chronological age (n  =  25). We observed the mediation strategies, activation, and antimediation behaviors of older siblings and younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation. Mediation strategies were analyzed by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. The ID group scored highest on mediation strategies and lowest on activation and antimediation behaviors. Younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation was highest among the ID group. Mediation for Intentionality and Reciprocity and Meaning were positively associated with the verbal responsiveness of the younger siblings. Activation and antimediation behaviors were negatively associated with the verbal responsiveness.

  1. Longitudinal associations between sibling relationship quality, parental differential treatment, and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melissa K; Stocker, Clare M; Rienks, Shauna L

    2005-12-01

    This study examined associations between changes in sibling relationships and changes in parental differential treatment and corresponding changes in children's adjustment. One hundred thirty-three families were assessed at 3 time points. Parents rated children's externalizing problems, and children reported on sibling relationship quality, parental differential treatment, and depressive symptoms. On average, older siblings were 10, 12, and 16 years old, and younger siblings were 8, 10, and 14 years old at Waves 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results from hierarchical linear modeling indicated that as sibling relationships improved over time, children's depressive symptoms decreased over time. In addition, as children were less favored over their siblings over time, children's externalizing problems increased over time. Findings highlight the developmental interplay between the sibling context and children's adjustment. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Progeria in siblings: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sowmiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, is an extremely rare, severe genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is not seen in siblings of affected children although there are very few case reports of progeria affecting more than one child in a family. Here we are presenting two siblings, a 14-year-old male and a 13-year-old female with features of progeria, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive inheritance.

  3. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  4. Sibling influences on theory of mind development for children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen; Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C

    2011-06-01

    Research indicates that having child siblings is positively associated with theory of mind (ToM) in typically developing children. As ToM is important to everyday social behaviours it is important to extend this research to examine whether there are similar sibling effects for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Theory of mind and executive functioning abilities of 60 children clinically diagnosed with ASD were assessed with batteries of standard tasks. Verbal mental age (VMA) and severity of autism symptoms were also measured together with number of child-aged siblings (1 to 12 years) and position in the sibling constellation. Having older siblings was a significant negative predictor of ToM performance for children with ASD, even after controlling for age, VMA, executive function and autism symptom severity. A weaker ToM benefit of younger siblings was not statistically significant independently of control variables. In sharp contrast to findings for typically developing preschoolers, having an older sibling was a disadvantage for ToM development in children with ASD. Conceivably, older siblings may over-compensate for their younger ASD siblings in social interactions, thereby limiting opportunities for social-cognitive growth. Parental attitudes, family resources, cultural norms and access to educational interventions may also conceivably be relevant and clearly warrant further research. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. An intervention to improve sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Waid, Jeff; Webb, Sara Jade; Steele, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Sibling programming is an important part of a prevention framework, particularly for youth in foster care. After children are removed from their families and placed into foster care in the aftermath of maltreatment, the sibling relationship is often the most viable ongoing relationship available to the child, and may be critical to a youth's sense of connection, emotional support, and continuity. The promise of dyadic sibling programming in particular rests on the ability of interventions to enhance the quality of sibling relationships; yet little research exists that suggests that sibling interventions can improve relationship quality among foster youth. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specific dyadic sibling-focused intervention for older and younger siblings on sibling relationship quality. One hundred sixty four dyads (328 youth) participated in the study, with each dyad consisting of an older sibling between 11 and 15 years of age at baseline and a younger sibling separated in age by less than 4 years. Hierarchical linear models were applied to self-reported, observer-reported and observational data over the 18-month study period. Findings suggest that the sibling intervention holds promise for improving sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternate Models of Sibling Status Effects on Health in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; Kim, Sunghun; Chen, Kuan-yi

    2009-01-01

    Although siblings are thought to be influential in child development, little is known about the influence of sibling status on the health of older adults. Using structural equation modeling, the authors created and tested a series of models with data from a sample (N = 3,968) of 1957 high school graduates from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The…

  7. Trajectories of Antisocial Behaviour towards Siblings Predict Antisocial Behaviour towards Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Marks, Alex; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young siblings' antisocial behaviour is common yet its impact has received relatively little research attention. Methods: We examined trajectories of antisocial behaviour for a socially diverse sample (n = 99, 58 boys and 41 girls) who were filmed with their older siblings (52 boys and 47 girls) at ages 3 and 6 and with unfamiliar…

  8. Risk Factors for Behavioral and Emotional Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined risk factors for behavioral and emotional problems in 1973 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results revealed six correlates of sibling internalizing and externalizing problems: male gender, smaller family size, older age of the child with ASD, lower family income, child with ASD behavior problems, and…

  9. Arguments and Relationships within the Family: Differences in Young Children's Disputes with Mother and Sibling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomkowski, Cheryl L.; Dunn, Judy

    1992-01-01

    A study of 33-month-old children, their mothers, and their older siblings concentrated on arguments used when 2 family members were in conflict with a third. There were some direct relationships between partners' arguments. Arguments children used with their mothers differed from those they used with their siblings. (BG)

  10. Sibling cooperation influences the age of nest leaving in an altricial bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

    2013-06-01

    In altricial birds, siblings raised within a nest usually leave the nest within hours of each other, despite often differing considerably in age. The youngest members of the brood are typically underdeveloped at this time and less likely than their older siblings to survive outside the nest, yet they risk abandonment if they do not fledge with their older siblings. Nest leaving is usually initiated by the older offspring, which may delay this process to provide more time for their younger siblings to mature, increasing the younger siblings' postfledging survival and their own inclusive fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a population of house wrens Troglodytes aedon and found that broods with broad age spans among siblings had longer nestling periods than broods with narrow age spans and that delayed fledging improves the survival and reproductive prospects of younger siblings, although at a potential cost to future siblings. We also manipulated age spans through cross-fostering and found that older foster nestlings postponed fledging when raised with younger broodmates, as predicted if the age of younger nestlings determines the time of fledging. Our results support kin-selection theory and demonstrate that the exact time of fledging is attributable, in part, to sib-sib interactions.

  11. No! Don't touch the toys : Preschoolers' discipline towards their younger siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, Sheila R.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Van der Pol, Lotte D.; Endendijk, Joyce; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    Parental limit setting is a challenging and common situation in the daily lives of young children. During these situations, older siblings may use their more advanced cognitive skills and their greater physical strength to discipline their younger sibling and prevent or correct noncompliant

  12. Adult siblings of individuals with Down syndrome versus with autism: findings from a large-scale US survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, R M; Urbano, R C

    2007-12-01

    As adults with Down syndrome live increasingly longer lives, their adult siblings will most likely assume caregiving responsibilities. Yet little is known about either the sibling relationship or the general functioning of these adult siblings. Using a national, web-based survey, this study compared adult siblings of individuals with Down syndrome to siblings of individuals with autism in terms of a potential 'Down syndrome advantage' and changes across age of the brother/sister with disabilities. Two groups were examined, siblings of persons with Down syndrome (n = 284) and with autism (n = 176). The Adult Sibling Questionnaire measured the number and length of contacts between siblings and their brothers/sisters with disabilities; the warmth, closeness and positiveness of the sibling relationship; and the sibling's overall levels of perceived health, depression and rewards of being a sibling. Compared with siblings of brothers/sisters with autism, siblings of brothers/sisters with Down syndrome showed closer, warmer sibling relationships, along with slightly better health, lower levels of depressive symptoms and more contacts. Across age groups of the brother/sister with disabilities, both groups showed lessened contacts, with less close sibling relationships occurring when brothers/sisters with disabilities were aged 30-44 years and 45 years and older (in Down syndrome) and 45 years and older (in autism). Within both groups, closer sibling relationships were associated with more frequent and lengthy contacts, brothers/sisters with disabilities who were better at maintaining friendships and had lower levels of behavioural/emotional problems, and siblings who felt themselves more rewarded by being a sibling to a brother/sister with disabilities. In line with earlier work on families of children with disabilities, this study shows an advantage for siblings of adults with Down syndrome, in terms of both sibling relationships and of slightly better health and

  13. Adult sibling experience, roles, relationships and future concerns - a review of the literature in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature related to adult siblings of learning-disabled people. Siblings of learning-disabled people are often looked upon as next of kin when older parents die; however, there is little research regarding sibling views and wishes. A literature review of published peer-reviewed empirical research was undertaken. Electronic databases and citation tracking were used to collate data using key terms such as adult siblings and learning disability. Relevant articles were analysed, compared and contrasted. Six key themes emerged suggesting a varied impact of learning disability upon sibling lives in areas that include life choices, relationships, identity and future plans. Some siblings report a positive impact upon life, others state their lives are comparable with other adults who do not have a learning-disabled sibling and others still report a negative impact. Sibling roles and relationships are varied. Evidence suggests that sibling roles, relationships and experience are affected by life stage. Parents often have a primary care role for the disabled person, whilst siblings perform a more distant role; however, sibling involvement often rises when parents are no longer able to provide previous levels of support. Many factors appear to affect the sibling experience and uptake of roles including gender, life stage and circumstances, level of disability, health status and relationships between family members. Siblings are concerned about the future, particularly when parents are no longer able to provide support, and many appear to have expectations of future responsibilities regarding their disabled sibling. As siblings of people who have a learning disability are often expected by society to provide support, it is important that health and social care practitioners are aware of issues that may impact on this relationship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. "The Driver Doesn't Sit, He Stands up like the Flintstones!": Sibling Teaching during Teacher-Directed and Self-Guided Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly; Porta, Sandra Della; Funamoto, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Associations among sibling teaching strategies, learner behavior, age, age gap, gender, and social-cognitive skills (second-order false-belief and interpretive understanding of knowledge) were investigated in 63 sibling dyads in early and middle childhood. Two teaching tasks were introduced to the older sibling teacher: a teacher-directed task…

  15. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  16. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  17. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Kramer

    Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  18. Upset in response to a Sibling's partner's infidelities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L; Shackelford, Todd K; Salmon, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Using data collected from people with at least one brother and one sister, and consistent with an evolutionary perspective, we find that older men and women (a) are more upset by a brother's partner's sexual infidelity than by her emotional infidelity and (b) are more upset by a sister's partner's emotional infidelity than by his sexual infidelity. There were no effects of participant sex or sex of in-law on upset over a sibling's partner's infidelities, but there was an effect of participant sex on reports of upset over one's own partner's infidelities. The results suggest that the key variable among older participants is the sex of the sibling or, correspondingly, the sex of the sibling's partner, as predicted from an evolutionary analysis of reproductive costs, and not the sex of the participant, as predicted from a socialization perspective. Discussion offers directions for future work on jealousy.

  19. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: influences of parenting, family distress, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Theory of mind in children with and without autism spectrum disorder: Associations with the sibling constellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nicole L; Goldberg, Wendy A

    2018-04-01

    The two prior studies that have examined associations between the sibling constellation and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder yielded discrepant findings. Thus, efforts to better understand the sibling-theory of mind link in autism spectrum disorder are necessary. This study examined a sample of prekindergarten- and kindergarten-aged (i.e. 4-6 years) typically developing children ( n = 39) and verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 61). Sibling presence, number of siblings, and having younger and older siblings were positively associated with theory of mind in typically developing children, but not in the full sample of children with autism spectrum disorder. However, in the subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder without sibling recurrence, the presence of at least one older sibling was positively associated with theory of mind. Findings expand previous limited research on the sibling-theory of mind link in children with autism spectrum disorder by demonstrating a potential difference in the influence of the sibling constellation between children from simplex and multiplex families.

  1. Siblings versus parents and friends: longitudinal linkages to adolescent externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2013-08-01

    It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative interactions on adolescents' externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents. Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother-adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling-adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems. Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents' and friends' risk factors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Progeria (Hutchison - Gilford syndrome in siblings: In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Tanjore

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is an autosomal dominant, premature aging syndrome. Six and three year old female siblings had sclcrodermatous changes over the extremities, alopecia, beaked nose, prominent veins and bird-like facies. Radiological features were consistent with features of progeria. The present case highlights rarity of progeria in siblings with a possible autosomal recessive pattern.

  3. Feelings of attachment to siblings and well-being in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, V G

    1989-06-01

    On the basis of an adult model of sibling attachment, I hypothesized that the well-being of older persons depends on their perception of the closeness of the sibling bond, on their perception of any disruption of that bond, and on the sex combination of the siblings being considered. In all, 83 persons, aged 61 to 91 years, were interviewed about their relationships with each of their living siblings. They rated their feelings of closeness, conflict or rivalry, and indifference to the sibling. A measure of depression was used as the indicator of well-being. Separate correlational analyses were carried out for the four sex combinations of siblings. Closeness of the bond to a sister (by both men and women) was related to less depression. Also, women's perceptions of conflict and indifference in their relationships with sisters were related to increased depression. Findings are interpreted in terms of attachment theory and sex role expectations.

  4. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  5. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  6. Mealtime behavior among siblings and body mass index of 4-8 year olds: a videotaped observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-07-15

    Being a last-born child and having a sister have been associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Encouragement to eat that overrides children's self-regulation has been reported to increase the risk of obesogenic eating behaviors. This study sought to test the hypothesis that encouragement to eat during mealtime from older siblings and sisters mediates associations of being last-born or having a sister with higher BMI. Children aged 4-8 years (n = 75) were videotaped while eating a routine evening meal at home with one sibling present. Encouragement to eat (defined as direct prompts to eat or general positive statements about food) delivered to the index child (IC) from the sibling was coded from the videotape. Path analysis was used to examine associations between IC's birth order, sibling's sex, encouragement counts, and IC's measured BMI z-score (BMIz). Being the younger sibling in the sibling dyad was associated with the IC receiving more encouragements to eat from the sibling (β: 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.59, 1.26, p eat from the sibling (β: 0.18, 95 % CI: -0.09, 0.47, p = 0.20). The IC receiving more encouragements to eat from the sibling was associated with lower IC BMIz (β: -0.06, 95 % CI: -0.12, 0.00, p = 0.05). Children were more likely to receive encouragements to eat from older siblings than younger siblings. Being the recipient of encouragements to eat from a sibling was associated with lower, not higher, child BMIz, which may reflect sibling modeling of maternal behavior. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether encouragements to eat from siblings lead to increase in BMI over time. Encouragements from siblings may be a novel intervention target for obesity prevention.

  7. Sibling comparison of differential parental treatment in adolescence: gender, self-esteem, and emotionality as mediators of the parenting-adjustment association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, M E; Neiderhiser, J M; Simmens, S; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M

    2000-01-01

    This study employs findings from social comparison research to investigate adolescents' comparisons with siblings with regard to parental treatment. The sibling comparison hypothesis was tested on a sample of 516 two-child families by examining whether gender, self-esteem, and emotionality-which have been found in previous research to moderate social comparison-also moderate sibling comparison as reflected by siblings' own evaluations of differential parental treatment. Results supported a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. The sibling comparison process was further examined by using a structural equation model in which parenting toward each child was associated with the adjustment of that child and of the child's sibling. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect-that is, parenting toward one child being linked with opposite results on the child's sibling as on the target child-was found in a limited number of cases and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade effect but in the opposite direction as predicted. Results are discussed in terms of older siblings' increased sensitivity to parenting as well as the report of differential parenting reflecting the child's level of comfort and benign understanding of differential parenting, which buffers the child against environmental vicissitudes evoking sibling comparison processes.

  8. Risk of epilepsy and autism in full and half siblings-A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Overgaard, Morten; Parner, Erik T; Vestergaard, Mogens; Schendel, Diana

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often occur together in the same individual. However, it remains unknown whether siblings of children with ASD have an increased risk of epilepsy and vice versa. This study determines the risk of ASD and epilepsy among younger siblings of children with ASD and epilepsy. The study included all children born in Denmark between January 1, 1980 and 31 December 2006 who participated in follow-up until December 31, 2012 (1,663,302 children). We used Cox regression to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate the cumulative incidence. The overall aHR of epilepsy in younger siblings increased by 70% (aHR 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-2.16%) if the older sibling had ASD compared with siblings where the older sibling did not have ASD. The cumulative incidence of epilepsy at 20 years of age was 2.54% (95% CI 1.97-3.26%) if the older sibling had ASD, whereas the cumulative incidence of epilepsy at 20 years of age was 1.63% (95% CI 1.60-1.66%) if the older sibling did not have ASD. The overall aHR of ASD in younger siblings increased by 54% if the older sibling had epilepsy (aHR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.80) compared with siblings where the older sibling did not have epilepsy. The cumulative incidence of ASD at 20 years of age was 2.06% (95% CI 1.84-2.32%) if the older sibling had epilepsy, whereas the cumulative incidence of ASD at 20 years of age was 1.27% (95% CI 1.25-1.29%) if the older sibling did not have epilepsy. The cross-disorder sibling risk of epilepsy and ASD was increased for the two disorders, which suggests that genes or environmental factors shared by family members may play a causal role in the co-occurrence of ASD and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder: do siblings matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nicole L; Goldberg, Wendy A; Lukowski, Angela F

    2013-10-01

    Research indicates a positive relation between the sibling constellation and theory of mind (ToM) development in typically developing (TD) children. Less is known about this association in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined the association among the presence and number of siblings, birth order, and false belief (FB) understanding in children with ASD and a TD comparison group. Two FB tasks (change of contents and change of location) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test were administered to 57 children with ASD and 28 TD children during a home visit. One parent of each child reported on demographics and the sibling constellation. Separate hierarchical regressions controlled for age, receptive language ability, and scores on the Social Communication Questionnaire. In children with ASD, no association was observed between presence or number of siblings and ToM. However, the presence of older (but not younger) siblings was found to be positively associated with ToM. Children with ASD who had at least one older sibling performed similarly to the TD group, whereas children with ASD who had no older siblings performed significantly worse than the TD group. These findings indicate an advantage for FB performance in children with ASD who have an older sibling. They may bear on decisions to include older siblings or peers in intervention programs and may also contribute to a more complete understanding of the origins of individual differences in ToM ability in children with ASD. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.

  11. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  12. Congenital muscular dystrophy and severe central nervous system atrophy in two siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyten, Q. H.; Barth, P. G.; Gabreëls, F. J.; Renkawek, K.; Renier, W. O.; Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; ter Laak, H. J.; Smits, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Severe degenerative features of the nervous system of a hitherto unknown kind, associated with a neuromuscular disorder with histopathological features of congenital muscular dystrophy, are reported in two female siblings. The clinical profile was characterized by generalized hypotonia followed by

  13. Sibling influences on childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J

    1988-03-01

    To summarize the main points concerning sibling influence: 1. That siblings play a causal role in the development of aggressive behavior, in children's style of conflict behavior and in cooperative fantasy play is strongly suggested by recent research. 2. Marked problems in the sibling relationship are indicative of other problems, but a causal role for siblings is not established, other than for aggressive behavior. 3. Family factors are closely involved in the quality of sibling relationships--and thus in sibling influence, namely differential parental behavior, and the emotional climate of the family. That is, it is important not to consider the sibling relationship in isolation from other family relationships. 4. Studies of families under stress indicate heightened importance of these family factors. 5. It is likely, but not yet established, that later-born siblings are influenced by first-born in socio-cognitive development and gender identity. 6. Finally it should be noted that an important theme in current research on siblings is a concern with the question of why siblings develop to be so different from one another. It has been shown that the major source of environmental influence on the development of individual differences is within-family rather than between-family differences in experience (Plomin & Daniels, 1987). The different experiences each sibling may have within their relationship is one potential source of such differential environmental influence. Thus documenting the influence of siblings upon each other takes on added significance: By clarifying the extent and nature of this influence we will gain not only useful clinical information but illumination on a developmental principle of very general significance.

