WorldWideScience

Sample records for older road user

  1. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2017-07-31

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  2. Managing the safe mobility of older road users: How to cope with their diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an ageing population, the management of older people's safe mobility is becoming an increasingly important issue. Mobility is vital for older people's quality of life and several examples of good practice that support older people's safe mobility already exist. However......, the older population is increasingly diverse and its different segments have different mobility needs and expectations. This paper has reviewed practices to manage older people's safe mobility and identified 29 examples of good practice which fall into six categories. The different kinds of practices were...... assessed with regard to their suitability for different segments of the older population as identified in previous studies. In addition, we considered whether the needs of certain segments remain unmet. Our study found that most practices target individuals with mobility restrictions and mainly attract...

  3. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  4. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  5. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  6. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  7. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  8. The road user behaviour of school students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Amir Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Khanjani, Narges; Zirak Moradlou, Hossein; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-02-01

    The present study developed a Persian version of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) and investigated the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of school students in the province of Tehran (Iran). In total 1111 adolescents completed the Persian version of the ARBQ. Exploratory factor analysis, using the shortened 21-item version of the scale revealed the presence of three reliable factors which were also supported using confirmatory factor analysis. According to this research, engagement in dangerous playing in the road was significantly higher among males, residents of large urban areas, students from private schools, students in the south of Tehran, those who reported relatives or friends had been killed in a road crash and those with a personal history of road accidents. Moreover, older adolescents, those who reported relatives or friends having been killed in a road crash and those with a traffic accident history reported higher involvement in unsafe crossing behaviour. Females, older adolescents, residents of small urban areas, students from schools in small urban areas and those with an accident history also reported less frequent engagement in planned protective behaviours. This study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful framework for investigating adolescents' on-road behaviours in Iran. This research also showed that adolescents put themselves at risk by engaging in hazardous behaviours. As is the case in most countries, this study revealed the need for interventions, such as education and enforcement to improve the on-road safety culture amongst Iranian adolescents.

  9. Impact of an adequate road environment on the safety of non-motorised road users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ribbens, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ) among these vulnerable road users (VRUs) have always been high and in 2004, they constituted about 41% i.e. 5 309 of the 12 727 road fatalities on South African roads. Non-motorised road users (NMRUs) comprise a variety of road users, mostly pedestrians...

  10. Keeping Older Drivers Safe on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann, MPH, an epidemiologist from CDC's Injury Center, talks about steps older adults can take to stay safer on the road.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention.   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  11. Research on Lorry Road User Charging Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2011-2015 Business Plan, a lorry road user charging scheme has been planned to implement by the Coalition Government by 2014. This study will describe the possible impacts of such a system on the road haulage sector and the ways in which logistics providers might utilize different operating practices and technology to improve their operational performance under such circumstances in the UK. And this essay will cover the possible uses for Intelligent Transport Systems and new working practices using specific case study examples. Finally, the impacts of LRUC and several feasible countermeasures will be discussed in the following text.

  12. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  13. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial.

  14. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF ROAD-USER CHARGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil THORPE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon public attitudes to and public acceptance of road-user charging as an effective means of managing travel demand, with the overall aim of identifying the characteristics of key interest groups, the kinds of attitudes they hold and their preferences for the distribution of the benefits of generated net revenues and released roadspace. It is argued that this knowledge can play a pivotal role in the design of road-user charging systems that satisfy two important criteria – namely, that they are capable of achieving their stated objectives and are generally acceptable to the public. A case-study of three toll-rings used for revenue generation by the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim is selected, where a team of Norwegian interviewers administered a computer-based survey to a total of 756 respondents. Results of the analyses of the attitudinal data collected raise concerns about the approach of introducing initially low levels of road-use charge, designed to have negligible impacts on travel behaviour but to raise revenues to fund necessary improvements to public transport, both to familiarise private car-users with the principles of a pay-as-you-go system of charging and hopefully to reduce levels of public opposition prior to the introduction of the longer term objective of higher charges for traffic restraint. The timescale over which charges are increased may be crucial in terms of balancing a resistance to change in the longer term against the credibility of a system whose objectives are modified in the relatively short-term. The key conclusion from the first Stated Preference exercise is that there is a high degree of consensus among individuals on the importance of investing significant amounts of net revenues in new road infrastructure as well as improved public transport. The second Stated Preference exercise highlights respondents' concerns that the benefits in improved network performance achieved by a

  15. Road user behaviour analyses based on video detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tønning, Charlotte; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann

    2017-01-01

    To a large extent, traffic safety improvements rely on reliable and full-covering accident registration. This is difficult to obtain in practice. Hence, surrogate measures as traffic conflict studies can contribute with more information. To make these studies more efficient, a software called RUBA...... has been developed. It works as a watchdog – if a passing road user affects defined part(s) of the video frame, RUBA records the time of the activity. It operates with three type of detectors (defined parts of the video frame): 1) if a road user passes the detector independent of the direction, 2......) if a road user passes the area in one pre-adjusted specific direction and 3) if a road user is standing still in the detector area. Also, RUBA can be adjusted so it registers massive entities (e.g. cars) while less massive ones (e.g. cyclists) are not registered. The software has been used for various...

  16. Analysis of GNSS integrity requirements for road user charging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Salós, Daniel; Macabiau, Christophe; Martineau, Anaïs; Bonhoure, Bernard; Kubrak, Damien

    2010-01-01

    International audience; GNSS-based Road User Charging (RUC) systems are particularly interesting because of their flexibility and reduced roadside infrastructure. At present, truck toll collection systems based on GPS receivers installed on the vehicles are already deployed in German and Slovak motorways. Reliability of road tolling systems is fundamental in order to limit the loss of revenue because of undercharging and the user claims because of overcharging. Consequently, GNSS integrity mo...

  17. Fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Mainegra Hing, Marisela; Brown, Steve; McAteer, Heather; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze possible trends of fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada (pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists) from 1990 to 2012 and the role of alcohol and drugs in these cases. Drugs have rarely been documented with respect to vulnerable road users. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation's National Fatality and Serious Injury Databases and the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program databases were used. Numbers and rates of fatalities and serious injuries among vulnerable road users were analyzed and regression models were used to assess changes over time. The analyses show that while the absolute number of fatalities and the rate per 100,000 population among vulnerable road users may be decreasing, no such trends are apparent when looking at the proportions of these road user fatalities out of all motor-vehicle fatalities. The trend for the proportion of motorcyclist fatalities is significantly increasing (coef.=0.16, p<0.001). The elderly (76years or older) are overrepresented among pedestrian fatalities, and serious injuries (they represent 18.5% of all pedestrian fatalities but only 5.8% of the population), while those 15years or younger are overrepresented among cyclists (they represent 23.3% of cyclist fatalities but 19.5% of the population), and those 16 to 25years old are overrepresented among motorcyclists (27.2% of motorcyclists fatalities and 13.6% of population). Alcohol and drug use among fatally injured vulnerable road users were significant problems, especially among pedestrians. Among fatally injured pedestrians tested for alcohol and drugs, 39.7% and 43.4% tested positive, respectively. With the promotion of walking and cycling as forms of exercise and the popularity of motorcycling, the safety of vulnerable road users is an important issue. The results corroborate previous research and extend our understanding about the influence of

  18. Designing Effective Web Forms for Older Web Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Fujimura, Kaori; Gao, Qin; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to provide insight for web form design for older users. The effects of task complexity and information structure of web forms on older users' performance were examined. Forty-eight older participants with abundant computer and web experience were recruited. The results showed significant differences in task time and error rate…

  19. Designing Effective Web Forms for Older Web Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Fujimura, Kaori; Gao, Qin; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to provide insight for web form design for older users. The effects of task complexity and information structure of web forms on older users' performance were examined. Forty-eight older participants with abundant computer and web experience were recruited. The results showed significant differences in task time and error rate…

  20. Groundwork for GNSS integrity monitoring in urban road applications. The road user charging case

    OpenAIRE

    Salós, Daniel; Martineau, Anaïs; Macabiau, Christophe; Kubrak, Damien; Bonhoure, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    http://www.ion.org/publications/abstract.cfm?articleID=9229; International audience; GNSS-based Road User Charging (RUC) systems have recently attracted special attention because of their flexibility and reduced roadside infrastructure. For instance, German and Slovak motorways already perform truck toll collection by means of GPS receivers installed on the vehicles. Road toll belongs to the so-called liability critical applications, which are characterized by the fact that they must use trus...

  1. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort...... is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However......, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce....

  2. The road user behaviour of school students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, Mark J M; Thomas, Abigail; Stephens, Amanda N

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate both the on road behaviour of Belgian school students and the validity of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) in a sample of students attending school in Belgium. In total, 294 adolescents completed the ARBQ along with measures of their self-reported accident involvement and sensation seeking behaviour. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the original factor structure of: "unsafe road crossing", "playing on the road" and "planned protective behaviour" for the 21-item version of the questionnaire, but not for the full scale. Males were found to engage more often in unsafe crossing behaviour and playing on the roads. There were also age differences, with unsafe road crossing increasing with age and engagement in planned protective behaviours improving with age. Those who reported being involved in an accident also reported more frequent engagement in unsafe crossing, playing on the roads, thrill seeking behaviour and lower levels of behaviour inhibition. Therefore, this study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful tool for investigating safety-related behaviours that contribute to accident involvement.

  3. Impact Assessment of Its Applications for Vulnerable Road Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Noort, M. van; Johansson, C.; Mans, D.; Silla, A.; Bell, D.; Hancox, G.; Leden, L.; Giannelos, I.; Bax, B.; Malone, K.

    2016-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  4. Impact assessment of ITS applications for vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J. Noort, M. van Johansson, C. Mans, D. Silla, A. Bell, D. Hancox, G. Leden, L. Giannelos, I. Bax, B. & Malone, K.

    2017-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  5. Integration of vulnerable road users in cooperative ITS systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Sambeek, M. van; Moerman, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the development of an architecture for the integration of Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs), i.e. pedestrians, cyclists and powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) systems, and the requirements for VRU devices. Methods: This paper starts with a literature

  6. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  7. Victims of road rage: a qualitative study of the experiences of motorists and vulnerable road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavacuiti, Christopher; Ala-Leppilampi, Kari Juhani; Mann, Robert E; Govoni, Richard; Stoduto, Gina; Smart, Reginald; Locke, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of road rage incidents from the victims' perspectives. The data consisted of 30- to 60-min in-depth semistructured phone interviews with 29 self-identified victims of road rage. Twenty of the participants were in a motor vehicle, whereas 9 were pedestrians/cyclists. A qualitative Grounded Theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze the transcripts. Victims reported a correlation between their vulnerability and the perceived intensity/severity of the road rage incidents. The most vulnerable victims (pedestrians and cyclists) were the least likely to view road rage incidents as a random event and the most likely to feel that they were specifically targeted. Road rage incidents tended to evolve more rapidly when there was a greater real or perceived power imbalance between the victims and perpetrators. The most vulnerable victims were the most likely to have long-term physical and mental health consequences from the incident, and to significantly modify their behavior after the incident. Our analysis suggests that issues of victim vulnerability play a major role in determining the intensity, severity, and psychological consequences of road rage incidents. This seems particularly true for the most vulnerable of road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists.

  8. Building Safety Road Maps Based on Difference of Judgment of Road Users by their Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Chau Dang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing demand and interest in developing methods for analyzing smartphone logs to extract traffic safety information. Because the log is high time resolution and closely related to user activities but fragmentary and myopic, it is difficult for currently available collision probability based quantitative risk assessment methods to create traffic safety maps automatically from the driving log which require all of concrete information about a collision for example, size of vehicle, speed of pedestrian. This paper proposes a computable risk measurement method for building traffic safety maps with the logs of different users' driving, which does not discuss collision probability. The proposal is designed to compute differences in the recognition of the road environment among road users mathematically. Drivers differ in their recognition, judgment, and handling of a given situation. Suppose that a difference in recognition among users in the same situation is a signal of danger. This signal is easy to calculate by Poisson process. Each user's recognition of road environment and the safety map integrated from the collection of the recognition are generated fully automated. A real-world experiment was carried out, and the results show that the assumption and the proposed method succeeded in generating an accurate and effective traffic safety map.

  9. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  10. Adaptive Response Criteria in Road Hazard Detection Among Older Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Choi, HeeSun; Craik, Fergus I M; Levine, Brian; Moreno, Sylvain; Naglie, Gary; Zhu, Motao

    2017-09-12

    The majority of existing investigations on attention, aging, and driving have focused on the negative impacts of age-related declines in attention on hazard detection and driver performance. However, driving skills and behavioral compensation may accommodate the negative effects that age-related attentional decline places on driving performance. In this study, we examined an important question that had been largely neglected in the literature linking attention, aging, and driving: can top-down factors such as behavioral compensation, specifically adaptive response criteria, accommodate the negative impacts from age-related attention declines on hazard detection during driving? In the experiment, we used the Drive Aware Task, a task combining the driving context with well-controlled laboratory procedures measuring attention. We compared younger (n = 16, age 21 - 30) and older (n = 21, age 65 - 79) drivers on their attentional processing of hazards in driving scenes, indexed by percentage of correct response and reaction time of hazard detection, as well as sensitivity and response criterion using the signal detection analysis. Older drivers, in general, were less accurate and slower on the task than younger drivers. However, results from this experiment revealed that older, but not younger, drivers adapted their response criteria when the traffic condition changed in the driving scenes. When there was more traffic in the driving scene, older drivers became more liberal in their responses, meaning that they were more likely to report that a driving hazard was detected. Older drivers adopt compensatory strategies on hazard detection during driving. Our findings showed that, in the driving context, even at an old age our attentional functions are still adaptive according to environmental conditions. This leads to considerations on potential training methods to promote adaptive strategies which may help older drivers maintain performance in road hazard detection.

  11. Designing for older adult users of handheld technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Shirley Ann; Webbe, Frank M

    2006-01-01

    There are few interface design guidelines for handheld devices used by adults sixty years and older. Yet, this growing user group would benefit from the portability offered by such technology in promoting health management and social interaction. In this paper, we describe a usability framework for conducting studies on the use of a PocketPC by older adult caregivers. The usability framework provides a basis for conducting studies taking into account the user profile of an older adult, environment factors, usability quality factors, and technology objectives.

  12. Summary report (CORDIS) [of the European research project] PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the PROMISING-project was to capitalise on non-restrictive measures and technical developments in a number of areas to minimise the problems of vulnerable and young road users. The potential for problem reduction was specified for four target groups of vulnerable road users: pedestr

  13. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  14. A RE-ASSESSMENT OF OLDER DRIVERS AS A ROAD SAFETY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers are frequently viewed as overly represented in crashes, particularly when crash involvement per distance travelled is considered. This perception has led to a call for tighter licensing conditions for older drivers, a policy which inevitably results in mobility restrictions for at least some drivers. However there is a growing body of research evidence which shows that as a group, older drivers represent no greater road risk than drivers from other age groups once different levels of driving activity are taken into account. This paper has examined aspects of older drivers' fitness to drive based on survey data and off-road and on-road driving performance from a sample of 905 New Zealand older drivers. The results show that policies which target all older drivers and lead to licensing and mobility restrictions cannot be justified from a safety basis.

  15. Social networking sites and older users - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, Tobias; Ganea, Raluca L; Müri, René M; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-07-01

    Social networking sites can be beneficial for senior citizens to promote social participation and to enhance intergenerational communication. Particularly for older adults with impaired mobility, social networking sites can help them to connect with family members and other active social networking users. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of existing scientific literature on social networking in older users. Computerized databases were searched and 105 articles were identified and screened using exclusion criteria. After exclusion of 87 articles, 18 articles were included, reviewed, classified, and the key findings were extracted. Common findings are identified and critically discussed and possible future research directions are outlined. The main benefit of using social networking sites for older adults is to enter in an intergenerational communication with younger family members (children and grandchildren) that is appreciated by both sides. Identified barriers are privacy concerns, technical difficulties and the fact that current Web design does not take the needs of older users into account. Under the conditions that these problems are carefully addressed, social networking sites have the potential to support today's and tomorrow's communication between older and younger family members.

  16. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  17. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  18. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  19. A review of game-theoretic models of road user behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews game-theoretic models that have been developed to explain road user behaviour in situations where road users interact with each other. The paper includes the following game-theoretic models: 1.A general model of the interaction between road users and their possible reaction to measures improving safety (behavioural adaptation).2.Choice of vehicle size as a Prisoners’ dilemma game.3.Speed choice as a co-ordination game.4.Speed compliance as a game between drivers and the police.5.Merging into traffic from an acceleration lane as a mixed-strategy game.6.Choice of level of attention in following situations as an evolutionary game.7.Choice of departure time to avoid congestion as variant of a Prisoners’ dilemma game.8.Interaction between cyclists crossing the road and car drivers.9.Dipping headlights at night well ahead of the point when glare becomes noticeable.10.Choice of evasive action in a situation when cars are on collision course. The models reviewed are different in many respects, but a common feature of the models is that they can explain how informal norms of behaviour can develop among road users and be sustained even if these informal norms violate the formal regulations of the traffic code. Game-theoretic models are not applicable to every conceivable interaction between road users or to situations in which road users choose behaviour without interacting with other road users. Nevertheless, it is likely that game-theoretic models can be applied more widely than they have been until now.

  20. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  1. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing.

  2. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of ai...... pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).......In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air...

  3. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-08-01

    Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg's classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users' perspectives. Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define "normal" or "acceptable" cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air...

  5. Innovative Programs to Raise Road User Awareness in Puerto Rico Supporting the Decade of Action for Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Colucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Governor of Puerto Rico signed in 2011 a Proclamation supporting the Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020 in conjunction with a worldwide initiative approved by the United Nations General Assembly aimed to establish action plans to reduce the alarming 1.3 million fatalities and the 50 million major injuries and disability related crashes. This timely proclamation calls attention to the existing alarming traffic collisions in the Puerto Rico's 26,866 centerline-km highway network. In this paper, innovative programs that have been demonstrated to be successful in Puerto Rico during the first two years of the Decade of Action for Road Safety are presented along with their impacts on raising awareness regarding crash prevention and reducing fatalities in the existing highway network. Testimonies from road user victims, victimizer, leaders and administrators of profit and nonprofit organizations are noted for assessing the program. A future five-year action plan for raising road user awareness is also prepared to address the governor's proclamation for improving traffic safety.

  6. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  7. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    with Danish senior citizens. The material is analysed with qualitative methods. The findings of the study indicate that older persons in this study tended to perceive risk as something external (e.g., bad infrastructure) that can sometimes be managed by internal means (e.g., skills). The results also indicate...... to external factors. The present study offers a better understanding of the way older drivers perceive traffic risks and gives methodological openings for studying the risk perception and mobility choices of older people....

  8. Drivers' perception of vulnerable road users: a hazard perception approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Meir, Anat; Parmet, Yisrael

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined how experienced and young-inexperienced drivers (either trained in hazard perception or not) respond to and identify pedestrians when they appear in residential roads within populated neighborhoods and in urban roads located outside neighborhoods and usually less populated. As part of a hazard perception test, participants were connected to an eye tracking system and were asked to observe 58 traffic scene movies and press a response button each time they detected a hazardous situation. Analyzing all pedestrian-related events revealed that, regardless of driving experience or training, drivers detect pedestrians less often when they appear in urban areas and more often when they appear in residential areas. Moreover, experienced drivers processed information more efficiently than young-inexperienced drivers (both trained and untrained) when pedestrians were identified. Visual search patterns in urban and residential traffic environments are discussed.

  9. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  10. « I respect other road users. Do you? »

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is the first slogan in a road safety campaign aimed at making CERN's roads safer and more pleasant to drive on.   Getting nudged off your bike while riding along minding your own business, having to walk around a car parked on the pavement, or having an endless wait at a pedestrian crossing because drivers can't be bothered to stop... all this is highly unpleasant, and can even be dangerous. The fact that it happens all too often at your own workplace, CERN, only makes matters worse. Discourteous driving is on the rise at CERN. It tarnishes the friendly atmosphere of our Laboratory and compromises the safety of us all. It's even more regrettable when you think that we're all colleagues together. With so many pedestrians and cyclists using the roads across the CERN site, anyone who drives at 80 km/h in a 50 km/h limit is placing his own colleagues in danger. Every day, more than 15 000 vehicle journeys are made on the Meyrin site alone. Each and every one of these drivers, or in other words, e...