  14. Alcohol and Substance Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Role of Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H.; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Snyder, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships both within and outside the family have been a central part of alcohol and substance use research. Many studies have focused on the role of parents and peers; fewer studies have focused on siblings. This paper examined siblings' roles in ATOD use patterns and trajectories in the context of familial and non-familial factors across time. First, intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to examine the degree to which older siblings' ATOD use was associated with younger siblings' ATOD use. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the degree to which individual, parent, sibling and peer factors over time were associated with adolescents' and young adults' ATOD use. It should be noted that developmentally proximal predictors were utilized in these models and within-family replication was also examined. Results demonstrate strong associations between older and younger siblings' ATOD use. Moreover, the developmentally proximal sibling variables were predictive of younger sibling ATOD use in the context of other variables across all substances. Study findings are discussed in terms of identifying promising and potentially malleable points of intervention for future investigators. PMID:25484550

  15. Alcohol and Substance Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Role of Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Snyder, Jim

    2014-08-08

    Interpersonal relationships both within and outside the family have been a central part of alcohol and substance use research. Many studies have focused on the role of parents and peers; fewer studies have focused on siblings. This paper examined siblings' roles in ATOD use patterns and trajectories in the context of familial and non-familial factors across time. First, intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to examine the degree to which older siblings' ATOD use was associated with younger siblings' ATOD use. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the degree to which individual, parent, sibling and peer factors over time were associated with adolescents' and young adults' ATOD use. It should be noted that developmentally proximal predictors were utilized in these models and within-family replication was also examined. Results demonstrate strong associations between older and younger siblings' ATOD use. Moreover, the developmentally proximal sibling variables were predictive of younger sibling ATOD use in the context of other variables across all substances. Study findings are discussed in terms of identifying promising and potentially malleable points of intervention for future investigators.

  16. Dynamic and heterogeneous effects of sibling death on children's outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason; Vidal-Fernandez, Marian; Wolfe, Barbara

    2018-01-02

    This paper explores the effects of experiencing the death of a sibling on children's developmental outcomes. Recent work has shown that experiencing a sibling death is common and long-term effects are large. We extend understanding of these effects by estimating dynamic effects on surviving siblings' cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, as well as emotional and cognitive support by parents. Using the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY79), we find large initial effects on cognitive and noncognitive outcomes that decline over time. We also provide evidence that the effects are larger if the surviving child is older and less prominent if the deceased child was either disabled or an infant, suggesting sensitive periods of exposure. Auxiliary results show that parental investments in the emotional support of surviving children decline following the death of their child.

  17. Sibling Relationships in Adolescence and Early Adulthood With People Who Have Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Costigan, Catherine L; Richardson, Shana S

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional (N = 106) and longitudinal (N = 35) samples of siblings (ages 11-38) reported on closeness and conflict in their relationships with sisters and brothers with intellectual disability. For closeness, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) distinguished feelings of emotional closeness from reciprocal sharing behaviors for these siblings. Age effects and changes over time indicated increasing emotional closeness and a general reduction in conflict from adolescence to young adulthood, with stable reciprocal sharing. Cross-sectionally, closeness was greater when siblings were involved in caregiving, and conflict was less when siblings no longer co-resided. Sibling constellation features (sex, birth order, age spacing) had limited effects at this developmental period. Findings support a combination of life-span developmental change and enduring attachment in these sibling relationships.

  18. Harnessing the power of sibling relationships as a tool for optimizing social-emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Bullock, Bernadette M; Falkenstein, Corinna A

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationships provide one of the most stable and powerful developmental contexts for the transmission of both prosocial and antisocial behavior. As a source of support and skill development, sibling relationships can build competence in self-regulation and emotional understanding. However, sibling relationships marked by antisocial behavior, substance use, and conflict place children at risk for a host of negative outcomes. Family relationship features, particularly parenting practices and discord, contribute strongly to both the quality of sibling relationships and children's well-being. Our review of intervention strategies reveals that the potential of sibling relationships to promote socioemotional development may be best realized through family-centered approaches that build prosocial sibling interactions, curtail child behavior problems, and strengthen parenting.

  19. Sibling Relationships in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Reviews and considers the developmental implications of recent evidence on the nature of sibling interaction from observational studies of preschool children. Argues that, in contrast to complementary interaction, sibling influence is most plausibly associated with reciprocal interaction and with sociocognitive development. (Author/RH)

  20. [Siblings of prepubesecent anorexic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, L; de Maynadier, L

    2014-10-01

    As professionals working in a specialised unit for prepubescent anorexic children, we are very often concerned with the siblings of our young patients who are daily faced with anorexia nervosa. Although it is an undeniable subject of prevention, research on the topic remains scarce. Based on our clinical experience, this article thus proposes to give a few landmarks to health professionals likely to support these siblings in order to prevent anxious and depressive disorders as well as eating disorders. If guided, supported and informed on anorexia nervosa, siblings can adopt adequate coping strategies when confronted to their sibling's anorexic cognitions and behaviours. We also encourage parents to pay close attention to the needs of their other children, especially to remain receptive to the youngest ones or, if unavailable to find adult carers (grandparents, family, friends). We also guide these children, who are eager to help their anorexic sibling, to remain in a brotherly role. Siblings must be informed about anorexia nervosa. Such information enables them to have a better understanding of their sister's thoughts and attitudes. It also leads to a better understanding of the reasons why anorexia has such a significant impact on family routine, among other things by reducing parental availability. Beyond enabling siblings to adopt adequate coping strategies, such provision of support also contributes to the prevention of mental illness and the maintenance of adequate sibling and family relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Children with Autism & Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The parent of the child with autism is faced with many home management challenges, not the least of which is the achievement of intra-family harmony among siblings. Sibling rivalry occurs in all families. However, the presence of a child with autism may, in some instances, intensify this rivalry. In this article, the author provides tips for…

  2. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  3. Sociodemographic Variables, Clinical Features, and the Role of Preassessment Cross-Sex Hormones in Older Trans People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Walter Pierre; Claes, Laurence; Marshall, Ellen; Pinner, Gill T; Longworth, Julia; Maddox, Victoria; Witcomb, Gemma; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-04-01

    As referrals to gender identity clinics have increased dramatically over the last few years, no studies focusing on older trans people seeking treatment are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of older trans people attending a national service and to investigate the influence of cross-sex hormones (CHT) on psychopathology. Individuals over the age of 50 years old referred to a national gender identity clinic during a 30-month period were invited to complete a battery of questionnaires to measure psychopathology and clinical characteristics. Individuals on cross-sex hormones prior to the assessment were compared with those not on treatment for different variables measuring psychopathology. Sociodemographic and clinical variables and measures of depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), victimization (Experiences of Transphobia Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems), and nonsuicidal self-injury (Self-Injury Questionnaire). The sex ratio of trans females aged 50 years and older compared to trans males was 23.7:1. Trans males were removed for the analysis due to their small number (n = 3). Participants included 71 trans females over the age of 50, of whom the vast majority were white, employed or retired, and divorced and had children. Trans females on CHT who came out as trans and transitioned at an earlier age were significantly less anxious, reported higher levels of self-esteem, and presented with fewer socialization problems. When controlling for socialization problems, differences in levels of anxiety but not self-esteem remained. The use of cross-sex hormones prior to seeking treatment is widespread among older trans females and appears to be associated with psychological benefits. Existing barriers to access CHT for older trans

  4. Satisfying Product Features of a Fall Prevention Smartphone App and Potential Users' Willingness to Pay: Web-Based Survey Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Peter; Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Liu, Shan; Buecking, Benjamin; Bliemel, Christopher; Horst, Klemens; Weber, Christian David; Lichte, Philipp; Knobe, Matthias

    2018-03-27

    Prohibiting falls and fall-related injuries is a major challenge for health care systems worldwide, as a substantial proportion of falls occur in older adults who are previously known to be either frail or at high risk for falls. Hence, preventive measures are needed to educate and minimize the risk for falls rather than just minimize older adults' fall risk. Health apps have the potential to address this problem, as they enable users to self-assess their individual fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify product features of a fall prevention smartphone app, which increase or decrease users' satisfaction. In addition, willingness to pay (WTP) was assessed to explore how much revenue such an app could generate. A total of 96 participants completed an open self-selected Web-based survey. Participants answered various questions regarding health status, subjective and objective fall risk, and technical readiness. Seventeen predefined product features of a fall prevention smartphone app were evaluated twice: first, according to a functional (product feature is implemented in the app), and subsequently by a dysfunctional (product feature is not implemented in the app) question. On the basis of the combination of answers from these 2 questions, the product feature was assigned to a certain category (must-be, attractive, one-dimensional, indifferent, or questionable product feature). This method is widely used in user-oriented product development and captures users' expectations of a product and how their satisfaction is influenced by the availability of individual product features. Five product features were identified to increase users' acceptance, including (1) a checklist of typical tripping hazards, (2) an emergency guideline in case of a fall, (3) description of exercises and integrated workout plans that decrease the risk of falling, (4) inclusion of a continuous workout program, and (5) cost coverage by health insurer. Participants' WTP was assessed

  5. Satisfying Product Features of a Fall Prevention Smartphone App and Potential Users’ Willingness to Pay: Web-Based Survey Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Liu, Shan; Buecking, Benjamin; Bliemel, Christopher; Horst, Klemens; Weber, Christian David; Lichte, Philipp; Knobe, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Background Prohibiting falls and fall-related injuries is a major challenge for health care systems worldwide, as a substantial proportion of falls occur in older adults who are previously known to be either frail or at high risk for falls. Hence, preventive measures are needed to educate and minimize the risk for falls rather than just minimize older adults’ fall risk. Health apps have the potential to address this problem, as they enable users to self-assess their individual fall risk. Objective The objective of this study was to identify product features of a fall prevention smartphone app, which increase or decrease users’ satisfaction. In addition, willingness to pay (WTP) was assessed to explore how much revenue such an app could generate. Methods A total of 96 participants completed an open self-selected Web-based survey. Participants answered various questions regarding health status, subjective and objective fall risk, and technical readiness. Seventeen predefined product features of a fall prevention smartphone app were evaluated twice: first, according to a functional (product feature is implemented in the app), and subsequently by a dysfunctional (product feature is not implemented in the app) question. On the basis of the combination of answers from these 2 questions, the product feature was assigned to a certain category (must-be, attractive, one-dimensional, indifferent, or questionable product feature). This method is widely used in user-oriented product development and captures users’ expectations of a product and how their satisfaction is influenced by the availability of individual product features. Results Five product features were identified to increase users’ acceptance, including (1) a checklist of typical tripping hazards, (2) an emergency guideline in case of a fall, (3) description of exercises and integrated workout plans that decrease the risk of falling, (4) inclusion of a continuous workout program, and (5) cost coverage by

  6. Prosocial competencies among adolescent siblings of the physically disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Perenc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary schools (middle and high schools completed the Polish version of the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM in order to assess the tendencies to prosocial behaviors in different conditions. Participants were between 13 and 18 years old. Ninety-six adolescents had a disabled sibling (group T and 112 constituted the control group (group C. Results Results showed that group T generally scored higher than group C in the number of helping behaviors. Furthermore, girls scored higher than boys in anonymous prosocial behaviors. The older adolescents are more inclined to use helping behaviors both in anonymous and compliant situations than their younger colleagues. Conclusions Presence of disabled children in a family context may facilitate prosocial behavior in their non-disabled siblings. Older participants less frequently described themselves as prosocial in public situations. In contrast, younger adolescents reported weaker prosocial tendencies in anonymous and compliant situations. The effect of gender on prosocial tendencies was significant for public prosocial behavior, with a higher level achieved by males in this domain. Data analysis also showed significantly greater emotional and altruistic tendencies in females than in males.

  7. Is sibling rivalry fatal?: siblings and mortality clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Walters, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Evidence drawn from nineteenth-century Belgian population registers shows that the presence of similarly aged siblings competing for resources within a household increases the probability of death for children younger than five, even when controlling for the preceding birth interval and multiple births. Furthermore, in this period of Belgian history, such mortality tended to cluster in certain families. The findings suggest the importance of segmenting the mortality of siblings younger than five by age group, of considering the presence of siblings as a time-varying covariate, and of factoring mortality clustering into analyses.

  8. Teen responses when a younger school-age sibling has been bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bullying among children, and the sometimes tragic consequences as a result, has become a major concern in schools. The larger research for this study reported on in-depth interviews with 28 elementary and middle school-age boys and girls (7–12 years) who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, mostly on school grounds, and the responses of their parents and teachers. Responses of the children's teen siblings to the younger child's revelations of being bullied are the focus of this report. In-depth interviews with each teen sibling (n = 28) and with each bullied child revealed how the children viewed the teen siblings' supportive strategies. Almost all the children (89%) reported that their older siblings talked with them and offered advice. The teen siblings shared with the younger ones that they too (71%) had been bullied, or they knew someone who had been bullied (18%). Teens gave the advice to ‘bully back’ to 11% and advice to ‘tell someone’ to 32% of the younger children. The children felt quite positive about their older siblings' advice (89%), which did differ depending on the bullied child's gender. Teen siblings gave advice to ‘avoid bullies’ to 77% of female and to 27% of male younger children. PMID:25931644

  9. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  10. Intergenerational Solidarity and Support Between Adult Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Using a Dutch national sample containing 1,259 triads (two siblings, one parent), we examined whether practical support and emotional support between siblings are enhanced by intergenerational solidarity and how this differs for brothers and sisters. Sibling support was affected by sibling dyad

  11. Sibling Self-Disclosure in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Lehoux, Pascale M.

    2000-01-01

    Studied sibling-directed self-disclosure of 40 preadolescents through interviews, a questionnaire, and subjects' daily diaries. Found that warmth in sibling relationship was most strongly associated with sibling disclosure, but not with rivalry, conflict, or power. Daily sibling disclosures were more strongly associated with reports of unhappy…

  12. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  13. Land inheritance establishes sibling competition for marriage and reproduction in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2011-02-08

    Intergenerational transfer of wealth has been proposed as playing a pivotal role in the evolution of human sibling relationships. Sibling rivalry is assumed to be more marked when offspring compete for limited heritable resources, which are crucial for reproductive success (e.g., land and livestock); whereas in the absence of heritable wealth, related siblings may cooperate. To date, comparative studies undertaken to support this evolutionary assumption have been confounded by other socioecological factors, which vary across populations, e.g., food sharing and intergroup conflict. In this article we explore effects of sibling competition and cooperation for agricultural resources, marriage, and reproduction in one contemporary Ethiopian agropastoralist society. Here recent changes in land tenure policy, altering transfers of land from parents to offspring, present a unique framework to test the importance of intergenerational transfers of wealth in driving sibling competition, while controlling for socioeconomic biases. In households where land is inherited, the number of elder brothers reduces a man's agricultural productivity, marriage, and reproductive success, as resources diminish and competition increases with each additional sibling. Where land is not inherited (for males receiving land directly from the government and all females) older siblings do not have a competitive effect and in some instances may be beneficial. This study has wider implications for the evolution of human family sizes. Recent changes in wealth transfers, which have driven sibling competition, may be contributing to an increased desire for smaller family sizes.

  14. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  15. Infantile malignant osteopetrosis: A case report of three siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile malignant osteopetrosis, a rare hereditary, generalized disorder of bone characterized by a significant increase in the density of the skeletal tissues is described in three siblings. The incidence, genetic etiology, clinical, laboratory, radiological features, management and prognosis have been discussed.

  16. Naxos Disease in Two Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, G; Prabhavathy, D; Jayakumar, S; Tharini, GK

    2010-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We report two siblings with Naxos disease with right middle lobe syndrome in one of them. PMID:21188028

  17. Performance analysis of deciduous morphology for detecting biological siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-08-01

    Family-centered burial practices influence cemetery structure and can represent social group composition in both modern and ancient contexts. In ancient sites dental phenotypic data are often used as proxies for underlying genotypes to identify potential biological relatives. Here, we test the performance of deciduous dental morphological traits for differentiating sibling pairs from unrelated individuals from the same population. We collected 46 deciduous morphological traits for 69 sibling pairs from the Burlington Growth Centre's long term Family Study. Deciduous crown features were recorded following published standards. After variable winnowing, inter-individual Euclidean distances were generated using 20 morphological traits. To determine whether sibling pairs are more phenotypically similar than expected by chance we used bootstrap resampling of distances to generate P values. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots were used to evaluate the degree of clustering among sibling pairs. Results indicate an average distance between siblings of 0.252, which is significantly less than 9,999 replicated averages of 69 resampled pseudo-distances generated from: 1) a sample of non-relative pairs (P < 0.001), and 2) a sample of relative and non-relative pairs (P < 0.001). MDS plots indicate moderate to strong clustering among siblings; families occupied 3.83% of the multidimensional space on average (versus 63.10% for the total sample). Deciduous crown morphology performed well in identifying related sibling pairs. However, there was considerable variation in the extent to which different families exhibited similarly low levels of phenotypic divergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Child behavior and sibling relationship quality: A cross-lagged analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alison; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children's problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/) is an ongoing population-based study designed to investigate the effects of a wide range of factors on children's health and development. For the purposes of the current analyses, we included 2,043 ALSPAC families who had just 1 older sibling as well as the target child, with an age gap of no more than 5 years. Mothers reported about the quality of the sibling relationship and both children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems when the target child was 4 years of age and again when the target child was 7 years old. Confirming our hypothesis, individual child behavior was predictive of sibling relationship quality, and sibling relationship quality was predictive of later child behavior, providing robust evidence of bidirectionality for both prosocial behavior and conduct problems. It would be consistent to expect that an improvement in either sibling relationship quality or individual children's behavior could have a positive spill over effect. We also found evidence of older sibling dominance in the domain of prosocial behavior and the positive aspects of sibling interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Influence of meniscus on cartilage and subchondral bone features of knees from older individuals: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Bouhadoun, Hamid; Engelke, Klaus; Laredo, Jean Denis; Chappard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage and subchondral bone form a functional unit. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of meniscus coverage on the characteristics of this unit in knees of older individuals. We assessed the hyaline cartilage, subchondral cortical plate (SCP), and subchondral trabecular bone in areas covered or uncovered by the meniscus from normal cadaver knees (without degeneration). Bone cores harvested from the medial tibial plateau at locations uncovered (central), partially covered (posterior), and completely covered (peripheral) by the meniscus were imaged by micro-CT. The following were measured on images: cartilage volume (Cart.Vol, mm3) and thickness (Cart.Th, mm); SCP thickness (SCP.Th, μm) and porosity (SCP.Por, %); bone volume to total volume fraction (BV/TV, %); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, μm), spacing (Tb.Sp, μm), and number (Tb.N, 1/mm); structure model index (SMI); trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf); and degree of anisotropy (DA). Among the 28 specimens studied (18 females) from individuals with mean age 82.8±10.2 years, cartilage and SCP were thicker at the central site uncovered by the meniscus than the posterior and peripheral sites, and Cart.Vol was greater. SCP.Por was highest in posterior samples. In the upper 1-5 mm of subchondral bone, central samples were characterized by higher values for BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and connectivity (Tb.Pf), a more plate-like trabecular structure and lower anisotropy than with other samples. Deeper down, at 6-10 mm, the differences were slightly higher for Tb.Th centrally, DA peripherally and SMI posteriorly. The coverage or not by meniscus in the knee of older individuals is significantly associated with Cart.Th, SCP.Th, SCP.Por and trabecular microarchitectural parameters in the most superficial 5 mm and to a lesser extent the deepest area of subchondral trabecular bone. These results suggest an effect of differences in local loading conditions. In subchondral bone uncovered by the meniscus, the trabecular architecture

  20. Influence of meniscus on cartilage and subchondral bone features of knees from older individuals: A cadaver study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Touraine