  11. Drug use trajectory patterns among older drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyndall B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Boeri, Thor Whalen, Benjamin Tyndall, Ellen BallardKennesaw State University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Kennesaw GA, USAAbstract: To better understand patterns of drug use trajectories over time, it is essential to have standard measures of change. Our goal here is to introduce measures we developed to quantify change in drug use behaviors. A secondary goal is to provide effective visualizations of these trajectories for applied use. We analyzed data from a sample of 92 older drug users (ages 45 to 65 to identify transition patterns in drug use trajectories across the life course. Data were collected for every year since birth using a mixed methods design. The community-drawn sample of active and former users were 40% female, 50% African American, and 60% reporting some college or greater. Their life histories provided retrospective longitudinal data on the diversity of paths taken throughout the life course and changes in drug use patterns that occurred over time. Bayesian analysis was used to model drug trajectories displayed by innovative computer graphics. The mathematical techniques and visualizations presented here provide the foundation for future models using Bayesian analysis. In this paper we introduce the concepts of transition counts, transition rates and relapse/remission rates, and we describe how these measures can help us better understand drug use trajectories. Depicted through these visual tools, measurements of discontinuous patterns provide a succinct view of individual drug use trajectories. The measures we use on drug use data will be further developed to incorporate contextual influences on the drug trajectory and build predictive models that inform rehabilitation efforts for drug users. Although the measures developed here were conceived to better examine drug use trajectories, the applications of these measures can be used with other longitudinal datasets.Keywords: drug use, trajectory patterns

  12. Road safety effect of obligatory eye test for 45 year olds and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Some years ago, the introduction of an obligatory eye test for drivers 45 years old and older was (once more) brought to discussion. We expect that the introduction of such a measure will only have a very slight positive effect on road safety. This measure, in which only visual acuity is tested, wil

  13. MobRISK: a model for assessing the exposure of road users to flash flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabou, Saif; Ruin, Isabelle; Lutoff, Céline; Debionne, Samuel; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Beaufils, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Recent flash flood impact studies highlight that road networks are often disrupted due to adverse weather and flash flood events. Road users are thus particularly exposed to road flooding during their daily mobility. Previous exposure studies, however, do not take into consideration population mobility. Recent advances in transportation research provide an appropriate framework for simulating individual travel-activity patterns using an activity-based approach. These activity-based mobility models enable the prediction of the sequence of activities performed by individuals and locating them with a high spatial-temporal resolution. This paper describes the development of the MobRISK microsimulation system: a model for assessing the exposure of road users to extreme hydrometeorological events. MobRISK aims at providing an accurate spatiotemporal exposure assessment by integrating travel-activity behaviors and mobility adaptation with respect to weather disruptions. The model is applied in a flash-flood-prone area in southern France to assess motorists' exposure to the September 2002 flash flood event. The results show that risk of flooding mainly occurs in principal road links with considerable traffic load. However, a lag time between the timing of the road submersion and persons crossing these roads contributes to reducing the potential vehicle-related fatal accidents. It is also found that sociodemographic variables have a significant effect on individual exposure. Thus, the proposed model demonstrates the benefits of considering spatiotemporal dynamics of population exposure to flash floods and presents an important improvement in exposure assessment methods. Such improved characterization of road user exposures can present valuable information for flood risk management services.

  14. 'Silk Road', the virtual drug marketplace: a single case study of user experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The online promotion of 'drug shopping' and user information networks is of increasing public health and law enforcement concern. An online drug marketplace called 'Silk Road' has been operating on the 'Deep Web' since February 2011 and was designed to revolutionise contemporary drug consumerism. A single case study approach explored a 'Silk Road' user's motives for online drug purchasing, experiences of accessing and using the website, drug information sourcing, decision making and purchasing, outcomes and settings for use, and perspectives around security. The participant was recruited following a lengthy relationship building phase on the 'Silk Road' chat forum. The male participant described his motives, experiences of purchasing processes and drugs used from 'Silk Road'. Consumer experiences on 'Silk Road' were described as 'euphoric' due to the wide choice of drugs available, relatively easy once navigating the Tor Browser (encryption software) and using 'Bitcoins' for transactions, and perceived as safer than negotiating illicit drug markets. Online researching of drug outcomes, particularly for new psychoactive substances was reported. Relationships between vendors and consumers were described as based on cyber levels of trust and professionalism, and supported by 'stealth modes', user feedback and resolution modes. The reality of his drug use was described as covert and solitary with psychonautic characteristics, which contrasted with his membership, participation and feelings of safety within the 'Silk Road' community. 'Silk Road' as online drug marketplace presents an interesting displacement away from 'traditional' online and street sources of drug supply. Member support and harm reduction ethos within this virtual community maximises consumer decision-making and positive drug experiences, and minimises potential harms and consumer perceived risks. Future research is necessary to explore experiences and backgrounds of other users. Copyright © 2013

  15. Gender effects in young road users on road safety attitudes, behaviours and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cordellieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.

  16. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  17. Numerical modeling of ADA system for vulnerable road users protection based on radar and vision sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garate, V.R.; Bours, R.C.H.; Kietlinski, K.

    2012-01-01

    The protection of vulnerable road users (VRU) remains one of the most challenging problems for our society and several governmental and consumer organization has set targets to reduce the VRU fatality and injury rates. The automotive industry is, therefore, developing pedestrian and cyclist detectio

  18. A Real-Life Based Evaluation Method of Deployable Vulnerable Road User Protection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriksson, R.; Dahlgren, M.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Montfort, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a real-life-based evaluation method, incorporating vulnerable road user (VRU) full-body loading to a vehicle with a deployable protection system in relevant test setups, and use this method to evaluate a prototype pedestrian and cyclist protection syst

  19. Numerical modeling of ADA system for vulnerable road users protection based on radar and vision sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garate, V.R.; Bours, R.C.H.; Kietlinski, K.

    2012-01-01

    The protection of vulnerable road users (VRU) remains one of the most challenging problems for our society and several governmental and consumer organization has set targets to reduce the VRU fatality and injury rates. The automotive industry is, therefore, developing pedestrian and cyclist

  20. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions.

  1. Camera location optimisation for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-12-01

    New sensor technologies (e.g. surveillance cameras, loop detectors) enable the synthesis of disaggregated vehicle information from multiple locations. This article studies the camera location problem for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes. All users are differentiated by their own acceptance degree of camera monitoring and make their route choices in a logit-based stochastic user equilibrium manner. A bi-level programming model is proposed to formulate the problem and solved by the sensitivity analysis based branch and bound method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model application and show the effectiveness of the solution method.

  2. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession.

  3. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  4. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies.

  5. Simulating the interaction of road users: A glance to complexity of Venezuelan traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Juan C; Bazzan, Ana L C; Jaffe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Automotive traffic is a classical example of a complex system, being the simplest case the homogeneous traffic where all vehicles are of the same kind, and using different means of transportation increases complexity due to different driving rules and interactions between each vehicle type. In particular, when motorcyclists drive in between the lanes of stopped or slow-moving vehicles. This later driving mode is a Venezuelan pervasive practice of mobilization that clearly jeopardizes road safety. We developed a minimalist agent-based model to analyze the interaction of road users with and without motorcyclists on the way. The presence of motorcyclists dwindles significantly the frequency of lane changes of motorists while increasing their frequency of acceleration-deceleration maneuvers, without significantly affecting their average speed. That is, motorcyclist "corralled" motorists in their lanes limiting their ability to maneuver and increasing their acceleration noise. Comparison of the simulations with re...

  6. User experience with on-road electric vehicles in the U.S.A. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J. J.; Leschly, K.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 3000 on-road electric passenger cars and delivery vans are now in use in the U.S.A. and Canada. The owners and operators of almost one-third of these vehicles have been surveyed directly in an attempt to determine the suitability of commercially sold electric vehicles for real on-road jobs. This paper is primarily concerned with the analysis of the engineering aspects of the user experience with electric vehicles, i.e., mileage and application, failure modes and rates, energy economy, maintenance requirements, life cycle costs, and vehicle performance characteristics. It is concluded that existing electric vehicles can perform satisfactorily in applications that have limited performance requirements, particularly in terms of range.

  7. Older Cancer Patients’ User Experience of Online Health Information Tools: A Think Aloud Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, Sifra; Romijn, G.A.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, E.F.; Kunneman, M.; van Weert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health information is increasingly presented on the Internet. Several Web design guidelines for older Web users have been proposed; however, these guidelines are often not applied in website development. Furthermore, although we know that older individuals use the Internet to search for

  8. Older Cancer Patients’ User Experiences With Web-Based Health Information Tools : A Think Aloud Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, S.; Romijn, G.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, E.F.; Kunneman, M.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    Background: Health information is increasingly presented on the Internet. Several Web design guidelines for older Web users have been proposed; however, these guidelines are often not applied in website development. Furthermore, although we know that older individuals use the Internet to search for

  9. Older Cancer Patients’ User Experience of Online Health Information Tools: A Think Aloud Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, Sifra; Romijn, G.A.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, E.F.; Kunneman, M.; van Weert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health information is increasingly presented on the Internet. Several Web design guidelines for older Web users have been proposed; however, these guidelines are often not applied in website development. Furthermore, although we know that older individuals use the Internet to search for

  10. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  11. Graphical user interface (GUI for design of passenger car suspension system using random road profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duna Tariq Yaseen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Interactive approach has been introduced for the design of Passenger car suspension system subjected to random road profile, by building a graphical user interface (GUI, using Matlab/Guide has been presented. The aim of the work is to show the importance and usefulness of the developed GUI in designing and describing the dynamic behavior of car suspension system for different design criteria. Common problems in the field of design of suspension systems for the quarter-car passive model are analyzed. The result shows that the designed GUI is very convenient for engineers, analysts, and designers of car suspension systems.

  12. From technological acceptability to appropriation by users: methodological steps for device assessment in road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel, Stéphanie; Somat, Alain; Barbeau, Hervé; Anceaux, Françoise; Greffeuille, Catherine; Menguy, Gaëlle; Pacaux, Marie-Pierre; Subirats, Peggy; Terrade, Florence; Gallenne, Marie-Line

    2014-06-01

    This article presents the methodology developed within the framework of the research project SARI (Automated Road Surveillance for Driver and Administrator Information). This methodology is based on the logic of action research. The article presents the different stages in the development of technological innovation addressing vehicle control loss when driving on a curve. The results observed in speed reduction illustrate that no matter how optimal an innovation may be technologically speaking, it is only as effective as it is acceptable from a user standpoint. This acceptability can only be obtained if the technology is developed by engineers in liaison with social science specialists.