    Full Text Available Cartilage and subchondral bone form a functional unit. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of meniscus coverage on the characteristics of this unit in knees of older individuals.We assessed the hyaline cartilage, subchondral cortical plate (SCP, and subchondral trabecular bone in areas covered or uncovered by the meniscus from normal cadaver knees (without degeneration. Bone cores harvested from the medial tibial plateau at locations uncovered (central, partially covered (posterior, and completely covered (peripheral by the meniscus were imaged by micro-CT. The following were measured on images: cartilage volume (Cart.Vol, mm3 and thickness (Cart.Th, mm; SCP thickness (SCP.Th, μm and porosity (SCP.Por, %; bone volume to total volume fraction (BV/TV, %; trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, μm, spacing (Tb.Sp, μm, and number (Tb.N, 1/mm; structure model index (SMI; trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf; and degree of anisotropy (DA.Among the 28 specimens studied (18 females from individuals with mean age 82.8±10.2 years, cartilage and SCP were thicker at the central site uncovered by the meniscus than the posterior and peripheral sites, and Cart.Vol was greater. SCP.Por was highest in posterior samples. In the upper 1-5 mm of subchondral bone, central samples were characterized by higher values for BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and connectivity (Tb.Pf, a more plate-like trabecular structure and lower anisotropy than with other samples. Deeper down, at 6-10 mm, the differences were slightly higher for Tb.Th centrally, DA peripherally and SMI posteriorly.The coverage or not by meniscus in the knee of older individuals is significantly associated with Cart.Th, SCP.Th, SCP.Por and trabecular microarchitectural parameters in the most superficial 5 mm and to a lesser extent the deepest area of subchondral trabecular bone. These results suggest an effect of differences in local loading conditions. In subchondral bone uncovered by the meniscus, the trabecular architecture

  1. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-09-11

    Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these

  2. Siblings versus parents and friends: longitudinal linkages to adolescent externalizing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel AG; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol AC; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that friends’ externalizing problems and negative parent–child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings’ externalizing problems and sibling–adolescent negative interactions on adolescents’ externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents. Methods: Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends. Results: Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother–adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling–adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems. Conclusions: Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents’ and friends’ risk factors. PMID:23398022

  3. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  4. Are there shared environmental influences on adolescent behavior? Evidence from a study of adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jacob P; McGue, Matt; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2009-09-01

    The failure to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on behavior coupled with the belief that shared environmental factors contribute minimally to individual differences in behavior has led to the concern that major environmental determinants of behavior may be idiosyncratic, and therefore undetectable. We used data on adoptive (N = 246) and biologically related (N = 130) same-sex sibling pairs (mean ages = 16.1 years older sibling; 13.8 years younger sibling) from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS) to determine whether non-idiosyncratic environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to individual differences in a diverse set of behavioral outcomes. Evidence for shared environmental influence was sought for eight composite measures covering a wide array of adolescent functioning: Academic Achievement, Total IQ, Substance Use Disorders, Externalizing Disorders, Internalizing Disorders, Peer Groups, Disinhibited Personality, and Negative Emotionality. For six of eight composites, significant shared environmental effects, accounting for 14-22% of the variance, were observed for these same-sex sibling pairs. These findings support the use of adoptive sibling designs to directly estimate shared environmental effects and implicate the existence of systematic environmental influences on behavior that are potentially detectable.

  5. Quality of life of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pratyaksha; Mishra, Devendra

    2015-06-01

    To study quality of life (QoL) of the siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders. Between 1st August and 30th September, 2013, 50 children aged 12-18 y, whose child sibling was suffering from a chronic neurological disorder, were enrolled (Study group). Fifty age- and sex- matched siblings of apparently non-neurologically affected children were enrolled as controls (Control group). Those with more than one affected child or any affected adult in the family were excluded. QoL was assessed by a validated version of the WHOQOL-BREF in Hindi, and QoL was compared between cases and controls. The disorders in the index cases included cerebral palsy, 18 (15 with epilepsy); autism, 15; mental retardation, 12 and epilepsy, 5. The QoL in all domains was significantly poorer in the study group as compared to the controls. 64% study group children had insufficient knowledge about their sibling's condition. More than 1/4th study subjects faced difficulties in studies, play or work. There was no difference among the groups with regard to number of siblings who had 'dropped from the school'. The QoL of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders was significantly impaired. Health-workers may consider including older siblings of neurologically affected children during family-counseling sessions, to provide information and suggest coping strategies. This intervention is likely to improve the functioning of the family unit as a whole.

  6. Care work versus career work: sibling conflict over getting priorities right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    As the average age of the Canadian population continues to increase, and providing care at home to frail older adults becomes ever more prevalent, support for family and friend caregivers remains a key social policy issue. Economic support is an important consideration given the impact of caregiving on labour force participation. Yet the caregiving/paid work relationship is not always straightforward. While caregiving often restricts employment, limited attachment to employment may also influence the decision to provide care. Isabel's story, collected as part of a study of sibling views of fairness in sharing parent care as well as parent assets, provides a case study in how siblings give different priority to care work versus career work and what support needs arise including those related to sibling conflict over differing priorities. Isabel claims she sacrificed her career to care for her ailing mother while her siblings argue that through caregiving, Isabel was sheltered from the paid workforce.

  7. Bullying among Siblings: The Role of Personality and Relational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and…

  8. Sibling Relationships: Parent-Child Agreement and Contributions of Siblings with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…

  9. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  10. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  11. Juvenile greylag geese (Anser anser discriminate between individual siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella B R Scheiber

    Full Text Available Social species that maintain individualised relationships with certain others despite continuous changes in age, reproductive status and dominance rank between group members ought to be capable of individual recognition. Tests of "true" individual recognition, where an individual recognises unique features of another, are rare, however. Often kinship and/or familiarity suffice to explain dyadic interactions. The complex relationships within a greylag goose flock suggest that they should be able to recognise individuals irrespective of familiarity or kinship. We tested whether six-week-old hand-raised greylags can discriminate between two of their siblings. We developed a new experimental protocol, in which geese were trained to associate social siblings with geometrical symbols. Subsequently, focals were presented with two geometrical symbols in the presence of a sibling associated with one of the symbols. Significant choice of the geometrical symbol associated with the target present indicated that focals were able to distinguish between individual targets. Greylag goslings successfully learned this association-discrimination task, regardless of genetic relatedness or sex of the sibling targets. Social relationships within a goose flock thus may indeed be based on recognition of unique features of individual conspecifics.

  12. Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Type IV with Dental Findings in Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a hereditary disorder characterized by increased tendency for bone fractures due to high fragility. The clinical and radiological features of OI manifest in different age groups, although the disease is congenital in nature. Besides bone fragility, features like laxity of the ligaments, blue sclera, growth retardation, and scoliosis are also observed. In severe cases, respiratory distress and death have been reported. The most important oral finding in OI is the presence of yellowish-brown-coloured brittle teeth characteristic of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Genetic factors play a very important role in the pathogenesis of OI either as a dominant or recessive factor. When a child has OI, there is a 25% chance of the sibling to have the same disorder. We report two cases of OI in siblings born to parents with a history of consanguineous marriage. The clinical and radiological features of the two cases are described in detail.

  13. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  14. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  15. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  16. Sibling Rivalry: A Parent Education Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calladine, Carole E.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies three styles of sibling rivalry and three parent leadership styles, discussing parental mediation of sibling disputes through contracting and providing examples of group discipline techniques that facilitate development of less negative forms of rivalry and that support positive sibling bonding. (RH)

  17. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  18. Features of the Treatment for the Syndrome of Dehydration in Infants and Older Children, Newborns: Fundamentals of Parenteral Rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snisar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In pediatric practice, the syndrome of dehydration is quite common. In children, the most likely cause of the fluid loss is gastroenteritis syndrome and diarrhea of various origins. These causes are often associated with diarrhea and vomiting that results in the loss of water and electrolytes in various proportions. In contrast to the treatment of critical conditions, such as hypovolemic and septic shock, there is no standardized approach to the correction of mild to moderate syndrome of dehydration. The role of oral rehydration in the prehospital and hospital stage is significantly underestimated. This article is a sign of interest in the unification of approaches to the treatment of such conditions, makes it possible to get acquainted with a generalized view of the treatment and prevention of a variety of adverse reactions on the background of oral and/or parenteral rehydration. Our survey reminds the practitioner about the features of dehydration syndrome in children of different age groups, the importance of taking into account the pathogenesis of various types of dehydration during the diagnosis, de­monstrates the importance of knowledge in the field of infusion media in the context of the therapy balanced in terms of the volume and components, as well as considers the target fluid spaces of the body under pathological losses. We investigate the concept of physiological infusion solution on the basis of evidence-based medicine. This review is advisory, it is based both on the national experience in the treatment of the syndrome of dehydration and foreign resources analysis.

  19. Sibling Curves 3: Imaginary Siblings and Tracing Complex Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Visualizing complex roots of a quadratic equation has been a quest since the inception of the Argand plane in the 1800s. Many algebraic and numerical methods exist for calculating complex roots of an equation, but few visual methods exist. Following on from papers by Harding and Engelbrecht (A. Harding and J. Engelbrecht, "Sibling curves and…

  20. Long-term psychosocial outcomes among bereaved siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Postier, Andrea; Osenga, Kaci; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Neville, Bridget; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The death of a child from cancer affects the entire family. Little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of bereaved siblings. To describe 1) the prevalence of risky health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support among bereaved siblings and 2) potentially modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Bereaved siblings were eligible for this dual-center, cross-sectional, survey-based study if they were 16 years or older and their parents had enrolled in one of three prior studies about caring for children with cancer at the end of life. Linear regression models identified associations between personal perspectives before, during, and after the family's cancer experience and outcomes (health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support). Fifty-eight siblings completed surveys (62% response rate). They were approximately 12 years bereaved, with a mean age of 26 years at the time of the survey (SD 7.8). Anxiety, depression, and illicit substance use increased during the year after their brother/sister's death but then returned to baseline. Siblings who reported dissatisfaction with communication, poor preparation for death, missed opportunities to say goodbye, and/or a perceived negative impact of the cancer experience on relationships tended to have higher distress and lower social support scores (P siblings reported that their loss still affected them; half stated that the experience impacted current educational and career goals. How siblings experience the death of a child with cancer may impact their long-term psychosocial well-being. Sibling-directed communication and concurrent supportive care during the cancer experience and the year after the sibling death may mitigate poor long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Problem solving, contention, and struggle: how siblings resolve a conflict of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, A; Ross, H S

    2001-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, 48 sibling dyads age 4 and 6 or 6 and 8 years negotiated the division of six toys. Findings revealed that, in general, children reached divisions while using a preponderance of constructive problem-solving strategies, rather than contentious tactics. The degree of conflict of interests and the quality of sibling relationships predicted the children's use of problem-solving and contentious negotiation strategies, and was related to the types of resolutions achieved. Dyads experiencing low conflict of interests resolved their differences quickly. High conflict of interests coupled with positive relationships and constructive negotiation resulted in longer negotiations and creative, agreeable resolutions. High conflict of interests coupled with more negative relationships and destructive negotiations resulted in children's failures to reach agreement. Developmental differences indicated that older siblings within the pairs took the lead in negotiation, and benefited slightly more from the divisions. Furthermore, children in older dyads were more sophisticated and other oriented in their negotiations.

  2. What makes siblings different? The development of sibling differences in academic achievement and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross-lagged links between parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings' grade point averages (GPAs), and cross-lagged links between differences in siblings' GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07), and secondborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) from 388 European American families on 3 annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings' average grades and prior differences in performance, parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings' relative school performance, however, did not predict parents' beliefs about differences between siblings' competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings' interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Early social-communicative and cognitive development of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy L; McMahon, Caitlin R; Yoder, Paul J; Walden, Tedra A

    2007-04-01

    To compare the early social-communicative development of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of younger siblings of children with typical development, using parental report and child-based measures. Group comparison. Vanderbilt University, between July 1, 2003, and July 31, 2006. Younger siblings of children with ASD (n = 64) and younger siblings of children with typical development (n = 42) between the ages of 12 and 23 months (mean, 16 months). Main Exposure Having a sibling with an ASD. Child-based measures included a cognitive assessment; an interactive screening tool assessing play, imitation, and communication; and a rating of autism symptoms. Parental report measures were an interview of social-communicative interactions and a questionnaire assessing language and communication skills. Younger siblings of children with ASD demonstrated weaker performance in nonverbal problem solving (mean difference [MD], 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-9.34), directing attention (MD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.07-0.97), understanding words (MD, 33.30; 95% CI, 3.11-63.48), understanding phrases (MD, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.85-7.27), gesture use (MD, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.51-2.47), and social-communicative interactions with parents (MD, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.27-2.37), and had increased autism symptoms (MD, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.05-4.03), relative to control siblings. A substantial minority of the ASD sibling group exhibited lower performance relative to controls. Significant correlations between child-based measures and parental reports assessing similar constructs were found (r = -0.74 to 0.53; P range, .000-.002). The weaker performance found for children in the ASD sibling group may represent early-emerging features of the broader autism phenotype, thus highlighting the importance of developmental surveillance for younger siblings.

  4. Parents' First Concerns about Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effect of Sibling Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Lauren; Knoch, Kelley; Vibert, Bethany; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders may appear as early as 6 months, but parent concern, which can precipitate evaluation, often lags significantly. The presence of typical or atypical older siblings can change parents' sensitivity to departures from typical development. This study investigated type and age of parent's first concerns in toddlers…

  5. Parents and Siblings As Early Resources for Young Children's Learning in Mexican-Descent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Granados, Deanne R.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with parents from 50 Mexican-descent families revealed that parents encouraged their preschool children to ask questions about science and causal relationships; older and younger siblings learned different skills from one another; and children learned through observation and imitation. Discusses issues of "match" between home…

  6. Bullying in the family: sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava

    2015-10-01

    Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  8. Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2005-12-01

    This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  10. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings ( M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD ) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD ) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  11. Siblings and childhood mental health: evidence for a later-born advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Mace, Ruth

    2010-06-01

    The social and health sciences have often emphasised the negative impacts of large sibship size and late birth order on childhood. For example, it is now well established that, other things being equal, children in large families and/or with many older siblings, receive lower allocations of care time from both parents, are more likely to grow up in conditions of economic hardship, and, as a likely consequence, exhibit relatively poor educational and physical health outcomes. Few researchers have, however, quantitatively assessed how siblings may influence indicators of mental health, where it is conceivable that social interactions with siblings may have a positive influence. Here, using data from a large British cohort survey (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), we explored the effects of sibling configuration on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, as a multidimensional index for mental health problems. We demonstrate a significant socio-economic gradient in mental health between the ages of three and nine years, but little evidence for negative effects of large sibship size. Rerunning this analysis to examine birth order, a much clearer pattern emerged; the presence of older siblings was associated with relatively good mental health, while the presence of younger siblings was associated with relatively poor mental health. This suggests that being born into a large family, providing the child is not joined by subsequent siblings, may carry important benefits unconsidered by past research. We discuss possible interpretations of this pattern and the wider implications for understanding the family context of child development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sibling rivalry, separation, and change in Austen's Sense and Sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick Hanly, Margaret Ann

    2016-08-01

    The paper explores a process of growth represented in the interplay of Jane Austen's characterizations of Marianne and Elinor Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility, approaching the text through the lens of psychoanalytic theories on oedipal sibling rivalry, separation, and processes of change. A close reading of Sense and Sensibility tracks Marianne Dashwood's repudiation of any 'second attachment' as the surface of an unconscious fantasy, denying a rival for the mother's love. A psychoanalytic view contrasts Marianne's lack of separation from her mother, her use of denial and projection, and her near death after losing the man she loves, with her older sister Elinor Dashwood's capacities for depression, reflection, and greater acceptance of loss and separation. The narrative portrays Mrs. Dashwood's identification with and idealization of her daughter Marianne, which contribute to her oedipal sibling 'victory'. In the language and structure of the novel, the projections, identifications, aggressions, and separations (conscious and unconscious) of the sisters in the vicissitudes of their adolescent loves and rivalries constitute a process of growth. Austen's novel brings to life, with the vividness and coherence of great literature, forces and fantasies in oedipal sibling rivalries, inspiring renewed attention to their subtle presence in the transference and countertransference of the psychoanalytic process. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Mechanisms of Sibling Socialization in Normative Family Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra, Julia M.; Killoren, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence--sibling deidentification and social learning--that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and…

  14. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, V.; Richters, L.P.H.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Machalicek, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. Methods: This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n 44). Sibling relationships were

  15. Longitudinal characterization of two siblings with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 associated with the S305N tau mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve, Bradley F; Tremont-Lukats, Ivo W; Waclawik, Andrew J; Murrell, Jill R; Hermann, Bruce; Jack, Clifford R; Shiung, Maria M; Smith, Glenn E; Nair, Anil R; Lindor, Noralane; Koppikar, Vinaya; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2005-04-01

    The background to this study began with the reporting of two Japanese kindreds with the S305N tau mutation. Although the pathological findings in the autopsied cases were well characterized, only limited ante-mortem data were presented. In this study, longitudinal characterization was carried out in two siblings of European ancestry found to have frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) through comprehensive neurobehavioural examinations and other scales at approximate 6-month intervals. Scales included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Test of Mental Status, modified motor subtest of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, detailed neuropsychological testing, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Changes in whole-brain volume and ventricular volume were measured from serial MRI studies. All members of the kindred underwent molecular genetic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of inheritance. The missense mutation in tau, S305N, was detected in the proband (onset age 30), who has undergone serial evaluations for almost 4 years. Her older sister (onset age 36) was subsequently found to have the same mutation, and has undergone serial evaluations for 2 years. This mutation is absent in both parents and the only other sibling, and non-paternity was excluded by additional analyses. The siblings have exhibited cognitive and behavioural features typical of FTDP-17, which have proved challenging to manage despite aggressive pharmacological and behavioural therapies. The proband's sister has demonstrated an atypical profile of impairment on neuropsychological testing. Both siblings have developed striking atrophy of the anterior part of temporal lobes and moderate atrophy of the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortical regions, which in both cases is relatively symmetrical. The annualized changes in whole-brain volume and ventricular volume, respectively, were -35.2 ml/year (3.23% decrease per year) and +20.75 ml/year (16

  16. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Schizotypal traits and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Samaniego, L; Gaviria, Ana M; Vilella, E; Valero, J; Labad, A

    2017-12-01

    Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. The available literature shows cognitive similarities between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with mildly impaired performance being associated with schizotypy. This study aims to determine the relationship between schizotypy and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis. Schizotypal features and cognitive performance on a neuropsychological battery were compared between 48 siblings of patients with psychosis and 44 healthy controls. The relationships between schizotypy and cognitive performance were analysed by controlling the condition of being a sibling. Siblings showed poorer performance on vigilance/sustained attention (M = 37.6; SD = 7.1) and selective attention/interference control/working memory (M = 23.28; SD = 2.7) tasks. The variance in vigilance/sustained attention performance was explained, at 30%, by the interpersonal factor of schizotypy on the suspiciousness dimension and the condition of being a sibling. Interpersonal features of schizotypy in siblings of patients with psychosis are associated with deficits in vigilance/sustained attention performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-Representations in Early Adolescence: Variations in Sibling Similarity by Sex Composition and Sibling Relationship Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Card, Noel A.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations play an important role in adolescent development. This study compared self-representations for siblings and explored whether sibling relationship characteristics are associated with similarities or differences in sibling self-concepts. We examined self-representations of 438 adolescent sibling dyads (M age younger sibling =…

  19. An initial look at sibling reports on children's behavior: comparisons with children's self-reports and relations with siblings' self-reports and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M

    1999-10-01

    The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.