  13. Electroencephalography during on-the-road driving in older untreated insomnia patients and normal sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, J; Leufkens, T R M; Bulla, J; Jongen, S; Bocca, M L; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2015-07-01

    Insomniacs report decreased performance in daily routines, which may have detrimental consequences for car driving. We compared changes over time in driving performance (measured as Standard Deviation of Lateral Position - SDLP) and background EEG between 20 untreated insomnia patients (52-70 years old) and 21 normal sleepers (54-73 years old) during a 1h on-the-road driving test after a normal night of sleep, in the morning. SDLP did not differ between groups and increased slightly over time to similar degrees in both groups. EEG alpha and beta power were lower in insomniacs as compared to normal sleepers. Alpha and beta power slightly reduced during driving in normal sleepers but remained at a constant low level in insomniacs. Changes in EEG power and SDLP were not related. It is concluded that on-the-road driving performance does not differ between older insomniacs and older normal sleepers and that changes in spectral EEG measures of cortical arousal and in driving performance are not related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Traffic noise mapping of Indian roads through smartphone user community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Singh, V P

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic noise pollution is a global hazard, and rapid urbanization has aggravated the problem. This paper explores a novel approach which involves a smartphone user community to monitor the prevalent noise. The system involves a client application on smartphones that records noise, processes the information and communicates to a server and shares the information as visual noise levels on Google® Maps. A fuzzy logic-based classification of noise is proposed. Results from residential, commercial, and industrial areas of the northern region of India are demonstrated. The noise levels are generally found to be higher than the prescribed standards. The experiment demonstrates the huge potential of user community participation in monitoring noise pollution.

  15. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers.

  16. DEVELOPING A 3D ROAD CADASTRAL SYSTEM: COMPARING LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gristina, S.; C. Ellul; Scianna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country’s growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In a...

  17. Developing A 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements And User Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Gristina, S.; C. Ellul; Scianna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country’s growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In a...

  18. Everyday activities and social contacts among older deaf sign language users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werngren-Elgström, Monica; Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the everyday activities and social contacts among older deaf sign language users, and to investigate relationships between these phenomena and the health and well-being within this group. The study population comprised deaf sign language users, 65 years...... or older, in Sweden. Data collection was based on interviews in sign language, including open-ended questions covering everyday activities and social contacts as well as self-rated instruments measuring aspects of health and subjective well-being. The results demonstrated that the group of participants...... aspects of health and subjective well-being and the frequency of social contacts with family/relatives or visiting the deaf club and meeting friends. It is concluded that the variety of activities at the deaf clubs are important for the subjective well-being of older deaf sign language users. Further...

  19. Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...

  20. Power mobility with collision avoidance for older adults: User, caregiver, and prescriber perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie H. Wang, BSc (OT, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers’ perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use. Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology.

  1. Power mobility with collision avoidance for older adults: user, caregiver, and prescriber perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rosalie H; Korotchenko, Alexandra; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Mortenson, W Ben; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers' perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers) to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use). Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology.

  2. Using the event analysis of systemic teamwork (EAST) to explore conflicts between different road user groups when making right hand turns at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framework, to on-road study data. EAST was used to analyse behaviour at three intersections using data derived from an on-road study of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour. The analysis shows the differences in behaviour and cognition across the different road user groups and pinpoints instances where this may be creating conflicts between different road users. The role of intersection design in creating these differences in behaviour and resulting conflicts is discussed. It is concluded that currently intersections are not designed in a way that supports behaviour across the four forms of road user studied. Interventions designed to improve intersection safety are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Intersection safety currently represents a key road safety issue worldwide. This paper presents a novel application of a framework of ergonomics methods for studying differences in road user behaviour at intersections. The findings support development of interventions that consider all road users as opposed to one group in isolation.

  3. The effects of `non-infrastructural' measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users : a review of international findings, prepared for the OECD Scientific Expert Group "Safety of vulnerable road users".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the evaluated effects of what can be called `non-infrastructural measures' to improve the safety of vulnerable road users. Three selected areas are discussed: education and training, measures to enhance visibility and conspecuity, and protective devices for bicyclists. Other type

  4. Final consolidated progress report [of the European research project] PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The mobility needs of pedestrians, cyclists and motorised two-wheelers, are not integrated automatically in the planning for traffic and transport in Europe. As a consequence, safety policies often have a curative approach, which may restrict the mobility of these vulnerable road users. Or even stro

  5. Final consolidated progress report [of the European research project] PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The mobility needs of pedestrians, cyclists and motorised two-wheelers, are not integrated automatically in the planning for traffic and transport in Europe. As a consequence, safety policies often have a curative approach, which may restrict the mobility of these vulnerable road users. Or even

  6. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for bicy......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...

  7. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  8. Older Motorcyclists in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, D

    2017-06-01

    Older motorcyclists are under-recognised as vulnerable road users. Using Irish data from the Central Statistics Office, the Road Safety Authority and the Healthcare Pricing Office, we explored the trend of ageing riders and factors in older motorcyclist collisions and injuries. In 2005, 17 motorcyclists ≥55 were injured compared to 31 in 2012. Motorcyclists aged between 30 and 49 years and ≥50 have longer lengths of stay compared to riders <30. The percentage of motorcycles with an engine capacity of ≥750cc increased from 39.6% in 2007 to 46.7% in 2015. Older motorcyclists are less likely to be fatally injured in single vehicle collisions. Older motorcyclists are generally safer than younger riders but the proportion of older motorcyclist injury is rising. Irish road safety strategies and trauma services need to incorporate these findings into planning and development of preventive and treatment approaches

  9. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  10. User-based motion sensing and fuzzy logic for automated fall detection in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Choquette, Stéphane; Hamel, Mathieu;

    2007-01-01

    More than one third of community-dwelling older adults and up to 60% of nursing home residents fall each year, with 10-15% of fallers sustaining a serious injury. Reliable automated fall detection can increase confidence in people with fear of falling, promote active safe living for older adults,...... detection of fall events based on user-based motion sensing and fuzzy logic shows promising results. Additional rules and optimization of the algorithm will be needed to decrease the false-positive rate....

  11. Rewards and road user behaviour : an investigation of the effects of reward programs on safety belt use. Proefschrift Rijksuniversiteit Leiden RUL, Leiden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    It has been traditional practice in the traffic system for desired behaviour to be stimulated by regulations and laws, resulting in the punishment of offences. Until recently, modifying road user behaviour by rewards has not been given much attention in the practice of road safety. The aim of this m

  12. I respect other road users. Do you?/Je roule courtois, et vous ?

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is the first slogan in a road safety campaign aimed at making CERN´s roads safer and more pleasant to drive on. / Ce slogan est le premier d'une campagne de sécurité routière au CERN pour nous aider à rendre nos routes plus sures et agréables.

  13. Intertwining road user behaviour and traffic psychology with ITS in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Road safety is a core problem that the South African government battle with year-on year. One of the areas where South Africa has sadly been lacking behind is within the field of road and traffic psychology. This is despite the fact that presumably...

  14. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Temmerman, Philip; Van Poppel, Martine; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-03-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7μg/m(3)) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6μg/m(3)), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1μg/m(3)). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only.

  15. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dons, Evi, E-mail: evi.dons@vito.be [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Temmerman, Philip [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Poppel, Martine [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m{sup 3}) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m{sup 3}), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m{sup 3}). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (< 30 km/h) and at speeds above 80 km/h, in accordance to vehicle emission functions. Driving on roads with low traffic intensities resulted in lower exposures than driving on roads with higher traffic intensities (from 5.6 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More

  16. ROBIN, a Telepresence Robot to Support Older Users Monitoring and Social Inclusion: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellessa, Gabriella; Fracasso, Francesca; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Orlandini, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Coraci, Luca; De Benedictis, Riccardo; Cesta, Amedeo

    2017-08-03

    This article describes an enhanced telepresence robot named ROBIN, part of a telecare system derived from the GIRAFFPLUS project for supporting and monitoring older adults at home. ROBIN is integrated in a sensor-rich environment that aims to continuously monitor physical and psychological wellbeing of older persons living alone. The caregivers (formal/informal) can communicate through it with their assisted persons. Long-term trials in real houses highlighted several user requirements that inspired improvements on the robotic platform. The enhanced telepresence robot was assessed by users to test its suitability to support social interaction and provide motivational feedback on health-related aspects. Twenty-five users (n = 25) assessed the new multimodal interaction capabilities and new communication services. A psychophysiological approach was adopted to investigate aspects like engagement, usability, and affective impact, as well as the possible role of individual differences on the quality of human-robot interaction. ROBIN was overall judged usable, the interaction with/through it resulted pleasant and the required workload was limited, thus supporting the idea of using it as a central component for remote assistance and social participation. Open-minded users tended to have a more positive interaction with it. This work describes an enabling technology for remote assistance and social communication. It highlights the importance of being compliant with users' needs to develop solutions easy to use and able to foster their social connections. The role of personality appeared to be relevant for the interaction, underscoring a clear role of the service personalization.

  17. [Expectations and user experiences of older Roma women with health services in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fernández-Salazar, Serafín; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    To know the expectations and user experiences of older Roma women with health services in primary care (PC). Phenomenological qualitative study. Using focus groups (4-9 women/group) and semistructured interviews. Audio recorded from March to November 2011. Performed in Úbeda and Linares (Spain). Roma women over 50years. A purposive sample stratified by age and area of residence was carried out. Woman were recruited through community leaders. Process of qualitative content analysis: coding, triangulation, obtain and verify results. Supported whit the software Nvivo 8. Three focus groups and four interviews were conducted, including 23 women. The expectations for the PC are focus exclusively on their physician, being invisible other professionals. They look for a relationship with their physician based on trust. In their user experience with the PC coexist three types of user: who goes to their appointments, demands attention only in acute disease and does not attend appointments and reviews. There are socio-cultural factors related to accessibility. Older Roma women set their expectations and experiences with health service in PC around the binomial disease/physician. Expect attention based on trust and a high instrumentalization. A speech with signs of change directed towards a more active and demanding participation in PC services is observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio......-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus...

  19. Improvement of Road Safety using Geospatial open data and collaborative users information

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Castaño, José; Cabrera García, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This project solve the problem of warning to drivers in advance to take precautions when they are approaching a road risk. This notice cannot be sent too close or too far and it is made by icons, text and audio. The main goal is to use geospatial information in a collaborative way to improve road safety taken relevant information from vehicles, cyclists andpedestrians.

  20. Dairy Intake Is Protective against Bone Loss in Older Vitamin D Supplement Users: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-04-01

    Background: Previous studies showed beneficial effects of specific dairy foods on bone health in middle-aged adults.Objective: We examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes with bone mineral density (BMD) and 4-y percentage of change in BMD [▵%BMD; femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS)]. We further assessed whether these associations were modified by vitamin D supplement use in this cohort of older adults.Methods: Food-frequency questionnaire responses, baseline BMD (hip and spine, n = 862 in 1988-1989), and follow-up BMD (n = 628 in 1992-1993) were measured in the Framingham study, a prospective cohort study of older Caucasian men and women aged 67-93 y. Outcomes included baseline BMD and ▵%BMD. Dairy-food intakes (servings per week) were converted to energy-adjusted residuals, and linear regression was used, adjusting for covariates. These associations were further examined by vitamin D supplement use.Results: The mean age of the participants was 75 y. In the full sample, dairy-food items were not associated with BMD (P = 0.11-0.99) or with ▵%BMD (P = 0.29-0.96). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were associated with higher LS BMD (P = 0.011-0.009). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were protective against trochanter BMD loss (P = 0.009).Conclusions: In this population of older adults, higher intakes of milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese were associated with higher LS BMD, and a higher intake of milk + yogurt + cheese was protective against trochanter BMD loss among vitamin D supplement users but not among nonusers. These findings underscore that the benefits of dairy intake on the skeleton may be dependent on vitamin D intake.

  1. Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Sims, R E; Porter, J M; Marshall, R; Case, K

    2004-09-01

    A database was developed to support the creation of a computer-based tool which will support design teams in evaluating the usability of a design during early prototyping and indicate which individuals are effectively excluded or designed out. Methods are described for the collection of multivariate data on 100 real individuals covering a range of physical characteristics and capabilities. These data were tested to ensure a breadth of representation of individuals (particularly older and disabled people) in terms of anthropometry, joint constraints, postural capabilities and task behaviours. The concept of the design tool itself is explored by conducting virtual user trials in the computer-aided design environment. The novel approach of the research encourages empathy with individual users and allows generic abilities, such as bending, reaching and lifting to be assessed.

  2. Smart Home Strategies for User-Centered Functional Assessment of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ravishankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful aging, independence and capacity for aging in place involves the maintenance and preservation of individuals’ physical, mental and social well-being. Elderly people need to maintain the capacity to perform both activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. Advances in Smart Home technologies are increasingly able to provide embedded assessments of an individual’s functional ability in his/her home on a moment-to-moment, daily, and longitudinal basis. To date, in-situ functional assessment systems and research have focused to a greater extent on the advancement of technologies rather than the multi-faceted needs and experiences of users, however the success of any technology depends more on the users than the technology itself. This paper presents strategies for user-centric approaches to identify the technical and design challenges of developing, deploying, and using functional assessment systems in homes occupied by senior citizens. Case studies involved 4 healthy older adults (aged 65+, and examined the home deployment of smart home systems and interfaces aimed at assessment of a combination of ADL and IADL activities. Pre- and post-activity interviews were used to better understand issues related to desire, privacy, technological acceptance, suitability, and need fulfillment/support. The results inform strategies for user-centered functional assessment and assistive technology design and implementation, providing information capture, analysis, and delivery of in-home functional assessment that has the potential to support aging in place.

  3. User Experience and Care Integration in Transitional Care for Older People From Hospital to Home: A Meta-Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqueline; Hutchinson, Alison M; Brown, Rhonda; Livingston, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    This meta-synthesis aimed to improve understanding of user experience of older people, carers, and health providers; and care integration in the care of older people transitioning from hospital to home. Following our systematic search, we identified and synthesized 20 studies, and constructed a comprehensive framework. We derived four themes: (1) 'Who is taking care of what? Trying to work together"; (2) 'Falling short of the mark'; (3) 'A proper discharge'; and (4) 'You adjust somehow.' The themes that emerged from the studies reflected users' experience of discharge and transitional care as a social process of 'negotiation and navigation of independence (older people/carers), or dependence (health providers).' Users engaged in negotiation and navigation through the interrogative strategies of questioning, discussion, information provision, information seeking, assessment, and translation. The derived themes reflected care integration that facilitated, or a lack of care integration that constrained, users' experiences of negotiation and navigation of independence/dependence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Using the NIATx Model to Implement User-Centered Design of Technology for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David H; Maus, Adam; Judkins, Julianne; Dinauer, Susan; Isham, Andrew; Johnson, Roberta; Landucci, Gina; Atwood, Amy K

    2016-01-14

    What models can effectively guide the creation of eHealth and mHealth technologies? This paper describes the use of the NIATx model as a framework for the user-centered design of a new technology for older adults. The NIATx model is a simple framework of process improvement based on the following principles derived from an analysis of decades of research from various industries about why some projects fail and others succeed: (1) Understand and involve the customer; (2) fix key problems; (3) pick an influential change leader; (4) get ideas from outside the field; (5) use rapid-cycle testing. This paper describes the use of these principles in technology development, the strengths and challenges of using this approach in this context, and lessons learned from the process. Overall, the NIATx model enabled us to produce a user-focused technology that the anecdotal evidence available so far suggests is engaging and useful to older adults. The first and fourth principles were especially important in developing the technology; the fourth proved the most challenging to use.

  5. Risk of Stroke Among Older Medicare Antidepressant Users With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bilal; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Albrecht, Jennifer S

    To estimate the risk of stroke associated with new antidepressant use among older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 64 214 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older meeting inclusion criteria and hospitalized with a TBI during 2006 to 2010. New user design. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of stroke. Primary exposure was new antidepressant use following TBI identified through Medicare part D claims. The primary outcome was stroke following TBI. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were secondary outcomes. A total of 20 859 (32%) beneficiaries used an antidepressant at least once following TBI. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors accounted for the majority of antidepressant use. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (RR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.50) but not ischemic stroke (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.94-1.15). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors escitalopram (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74) and sertraline (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10-1.94) were associated with an increase in the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Findings from this study will aid prescribers in choosing appropriate antidepressants to treat depression in older adults with TBI.

  6. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The...

  7. Determinants of user acceptance of a specific social platform for older adults: An empirical examination of user interface characteristics and behavioral intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chen, Yan-Jiun; Chang, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The use of the Internet and social applications has many benefits for the elderly, but numerous investigations have shown that the elderly do not perceive online social networks as a friendly social environment. Therefore, TreeIt, a social application specifically designed for the elderly, was developed for this study. In the TreeIt application, seven mechanisms promoting social interaction were designed to allow older adults to use social networking sites (SNSs) to increase social connection, maintain the intensity of social connections and strengthen social experience. This study's main objective was to investigate how user interface design affects older people's intention and attitude related to using SNSs. Fourteen user interface evaluation heuristics proposed by Zhang et al. were adopted as the criteria to assess user interface usability and further grouped into three categories: system support, user interface design and navigation. The technology acceptance model was adopted to assess older people's intention and attitude related to using SNSs. One hundred and one elderly persons were enrolled in this study as subjects, and the results showed that all of the hypotheses proposed in this study were valid: system support and perceived usefulness had a significant effect on behavioral intention; user interface design and perceived ease of use were positively correlated with perceived usefulness; and navigation exerted an influence on perceived ease of use. The results of this study are valuable for the future development of social applications for the elderly.

  8. Determinants of user acceptance of a specific social platform for older adults: An empirical examination of user interface characteristics and behavioral intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chen, Yan-Jiun; Chang, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The use of the Internet and social applications has many benefits for the elderly, but numerous investigations have shown that the elderly do not perceive online social networks as a friendly social environment. Therefore, TreeIt, a social application specifically designed for the elderly, was developed for this study. In the TreeIt application, seven mechanisms promoting social interaction were designed to allow older adults to use social networking sites (SNSs) to increase social connection, maintain the intensity of social connections and strengthen social experience. This study’s main objective was to investigate how user interface design affects older people’s intention and attitude related to using SNSs. Fourteen user interface evaluation heuristics proposed by Zhang et al. were adopted as the criteria to assess user interface usability and further grouped into three categories: system support, user interface design and navigation. The technology acceptance model was adopted to assess older people’s intention and attitude related to using SNSs. One hundred and one elderly persons were enrolled in this study as subjects, and the results showed that all of the hypotheses proposed in this study were valid: system support and perceived usefulness had a significant effect on behavioral intention; user interface design and perceived ease of use were positively correlated with perceived usefulness; and navigation exerted an influence on perceived ease of use. The results of this study are valuable for the future development of social applications for the elderly. PMID:28837566

  9. Roads less taken: developing a nuanced view of older adults without children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Hagestad, G.O.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides the rationale for doing research on childlessness and parenthood in late life. Childless older adults have been rendered invisible in the social scientific literature. A central goal of this issue is to make them visible and to expose unstated assumptions about normal adult lif

  10. Roads Less Taken : Developing a Nuanced View of Older Adults Without Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Pearl A.; Hagestad, Gunhild O.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides the rationale for doing research on childlessness and parenthood in late life. Childless older adults have been rendered invisible in the social scientific literature. A central goal of this issue is to make them visible and to expose unstated assumptions about normal adult lif

  11. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  12. Characterization of Black Spot Zones for Vulnerable Road Users in São Paulo (Brazil and Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A. Soares Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motorized transportation modes, especially cycling and walking, offer numerous benefits, including improvements in the livability of cities, healthy physical activity, efficient urban transportation systems, less traffic congestion, less noise pollution, clean air, less impact on climate change and decreases in the incidence of diseases related to vehicular emissions. Considering the substantial number of short-distance trips, the time consumed in traffic jams, the higher costs for parking vehicles and restrictions in central business districts, many commuters have found that non-motorized modes of transportation serve as viable and economical transport alternatives. Thus, local governments should encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation. In return, governments must provide safe conditions for these forms of transportation, and motorized vehicle users must respect and coexist with pedestrians and cyclists, which are the most vulnerable users of the transportation system. Although current trends in sustainable transport aim to encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation that are socially more efficient than motorized transportation, few to no safety policies have been implemented regarding vulnerable road users (VRU, mainly in large urban centers. Due to the spatial nature of the data used in transport-related studies, geospatial technologies provide a powerful analytical method for studying VRU safety frameworks through the use of spatial analysis. In this article, spatial analysis is used to determine the locations of regions that are characterized by a concentration of traffic accidents (black zones involving VRU (injuries and casualties in São Paulo, Brazil (developing country, and Rome, Italy (developed country. The black zones are investigated to obtain spatial patterns that can cause multiple accidents. A method based on kernel density estimation (KDE is used to compare the two cities and show

  13. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at roadworks

  14. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at

  15. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers’ and cyclists’ Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  16. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-07-29

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper.