  20. Can Family Affectedness Inform Infant Sibling Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Young, G. S.; Sigman, M.; Hutman, T.; Ozonoff, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in communication and reciprocal social behavior are core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are often present, to varying degrees, in other family members. This prospective longitudinal infant sibling study examines whether social-communicative features of family members may inform which infants are at…

  1. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; Howie, Linsey; McGorry, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP) upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP. Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving. Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving. Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to improve outcomes for

  2. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siann Bowman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP.Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI. Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving.Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving.Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to

  3. Tensions among siblings in parent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie; Keating, Norah

    2009-06-01

    From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.

  4. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  5. Siblings of children with life-limiting conditions: psychological adjustment and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P

    2017-05-01

    This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: a national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.

  7. Sibling Relationships in Adults Who Have Siblings with or without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairead A.; Hastings, Richard P.; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with…

  8. Sibling number and prevalence of allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-07-14

    Although an inverse relationship between number of siblings and likelihood of allergic disorders has been shown in many epidemiological studies, the biological mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been identified. There is no epidemiological research regarding the sibling effect on allergic disorders in Japanese adults. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between number of siblings and prevalence of allergic disorders among adult women in Japan. Subjects were 1745 pregnant women. This study was based on questionnaire data. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, household income, and education. The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 10.4%, 5.5%, 13.0%, and 25.9%, respectively. A significant inverse exposure-response relationship was observed between the number of older siblings and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not wheeze, asthma, or eczema (P for trend=0.03); however, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having 2 or more older siblings was not significant although the adjusted OR for having 1 older sibling was statistically significant (adjusted OR=0.71 [95% CI: 0.56-0.91]). Number of total siblings and number of younger siblings were not related to wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. This study found a significant inverse relationship between the number of older siblings and the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis among pregnant Japanese women. Our findings are likely to support the intrauterine programming hypothesis; however, we could not rule out the hygiene hypothesis.

  9. Sibling number and prevalence of allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Masashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an inverse relationship between number of siblings and likelihood of allergic disorders has been shown in many epidemiological studies, the biological mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been identified. There is no epidemiological research regarding the sibling effect on allergic disorders in Japanese adults. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between number of siblings and prevalence of allergic disorders among adult women in Japan. Methods Subjects were 1745 pregnant women. This study was based on questionnaire data. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, household income, and education. Results The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 10.4%, 5.5%, 13.0%, and 25.9%, respectively. A significant inverse exposure-response relationship was observed between the number of older siblings and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not wheeze, asthma, or eczema (P for trend = 0.03; however, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for having 2 or more older siblings was not significant although the adjusted OR for having 1 older sibling was statistically significant (adjusted OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.56-0.91]. Number of total siblings and number of younger siblings were not related to wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions This study found a significant inverse relationship between the number of older siblings and the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis among pregnant Japanese women. Our findings are likely to support the intrauterine programming

  10. Joubert syndrome with autism in two siblings: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, D Vijaya; Doshi, V Vimal; Nambi, Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with partial or complete agenesis of cerebellar vermis. This syndrome is identified mainly by the presence of molar tooth sign in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain since it has a varied phenotypic presentation. Of the 200 cases reported so far in the literature, only three reports show the presence of autistic symptoms in siblings suggesting a link between the cerebellar vermis and autistic spectrum disorders. In this case report of two siblings, the female child satisfied the criterion for autistic spectrum disorder in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Editon. The boy showed developmental delay with autistic features (not amounting to diagnostic threshold). This report is important in that it adds evidence to the literature that abnormalities of cerebellum are involved in the cognitive development and autistic symptoms.

  11. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  13. Sibling Dependence, Uncertainty and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    in the educational decision, which is consistent with a human capital portfolio theory of risk diversification and which cannot be explained by sibling rivalry over scarce resources for credit constrained households. The paper thus provides a complementary explanation to why enrolment rates in developing countries......Primary school enrolment rates are continuously low in many developing countries. The main explanation in the economic literature on schooling is focused on credit constraints and child labour, implying that the indirect cost of schooling in terms of foregone earnings is too high. This paper...

  14. Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210

  15. Three dysconnectivity patterns in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicai; Cao, Hongbao; Liao, Yanhui; Liu, Weiqing; Tan, Liwen; Tang, Yanqing; Chen, Jindong; Xu, Xiufeng; Li, Haijun; Luo, Chunrong; Liu, Chunyu; Ries Merikangas, Kathleen; Calhoun, Vince; Tang, Jinsong; Shugart, Yin Yao; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, approximately 20%-33% are recognized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. These TRS patients suffer more severely from the disease but struggle to benefit from existing antipsychotic treatments. A few recent studies suggested that schizophrenia may be caused by impaired synaptic plasticity that manifests as functional dysconnectivity in the brain, however, few of those studies focused on the functional connectivity changes in the brains of TRS groups. In this study, we compared the whole brain connectivity variations in TRS patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Connectivity network features between and within the 116 automated anatomical labeling (AAL) brain regions were calculated and compared using maps created with three contrasts: patient vs. control, patient vs. sibling, and sibling vs. To evaluate the predictive power of the selected features, we performed a multivariate classification approach. We also evaluated the influence of six important clinical measures (e.g. age, education level) on the connectivity features. This study identified abnormal significant connectivity changes of three patterns in TRS patients and their unaffected siblings: 1) 69 patient-specific connectivity (PCN); 2) 102 shared connectivity (SCN); and 3) 457 unshared connectivity (UCN). While the first two patterns were widely reported by previous non-TRS specific studies, we were among the first to report widespread significant connectivity differences between TRS patient groups and their healthy sibling groups. Observations of this study may provide new insights for the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of TRS.

  16. Three dysconnectivity patterns in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicai Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, approximately 20%–33% are recognized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS patients. These TRS patients suffer more severely from the disease but struggle to benefit from existing antipsychotic treatments. A few recent studies suggested that schizophrenia may be caused by impaired synaptic plasticity that manifests as functional dysconnectivity in the brain, however, few of those studies focused on the functional connectivity changes in the brains of TRS groups. In this study, we compared the whole brain connectivity variations in TRS patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Connectivity network features between and within the 116 automated anatomical labeling (AAL brain regions were calculated and compared using maps created with three contrasts: patient vs. control, patient vs. sibling, and sibling vs. control. To evaluate the predictive power of the selected features, we performed a multivariate classification approach. We also evaluated the influence of six important clinical measures (e.g. age, education level on the connectivity features. This study identified abnormal significant connectivity changes of three patterns in TRS patients and their unaffected siblings: 1 69 patient-specific connectivity (PCN; 2 102 shared connectivity (SCN; and 3 457 unshared connectivity (UCN. While the first two patterns were widely reported by previous non-TRS specific studies, we were among the first to report widespread significant connectivity differences between TRS patient groups and their healthy sibling groups. Observations of this study may provide new insights for the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of TRS.

  17. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  18. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  19. Sibling Kinnections: A Clinical Visitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire; St. John, Melissa; Cannole, Rebecca Ford; Fischer, Tara; Maluccio, Anthony; Peining, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The growing literature on sibling relationships throughout their lifespans is of great importance to those working in the child welfare system, and in adoption services in particular. Sibling bonds are important to all of us, but they are particularly vital to children from disorganized or dysfunctional families. These relationships assume even…

  20. Grieving the Loss of a Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roles and responsibilities that may change when a sibling dies. You may take on new responsibilities, such as becoming the oldest child or an only child to whom family members look for leadership. This change can cause you ... cancer. Because you and your siblings share many of the same genes, it is ...

  1. Perceived Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.

    2004-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…

  2. The Sibling: A Lifelong Journey of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Victoria D.

    This paper describes the feelings and needs of children who have siblings with disabilities from the point of view of a woman who has a brother with an intellectual disability. Eight lessons that adult siblings can teach professionals about the significant, often forgotten, family role they play are outlined, supported by descriptive quotations…

  3. Young Children's Apologies to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Sara; Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When children apologize, they accept responsibility for wrongdoings and act to reconcile social relationships. Apologies to siblings were coded in 40 families that were observed for 9 h when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years old, and again 2 years later. We found that sibling apologies were rare, generally simple in form, and more frequent after…

  4. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  5. Sibling Family Practices: Guidelines for Healthy Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Toni Cavanagh; Huang, Bevan Emma; Simpson, Pippa M.

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire was given to 500 mental health and child welfare professionals asking for maximum acceptable ages for siblings to engage jointly in certain family practices related to hygiene, affection, and privacy. A large proportion of respondents felt it was never acceptable for siblings to take showers together (40%), kiss on the mouth (37%),…

  6. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  7. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  8. Parental Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laurie; Baron, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Parental appraisals of their children's sibling relationships, and their standards for sibling relationships, were assessed. Although parents reported most concern about their children's Agonism and Rivalry/Competition, the largest discrepancies between parental standards and observations involved behaviors reflecting Warmth. Results endorse…

  9. Relationships between Social Cognition and Sibling Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Barbara L.

    1985-01-01

    First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…

  10. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  11. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  12. Parents' first concerns about toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: effect of sibling status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Lauren; Knoch, Kelley; Vibert, Bethany; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders may appear as early as 6 months, but parent concern, which can precipitate evaluation, often lags significantly. The presence of typical or atypical older siblings can change parents' sensitivity to departures from typical development. This study investigated type and age of parent's first concerns in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, prior to diagnosis. Participants had (1) at least one older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD); (2) only typically developing older siblings (Sibs-TD), or (3) were only/oldest (No-Sibs). Specific autism spectrum disorder diagnoses and symptom severity were similar among groups. Developmentally, No-Sibs showed the largest delays, followed by Sibs-TD, followed by Sibs-ASD. Mean age of first concern was 16 months for No-Sibs, 14 months for Sibs-TD, and 10 months for Sibs-ASD. Age of first concern differed significantly by group, even after controlling for mother's age and education. Concern about language was prevalent in all groups. Thus, the presence of an older child with typical or, especially, atypical development was associated with earlier concerns for the affected child, despite milder developmental delays. These findings underscore the importance of encouraging parents to report concerns to pediatricians, routine standardized screening for autism spectrum disorder, and the need for pediatrician vigilance, especially for only or oldest children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

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    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  14. Association among number, order and type of siblings and adolescent mental health at age 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jufen; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Fujimura, Yuko; Hamanishi, Shimako; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    Although the sibling relationship is a unique one, the effects of the number and type of siblings on mental health among adolescents have not been reported. Japanese children (total, 9276; boys, 4654; girls, 4622), all 12 years old, and from the Japanese Toyama Birth Cohort Study, were followed up until 2002. Subject self-reported mental health was obtained from the Japanese version of the Dartmouth Primary Care Co-operative Project (COOP) charts. The associations between number and type of siblings and self-reported mental health were examined. There was a significant difference in mental health between different sibling pairs, with brother pairs and brother/sister pairs having a positive effect on adolescent mental health, compared with those in sister pairs. Girls with brothers had better self-reported mental health than those without. The adjusted OR of good mental health was 1.44 (95%CI:1.00-2.08) for those with an older brother and 1.67 (95%CI: 1.17-2.38) for those with a younger brother compared with those without. Boys with a younger sister had a higher OR of good self-reported health than those without (OR, 1.62; 95%CI: 1.08-2.43). Children with siblings had better mental health status than those without, which has practical implications for Asian countries and worldwide considering the declining fertility. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Enhanced ERPs to visual stimuli in unaffected male siblings of ASD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Goyet, Louise; Ganea, Natasa; Johnson, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication abilities. While unaffected relatives lack severe deficits, milder impairments have been reported in some first-degree relatives. The present study sought to verify whether mild deficits in face perception are evident among the unaffected younger siblings of children with ASD. Children between 6-9 years of age completed a face-recognition task and a passive viewing ERP task with face and house stimuli. Sixteen children were typically developing with no family history of ASD, and 17 were unaffected children with an older sibling with ASD. Findings indicate that, while unaffected siblings are comparable to controls in their face-recognition abilities, unaffected male siblings in particular show relatively enhanced P100 and P100-N170 peak-to-peak amplitude responses to faces and houses. Enhanced ERPs among unaffected male siblings is discussed in relation to potential differences in neural network recruitment during visual and face processing.

  16. Perinatal characteristics, older siblings, and risk of ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Ulf; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of circumstances and exposures early in life on the risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perinatal characteristics predict development of AS. METHODS: AS cases (n = 1960; 59 % men) were defined...

  17. A study about siblings in the face of intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lizasoain

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that siblings of a person with intellectual disabilities can present problems of identification and socialization, the need for compensation, early adoption of large responsibilities, feelings of abandonment, guilt, shame or sadness. Nevertheless, if the needs of these brothers and sisters are facing, disability can become a source of personal and family enrichment. This article presents the initial conclusions drawn after a series of personal interviews conducted with siblings of students in a special education school. Awareness of the issue leads us to approach this study with the aim of providing guidelines of intervention to help siblings to minimize the potential negative impact of having a brother or sister with intellectual disabilities, and facilitate the development of attitudes and behaviours that enable them to face stressful situations in a constructive manner. Thanks to the direct experience of those who have been confronted with this situation, is issued to prevent psychosocial problems associated with having a brother or sister with these features.

  18. Considerations of Elder Sibling Closeness in Predicting Younger Sibling Substance Use: Social Learning versus Social Bonding Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080

  19. Associations Between Sibling Relationship Quality and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence: Looking at the Case of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkhus, Mona; Brendgen, Mara; Czajkowski, Nikolai O; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Bidirectional pathways between twin relationship quality and friendship quality were investigated in a large longitudinal twin cohort. We examined negative and positive relationship features in 313 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 238 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from ages 13 to 14 years, using latent structural modeling. Results showed stronger stability of the twin relationship quality compared to friendship quality. Positive features in the sibling relationship were associated with increased positive features in the relationship with the best friend a year later. In contrast, no significant association between negative sibling relationship features and change in negative friendship quality features was found. These findings speak to the important role of the sibling relationship in the development of good quality friendship relations in twins.

  20. Support Needs of Siblings of People with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Catherine K.; Heller, Tamar; Kramer, John

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the support needs of adult siblings of people with developmental disabilities. A survey completed by 139 siblings of people with developmental disabilities captured the needs of adult siblings through 2 open-ended questions. A grounded theory approach was used, and the sibling responses anchored the analysis,…

  1. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  2. Siblings and Theory of Mind in Deaf Native Signing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the basis of "theory of mind" (ToM) reasoning in 20 native signers (ages 4-8) of British Sign Language. Children and their siblings were given a measure of the quality of sibling relations. Sibling quality as perceived by siblings predicted children's ToM score over age and referential communication. (Contains…

  3. Boucher Neuhäuser Syndrome - A rare cause of inherited hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A case of two adult siblings with two novel mutations in PNPLA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Jakob H; Frederiksen, Anja L; Nguyen, Nina; Brusgaard, Klaus; Juhl, Claus B

    2017-02-01

    Boucher Neuhäuser Syndrome (BNS) is a rare clinical syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance defined by early-onset ataxia, hypogonadism and chorioretinal dystrophy. We present two siblings diagnosed with BNS in late adult life identified with compound heterozygous state of two novel PNPLA6 mutations. Five healthy siblings were non- or heterozygous carriers of the mutations. The cases, which presented with ataxia in childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), were diagnosed at age 17 and 25, respectively, when examined for delayed puberty. The youngest case, a 55-year old male, was referred to our department in 2006 for evaluation of secondary causes of osteoporosis, which he developed despite adequate testosterone replacement therapy. The unusual medical history with childhood ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism lead to further examinations and eventually the diagnosis of BNS. The older sister of the proband also displayed the triad of ataxia, HH and chorioretinal dystrophy accompanied by cerebellar atrophy and in 2014, we found the mutations in PNPLA6. BNS is a rare cause of HH and secondary osteoporosis, but should be considered in patients presenting with one or more of the key features. Genetic screening is becoming increasingly available and inexpensive and accordingly this may be considered earlier and by broader indication in unusual phenotypic presentations. The increasing knowledge of causes for inherited diseases should extend the use of genetic screening, as the correct diagnosis will benefit the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrepant clinical and haematological features in siblings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old boy was referred with anaemia and splenomegaly. Physical examination revealed short stature, thalassaemic facies, pallor and splenomegaly. The full blood count showed a hypochromic, microcytic anaemia. The serum ferritin level was normal. Haemoglobin electrophoresis revealed 56% HbF, 2.3% HbA2 ...

  5. Home and parenting resources available to siblings depending on their birth intention status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S; East, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the differential availability of family and parenting resources to children depending on their birth planning status. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data were analyzed, 3,134 mothers and their 5,890 children (M = 7.1 years, range = 1 month-14.8 years), of whom 63% were intended at conception, 27% were mistimed, and 10% were unwanted. Fixed-effects models show that unwanted and mistimed children had fewer resources than intended siblings. Parents' emotional resources to older children decreased after the birth of a mistimed sibling. Findings suggest that cognitive and emotional resources are differentially available to children within a family depending on intention status and that unintended births lead to decreased parental resources for older children in the household.

  6. Relational aggression and psychological control in the sibling relationship: mediators of the association between maternal psychological control and adolescents' emotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.

  7. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Victoria; Richters, Lotte; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Machalicek, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n = 44). Sibling relationships were compared on four factors and 16 sub-scales of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Revised. Results showed significant differences in mean scores on each of the four factors (i.e. Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Rivalry and Dominance/Nurturance) and most of the sub-scales. ANCOVAs showed that demographic variables (number of siblings, living in a two-parent vs single parent household, gender, participant's age, place of residence) did not influence significant differences in sibling relationships between the two groups. Having a brother or sister with Angelman syndrome may influence the way in which the sibling perceives the sibling relationship. This may have important implications for family-centred intervention for this population.

  8. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Variable Expressions among Three Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Srinivasa Raju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin aging, and malignant tumor development. The frequency of this disorder is approximately 1 case per 250.000 population. Two important causes of mortality are metastatic malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here xeroderma pigmentosum in three siblings presenting with variable expressions is reported. The seventy of the condition was more in one of the more sun exposed sibling and had more signs of malignant lesions. Intraoral pigmentation was also present in all the three siblings.

  9. Attachment representations, parental differential treatment and sibling relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on siblings and sibling relationships. To outline the importance of this under-researched field the review details the link between sibling relationship quality and individual psychosocial outcome. Initial research into the area started with investigations of the influence of structural variables and temperament on sibling relationship quality but found that they explained only a small proportion of the variance in sibling relationship q...

  10. Sibling relationships in adults who have siblings with or without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.

  11. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  12. Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, Mothers' Conflict Attitudes, and Children's Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Angela C.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2009-01-01

    Preschoolers' theory of mind (ToM) was examined in relation to emotional features of their conflicts with siblings, using mothers as privileged informants. Fifty-four children aged 3 to 5 years and their 54 mothers took part. Children were given 10 standard false belief tasks and a standardized language test. Mothers completed questionnaires,…

  13. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  14. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. PMID:27247684

  15. Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2006-07-11

    The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect.

  16. Siblings in the context of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Sibling relationships may be relevant to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet little research has focused on this aspect of the disorder. A narrative study of four women in various stages of recovery from AN is described and results relevant to sibling relationships are presented, enriched by published anecdotes and case studies. The anorexic interviewees described much antagonism and rivalry and little warmth and intimacy between themselves and their siblings. They seemed to feel they did not belong sufficiently in their families and other social settings despite a strong desire to belong. The sample is small, reports subjective and retrospective and no control group was included. It is suggested that anorexic girls often feel emotionally isolated from and misunderstood by siblings, who may have much to contribute to the process of therapy and recovery.

  17. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  18. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p health as good or excellent (p health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

  20. Unusual manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type I in two Yemeni siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Alshami

    2015-01-15

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genodermatoses characterized by malformations of tissues derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), teeth, and the breasts. Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is a rare, newly described type of ED involving syndactyly. We report 2 Yemeni siblings with typical EDSS manifestations, including bilateral, partial cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and toes; sparse, coarse, brittle scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; and conical, widely spaced teeth with enamel notches. In addition, the siblings presented with other features hitherto not described for this syndrome, such as adermatoglyphia, onychogryphosis, hypoplastic widely spaced nipples, hypoplastic thumbs, and red scalp hair.

  1. The association between unequal parental treatment and the sibling relationship in Finland: The difference between full and half-siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2015-06-24

    Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  2. The Association between Unequal Parental Treatment and the Sibling Relationship in Finland: The Difference between Full and Half-Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  3. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pchildren strongly experienced parenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  4. Non-ASD outcomes at 36 months in siblings at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A baby siblings research consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Young, Gregory S; Brian, Jessica; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie J; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Jones, Emily J; Landa, Rebecca; Macari, Suzanne; Messinger, Daniel S; Nelson, Charles A; Ozonoff, Sally; Saulnier, Celine; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Webb, Sara Jane; Yirmiya, Nurit; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2017-01-01

    We characterized developmental outcomes of a large sample of siblings at familial high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who themselves did not have ASD (n = 859), and low-risk controls with no family history of ASD (n = 473). We report outcomes at age 3 years using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Around 11% of high-risk siblings had mild-to-moderate levels of developmental delay, a rate higher than the low-risk controls. The groups did not differ in the proportion of toddlers with mild-to-moderate language delay. Thirty percent of high-risk siblings had elevated scores on the ADOS, double the rate seen in the low-risk controls. High-risk siblings also had higher parent reported levels of ASD symptoms on the ADI-R and lower adaptive functioning on the Vineland. Males were more likely to show higher levels of ASD symptoms and lower levels of developmental ability and adaptive behavior than females across most measures but not mild-to-moderate language delay. Lower maternal education was associated with lower developmental and adaptive behavior outcomes. These findings are evidence for early emerging characteristics related to the "broader autism phenotype" (BAP) previously described in older family members of individuals with ASD. There is a need for ongoing clinical monitoring of high-risk siblings who do not have an ASD by age 3 years, as well as continued follow-up into school age to determine their developmental and behavioral outcomes. Autism Res 2017, 10: 169-178. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Irene; Duffy, Anita; Nicholl, Honor

    Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child's siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: 'siblings', 'chronic illness', 'disability', 'cancer', 'sibling relations', 'sibling adjustment', 'coping', 'family-centred care', 'sibling interventions', 'camps', 'autism', 'Down's syndrome'. Seventeen research studies in total were reviewed. This review focuses on three sibling groups related to children suffering from autism, cancer and Down's syndrome, and are discussed under the following headings: sibling adjustment; family functioning and sibling's coping resources; and intervention programmes. The literature revealed that siblings of children with Down's syndrome were well adjusted to living with their brother or sister. However, there was conflicting information on the adjustment of siblings of children with cancer and autism. An awareness of the harmful effect that living with childhood illness and disability can have on some siblings is essential to enable healthcare professionals to provide supportive interventions to protect siblings' physical and emotional wellbeing.

  6. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug P Vanderlaan

    Full Text Available In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect. In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768. Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  7. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  8. Sibling Voices: The Self-Reported Mental Health of Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Minett, Belinda; Kapoor, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the experiences and well-being of siblings growing up with a brother or sister with a disability in Australia. However, research to date has primarily obtained parent reports of sibling adjustment and mental health. Therefore, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to report on the mental health…

  9. Siblings of Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Sibling Relationships and Wellbeing in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2009-01-01

    We investigated sibling relationships and wellbeing in adolescents and adults with a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adolescents engaged in more shared activities than did adults. Adolescents reported greater social support, greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and less use of problem-focused coping than adults. In…

  10. Late-Onset Non-HLH Presentations of Growth Arrest, Inflammatory Arachnoiditis, and Severe Infectious Mononucleosis, in Siblings with Hypomorphic Defects in UNC13D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Edgar Gray

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bi-allelic null mutations affecting UNC13D, STXBP2, or STX11 result in defects of lymphocyte cytotoxic degranulation and commonly cause familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL in early life. Patients with partial loss of function are increasingly being diagnosed after presenting with alternative features of this disease, or with HLH later in life. Here, we studied two sisters with lymphocyte degranulation defects secondary to compound heterozygote missense variants in UNC13D. The older sibling presented aged 11 with linear growth arrest and delayed puberty, 2 years prior to developing transient ischemic attacks secondary to neuroinflammation and hypogammaglobulinemia, but no FHL symptoms. Her geno-identical younger sister was initially asymptomatic but then presented at the same age with severe EBV-driven infectious mononucleosis, which was treated aggressively and did not progress to HLH. The sisters had similar natural killer cell degranulation; however, while cytotoxic activity was moderately reduced in the asymptomatic patient, it was completely absent in both siblings during active disease. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the age of 15, the older child has completely recovered NK cell cytotoxicity, is asymptomatic, and has experienced an exceptional compensatory growth spurt. Her younger sister was also successfully transplanted and is currently disease free. The current study reveals previously unappreciated manifestations of FHL in patients who inherited hypomorphic gene variants and also raises the important question of whether a threshold of minimum NK function can be defined that should protect a patient from serious disease manifestations such as HLH.

  11. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  12. Mechanisms of sibling socialization in normative family development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Becerra, Julia M; Killoren, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence-sibling deidentification and social learning-that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and different attributes, attitudes, and behaviors. Recognizing the need to move past post hoc explanations, we suggest several directions for how these two influence processes can be measured directly in future work. Research on sibling influence also can be improved by integrating these theories and attending to their domains of influence.

  13. Using Twins to Better Understand Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M; Pike, Alison; Latham, Rachel M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study). Contrary to expectations, no mean level differences emerged when monozygotic twin pairs, dizygotic twin pairs, and non-twin pairs were compared on their sibling relationship quality. Behavioural genetic analyses also revealed that the sibling bond was modestly to moderately influenced by the genetic propensities of the children within the dyad, and moderately to substantially influenced by the shared environment common to both siblings. In addition, for sibling negativity, we found evidence of twin-specific environmental influence-dizygotic twins showed more reciprocity than did non-twins. Our findings have repercussions for the broader application of results from future twin-based investigations.

  14. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…

  15. The experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, B; Romero-Bosch, L; Plante, W; Lobato, D

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. Parents and typically developing siblings from 15 Latino families with a child with a developmental disability participated in separate interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, domains reflecting siblings' relationships, emotional experiences and communication about the disability were identified. The child's need for caregiving was a prominent topic in the sibling and parent narratives. Parents reported concerns about siblings' experience of differential treatment, whereas siblings reported concerns about restricted social activities because of their brother/sister. Including multiple informants revealed commonalities and differences in parents' and siblings' perspectives on the impact of a child's disability. The importance of considering sibling adaptation in sociocultural context is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Caring for Siblings of Kids With Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem. If this happens, seek help from a mental health professional for your child. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: August 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Sibling Rivalry Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children ...

  17. Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children--a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing

  18. Sibling Gender Composition and Preferences for STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila

    2017-01-01

    of the younger siblings' gender allows me to estimate the causal effect of having an opposite compared to same sex sibling. Overall, having an opposite sex sibling makes educational choices more gender-stereotypical for both genders. Having an opposite sex sibling reduces women's probability to enroll in any......-parent interactions. Parents with mixed sex children gender-specialize their parenting more and spend more quality time with their same sex child than parents with same sex children. Moreover, I show that young boys with an opposite sex sibling are exposed to more gender-stereotypical behavior within the family than......This paper studies how sibling gender composition affects preferences for education within Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). To identify the causal effect of sibling gender, I focus on a sample of firstborn children who all have a younger biological sibling. The randomness...

  19. Living with disability. Taking care of siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Caldin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth of a disabled child is a critical event that places all the members of the family in a condition of great vulnerability. When talking about families with a disabled child, attention is usually focused on the parents. Siblings tend to play a marginal role, as shown in the referred literature, in this specific field of investigation. Communicating diagnosis to siblings means involving them in the process of family change, making them active players rather than “spectators” in their own “existential niche”. Communication of diagnosis is a delicate, continuous process that has to be tackled appropriately, using targeted words and educational actions. Children need help in accepting and welcoming their disabled sibling, with all his/her characteristics (and deficits, through a balanced, pondered approach that includes both the dimension of co-development and the acknowledgement of problematic situations.

  20. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  1. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.

  2. Sibling constellation effects on learning and career aspirations of pupils.

    OpenAIRE

    KOROTVIČKOVÁ, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...

  3. Childhood Experiences of Sibling Abuse: An investigation into learned helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    McLaurin, Shamla L.

    2005-01-01

    As various forms of interpersonal family violence receive more attention in the literature, sibling abuse is still in the background. Despite the increasing knowledge about the prevalence, causes, and effects of sibling abuse, many of us continue to relegate it to a childhood occurrence. Sibling abuse symptoms continue to go unrecognized and its demoralizing effects continue to be ignored (Wiehe, 1990). Minimization and denial of sibling abuse have also contributed to constraining the extent ...

  4. Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings: A life course approach to the impact of sibship composition and birth order on later life mortality risk, Antwerp (1846-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Donrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family composition and household dynamics, both in early and in later life, influence individual health and longevity. Both positive and negative effects can be expected in terms of sibling size and composition. On one hand, siblings compete with each other, which may lead to resource dilution and increased adult mortality risks. On the other hand, siblings protect and care for each other, which may have a positive impact on longevity. Objective: To investigate the way in which sibling composition (with respect to sibship size, sex, and birth order in the family of orientation and the proximity of siblings in later life relates to adult mortality risks at ages 50+. Methods: Life courses of 258 men and 275 women from the Antwerp COR*-database were 'reconstructed' and analyzed by way of event history analysis using Gompertz shared frailty models. Results: Being higher in birth order related to significantly higher mortality risk after age 50 for men. Having older brothers, particularly those present in later life, was associated with very high excess mortality risk for both sexes, though men were more strongly disadvantaged. Having (more younger sisters present at RP (research person age 50 was related to significantly lower relative mortality risk for women. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the complex relationships between sibling and gender dynamics and mortality risk in later life. Evidence of a lasting impact of sibling competition on mortality risk over age 50 is found; and competition is only replaced by solidarity in critical times (e.g., widowhood, wherein older sibling presence dissimilarly impacts different social groups.

  5. Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities.

  6. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  7. Social and Emotional Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…

  8. Siblings within Families: Levels of Analysis and Patterns of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The study of siblings has become increasingly central to developmental science. Sibling relationships have unique effects on development, and sibling designs allow researchers to isolate causal mechanisms in development. This volume emphasizes causal mechanisms in the social domain. We review the preceding chapters in relation to six topics: a…

  9. Perceived Support in Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in sibling dyads and on the influence of sibling…

  10. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings to a Child with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollidge, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…

  11. Review of Sibling Interventions with Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Devender R.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen intervention studies were reviewed that included children with autism and their typical siblings. Overall, results across several studies reveal that siblings can have positive impacts on social and communication skills in children with autism. However, methodological variations and mixed results in studies that included siblings as…

  12. Forgotten family members: the importance of siblings in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; McGorry, Patrick; Howie, Linsey

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the significance of sibling inclusion in family interventions and support during early psychosis. This narrative review presents the current research related to the importance of family work during early psychosis, the needs and developmental significance of siblings during adolescence and early adulthood, the protective effects of sibling relationships, and the characteristics of early psychosis relevant to the sibling experience. It will also review the evidence of the sibling experience in chronic physical illness and disability, as well as long-term psychotic illness. Despite the evidence that working with families is important during early psychosis, siblings have been largely ignored. Siblings are an important reciprocal relationship of long duration. They play an important role in development during adolescence and early adulthood. These relationships may be an underutilized protective factor due to their inherent benefits and social support. Developmental theories imply that early psychosis could negatively impact the sibling relationship and their quality of life, effecting personality development and health outcomes. The evidence shows that adolescent physical illness or disability has a significantly negative impact on the sibling's quality of life and increases the risk for the onset of mental health issues. Long-term psychotic illness also results in negative experiences for siblings. Current evidence shows that siblings in early psychosis experience psychological distress and changes in functional performance. Further research using standard measures is required to understand the impact early psychosis has on the sibling relationship and their quality of life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions) of Paul's sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul's sibling language in light of ...

  14. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  15. Effects of Sibling Structure and Interaction on Children's Categorization Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred sixty sibling pairs from two child families were sampled for sibling interaction behaviors as they relate to measures of categorization style. The study provides additional evidence of the importance of a child's siblings to his cognitive development. (Editor/RK)

  16. Siblings of the Hearing Impaired: Perspectives for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Dale V.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the concerns and needs of siblings of hearing-impaired children, offering practical suggestions for parents, educators, and mental health and community service workers. Examples of successful programs for siblings that provide emotional support, training and information about their siblings' disability, and effective…

  17. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  18. Bidirectional Associations between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…

  19. Bidirectional Associations Between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support During Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  20. Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and parental support during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents’ development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent–child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  1. Sibling Relationships Cognition in Japanese Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Misae; Kato, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of sibling relationships in Japanese female university students. Two hundred and fifteen Japanese female university students participated in this study. The Adult Sibling Relationship Scale (ASRQ, Stocker et al., 1997) was used to measure sibling relationship cognition. The model was constructed as a result…

  2. Sibling Relationships and Influences in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the literature on sibling relationships in childhood and adolescence, starting by tracing themes from foundational research and theory and then focusing on empirical research during the past 2 decades. This literature documents siblings' centrality in family life, sources of variation in sibling relationship qualities, and the…

  3. Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Christiansen, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M = 17.34; second-born age M = 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their…

  4. Siblings of the Handicapped: A Literature Review for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Siblings of handicapped children may have adjustment problems associated with increased family responsibilities, increased parental expectations, and perceived parental neglect in favor of the disabled sibling. Problems may be related to socioeconomic status; family size; age, sex, and birth order of the sibling; and severity of the handicap. (GDC)

  5. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  6. Clinical features of recently diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma in elderly patients aged 65 and older based on 10 years of sonographic experience at a single institution in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyun Suk [Dept. of Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients aged 65 and older in order to predict postoperative recurrence based on the results of ultrasonographic surveillance. Among 1,494 patients (200 male and 1,294 female; mean age, 46.6±11.3 years) who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer at our institution between 2006 and 2015, we retrospectively enrolled 150 PTC patients (29 male and 121 female; mean age, 69.4±4.2 years). To identify the risk factors for recurrence, we analyzed age, gender, multiplicity, size, number, extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of the tumor, lymph node metastasis (LNM), type of surgery, and the dose of radioactive ablation using a Cox regression model to identify hazard ratios (HRs). Among the 115 asymptomatic patients with PTCs detected by screening ultrasonography (n=86), other cross-sectional imaging modalities (computed tomography or positron emission tomography-computed tomography, n=13), or incidentally through a surgical specimen (n=16), 78 patients were confirmed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). The other 35 patients presented with palpable neck masses (n=25), vocal cord palsy (n=9) or blood-tinged sputum (n=1). During the follow-up period (mean, 43.6 months), 17 patients (12.5%) experienced recurrence in the neck. None of the patients died due to PTC-related recurrence or distant metastasis during the follow-up period. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that tumor size (HR, 2.12; P<0.001) and LNM (central LNM: HR, 9.08; P=0.004; lateral LNM: HR, 14.71; P=0.002; both central and lateral LNM: HR, 58.41; P<0.001) significantly increased the recurrence rate. ETE, LNM, and recurrence were significantly less frequent in PTMCs than in non-PTMC (all P<0.001). PTCs of small size and absent LNM showed significantly better prognoses in patients 65 years and older.

  7. Altered intestinal microbiota and blood T cell phenotype are shared by patients with Crohn's disease and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Charlotte R; McCarthy, Neil E; Louis, Petra; Farquharson, Freda M; McCartney, Sara; Taylor, Kirstin; Prescott, Natalie J; Murrells, Trevor; Stagg, Andrew J; Whelan, Kevin; Lindsay, James O

    2014-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis, altered blood T cell populations, elevated faecal calprotectin (FC) and increased intestinal permeability (IP). CD-associated features present in siblings (increased risk of CD) but not in healthy controls, provide insight into early CD pathogenesis. We aimed to (1) Delineate the genetic, immune and microbiological profile of patients with CD, their siblings and controls and (2) Determine which factors discriminate between groups. Faecal microbiology was analysed by quantitative PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA, FC by ELISA, blood T cell phenotype by flow cytometry and IP by differential lactulose-rhamnose absorption in 22 patients with inactive CD, 21 of their healthy siblings and 25 controls. Subject's genotype relative risk was determined by Illumina Immuno BeadChip. Strikingly, siblings shared aspects of intestinal dysbiosis with patients with CD (lower concentrations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p=0.048), Clostridia cluster IV (p=0.003) and Roseburia spp. (p=0.09) compared with controls). As in CD, siblings demonstrated a predominance of memory T cells (p=0.002) and elevated naïve CD4 T cell β7 integrin expression (p=0.01) compared with controls. FC was elevated (>50 μg/g) in 8/21 (38%) siblings compared with 2/25 (8%) controls (p=0.028); whereas IP did not differ between siblings and controls. Discriminant function analysis determined that combinations of these factors significantly discriminated between groups (χ(2)=80.4, df=20, pmicrobiological variables. Healthy siblings of patients with CD manifest immune and microbiological abnormalities associated with CD distinct from their genotype-related risk and provide an excellent model in which to investigate early CD pathogenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with ASD—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Ziegart-Sadowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Although less pronounced, social, cognitive, and personality characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be present in people who do not meet ASD diagnostic criteria, especially in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD. Research on these characteristics, referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP), provides valuable data on potential expressions of autism-specific deficits in the context of family relations. This paper offers a review of research on BAP in siblings of individuals with ASD, focusing on reports regarding social, communication, and cognitive deficits, published from 1993 to 2014. The studies are divided into two groups based on participants’ age: papers on preschool and older siblings of individuals with ASD; and publications on infants at risk for ASD. On the basis of this review, suggestions are offered for further research and its significance for our understanding of the genetic determinants of autism. PMID:26068453

  9. Quality of Life of siblings of children included in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.

  10. Lysosome-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Danon's disease in two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Leontyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a clinical observation of two siblings with Danon's disease (lysosome-associated cardiomyopathy verified by genetic examination. Heart lesion in Danon's disease bears a phenotypic similarity to the primary forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; in this connection the correct etiology of the disease has remained long unestablished. The presence of laboratory markers as the significantly raised levels of transaminases, creatine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase was as a guide for suspecting the metabolic origin of the disease. Two siblings with a similar LAMP gene mutation were observed to have a different clinical course: a severer clinical course of cardiomyopathy with extreme myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial electric instability, and mental development retardation in one case and a more favorable course in the other; although a 2-year follow-up also revealed negative changes. For the prevention of sudden cardiac death, a cardioverter defibrulator was implanted and continuous therapy with p-adrenoblockers was performed. The specific feature of the cases was no symptoms of skeletal myopathy, moderate mental retardation only in the elder brother, no evidence of an accessory atrioventricular junction despite the fact that there were ECG manifestations of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

  11. An automated tool for cortical feature analysis: Application to differences on 7 Tesla T2* -weighted images between young and older healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; Buijs, Mathijs; Webb, Andrew G; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Milles, Julien

    2015-07-01

    High field T 2 * -weighted MR images of the cerebral cortex are increasingly used to study tissue susceptibility changes related to aging or pathologies. This paper presents a novel automated method for the computation of quantitative cortical measures and group-wise comparison using 7 Tesla T 2 * -weighted magnitude and phase images. The cerebral cortex was segmented using a combination of T 2 * -weighted magnitude and phase information and subsequently was parcellated based on an anatomical atlas. Local gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) contrast and cortical profiles, which depict the magnitude or phase variation across the cortex, were computed from the magnitude and phase images in each parcellated region and further used for group-wise comparison. Differences in local GM/WM contrast were assessed using linear regression analysis. Regional cortical profiles were compared both globally and locally using permutation testing. The method was applied to compare a group of 10 young volunteers with a group of 15 older subjects. Using local GM/WM contrast, significant differences were revealed in at least 13 of 17 studied regions. Highly significant differences between cortical profiles were shown in all regions. The proposed method can be a useful tool for studying cortical changes in normal aging and potentially in neurodegenerative diseases. Magn Reson Med 74:240-248, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  13. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  14. Number of Siblings, Sibling Spacing, Sex, and Birth Order: Their Effects on Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)

  15. Siblings and children's time use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dunifon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eighty-two percent of children under age 18 live with at least one sibling, and the sibling relationship is typically the longest-lasting family relationship in an individual's life. Nevertheless, siblings remain understudied in the family demography literature. Objective: We ask how having a sibling structures children's time spent with others and in specific activities, and how children's time and activities with siblings vary by social class, gender, and age. Methods: We use time diary data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS, comparing the time use of children with and without siblings and presenting regression-adjusted descriptive statistics on patterns among those with siblings. Results: Children with siblings spend about half of their discretionary time engaged with siblings. They spend less time alone with parents and more time in unstructured play than those without siblings. Brothers and more closely spaced siblings spend more time together and more time in unstructured play. For example, boys with at least one brother spend five more hours per week with their siblings and over three more hours per week in unstructured play than boys with no brothers. Conclusions: The presence and characteristics of siblings shape children's time use in ways that may have implications for child development. Contribution: This is the first study to use children's time diary data to examine how the presence and characteristics of siblings structure ways in which children spend their time. This contributes to our broader understanding of sibling relationships and family dynamics.