  17. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  18. Assessing the user experience of older adults using a neural network trained to recognize emotions from brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Kubo, Victoria; Morán, Alberto L; Carrillo, Ivan; Galindo, Gilberto; García-Canseco, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    The use of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies as a means to cope with problems that arise due to an increasing and aging population is becoming usual. AAL technologies are used to prevent, cure and improve the wellness and health conditions of the elderly. However, their adoption and use by older adults is still a major challenge. User Experience (UX) evaluations aim at aiding on this task, by identifying the experience that a user has while interacting with an AAL technology under particular conditions. This may help designing better products and improve user engagement and adoption of AAL solutions. However, evaluating the UX of AAL technologies is a difficult task, due to the inherent limitations of their subjects and of the evaluation methods. In this study, we validated the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults while they use a cognitive stimulation application using a neural network trained to recognize pleasant and unpleasant emotions from electroencephalography (EEG) signals by contrasting our results with those of additional self-report and qualitative analysis UX evaluations. Our study results provide evidence about the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults using a neural network that take as input the EEG signals; the classification accuracy of our neural network ranges from 60.87% to 82.61%. As future work we will conduct additional UX evaluation studies using the three different methods, in order to appropriately validate these results.

  19. User-centered Development of Video telephony for Servicing Mainly Older Users: Review and Evaluation of an Approach Applied for 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Väyrynen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and development (R&D approach has been applied to video telephony (VT in northern Finland since 1994 by broad consortia. The focus has been on the considerable involvement of ergonomics within the engineering and implementation of VT. This multidisciplinary participatory ergonomic R&D approach (PERDA is described briefly, in general and through two cases. The user-centeredness should be discernible in this sociotechnical systemic entity. A consortium—comprising mainly manufacturers, individual and organizational users of technological products, and R&D organizations—serves as a natural context for product development. VT has been considered to have much potential for enhancing (multimedia interaction and effective multimodal communication, thereby facilitating many activities of everyday life and work. An assessment of the VT system, called HomeHelper, involved older citizens, as clients or customers, and the staff of social, health, and other services.

  20. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  1. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  2. Use of and Satisfaction with Sources of Health Information among Older Internet Users and Nonusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Jessica; Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults generally have an increased need for health care information. Whereas some use the Internet to look for this information, others use more traditional sources. This study gathered data from older adults to determine their health information needs, the perceived usefulness of sources of health information, and if there are…

  3. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  4. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  5. Exploring the Relationship Between Online Social Network Site Usage and the Impact on Quality of Life for Older and Younger Users: An Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Darren; Chen, Liming; Mulvenna, Maurice D; Bond, Raymond

    2016-09-29

    Analyzing content generated by users of social network sites has been shown to be beneficial across a number of disciplines. Such analysis has revealed the precise behavior of users that details their distinct patterns of engagement. An issue is evident whereby without direct engagement with end users, the reasoning for anomalies can only be the subject of conjecture. Furthermore, the impact of engaging in social network sites on quality of life is an area which has received little attention. Of particular interest is the impact of online social networking on older users, which is a demographic that is specifically vulnerable to social isolation. A review of the literature reveals a lack of knowledge concerning the impact of these technologies on such users and even less is known regarding how this impact varies across different demographics. The objective of our study was to analyze user interactions and to survey the attitudes of social network users directly, capturing data in four key areas: (1) functional usage, (2) behavioral patterns, (3) technology, and (4) quality of life. An online survey was constructed, comprising 32 questions. Each question directly related to a research question. Respondents were recruited through a variety of methods including email campaigns, Facebook advertisements, and promotion from related organizations. In total, data was collected from 919 users containing 446 younger and 473 older users. In comparison to younger users, a greater proportion of older users (289/473, 61.1% older vs 218/446, 48.9% younger) (PFacebook had either a positive or huge impact on their quality of life. Furthermore, a greater percentage of older users strongly agreed that Facebook strengthened their relationship with other people (64/473, 13.5% older vs 40/446, 9.0%younger) (P=.02). In comparison to younger users, a greater proportion of older users had more positive emotions-classified as slightly better or very good-during their engagement with

  6. Multivitamin Use and Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Older-Adult Metformin Users in REGARDS, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Garn, Joshua V; Zakai, Neil A; Williamson, Rebecca S; Cashion, Winn T; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Judd, Suzanne E; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, is a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with subsequent reductions in vitamin B12 concentrations. The objective of our study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older adults, and whether concurrent use of multivitamins modifies this association. We examined 2,510 participants aged 50 years and over, participating in the national population-based Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between multivitamin use and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s. Results were stratified by three metformin/diabetes sub-groups: 1) participants with diabetes who were metformin users; 2) participants with diabetes who were not metformin users; and 3) participants without diabetes. We found that diabetic metformin users had significantly lower geometric mean serum B12 concentrations (409 pmol/L) than the group with diabetes not taking metformin (485 pmol/L; PB12 concentrations were greater for multivitamin users (509 pmol/L) compared to those who did not use multivitamins (376 pmol/L; pvitamin B12 concentrations that were 50% (or 161 pmol/L) higher, compared to those not using multivitamins. Among metformin users, multivitamin use was associated with lower prevalence of combined low and borderline vitamin B12 concentrations (aOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54) compared to those not using multivitamins. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with lower geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations among diabetic older adults compared to their counterparts. Concurrent multivitamin use may potentially protect against low or borderline vitamin B12 concentrations in long-term metformin users. Additional research is needed to further examine this

  7. Evaluating an Online Cognitive Training Platform for Older Adults: User Experience and Implementation Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesner, Marten; Steinert, Anika; O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Weichenberger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform. Communication or assistive features were not used often. Good usability ratings were given to the cognitive exercises. Subjective improvements of cognitive functions due to the training were reported. The current article presents concrete requirements and recommendations for deploying cognitive training software in older adult residential homes.

  8. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560),...

  9. The air quality impact of cordon and distance based road user charging: an empirical study of Leeds, U.K

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, G.; Namdeo, A.K.; Milne, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic assignment, pollutant emission and dispersion models were applied to a major UK city so as to assess the air quality impacts of five road pricing schemes. Schemes were evaluated with reference to: exceedence of air quality standards for six pollutants; greenhouse gas emission; redistribution of pollution, an environmental justice concern; and road network performance as traffic speed and trip distance. Results were compared to alternatives of do nothing, network development and clean ...

  10. New, Occasional, and Frequent Use of Zolpidem or Zopiclone (Alone and in Combination) and the Risk of Injurious Road Traffic Crashes in Older Adult Drivers: A Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevriana, Alicia; Möller, Jette; Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers. Cases were drivers aged 50-80 years involved in a vehicle crash resulting in injuries between January 2006 and December 2009 for the case-control study (n = 27,096) and from February 2006 to December 2009 for the case-crossover study (n = 26,586). For the first design, four controls were matched to each case by sex, age, and residential area, and exposure was categorized into new, occasional, and frequent use of zolpidem only, zopiclone only, and combined zolpidem and zopiclone. For the case-crossover study, newly dispensed zolpidem or zopiclone users were assessed during the 28 days prior to the crash and compared with an equally long control period using a 12-week washout period. Matched adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed using conditional logistic regression. Increased ORs for all users were observed. In the case-control study, the highest odds were seen among newly initiated zolpidem-only users involved in single-vehicle crashes (adjusted OR 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.24), followed by frequent combined zolpidem and zopiclone users [adjusted OR 2.20; CI 1.21-4.00]. In the case-crossover, newly initiated treatment with zolpidem or zopiclone showed an increased risk that was highest in the 2 weeks after the start of the treatment (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.04-6.81). These results provide more compelling evidence for the role of zolpidem or zopiclone in the occurrence of RTCs among older adults, not only in frequent users, but also at the beginning of treatment.

  11. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2012-01-01

    in Denmark. The primary data used came from the Danish road accident register. The present study compared the number of fatal accidents before and after the implementation of screening for cognitive impairment.There were two main findings. First, there was no statistically significant difference...... in the number of older drivers involved in fatal accidents before and after the implementation of the screening process, indicating that the screening had no effect on the safety of older drivers. Second, there was a significant increase in the number of unprotected older (but not younger) road users who were...

  12. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  13. The pursuit of user-friendly medicines : older people in the hot seat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, K.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the user-friendliness of medicines. Using medicines is a complex process during which many difficulties can be experienced, for instance with the opening of packaging, the breakability of tablets or the administration of eye drops. Such practical problems can lead to incorrect

  14. A First Step toward the Understanding of Implicit Learning of Hazard Anticipation in Inexperienced Road Users Through a Moped-Riding Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Tagliabue

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hazard perception is considered one of the most important abilities in road safety. Several efforts have been devoted to investigating how it improves with experience and can be trained. Recently, research has focused on the implicit aspects of hazard detection, reaction, and anticipation. In the present study, we attempted to understand how the ability to anticipate hazards develops during training with a moped-riding simulator: the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT. Several studies have already validated the HRT as a tool to enhance adolescents’ hazard perception and riding abilities. In the present study, as an index of hazard anticipation, we used skin conductance response (SCR, which has been demonstrated to be linked to affective/implicit appraisal of risk. We administered to a group of inexperienced road users five road courses two times a week apart. In each course, participants had to deal with eight hazard scenes (except one course that included only seven hazard scenes. Participants had to ride along the HRT courses, facing the potentially hazardous situations, following traffic rules, and trying to avoid accidents. During the task, we measured SCR and monitored driving performance. The main results show that learning to ride the simulator leads to both a reduction in the number of accidents and anticipation of the somatic response related to hazard detection, as proven by the reduction of SCR onset recorded in the second session. The finding that the SCR signaling the impending hazard appears earlier when the already encountered hazard situations are faced anew suggests that training with the simulator acts on the somatic activation associated with the experience of risky situations, improving its effectiveness in detecting hazards in advance so as to avoid accidents. This represents the starting point for future investigations into the process of generalization of learning acquired in new virtual situations and in real-road situations.