  16. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  17. Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the sister relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2013-01-01

    Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.

  18. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  19. From Parents to Siblings and Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child–parent, child–sibling, and child–peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multi-method strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.

  20. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  1. The Family Contexts of Children's Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    1996-01-01

    Unlike much previous research on sibling relationships, which emphasizes the congruence across various types of family experiences, the research described in this article explored between-family differences in patterns of experiences within families. The work is built upon Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and Magnusson's interactional…

  2. Assessing functional impairment in siblings living with children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.

  3. The Project TALENT Twin and Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.

  4. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy in two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by various dermatological and systemic manifestations such as lipoatrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly, acanthosis nigricans, and acromegaloid features. BSCL type 2 is more common and severe, with onset in the neonatal period or in early infancy. The locus for BSCL2 has been identified on chromosome 11q13. Early recognition and differentiation from other congenital generalized lipodystrophies help in the initiation of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures such as lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy that helps postpone the onset of metabolic syndrome. We report BSCL type 2 in two siblings with several cutaneous manifestations like acanthosis nigricans, hypertrichosis, prominent subcutaneous veins, and increased lanugo hair.

  5. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended.

  6. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended. (orig.)

  7. Dyskeratosis congenita--two siblings with a new missense mutation in the DKC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joana Dias; Lestre, Sara; Kay, Teresa; Lopes, Maria João Paiva; Fiadeiro, Teresa; Apetato, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenital is reported in two siblings. They presented with the classic triad of mucocutaneous features: leukoplakia of the tongue, dystrophic nails, and a widespread reticulate pigmentation on the neck and upper chest. A genetic analysis was performed and a new missense mutation S356P, hemizygous, was identified in the DKC1 gene in both patients. Acitretin was started at a low-dose in both patients, resulting in clinical improvement and important, positive psychosocial effects. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Optic disc coloboma in two nigerian siblings: Case report and review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No systemic features of syndromes associated with ODCs and intellectual disability were present in both patients. The younger sibling an 8‑year‑old girl later presented to the eye clinic with a 5‑month history of poor vision in the left eye. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 6/6 in the right eye and counting fingers in ...

  9. Sibling relationship quality and psychosocial outcomes among adult siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with intellectual disability without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-03-01

    Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.

  11. [Sibling relations between individuation and attachment: attempt at a conceptualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    2001-01-01

    Although sibling relationships can be considered as one of the most durable and intensive relationships, not much research in developmental psychology and family research has been done on this issue. The strong focus on parents, more specifically on mothers, stood in the way of adequate conceptualization and understanding of the function and contribution of siblings to individual development and family interaction. In this contribution a conceptualization of sibling relationships is presented. Siblings as objects of aggressive and sexual feelings as well as the function of siblings in the family system, for example, as parentification and negative identity is emphasized. In addition, the different qualities of sibling relationships, for example, envy, rivalry, similarity, and difference, are emphasized. The function of siblings as love objects is stressed, and the role of siblings as support as well as teaching object is illustrated. Finally, it is emphasized that, similar to relationships between parents and child, the quality of sibling relationships changed over time and leads, for example, to a detachment between sibling relationships during adolescence.

  12. Does early use of enzyme replacement therapy alter the natural history of mucopolysaccharidosis I? Experience in three siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraway, Sarah; Breen, Catherine; Mercer, Jean; Jones, Simon; Wraith, James E

    2013-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is widely used as treatment for mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), and there is evidence that this produces improvement in certain clinical domains. There does appear to be variation in the response of clinical features to treatment once these are established. In a reported sibling pair, when enzyme replacement therapy was commenced pre-symptomatically in the younger child, the natural history of the condition appeared to be affected. We present data from three siblings treated with enzyme replacement therapy at different ages which supports this finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication in Latino and non-Latino white siblings of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-06-01

    Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.

  14. Only full-sibling families evolved eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; Beekman, Madeleine; Cornwallis, Charlie K

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. The paper by Nowak et al. has the evolution of eusociality as its title, but it is mostly about something else. It argues against inclusive fitness theory and offers an alternative modelling approach...... that is claimed to be more fundamental and general, but which, we believe, has no practical biological meaning for the evolution of eusociality. Nowak et al. overlook the robust empirical observation that eusociality has only arisen in clades where mothers are associated with their full-sibling offspring; that is......, in families where the average relatedness of offspring to siblings is as high as to their own offspring, independent of population structure or ploidy. We believe that this omission makes the paper largely irrelevant for understanding the evolution of eusociality....

  15. Relationship of Sibling Structure and Interaction to Categorization Ability. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G.; And Others

    This study identified behaviors of sibling pairs interacting on a cognitive task and related these behaviors to sibling structure variables (age and sex of each sibling and age spacing between them) and to measure of cognitive abilities of the younger sibling. Subjects were 160 sibling pairs randomly selected from appropriate subpopulations of…

  16. Sibling Relationships and Adolescents' Mental Health: The Interrelationship of Structure and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Although sibling structure influences some aspects of adolescents' well-being, including deviance and educational achievement, little research has explored the association between sibling structure and adolescents' mental health. This study explores how sibling structure (the number of siblings, full versus step- or half-siblings, the relative age…

  17. The Impact of Sibling Warmth and Conflict on Children's Social Competence with Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Rebecca L.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Cohen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Examined links between children's sibling and peer relationships. Found that sibling warmth was associated with more positive peer relations; sibling conflict was associated with both positive and negative peer outcomes, independent of sibling warmth; and sibling relationships were not more strongly associated with measures of friendships quality…

  18. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  19. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutstein Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  20. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  1. Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  2. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Brante

    Full Text Available Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species.

  3. Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A

    2014-11-01

    There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sibling deidentification in the clinic: devil vs. angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, F F

    1985-09-01

    A four-member family structure consisting of two siblings contrasting in personality (sibling deidentification) and each identified with a different parent (split-parent identification) was recently reported (15). In well-functioning families, this tetrad or quadrangle is wide-spread in the first pair of siblings in the family and tends to be more common in same-sex pairs, suggesting that sibling deidentification is designed to mitigate the relatively intense sibling rivalry characteristic of these pairs and hence to maintain family harmony. In this collated case report, deidentification is found to follow the same pattern in 39 clinic first pairs. However, contrasting attributes are varied and nonevaluative in nonclinic pairs but mainly "good-bad" in clinic pairs, with polarization extreme. Results suggest that nonclinic siblings negotiate their identity (being) much as they negotiate about possessions (having) and that negotiations are blocked in clinic pairs, freezing mythic devil or angel identity. Intervention is directed at dislodging this block.

  5. Sibling genes as environment: Sibling dopamine genotypes and adolescent health support frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-11-01

    While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents' Social Skills in Friendship : The influence of sibling relationship

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the sibling relationship on the adolescents' social skills in friendship. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sibling relationship and their social skills in friendship. Their sibling relationship was categorized eight types; close, intimate, hostile, dominate, intimate-hostile, intimate-dominate, hostile-dominate, separate. The result showed that the students ...

  7. Sibling Rivalry in Educational Attainment: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...

  8. Appetite and growth: a longitudinal sibling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-01

    Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker

  9. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  10. Cancer risk in siblings of children with congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Wu, Chunsen; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer and birth defects cluster in families more often than expected by chance, but the reasons are neither well known nor well studied. METHODS: From singletons born alive in Denmark between 1 January 1977 and 31 December 2007, we identified children who had no congenital malformations...... but had a full or half sibling with a congenital malformation (CM) diagnosed in the first year of life; this constituted the exposed group, while children whose siblings had no such condition constituted a reference group. We estimated cancer risks for children who had a full sibling or a half sibling...

  11. Familial liability to psychosis is a risk factor for multimorbidity in people with psychotic disorders and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Khan, M F H; Quee, P J; Snieder, H; van den Heuvel, E R; Bruggeman, R; Alizadeh, B Z

    2017-09-01

    Multimorbidity may impose an overwhelming burden on patients with psychosis and is affected by gender and age. Our aim is to study the independent role of familial liability to psychosis as a risk factor for multimorbidity. We performed the study within the framework of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project. Overall, we compared 1024 psychotic patients, 994 unaffected siblings and 566 controls on the prevalence of 125 lifetime diseases, and 19 self-reported somatic complaints. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more complaints/diseases in the same individual. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) were used to investigate the effects of gender, age (adolescent, young, older) and familial liability (patients, siblings, controls) and their interactions on multimorbidity. Familial liability had a significant effect on multimorbidity of either complaints or diseases. Patients had a higher prevalence of multimorbidity of complaints compared to siblings (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.79-2.69, Psiblings, had significantly higher prevalence than controls. Similar finding were observed for multimorbidity of lifetime diseases, including psychiatric diseases. Significant results were observed for complaints and disease multimorbidity across gender and age groups. Multimorbidity is a common burden, significantly more prevalent in patients and their unaffected siblings. Familial liability to psychosis showed an independent effect on multimorbidity; gender and age are also important factors determining multimorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Pollet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610, we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  14. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pollet, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  15. The Play Therapy Process of Sibling-Witnesses of Marital Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Jung Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore play phases, play themes, and play behaviors in the play therapy processes of two siblings who were child witnesses of marital violence. Consensus qualitative research method was adopted to analyze the data. The results showed four phases in the siblings’ play therapies: the exploratory phase, the trauma phase, the transformation phase, and the ending phase. Within the four phases, same themes that were identified for both siblings were “exploration” in the exploratory phase, “destruction” in the trauma phase, and “blessing” in the ending phase. Differences in play themes were also identified to include “interaction”, “chaos”, “defensiveness”, “threatening” for the older brother during the trauma phase, while the younger of the two displayed “hostility”, “violence/aggression”, and “repetition”. In the transformation phase, the older brother displayed themes of “healing”, “nurturing/tending”, while the younger brother displayed themes of “protection”, “construction”, and “creation”. For the ending phase, the younger brother also displayed themes of “separation” and “wistfulness”. Some recommendations for practitioners and further research in play therapy are provided.

  16. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  17. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  18. Upaya Mengatasi Sibling Rivalry melalui Layanan Konseling Kelompok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Turniati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 kecamatan Tembalang kota Semarang yang mengalami sibling rivalry. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui apakah konseling kelompok dapat mengatasi sibling rivalry pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian eksperiment dengan desain penelitian one group pre-test dan pos-test design. Subyek penelitian ini, siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 yang memiliki tingkat sibling rivalry tinggi yang diperoleh dari hasil DCM dan rekomendasi dari guru kelas yaitu terjaring 10 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologis berupa skala sibling rivalry. Analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis data deskriptif persentase dan uji wilcoxon. Hasil penelitian menunjukan sibling rivalry siswa sebelum diberi perlakuan berupa konseling kelompok dalam kategori tinggi (75.14%. Setelah diberikan konseling kelompok menunjukkan perbedaan, dilihat dari hasil pos test rata-rata sibling rivalry siswa menurun yaitu berada pada kategori rendah (42,95%. Hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa sibling rivalry dapat diatasi melalui layanan konseling kelompok This research was conducted based on phenomena that occur in grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 Tembalang Semarang who experienced sibling rivalry. The purpose of this research is to find out if counseling groups can overcome sibling rivalry at grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. This type of research is research research design alphabets experiment one group pre test and post test design. The subject of this study, students of class VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 that has a high level of sibling rivalry that results obtained from DCM and the recommendations of the master class that is netted 10 students. Method of data collection using a scale of psychological scale in the form of sibling rivalry. Data analysis data analysis techniques using a descriptive percentage and wilcoxon test. The research results

  19. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  20. Psychological Symptomatology in Siblings of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listug-Lunde, Lori; Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Petros, Thomas V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Studies utilizing parent-report measures have identified above average levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in siblings of children diagnosed with ADHD. Scant research has examined siblings' self-report on standardized measures of emotional functioning. The current study examined parent-reported and child self-reported…

  1. Relational Aggression in Sibling and Peer Relationships during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin

    2006-01-01

    The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…

  2. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  3. Types of sons/siblings, fraternal function and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author starts by exploring family dynamics using the psychodynamic-groupanalytic paradigm to explore the intertwined relationships amongst the family figures like son, daughter, parents and sibling. The work focuses on the analysis of the psychological aspects related to siblings in the family, birth order and their consequences.

  4. Support Between Siblings and Between Friends : Two Worlds Apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether siblings and friends resemble each other in supportive behavior. Using a Dutch national sample of 6,289 individuals containing 12,578 relationships with siblings and friends, we investigated the relative importance of gender composition, geographical proximity,

  5. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  6. Perceived support in sibling relationships and adolescent adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van; Haselager, G.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in

  7. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  8. Korean sibling caregivers of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.

  9. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  10. Cortical Excitability Measures in Patients and Unaffected Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at St Vincent's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, measured cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 157 patients with epilepsy (95 generalized and 62 focal and their asymptomatic siblings and results were compared to those of 12 controls and 20 of their siblings.

  11. Socialization, Social Cognitive Factors and the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina

    Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…

  12. A report of heat stroke in two Nigerian siblings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... Two Nigerian siblings aged ... Case Report. Two male siblings, aged 3 (Case 1) and 5‑year‑old (Case 2) ... stroke with the resultant neurological and multi organ dysfunction,[11] ... urine color cleared within 24 h of admission.

  13. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born in De...

  14. Helping as Coping by Siblings of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Hannah, Mary Elizabeth

    Research has shown that siblings can experience either negative or positive mental health outcomes as a result of having a brother or sister with disabilities. When maladjustment occurs, it is frequently attributed to the stress of excessive helping. This research-based paper proposes that siblings of children with disabilities, perceiving…

  15. The effect of educational interventions with siblings of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.

  16. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  17. Hostile siblings in the abused child’s mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    , in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated...

  18. The Lived Experience of Losing a Sibling through Murder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    siblings. Homicide survivor bereavement, as a grief experience relative to other ... who have lost a child through murder, and, to a lesser ... siblings taking on the role of protector of their parents ...... fearful and angry feelings that contribute to their ... the adolescent to young adult transition: A developmental resilience model.

  19. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  20. Shyness, Sibling Relationships, and Young Children's Socioemotional Adjustment at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Allison A.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the moderating role of sibling relationship quality in the associations between shyness and indices of socioemotional adjustment in an early childhood education context. Participants were 79 children ages 4 to 6 (M = 4.74 years) who had at least one sibling. Parents completed ratings of child shyness,…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  2. Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation: The Role of Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…

  3. Sibling Squabbles: How to Cope With Your Children Fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branvold, Sharon L.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses what is normal and what is not regarding sibling rivalry, jealousy, and squabbling, and it provides some guidance for parents on handling conflict. The article also discusses three major sources of sibling conflict (jealousy, being left alone together, and family trips) and offers suggestions for dealing with each case. (SM)

  4. Compensatory Effects of Sibling Support in Preadolescence and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Levitt, Mary J.

    The current study is an examination of how support from siblings relates to academic competence in early adolescence, with a focus on the compensatory effects of sibling support. Participants were 694 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American students, ranging in age from 11 to 15. Participants were interviewed in school regarding…

  5. Maintaining Sibling Relationships for Children in Foster and Adoptive Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Leslie, Laurel K

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children's current living situations and placement histories, caregivers' experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.

  6. "Barter", "Deals", "Bribes" and "Threats": Exploring Sibling Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Ian; Punch, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates forms of strategic interaction between siblings during childhood. The authors argue that these interactions, characterized by notions of reciprocity, equivalence and constructions of fairness, are worked out in relation to responsibility, power, knowledge and sibling status. Birth order and age are not experienced as…

  7. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and…

  8. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M.; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy controls and/or their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, while the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia only showed this for verbal IQ. PMID:25485180

  9. Cognitive abilities in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Campi, Cristina; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cognitive profiles of children with autistic spectrum disorder and of their healthy siblings (Siblings). With the term cognitive profile, we indicate the relationship extant among the values of verbal and performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The conducted statistical analyses indicated that, although siblings showed a normal intelligent quotient and did not differ in this aspect from typically developing group, their cognitive profile was amazingly similar to that of their relatives affected by autism. A k-means clustering analysis on the values of single subtests further confirmed this result, showing a clear separation between typically developing children on the one side, and autistics and their siblings on the other. We suggest that the common cognitive profile observed in autistic children and their siblings could represent a marker of liability to autism and, thus, a possible intermediate phenotype of this syndrome.

  10. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2014-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy controls and/or their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, while the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia only showed this for verbal IQ.

  11. Reporting errors in siblings' survival histories and their impact on adult mortality estimates: results from a record linkage study in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent's siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings' survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45 q 15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of "unconventional" demographic techniques.

  12. Saviour-sibling and the psychological, ethical and judicial issues that it creates: should English and French legislators close the Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2011-05-01

    Since the advent of test-tube babies, advances in the biomedical field have risen steadily. In parallel, the scientific body has never since ceased to debate the ethical issues that they arise. This is particularly the case regarding saviour-sibling. Saviour-sibling refers to a child who is conceived to cure an older brother or sister suffering from a serious family genetic disease. Therefore, it is meant to give birth to a child who will provide stem-cells taken from the umbilical cord or bone marrow afterwards, to treat an elder sick sibling. In England, this practice has been explicitly allowed by the new Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 under some strict conditions. In France, this practice, authorized by the Bioethics Law of August 2004 and confirmed by its decree of implementation published in the Official Journal on 23 December 2006, is also strictly regulated. This technique opens up new perspectives and enormous hope. Its legalisation is certainly justified by the suffering of the parents and to avoid that they travel to other States where it is permitted. However, it raises serious psychological ethical and judicial issues. Following an analysis of the English and French laws on saviour siblings, its controversial side will be highlighted, before concluding whether or not this new Pandora's box which is saviour-sibling, should be closed and other alternative methods encouraged.

  13. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: implications for DSM-5 social communication disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk, n = 188) or typical development (low-risk, n = 119) who were part of a prospective study of infants at risk for ASD; siblings without ASD outcomes were included in analyses. Pragmatic language skills were measured via the Language Use Inventory (LUI). At 36 months, the high-risk group had significantly lower parent-rated pragmatic language scores than the low-risk group. When defining pragmatic language impairment (PLI) as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the LUI, 35% of the high-risk group was identified with PLI versus 10% of the low-risk group. Children with PLI had higher rates of general language impairment (16%), defined as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the Receptive or Expressive Language subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, relative to those without PLI (3%), but most did not evidence general language impairments. Children with PLI had significantly higher ADOS scores than those without PLI and had higher rates of clinician-rated atypical clinical best estimate outcomes (49%) relative to those without PLI (15%). Pragmatic language problems are present in some siblings of children with ASD as early as 36 months of age. As the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) is thought to occur more frequently in family members of individuals with ASD, it is possible that some of these siblings will meet criteria for SCD as they get older. Close monitoring of early pragmatic language development in young children at familial risk for ASD is warranted. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Tsamparli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU. Thirty-six (36 families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings were not identified with any psychopathology, according to SCL-90R. Moreover, we considered the family cohesion and adaptability, as identified by the FACES III (administered to the whole sample and the family constellation (including number of children, birth order, gender, family size, family structure, years of substance misuse and socioeconomic level. The results of the thematic analysis seem to support Furman and Buhrmester’s (1985 framework, in the context of SNU families. Nevertheless, when considering families with SSU the framework is enriched with a new axis: Loss/mourning. The substance misuse seems to provoke an overturn of the representation of the sibling relationship: the behavioral changes (i.e. disengagement of the sibling with drug use are experienced as a loss by the sibling non user, thus triggering the psychological process of ‘mourning’. Moreover, in these families, the sibling with no drug use seem to experience differential parenting, they feel neglected, angry and they take up a parental role towards the SSU, whom they experience as “sensitive” and “vulnerable”.

  15. Victimization by Siblings in Children with Disability or Weight Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna J; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    Children with a physical disability, psychological disorder, or of nonnormative weight are often targets of peer victimization. Sibling victimization, however, is more common than peer victimization, but rarely explored. We investigated linkages between sibling victimization and whether children had a physical disability, psychological disorder (i.e., internalizing disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and were perceived by parents as being thinner than average or overweight. Also, we explored how the extent and kinds of sibling victimization experiences were related to these characteristics in childhood. A US probability sample of adult caregivers of a child aged 0 to 9 (N = 780; 50% women; mean age 4.58) in 2-child households who completed a telephone interview. Controlling for other forms of maltreatment and individual and family characteristics, children with a physical disability and parent-perceived children who are thinner than average and children who are overweight experienced more sibling victimization. Children with an internalizing disorder experienced less sibling victimization. Sibling victimization did not differ for children with and without ADHD. Children perceived to be overweight by parents and children with a physical disability were at increased risk of experiencing more types of sibling victimization. Children with a physical disability had greater odds of being victims of property victimization by a sibling. Children with a physical disability or perceived as different from average weight are at risk for sibling victimization. Using a nationally representative sample, this is the first study to highlight the importance of screening for sibling victimization in families of children with a disability and/or nonnormative weight status.

  16. Sibling cycle piston and valving method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew P. (Inventor); Bauwens, Luc (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A double-acting, rotating piston reciprocating in a cylinder with the motion of the piston providing the valving action of the Sibling Cycle through the medium of passages between the piston and cylinder wall. The rotating piston contains regenerators ported to the walls of the piston. The piston fits closely in the cylinder at each end of the cylinder except in areas where the wall of the cylinder is relieved to provide passages between the cylinder wall and the piston leading to the expansion and compression spaces, respectively. The piston reciprocates as it rotates. The cylinder and piston together comprise an integral valve that seqentially opens and closes the ports at the ends of the regenerators alternately allowing them to communicate with the expansion space and compression space and blocking that communication. The relieved passages in the cylinder and the ports in the piston are so arranged that each regenerator is sequentially (1) charged with compressed working gas from the compression space; (2) isolated from both expansion and compression spaces; (3) discharged of working gas into the expansion space; and (4) simultaneously charged with working gas from the expansion space while being discharged of working gas into the compression space, in the manner of the Sibling Cycle. In an alterate embodiment, heat exchangers are external to the cylinder and ports in the cylinder wall are alternately closed by the wall of the piston and opened to the expansion and compression spaces through relieved passages in the wall of the reciprocating, rotating piston.

  17. Saviour siblings and collective family interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2010-09-01

    In this article, I will explore the ethical concerns arising out of the use of preimplantation tissue typing (PTT) to create saviour siblings. There are two main ethical concerns about the welfare of the child to be born as a result of PTT. The first is whether the child to be born is treated as a commodity, as simply a means to save the life of his or her sibling. The second is whether the child to be born will be harmed as a result of PTT, either physically, psychologically or socially. These two ethical concerns reflect an individualistic approach to the welfare of the child, whose interests are treated as largely separate to the interests of other family members. I will argue that the welfare of the child born as a result of PTT should be conceived more broadly to include not only the child's individual interests, but also the collective interests the child shares with his or her family. I base this broader conception of welfare on the notion of human flourishing, which recognises that the welfare of a child is inextricably connected to the welfare of the intimate collective that is his or her family. The collective interests of intimate family members are particularly relevant in the context of PTT, as the members are engaged in a shared journey to save the life of an ill child.

  18. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  19. Epilepsy phenotypes in siblings with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Arai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Yuri; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Fujimaki, Takuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by congenital blindness. Although epileptic seizures are observed in some patients with Norrie disease, little is known about this phenomenon. Here, we report the manifestation of epilepsy in siblings with Norrie disease to increase our knowledge of epilepsy in this condition. Three brothers with congenital blindness were diagnosed with Norrie disease after genetic analyses indicated the deletion of exon 2 of the NDP gene. The eldest brother had suffered from epileptic seizures since the age of 11years, and his seizures were resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Although the second brother had no epileptic seizures, the youngest sibling had experiences epileptic seizures since the age of 8years. His seizures were controlled using lamotrigine and levetiracetam. An electroencephalography (EEG) revealed epileptiform discharges in the occipital areas in all three brothers. A study of these patients will increase our knowledge of epilepsy in patients with Norrie disease. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theory-of-Mind Development and Early Sibling Relationships after the Birth of a Sibling: Parental Discipline Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and…

  1. Perceptions of Siblings with Autism and Relationships with Them: European American and Asian American Siblings Draw and Tell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…

  2. The Association of Sibling Relationship and Abuse with Later Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…

  3. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  4. Siblings: Brothers and Sisters of People Who Have Mental Retardation. Arc Q & A Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    Basic information about siblings of people with mental retardation is presented in a question-and-answer format. The following questions are addressed: "Is having a sibling with a disability different than having a sibling who does not have a disability?"; "What are some of the concerns of siblings of people with disabilities?"; "Are there any…

  5. Genetic Mediation of the Home Environment during Infancy: A Sibling Adoption Study of the HOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart, Julia M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The home environment of nonadoptive and adoptive sibling pairs was assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment when each sibling was one and two years of age. Correlations between home environment scores for nonadoptive siblings were greater than those for adoptive siblings. (BC)

  6. Sibling Relationships When a Child Has Autism: Marital Stress and Support Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2003-01-01

    Family systems theory was employed to study sibling relationships in 50 families with a child (ages 4-12) with autism. Typically developing siblings expressed satisfaction with their sibling relationships. Parents were somewhat less positive about the sibling relationships. Stress in the marital relationship was associated with compromised sibling…

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  8. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  9. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  10. Sibling experiences after a major childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, primarily from the sibling perspective, the effect of a child's major burn injury on his or her sibling. A mixed method qualitative dominant design was implemented using the life story method for the qualitative portion. Additionally, the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire -Revised (SRQ-R) was used as a structured interview guide and for calculating scoring data to explore sibling relationship factors of warmth/closeness, rivalry, conflict, and relative status/power. Participants from 22 family cases (one or multiple family members) and 40 individuals were interviewed. To capture impact on the family over time, interviews began a minimum of two years post-burn. The central thematic pattern for the sibling relationship in families having a child with a major burn injury was that of normalization. Two components of normalization were described: areas of normalization and the process of adjustment. Areas of normalization were found in play and other activities, in school and work, and in family relations with siblings. The process of adjustment was varied and often gradual, involved school and work re-entry, and in some instances, seemed to change life perspective. Clinical implications in providing family-centered care can focus on promoting normalization by assessing and supporting siblings who may only be occasionally seen in the hospital or clinic.

  11. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy John

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members.

  12. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  13. Sibling risk of anxiety disorders based on hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    This study used nationwide hospital records to examine sibling risk of any type of anxiety disorder in Sweden over a 40-year period. This study, carried out between 1 January 1968 and 31 December 2007, of the entire population of Sweden, linked information on family relationships from the nationwide Multi-Generation Register with information from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register on first diagnosis of anxiety disorder. A total of 42,602 persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders and 2093 affected siblings were identified. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated by comparing risk in siblings of persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders with risk in persons whose siblings had no hospital diagnosis of anxiety disorders. The sibling risk was 2.26, which was independent of sex and age differences between siblings. The SIR was highest in siblings sibling diagnosed with any anxiety disorder resulted in increased risks of a number of disorders; the highest increased risk was of social phobia (SIR 3.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.68-7.69). Risk of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was raised in female but not male siblings. Heritable effects likely play an important role in the cause of anxiety disorders, but the extent of their role remains to be established. Important contributions could be made by studies of gene-environment interactions that have sufficient sample sizes to produce reliable results. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. [Early sibling aggression in mammals and its hormonal correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonevich, A L; Naĭdenko, S V

    2007-01-01

    Early sibling aggression is a widespread phenomenon in birds. Ornithologists distinguish species with "obligate" and "facultative" siblicide. Sibling aggression was described in some mammal species: the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and the Iberian lynx (L. par-dinus). In all of them, sibling aggression corresponds well with the "facultative" siblicide model in birds. Sibling aggression was observed at the age of 36-64 days in both lynx species. It is usually restricted to a single fight and can change the hierarchical structure and growth rate of the kittens. In the spotted hyena and the domestic pig, the frequency and intensity of aggressive interactions between siblings are strongest during the first days of postnatal ontogeny and then decrease gradually. The newborns of these species are much developed than newborn lynx kittens. Usually adult lynx females, in contrast to hyenas and pigs, try to stop sibling fights. This is probably related to the larger parental investment at the time of the fight in lynxes (a kitten's body weight is about 10% of the mother's) than in pigs (0.5%) and hyenas (1.9%). Sibling aggression in spotted hyenas could be related to the high level of androstenedione and is not related to testosterone concentration. In the Eurasian lynx, female sibs attack their littermates slightly more often than male sibs do, and sibling aggression is not testosterone-dependent. Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands may play an important role in this phenomenon. The data available so far, however, do not positively confirm the presence of hormonal trigger effects in mammal sibling aggression.

  15. Mothers', fathers', and siblings' perceptions of parents' differential treatment of siblings: Links with family relationship qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2017-10-01

    A family systems perspective directs attention to the potentially different experiences and perspectives of family members. This study examined parents' differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, discrepancies between parent and youth reports of PDT, and their links with relationships between adolescents and their mothers and fathers across three years. Participants were first- (Time 1 M age = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (Time 1 M age = 13.18, SD = 1.29) siblings from 381, predominately white, working and middle class families. Analyses revealed that siblings' perceptions of being favored predicted less conflict with and greater warmth from both mothers and fathers, primarily for secondborn adolescents. Larger discrepancies between maternal and youth reports of differential affection were linked to more maternal conflict and less warmth for firstborns. These findings may suggest a hierarchy within families: parents may serve as referents for firstborns and firstborns as referents for secondborns. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Older Siblings’ Contributions to Young Child’s Cognitive Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xianhua; Heckman, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This work finds that older siblings as well as early parenting influence young children’s cognitive skills directly or indirectly, for example, Mathematics, and English. Our findings challenge a pervasive view in the economical literatures that early parenting play a dominant role in explaining child development. In economics, early environmental conditions are important to demonstrate the evolution of adolescent and adult cognitive skills (Knudsen, Heckman, Cameron, and Shonkoff, 2006; Cunha...

  17. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. The Perceptions of Professionals Toward Siblings of Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Lee, Chung Eun; Arnold, Catherine K; Owen, Aleksa

    2017-04-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report struggling to navigate the adult disability service delivery system and collaborate with professionals. To date, though, it is unclear how professionals encourage sibling involvement and, accordingly, the facilitators and challenges in working with siblings. For this study, 290 professionals participated in a national web-based survey; participants answered three open-ended questions about ways to involve siblings, positive experiences with siblings, and challenges in working with siblings. Professionals reported person-level and systems-level supports to encourage sibling involvement. Also, professionals reported enjoying working with cohesive families of individuals with IDD and witnessing the benefits that siblings bring to their brothers and sisters with IDD. Challenges in working with siblings included: lack of sibling involvement, systemic barriers, and caregiving burden. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  19. Applied behavior analysis programs for autism: sibling psychosocial adjustment during and following intervention use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.

  20. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M L; Branje, Susan J T; VanderValk, Inge E; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of siblings on identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood, using a three-wave longitudinal design. Measures of identity formation were filled out by 498 sibling dyads. Sibling effects differed as a function of age and gender configuration within the dyads. Controlled for age, earlier-born siblings reported the most advanced levels of identity formation, and later-born siblings the lowest. Positive relations between siblings' identity and changes in identity of respondents provided support for modeling processes between siblings. The identity of earlier-born same-sex siblings, in particular, tends to be important in influencing identity formation. Contrary to the expectations, differentiation processes between siblings did not appear to influence identity formation. It is apparent from this study that both the gender and birth order of siblings affect whether their own identity formation processes influence those of adolescents and emerging adults.

  1. Sibling violence silenced: rivalry, competition, wrestling, playing, roughhousing, benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debby A; Phillips, Kate H; Grupp, Kitty; Trigg, Lisa J

    2009-01-01

    In this article, sibling violence and the silence surrounding it is explicated through professional literature and research findings, exemplars from clinical practice, and statistics. Theoretical positions and discourse analysis have been used to help explain how regular broken bones, bruises, lacerations, and verbal humiliation can be minimized as normal sibling rivalry or roughhousing, which does not cause serious consequences. Nursing should be on the front lines of ending practices of violence. Recognizing sibling violence as such is part of this work and is a social justice issue.

  2. Genetic Analysis for Two Italian Siblings with Usher Syndrome and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Domanico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders characterized by deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and sometimes vestibular areflexia. The relationship between Usher syndrome and mental disorders, most commonly a “schizophrenia-like” psychosis, is sometimes described in the literature. The etiology of psychiatric expression of Usher syndrome is still unclear. We reported a case of two natural siblings with congenital hypoacusis, retinitis pigmentosa, and psychiatric symptoms. Clinical features and genetic analysis were also reported. We analyzed possible causes to explain the high prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in Usher syndrome: genetic factors, brain damage, and “stress-related” hypothesis.

  3. Genetic analysis for two italian siblings with usher syndrome and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Trabucco, Paolo; Nebbioso, Marcella; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders characterized by deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and sometimes vestibular areflexia. The relationship between Usher syndrome and mental disorders, most commonly a "schizophrenia-like" psychosis, is sometimes described in the literature. The etiology of psychiatric expression of Usher syndrome is still unclear. We reported a case of two natural siblings with congenital hypoacusis, retinitis pigmentosa, and psychiatric symptoms. Clinical features and genetic analysis were also reported. We analyzed possible causes to explain the high prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in Usher syndrome: genetic factors, brain damage, and "stress-related" hypothesis.

  4. Aggression between siblings : associations with the home environment and peer bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, v...

  5. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette F; Dalton, Susanne O; Cederkvist, Luise; Jeppesen, Pia; Deltour, Isabelle; Hargreave, Marie; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Andersen, Klaus K; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings. Hospital contact for mental disorders was assessed in a population-based cohort of 7085 Danish children treated for cancer by contemporary protocols between 1975 and 2010 and in their 13 105 siblings by use of data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for first hospital contact were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared these sibling and survivor cohorts with two population-based cohorts who were not childhood cancer survivors or siblings of survivors. Survivors of childhood cancer were at increased risk of hospital contact for mental disorders, with HRs of 1·50 (95% CI 1·32-1·69) for males and 1·26 (1·10-1·44) for females. Children younger than 10 years at diagnosis had the highest risk, and increased risks were seen in survivors of CNS tumours, haematological malignancies, and solid tumours. Survivors had higher risk of neurodevelopmental, emotional, and behavioural disorders than population-based comparisons and siblings, and male survivors had higher risk for unipolar depression. Overall, siblings had no excess risk for mental disorders. However, our data suggest that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis of the survivor were at increased risk for mental disorders, whereas those older than 15 years at diagnosis were at a lower risk than the general population. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed up for mental late effects, especially those diagnosed in young age. Further, clinicians should also be aware that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis might be at increased risk for mental health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  7. Child, parent and family factors as predictors of adjustment for siblings of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R; Gavidia-Payne, S

    2006-12-01

    Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling coping; (3) parent stress; (4) parenting; and (5) family resilience. Multiple regression techniques were used. It was found that parent and family factors were stronger predictors of sibling adjustment difficulties than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping. Specifically, socio-economic status, past attendance at a sibling support group, parent stress, family time and routines, family problem-solving and communication, and family hardiness-predicted sibling adjustment difficulties. Finally, siblings' perceived intensity of daily uplifts significantly predicted sibling prosocial behaviour. The results revealed that the family level of risk and resilience factors were better predictors of sibling adjustment than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping resources, highlighting the importance of familial and parental contributions to the sibling adjustment process. The implications of these results for the design of interventions and supports for siblings are discussed.

  8. Who's the Boss? Patterns of Control in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Baril, Megan E

    2010-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine longitudinal changes in perceived control in adolescents' sibling relationships and to describe the nature and correlates of three distinct control patterns: Firstborn dominant, equal, and secondborn dominant. Firstborn and secondborn adolescents in 184 predominately European-American families participated in home interviews and a series of phone interviews as part of a longitudinal a study of family relationships and adolescent development. Findings revealed changes in control over three years as well as sibling differences. In addition, different patterns of control were linked to qualities of the sibling relationship and to adolescent adjustment. The different roles that firstborn and secondborn siblings assume, and why these roles are linked to relationship experiences and adjustment, are discussed.

  9. Fragile X syndrome in two siblings with major congenital malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampietro, P.F.; Haas, B.R.; Lipper, E. [Cornell Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on 2 brothers with both fragile X and VACTERL-H syndrome. The first sibling, age 5, had bilateral cleft lip and palate, ventricular septal defect, and a hypoplastic thumb. The second sibling, age 2{1/2}, had a trachesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and vertebral abnormality. High-resolution chromosome analysis showed a 46,XY chromosome constitution in both siblings. By PCR and Southern blot analysis, the siblings were found to have large triplet repeat expansions in the fragile X gene (FMR 1) and both had methylation mosaicism. Enzyme kinetic studies of iduronate sulfatase demonstrated a two-fold increase in activity in the first sib as compared to the second. Possible mechanisms through which the fragile X mutation can cause down-regulation of adjacent loci are discussed. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  10. My sister's keeper?: genomic research and the identifiability of siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic sequencing of SNPs is increasingly prevalent, though the amount of familial information these data contain has not been quantified. Methods We provide a framework for measuring the risk to siblings of a patient's SNP genotype disclosure, and demonstrate that sibling SNP genotypes can be inferred with substantial accuracy. Results Extending this inference technique, we determine that a very low number of matches at commonly varying SNPs is sufficient to confirm sib-ship, demonstrating that published sequence data can reliably be used to derive sibling identities. Using HapMap trio data, at SNPs where one child is homozygotic major, with a minor allele frequency ≤ 0.20, (N = 452684, 65.1% we achieve 91.9% inference accuracy for sibling genotypes. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that substantial discrimination and privacy risks arise from use of inferred familial genomic data.