  15. A First Step toward the Understanding of Implicit Learning of Hazard Anticipation in Inexperienced Road Users Through a Moped-Riding Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Gianfranchi, Evelyn; Sarlo, Michela

    2017-01-01

    Hazard perception is considered one of the most important abilities in road safety. Several efforts have been devoted to investigating how it improves with experience and can be trained. Recently, research has focused on the implicit aspects of hazard detection, reaction, and anticipation. In the present study, we attempted to understand how the ability to anticipate hazards develops during training with a moped-riding simulator: the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT). Several studies have already validated the HRT as a tool to enhance adolescents' hazard perception and riding abilities. In the present study, as an index of hazard anticipation, we used skin conductance response (SCR), which has been demonstrated to be linked to affective/implicit appraisal of risk. We administered to a group of inexperienced road users five road courses two times a week apart. In each course, participants had to deal with eight hazard scenes (except one course that included only seven hazard scenes). Participants had to ride along the HRT courses, facing the potentially hazardous situations, following traffic rules, and trying to avoid accidents. During the task, we measured SCR and monitored driving performance. The main results show that learning to ride the simulator leads to both a reduction in the number of accidents and anticipation of the somatic response related to hazard detection, as proven by the reduction of SCR onset recorded in the second session. The finding that the SCR signaling the impending hazard appears earlier when the already encountered hazard situations are faced anew suggests that training with the simulator acts on the somatic activation associated with the experience of risky situations, improving its effectiveness in detecting hazards in advance so as to avoid accidents. This represents the starting point for future investigations into the process of generalization of learning acquired in new virtual situations and in real-road situations.

  16. Authors’ reply: Response to “Older cancer patients’ user experiences with web-based health information tools : A think-aloud study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, S.; Romijn, G.; Smets, E.M.A; Loos, E.F.; Kunneman, M.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    We greatly appreciate the thoughtful comments of Gokani and colleagues [1] in response to our article “Older Cancer Patients’ User Experiences With Web-Based Health Information Tools: A Think-Aloud Study” [2]. We are happy to elaborate on the points for which they request further clarification. Firs

  17. Authors’ reply: Response to “Older cancer patients’ user experiences with web-based health information tools: A think-aloud study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, S.; Romijn, G.; Smets, E.M.A; Loos, E.F.; Kunneman, M.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    We greatly appreciate the thoughtful comments of Gokani and colleagues [1] in response to our article “Older Cancer Patients’ User Experiences With Web-Based Health Information Tools: A Think-Aloud Study” [2]. We are happy to elaborate on the points for which they request further clarification.

  18. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids' are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.

  19. In-vehicle and site-based observations of vehicles and cyclists : a small-scale ND study in The Netherlands. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D3.4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van Pauwelussen, J. Mansvelders, R. Horst, A.R.A. van der & Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project PROLOGUE (PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe) is to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a large-scale European naturalistic driving observation study. The work described in this deliverable focused on th

  20. Two Roads, a Single Destination : Supporting the Information Literacy Skills Needs of Advanced Users at the Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU)

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mary; Jones, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the Manchester Metropolitan University Library provides Information Literacy skills training and support for advanced users. Given today s time constrictions, the paper will focus on the training and support that is currently available. If you would like to know more about its development and theoretical underpinnings, please consult the bibliography appended to the written version of the paper; in particular, the report of the Big Blue project (Manchester Metropolita...

  1. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were c...

  2. Home-care programmes for older adults with disabilities in Canada: how can we assess the adequacy of services provided compared with the needs of users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, M; Dubuc, N; Hébert, R; Coulombe, C

    2007-01-01

    The need for home care will probably continue to increase over the next decade as one response to innovative health practices designed to help people receive services at home instead of in institutions. However, there are no data for determining whether home-care programmes can meet user needs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the functional autonomy profile of the users of public home-care programmes in Québec, Canada, and to compare the level of adequacy between required and provided services in public home-care programmes for older adults with disabilities. This study was based on a cross-sectional design from September to December 2002. The population studied consisted of all users of public home-care services in one administrative region in the province of Québec over this 3-month period. Each user was assessed with the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) and then classified into one of the 14 Iso-SMAF profiles. The total number of hours of care required was determined using the median number of hours of nursing care, personal care and support services associated with each profile. For the sake of comparison with the services required, the services provided were calculated from an administrative databank that included statistics of the time spent by health professionals on caring for home-care users. The ratio of hours of services provided to the number of hours of services required by home-care users highlights a discrepancy between the services provided and user needs. The results of this study show the feasibility of describing users of public home-care programmes and the adequacy of services provided in relation to user needs. Based on these results, public home-care programmes in the province of Québec appear to be under-funded.

  3. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2012-01-01

    in the number of older drivers involved in fatal accidents before and after the implementation of the screening process, indicating that the screening had no effect on the safety of older drivers. Second, there was a significant increase in the number of unprotected older (but not younger) road users who were....... Previous research on age-based mandatory screening of older drivers has not been able to demonstrate any safety benefits from screening measures.The present study is a population-based evaluation of the safety effects that the introduction of the cognitive test as an age-based screening tool has had...... killed between the two periods of observation, suggesting that the screening process produced a modal shift among older persons from driving to unprotected, significantly less safe modes of transportation. As a consequence, the number of fatalities in this group increased.Older driver screening...

  4. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine FJ Meijerink; Marieke Pronk; Bernadette Paulissen; Birgit I Witte; Bregje van der Wouden; Vera Jansen; Sophia E Kramer

    2017-01-01

    ... (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs...

  5. Social forgivingness and vulnerable road users. Paper presented at Walk21-XI, “Getting Communities Back on their Feet : Promising approaches to support walking for a sustainable future”, The 11th International Conference on Walking and Liveable Communities, The Hague, The Netherlands, November 16-19, 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtenbos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians and cyclists are especially vulnerable in their interactions with motorized vehicles. The Sustainable Safety vision of road safety has incorporated five principles that help to keep (vulnerable) road users safe. To achieve this, the original vision made use of three principles for the or

  6. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Razieh; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R(2)) of self-esteem in the model (P self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs) and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression) aspects of health in older patients' self-esteem. The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients' self-esteem.

  7. Human-Centered Design Study: Enhancing the Usability of a Mobile Phone App in an Integrated Falls Risk Detection System for Use by Older Adult Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul Ma; Scharf, Thomas; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-05-30

    according to the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). From our observation of older adults' interactions with smartphone interfaces, there were some recurring themes. Clear and relevant feedback as the user attempts to complete a task is critical. Feedback should include pop-ups, sound tones, color or texture changes, or icon changes to indicate that a function has been completed successfully, such as for the connection sequence. For text feedback, clear and unambiguous language should be used so as not to create anxiety, particularly when it comes to saving data. Warning tones or symbols, such as caution symbols or shrill tones, should only be used if absolutely necessary. Our HCD methodology, designed and implemented based on the principles of the International Standard Organizaton (ISO) 9241-210 standard, produced a functional app interface within a short production cycle, which is now suitable for use by older adults in long term clinical trials.

  8. Association between self-efficacy and participation in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L; Eng, Janice J

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users...

  9. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  10. Rehabilitation courses for road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation courses are educational measures directed at deviant driving behaviour of car drivers. The Netherlands has four rehabilitation courses: EMA (Educational Measure Alcohol and traffic), LEMA (Lighter version of EMA), EMG (Educational Measure Behaviour and traffic) and ASP (Alcohol Interl

  11. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic manage

  12. User-Centered Design of Serious Games for Older Adults Following 3 Years of Experience With Exergames for Seniors: A Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, Ellen; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Evertsen, Gunn

    2017-01-11

    Seniors need sufficient balance and strength to manage in daily life, and sufficient physical activity is required to achieve and maintain these abilities. This can be a challenge, but fun and motivational exergames can be of help. However, most commercial games are not suited for this age group for several reasons. Many usability studies and user-centered design (UCD) protocols have been developed and applied, but to the best of our knowledge none of them are focusing on seniors' use of games for physical activity. In GameUp, a European cofunded project, some prototype Kinect exergames to enhance the mobility of seniors were developed in a user-centered approach. In this paper we aim to record lessons learned in 3 years of experience with exergames for seniors, considering both the needs of older adults regarding user-centered development of exergames and participation in UCD. We also provide a UCD protocol for exergames tailored to senior needs. An initial UCD protocol was formed based on literature of previous research outcomes. Senior users participated in UCD following the initial protocol. The users formed a steady group that met every second week for 3 years to play exergames and participate in the UCD during the 4 phases of the protocol. Several methods were applied in the 4 different phases of the UCD protocol; the most important methods were structured and semistructured interviews, observations, and group discussions. A total of 16 seniors with an average age above 80 years participated for 3 years in UCD in order to develop the GameUp exergames. As a result of the lessons learned by applying the different methodologies of the UCD protocol, we propose an adjusted UCD protocol providing explanations on how it should be applied for seniors as users. Questionnaires should be turned into semistructured and structured interviews while user consultation sessions should be repeated with the same theme to ensure that the UCD methods produce a valid outcome. By

  13. Findings from a novel approach to publication guideline revision: user road testing of a draft version of SQUIRE 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Louise; Donnelly, Kyla Z; Goodman, Daisy J; Ogrinc, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) Guideline was published in 2008 (SQUIRE 1.0) and was the first publication guideline specifically designed to advance the science of healthcare improvement. Advances in the discipline of improvement prompted us to revise it. We adopted a novel approach to the revision by asking end-users to 'road test' a draft version of SQUIRE 2.0. The aim was to determine whether they understood and implemented the guidelines as intended by the developers. Forty-four participants were assigned a manuscript section (ie, introduction, methods, results, discussion) and asked to use the draft Guidelines to guide their writing process. They indicated the text that corresponded to each SQUIRE item used and submitted it along with a confidential survey. The survey examined usability of the Guidelines using Likert-scaled questions and participants' interpretation of key concepts in SQUIRE using open-ended questions. On the submitted text, we evaluated concordance between participants' item usage/interpretation and the developers' intended application. For the survey, the Likert-scaled responses were summarised using descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions were analysed by content analysis. Consistent with the SQUIRE Guidelines' recommendation that not every item be included, less than one-third (n=14) of participants applied every item in their section in full. Of the 85 instances when an item was partially used or was omitted, only 7 (8.2%) of these instances were due to participants not understanding the item. Usage of Guideline items was highest for items most similar to standard scientific reporting (ie, 'Specific aim of the improvement' (introduction), 'Description of the improvement' (methods) and 'Implications for further studies' (discussion)) and lowest (SQUIRE 2.0 revealed which items have poor concordance between developer intent and author usage, which will inform final editing of the Guideline