  11. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Sibling Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    . We test this assumption and assess the importance of family background and neighborhood effects as determinants of entrepreneurship, by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained...... by factors that siblings share (i.e., family background and neighborhood effects). The average is 28 percent. Hence, entrepreneurship is far less than fully determined at a young age. Our estimates increase only a little when allowing for differential treatment within families by gender and birth order. We...... then investigate a comprehensive set of mechanisms that explain sibling similarities. Parental entrepreneurship plays a large role in explaining sibling similarities, as do shared genes. We show that neighborhood effects matter, but are rather small, particularly when compared with the overall importance of family...

  12. Choanal atresia in siblings; Case report | Kaitesi | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choanal atresia is an uncommon and often poorly recognized cause of unilateral or bilateral nasal obstruction. This report describes the case of bilateral choanal atresia in two consecutive siblings and describes the methods of treatment offered.

  13. Psychoeducation for siblings of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Jordan, Cheryl D; Barley, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Claire; Norman, Ian

    2015-05-08

    Many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have siblings. Siblings are often both natural agents to promote service users' recovery and vulnerable to mental ill health due to the negative impact of psychosis within the family. Despite a wealth of research evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation for service users with SMI and their family members, in reducing relapse and promoting compliance with treatment, siblings remain relatively invisible in clinical service settings as well as in research studies. If psychoeducational interventions target siblings and improve siblings' knowledge, coping with caring and overall wellbeing, they could potentially provide a cost-effective option for supporting siblings with resulting benefits for service users' outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI.The secondary objective was, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and screened the reference lists of relevant reports and reviews (12th November 2013). We contacted trial authors for unpublished and specific data on siblings' outcomes. All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducational interventions targeting siblings of all ages (on their own or amongst other family members including service users) of individuals with SMI, using any means and formats of delivery, i.e. individual (family), groups, computer-based. Two review authors independently screened the abstracts and extracted data and two other authors independently checked the screening and extraction process. We contacted authors of trials to ascertain siblings' participation in the trials and seek sibling-specific data in those studies where siblings' data were grouped together with other participants' (most commonly other family members

  14. Exploring sibling attitudes towards participation when the younger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a study involving parents of preschool children who were receiving ... Typically developing children who have a younger sibling with a disability often feel inadequately supported and excluded ..... from pressure where children.

  15. Prosocial competencies among adolescent siblings of the physically disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Perenc; Mieczysław Radochoński; Anna Radochońska

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary school...

  16. Examining Courtesy Stigma in Siblings of People with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fulk, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether siblings of people with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma, a stigma acquired as a result of an association with a person from a stigmatized group. The central hypothesis was that the majority of people who have a sibling with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma during both adolescence and adulthood. The data supports this hypothesis, showing that 76% of respondents reported courtesy stigma as adolescents and 62% reported courtesy stigma as ad...

  17. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Barch, Deanna M.; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We fo...

  18. Upaya Mengatasi Sibling Rivalry melalui Layanan Konseling Kelompok

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Turniati; Eko Nusantoro

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 kecamatan Tembalang kota Semarang yang mengalami sibling rivalry. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui apakah konseling kelompok dapat mengatasi sibling rivalry pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian eksperiment dengan desain penelitian one group pre-test dan pos-test design. Subyek penelitian ini, siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 yang memiliki ting...

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles among 'healthy' siblings of patients with early-onset cardiovascular disease: application of the new SCORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Paul G; Kamaruddin, Muhammad S; Moore, Michael J; McCarty, David; Spence, Mark S; McGlinchey, Paul G; Murphy, Gillian; Jardine, Tracy C L; Patterson, Chris C; McKeown, Pascal P

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs more frequently in individuals with a family history of premature CVD. Within families the demographics of CVD are poorly described. We examined the risk estimation based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system and the Joint British Guidelines (JBG) for older unaffected siblings of patients with premature CVD (onset siblings. Siblings were screened for clinically overt CVD by a standard questionnaire and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). A total of 790 siblings was identified and full demographic details were available for 645. The following siblings were excluded: 41 with known diabetes mellitus; seven with random plasma glucose of 11.1 mmol/l or greater; and eight with ischaemic ECG. Data were analysed for 589 siblings from 405 families. The mean age was 55.0 years, 43.1% were men and 28.7% were smokers. The mean total serum cholesterol was 5.8 mmol/l and hypertension was present in 49.4%. Using the SCORE system, when projected to age 60 years, 181 men (71.3%) and 67 women (20.0%) would be eligible for risk factor modification. Using JBG with a 10-year risk of 20% or greater, 42 men (16.5%) and four women (1.2%) would be targeted. Large numbers of these asymptomatic individuals meet both European and British guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and should be targeted for risk factor modification. The prevalence of individuals defined as eligible for treatment is much higher when using the SCORE system.

  20. [Sibling relations in processing sexual trauma: the film "The Celebration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohni, H

    2001-01-01

    Movies appeal as a subject of psychoanalytical art interpretation due to their structural closeness to "scenical understanding" and enrich our Insight into human relationships. The movie Das Pest is worth seeing because of its particular aesthetic form and because of its message about sibling relationships. According to the assessment of film journalists the movie shows the dismantling of middle class society and the reinscenation of destructive violence. In this author's interpretation, however, the movie leads out of passing violence on through the generations and herein differs from numerous current movies about siblings. The movie is about the process of a constructive development in the reciprocal relationships between four siblings and shows this in the formal structure of a film. With countertransference and our "viewing habits" the author discusses why this development could be overlooked. The movie shows neither a sibling fixation nor an idealization of sibling love as a regressive, timeless topos, but rather a horizontal relationship process. This is open towards partners and allows for a conciliatory attitude towards the parents. The movie is able to show this process conclusively under the burden of intergenerational violence and in its creativity enriches our image of sibling relationships.

  1. Response to 'A relational approach to Saviour Siblings?' by Selgelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    In his concise argument, 'A relational approach to saviour siblings?', Selgelid reiterates some of the arguments raised in the author meets critics discussion of my book, Saviour Siblings In this response, I highlight an important misunderstanding in one of the arguments put forward by Selgelid, which forms the basis of a large portion of his analysis. Contrary to what Selgelid contends, I do not use the deafness case in my discussion of the non-identity problem to contend that the case of selecting for deafness is ethically different from the case of saviour siblings. As I state in my reply, I use the case of deafness not as a comparator for saviour siblings but rather to illustrate the different categories of risk that apply in selection cases Given this confusion, I restate my objection to relying on the non-identity problem in evaluating risk of harm associated with the embryo biopsy process for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Finally, I reiterate that the individual interests of saviour siblings remain important in the decision-making matrix and emphasise that Saviour Siblings offers a more contextualised approach to the welfare of the child in selective reproduction, which includes both individual and collective interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Expressed emotion in children: associations with sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, I; Daley, D

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the expressed emotion (EE) measure, the Pre-school Five Minute Speech Sample (PFMSS), in child-to-child sibling relationships. A total of 106 boys aged 7-11 were recruited from 12 mainstream primary schools in North Wales. The children completed the PFMSS regarding their sibling and two self-report measures of sibling relationship: the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) and a Child Visual Analogue Scale (CVAS). The parents of 60 participants completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire regarding the behavioural problems of the participating child and his younger sibling. The PFMSS demonstrated good inter-rater and code-recode reliability. The significant associations between EE dimensions such as relationship, positive comments and critical comments with various components of the SRQ and CVAS provided support for the concurrent validity of the PFMSS. Significantly higher levels of Conflict and Rivalry and significantly lower levels of Warmth/Closeness on the SRQ were reported by children with high EE, demonstrating good discriminant validity for the PFMSS. There was no significant association between the child's EE profile and the behavioural difficulties of both siblings as reported by parents. The study found that the PFMSS is a valid and reliable measure of child EE. Future research is needed to clarify the concurrent validity of the warmth and initial statement components of the measure as well as the association between EE dimensions and behaviour.

  3. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  4. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  5. Associations between Stereotype Awareness, Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology: A Study in People with Psychosis, Their Siblings and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Catherine; van Nierop, Martine; van Dam, Daniëlla S.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Delespaul, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stereotype awareness—or an individual’s perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public—is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT) is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA) in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls. Method Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis) were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent’s perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form). Results In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA). In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings). Conclusion CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology. PMID:25705878

  6. Associations between stereotype awareness, childhood trauma and psychopathology: a study in people with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine van Zelst

    Full Text Available Stereotype awareness--or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public--is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls.Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form.In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA. In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA, independent of symptoms (patients or schizotypy (siblings.CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.

  7. 'Recognized, Valued and Supported'? The Experiences of Adult Siblings of People with Autism Plus Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl

    2015-07-01

    The potential of adult siblings to offer long-term support to a brother or sister with autism is rarely realized. To understand this, our study explores the expectations of social care among adult siblings. Using qualitative interviews, we spoke to 21 adult siblings about their family relationships and engagement with service delivery, met with 12 of their siblings with autism and talked to 12 social care staff. Siblings, although reflecting on the difficulties of growing up with someone who had autism, expressed a commitment towards their brother or sister. Most wanted involvement in their care. While some siblings described positive relationships with services, many felt marginalized. Practitioners largely confirmed their perceptions, while offering a justification for why they struggled to engage with adult siblings. By understanding the way relationships between siblings change over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their disabled brother or sister can be better supported. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Adapted Measure of Sibling Attachment: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency of the Sibling Attachment Inventory in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie A; Francis, Sarah E; Tilley, Micah A

    2018-04-01

    Parent-youth and peer relationship inventories based on attachment theory measure communication, trust, and alienation, yet sibling relationships have been overlooked. We developed the Sibling Attachment Inventory and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 172 youth ages 10-14 years. We adapted the 25-item Sibling Attachment Inventory from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised peer measure. Items loaded onto three factors, identified as communication, trust, and alienation, α = 0.93, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively. Sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression (r s  = -0.33, r s  = 0.48) and self-worth (r s  = 0.23; r s  = -0.32); sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression after controlling for parent trust and parent alienation (r s  = -0.23, r s  = 0.22). Preliminary analyses showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental predictive validity. Following replication of these properties, this measure can facilitate large cohort assessments of sibling attachment.

  9. Sibling Relationships and Empathy Across the Transition to Adolescence Sibling Relationships and Empathy Across the Transition to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Although socioemotional competencies have been identified as key components of youths’ positive development, most studies on empathy are cross-sectional, and research on the role of the family has focused almost exclusively on parental socialization. This study examined the developmental course of empathy from age 7 to 14 and the within-person associations between sibling warmth and conflict and youths’ empathy. On three occasions across 2 years, mothers, fathers, and the two eldest siblings from 201 White, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire data. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for youths’ pubertal status and parental education, girls’ empathy increased during the transition to adolescence and then leveled off, but boys’ lower levels of empathy remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, controlling for parental responsiveness and marital love, at times when firstborns and second-borns reported more sibling warmth and less sibling conflict than usual, they also reported more empathy than usual. The within-person association between sibling warmth and empathy also became stronger over time. Findings highlight gender differences in empathy development and the unique role of siblings in shaping each other’s socioemotional characteristics during adolescence. PMID:22714744

  10. At issue: siblings of patients with schizophrenia: sibling bond, coping patterns, and fear of possible schizophrenia heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, Gabriella; Ekerwald, Hedvig; Hultman, Christina M

    2004-01-01

    Siblings of schizophrenia patients are from the patient's perspective important support providers, but most studies on family burden have focused on the parental role. This study aims to develop a detailed analysis of the psychological aspects of having a sibling with schizophrenia. We did a qualitative study with audiotaped semistructured interviews of 16 siblings. The reliability of the inductive categorization of data was high. A unifying theme appeared to be an emotional sibling bond characterized by feelings of love, sorrow, anger, envy, guilt, and shame. The major categories linked to coping with the situation were avoidance, isolation, normalization, caregiving, and grieving. A third major theme consisted of a fear of possible schizophrenia heredity. The siblings described concerns about the impact of a family history of psychiatric illness, a fear of becoming mentally ill, and reflections about "bad genes." Our findings support earlier findings of coping patterns but complement them by providing a model that includes awareness of genetic vulnerability as an important part of siblings' subjective burden.

  11. Effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency: a sibling comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuki, Edwin S.; Powers, James; Schwartz, Phillip H.; Watkins, Paul A.; Shi, Yang; Moser, Ann; Shrier, David A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Nugent, Diane J.; Abdenur, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX1) deficiency is a rare disorder of peroxisomal very-long chain fatty acid oxidation. No reports detailing attempted treatment, longitudinal imaging, or neuropathology exist. We describe the natural history of clinical symptoms and brain imaging in two siblings with ACOX1 deficiency, including the younger sibling's response to allogeneic unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods We conducted retrospective chart review to obtain clinical history, neuro-imaging, and neuropathology data. ACOX1 genotyping were performed to confirm the disease. In vitro fibroblast and neural stem cell fatty acid oxidation assays were also performed. Results Both patients experienced a fatal neurodegenerative course, with late-stage cerebellar and cerebral gray matter atrophy. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging in the younger sibling indicated demyelination began in the medulla and progressed rostrally to include the white matter of the cerebellum, pons, midbrain, and eventually subcortical white matter. The successfully engrafted younger sibling had less brain inflammation, cortical atrophy, and neuronal loss on neuroimaging and neuropathology compared to the untreated older sister. Fibroblasts and stem cells demonstrated deficient very long chain fatty acid oxidation. Interpretation Although HSCT did not halt the course of ACOX1 deficiency, it reduced the extent of white matter inflammation in the brain. Demyelination continued because of ongoing neuronal loss, which may be due to inability of transplant to prevent progression of gray matter disease, adverse effects of chronic corticosteroid use to control graft-versus-host disease, or intervention occurring beyond a critical point for therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24619150

  12. Cochlear Implantation in Siblings With Refsum's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähr, Kerstin; Kuechler, Alma; Gencik, Martin; Arnolds, Judith; Dendy, Meaghan; Lang, Stephan; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana

    2017-08-01

    Whether the origin of severe hearing loss in Refsum's syndrome is caused by cochlear impairment or retrocochlear degeneration remains unclear. This case report aims to investigate hearing performance before and after cochlear implantation to shed light on this question. Also, identification of new mutations causing Refsum's syndrome would be helpful in generating additional means of diagnosis. A family of 4 individuals was subjected to genetic testing. Two siblings (56 and 61 years old) suffered from severe hearing and vision loss and received bilateral cochlear implants. Genetic analysis, audiological outcome, and clinical examinations were performed. One new mutation in the PHYH gene (c.768del63bp) causing Refsum's disease was found. Preoperative distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPAOEs) were absent. Postoperative speech perception in Freiburger speech test was 100% for bisyllabic words and 85% (patient No. 1) and 65% (patient No. 2), respectively, for monosyllabic words. Five years after implantation, speech perception remained stable for bisyllabic words but showed decreasing capabilities for monosyllabic words. A new mutation causing Refsum's disease is presented. Cochlear implantation in case of severe hearing loss leads to an improvement in speech perception and should be recommended for patients with Refsum's disease, especially when the hearing loss is combined with a severe loss of vision. Decrease of speech perception in the long-term follow-up could indicate an additional retrocochlear degeneration.

  13. Morphological integration of soft-tissue facial morphology in Down Syndrome and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common live-born human aneuploidy. The phenotypic expression of trisomy 21 produces variable, though characteristic, facial morphology. Although certain facial features have been documented quantitatively and qualitatively as characteristic of DS (e.g., epicanthic folds, macroglossia, and hypertelorism), all of these traits occur in other craniofacial conditions with an underlying genetic cause. We hypothesize that the typical DS face is integrated differently than the face of non-DS siblings, and that the pattern of morphological integration unique to individuals with DS will yield information about underlying developmental associations between facial regions. We statistically compared morphological integration patterns of immature DS faces (N = 53) with those of non-DS siblings (N = 54), aged 6-12 years using 31 distances estimated from 3D coordinate data representing 17 anthropometric landmarks recorded on 3D digital photographic images. Facial features are affected differentially in DS, as evidenced by statistically significant differences in integration both within and between facial regions. Our results suggest a differential affect of trisomy on facial prominences during craniofacial development. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Complete Familial Currarino Triad in Association with Hirschsprung's Disease: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features and the Spectrum of Anorectal Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilickesmez, O.; Hakki Gol, I.; Uzun, M.; Oruk, C. [Diyarbakir Military Hospital (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Currarino syndrome, a rare hereditary condition, is defined as a partial sacral agenesis associated with a presacral mass and anorectal malformation. The authors present two siblings with complete Currarino triad and their mother with incomplete triad. The complete Currarino triad in the older sibling was associated with Hirschsprung's disease as the second reported case in the literature. Anorectal malformations, whether suspected of Currarino syndrome or not, should be examined with lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  16. Familial concordance of phenotype and microbial variation among siblings with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Elie; Aviram, Micha; Yahav, Yaakov; Rivlin, Joseph; Blau, Hanna; Bentur, Lea; Avital, Avraham; Villa, Yael; Schwartz, Shepard; Kerem, Batsheva; Kerem, Eitan

    2004-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) is influenced by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype. However, variable courses of the disease were demonstrated among patients with identical genotypes. Since siblings share identical CFTR mutations and environmental factors, they can serve as a model to assess the effect of modifier genes on disease expression, and also to evaluate cross-infection. The aim of this study was to compare disease expression among siblings with CF. All sibling pairs treated at 7 CF centers in Israel were included in the study. Data were collected from patients' medical charts. Fifty families with at least 2 siblings were identified. As expected, the second-born sibling was diagnosed at an earlier age compared to the first-born. The mode of CF presentation at diagnosis showed significant familial concordance. In the families where the first sibling presented with gastrointestinal manifestations, 79% of the second siblings also presented with gastrointestinal manifestations. When gastrointestinal manifestations were absent in the first sibling, only 12% of the second siblings presented with gastrointestinal manifestations (P sibling presented with respiratory symptoms, 60% of the second siblings presented with the similar symptoms. However, when the first sibling presented without respiratory symptoms, only 12% of the second siblings presented with respiratory symptoms (P sibling had MI, 8 (80%) of the subsequent siblings had MI. On the other hand, in the 39 families where the first-born sibling did not have MI, only 2 (5%) subsequent siblings had MI (P siblings. P. aeruginosa grew from sputum in 89% of our study patients. When P. aeruginosa was isolated from the first-born patient, 91% of the second siblings were also positive for P. aeruginosa, whereas when the initial sibling was not a carrier of P. aeruginosa, only 50% of subsequent siblings were positive (P sibling than in the first for the two

  17. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Chawes, Bo L.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.

    2016-01-01

    -related mediators. This was supported by the PCA showing a highly significant difference between children with vs. without siblings: p...BACKGROUND: Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of later asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates. We hypothesized that siblings exert immune modulatory......-cohort (COPSAC2010). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analyses (PCA). RESULTS: Neonates with siblings had an up-regulated level of airway immune-mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17...

  18. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MAOA/B deletion syndrome in male siblings with severe developmental delay and sudden loss of muscle tonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mari; Yamagata, Takanori; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Shiba, Yusuke; Nagashima, Masako; Taniguchi, Shuhei; Jimbo, Eriko; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B was detected in two male siblings and in their mother. The approximately 800-kb deletion, extending from about 43.0MB to 43.8MB, was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The MAOA and MAOB genes were included in the deletion, but the adjacent Norrie disease gene, NDP, was not deleted. The boys had short stature, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone, exiting behavior, lip-smacking and autistic features. The serotonin levels in their cerebrospinal fluid were extremely elevated. Another set of siblings with this deletion was reported previously. We propose recognition of MAOA/B deletion syndrome as a distinct disorder. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.