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Gastroprotection with Proton Pump Inhibitors in Older Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Users in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, S.H.; Sluiter, R.L.; Kievit, W.; Wensing, M.; Teichert, M.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to assess the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment in low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDASA) users at risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) adverse effects as compared with no PPI co-medication with attention to the age-dependent infl

  15. Comparing propensity score methods for creating comparable cohorts of chiropractic users and non-users in older, multiply comorbid Medicare patients with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Tosteson, Tor D; Whedon, James M; Leininger, Brent; Lurie, Jon D; Swenson, Rand; Goertz, Christine M; O’Malley, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients who use complementary and integrative health services like chiropractic manipulative treatment (CMT) often have different characteristics than patients who do not, and these differences can confound attempts to compare outcomes across treatment groups, particularly in observational studies when selection bias may occur. The purposes of this study were to provide an overview on how propensity scoring methods can be used address selection bias by balancing treatment groups on key variables and to use Medicare data to compare different methods for doing so. Methods We described 2 propensity score methods (matching and weighting). Then we used Medicare data from 2006-2012 on older, multiply comorbid patients who had a chronic low back pain episode to demonstrate the impact of applying methods on the balance of demographics of patients between 2 treatment groups (those who received only CMT and those who received no CMT during their episodes). Results Before application of propensity score methods, patients who used only CMT had different characteristics from those who did not. Propensity score matching diminished observed differences across the treatment groups at the expense of reduced sample size. However, propensity score weighting achieved balance in patient characteristics between the groups and allowed us to keep the entire sample. Conclusions While propensity score matching and weighting have similar effects in terms of balancing covariates, weighting has the advantage of maintaining sample size, preserving external validity, and generalizing more naturally to comparisons of 3 or more treatment groups. Researchers should carefully consider which propensity score method to use, as using different methods can generate different results. PMID:26547763

  16. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general...

  17. User-Centered Design of Serious Games for Older Adults Following 3 Years of Experience With Exergames for Seniors: A Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Seniors need sufficient balance and strength to manage in daily life, and sufficient physical activity is required to achieve and maintain these abilities. This can be a challenge, but fun and motivational exergames can be of help. However, most commercial games are not suited for this age group for several reasons. Many usability studies and user-centered design (UCD) protocols have been developed and applied, but to the best of our knowledge none of them are focusing on seniors’ use of games for physical activity. In GameUp, a European cofunded project, some prototype Kinect exergames to enhance the mobility of seniors were developed in a user-centered approach. Objective In this paper we aim to record lessons learned in 3 years of experience with exergames for seniors, considering both the needs of older adults regarding user-centered development of exergames and participation in UCD. We also provide a UCD protocol for exergames tailored to senior needs. Methods An initial UCD protocol was formed based on literature of previous research outcomes. Senior users participated in UCD following the initial protocol. The users formed a steady group that met every second week for 3 years to play exergames and participate in the UCD during the 4 phases of the protocol. Several methods were applied in the 4 different phases of the UCD protocol; the most important methods were structured and semistructured interviews, observations, and group discussions. Results A total of 16 seniors with an average age above 80 years participated for 3 years in UCD in order to develop the GameUp exergames. As a result of the lessons learned by applying the different methodologies of the UCD protocol, we propose an adjusted UCD protocol providing explanations on how it should be applied for seniors as users. Questionnaires should be turned into semistructured and structured interviews while user consultation sessions should be repeated with the same theme to ensure that the

  18. Effects of Prescription Coinsurance and Income-Based Deductibles on Net Health Plan Spending for Older Users of Inhaled Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormuth, Colin R.; Neumann, Peter; Maclure, Malcolm; Glynn, Robert J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background Health plans that increase prescription cost-sharing for their patients may increase overall plan costs. We analyzed the impact on health plan spending of a switch in public drug insurance from full coverage to a prescription copayment (copay), and then to income-based deductibles plus coinsurance (IBD). Methods We studied British Columbia residents 65 years of age or older who were dispensed inhaled steroids, β2 agonists or anticholinergics on or after January 1996. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate health plan costs for the population using inhalers by the Ministry of Health (MOH) during the copay and IBD policies. We estimated costs for excess physician visits and emergency hospitalizations based on data from a previously published cohort study and cost data from the MOH. We estimated the net change in MOH spending as the sum of changes in spending for inhalers, physician visits, hospitalizations, and policy administration costs. Results Net health plan spending increased by C$1.98 million per year during the copay policy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10–4.34], and C$5.76 million per year during the first 10 months of the IBD policy (95% CI: 1.75–10.58). Out-of-pocket spending by older patients increased 30% during the copay policy (95% CI: 24–36) and 59% during the IBD policy (95% CI: 56–63). Conclusions British Columbia’s experience indicates that cost containment focused on cost-shifting to patients may increase net expenditures for the treatment of some diseases. Health plans should consult experts to anticipate the potential cross-program impacts of policy changes. PMID:19365295

  19. ROAD SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Every year a lot of people are killed or injured in road accidents.How can we make the roads safer?Remember the following traffic rules. When you ride a bike,keep to the right side of the road.Don't cross the road or turn left at a red traffic light.Give a hand signal if you want to turn or stop. Before crossing the road,stop and look both ways,right and left.If the road is

  20. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  1. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  2. Road Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.

  3. A First Step toward the Understanding of Implicit Learning of Hazard Anticipation in Inexperienced Road Users Through a Moped-Riding Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Mariaelena Tagliabue; Evelyn Gianfranchi; Michela Sarlo

    2017-01-01

    Hazard perception is considered one of the most important abilities in road safety. Several efforts have been devoted to investigating how it improves with experience and can be trained. Recently, research has focused on the implicit aspects of hazard detection, reaction, and anticipation. In the present study, we attempted to understand how the ability to anticipate hazards develops during training with a moped-riding simulator: the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT). Several studies have already va...

  4. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  5. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer.

  6. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  7. Injury profiles of road traffic deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Ricart, Isabel; Arroyo, Amparo; Castellà, Josep; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to describe injuries of road traffic deaths in Barcelona and identify injury profiles by road user type, through a cross-sectional study including road traffic deaths for the period 1997-2004. The data source was the Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya. Diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, and classified using the Barell Matrix. Of the 719 deaths studied, 45% were pedestrians, 32% two wheel motor vehicle users, and 23% car occupants. The injury profile of the road traffic deaths in Barcelona is internal injuries and fractures to the torso and to the head/neck. This profile is repeated in all the road user groups, although pedestrians present higher frequencies of fractures and contusions to extremities and contusions to the head/neck, and fewer internal torso injuries than car occupants or two wheel motor vehicle users.

  8. Evaluación de los caminos rurales: hacia un enfoque orientado al usuario. / Assessment of rural roads. Towards a user-oriented approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Sergio

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presente algunos resultados de un estudio piloto realizado para el IFRTD (Foro Internacional para el Transporte Rural y el Desarrollo, Londres sobre los temas de movilización y vialidad en la comuna de Canela, IV Región de Chile. El planteamiento es que una política coherente de vialidad rural debe tener como fundamento un entendimiento de las necesidades percibidas por las comunidades rurales y de las prioridades que expresan. Este tema se explora en el proyecto en forma preliminar utilizando metodologías cualitativas y cuantitativas para investigar las necesidades de movilización en diversas comunidades de Canela desde el punto de vista de los usuarios, operadores de transporte y autoridades locales. Se presentará un análisis de los resultados pertinentes al asunto de la vialidad, que pretende establecer de manera tentativa un perfil del usuario de los caminos rurales de la zona y las características de sus traslados más difíciles. Entre los resultados más significativos se destacan:Una percepción de los amplios efectos modernizadores que introduce la pavimentación de un camino de acceso al sector.La existencia de una correlación baja pero positiva entre la dificultad percibida por el usuario de su traslado y su evaluación del camino, que se ve relacionado con el modo de transporte que se ocupa.La conclusión principal del trabajo es que un conocimiento de los criterios propios con los cuales el usuario rural evalúa su traslado es necesario para una gestión exitosa de la vialidad rural./The author argues that a coherent policy for rural roads should be founded on the understanding of the perceived needs of rural communities and the priorities expressed. It describes the Methodological approaches to assess, in this way, rural roads.

  9. Solid road environment and its hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents that involve vehicles departing the road tend to have very high severity, as they often result in the vehicle hitting a permanent obstacle (which can be a tree, a pole, facility pillar, front wall of a culvert or a barrier. In recent years, this type of accident caused approx. 19% of all road deaths in Poland. A particularly high risk can be observed on roads located in northern and western voivodships, with many avenues of trees along the roadside. The paper will present the major road user hazards and their locations, based on the example of detailed analyses conducted for the area of the Warminsko-Mazurskie voivodship in Poland. In the paper, the authors will also present measures that can be applied to improve the safety of road users by improving roads managed by local governments in Warminsko-Mazurskie.

  10. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  11. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  12. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  13. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  14. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  15. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  16. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  17. Tweets on the road

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  18. Measures to enhance mobility among older people in Scandinavia. A literature review of best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Ulleberg, Pål; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    Measures enhancing the mobility of older people, helping them live independently and for longer, are advantageous for society as a whole. They are good business for society and they are good for the well-being and welfare of older people who often want to stay in their own home for as long...... has been conducted into the effects of these measures. Much of the previous research on mobility and the elderly have been concentrated on mapping travel behaviour. However, new generations of older people have different expectations and demands from those of their predecessors. The present report...... as possible rather than in a care home. There have been attempts to implement measures aimed at increasing older people’s mobility in accordance with various modes of transport, e.g. travelling by private car, by public transport, walking, cycling (the unprotected road users). However, very little research...

  19. 77 FR 38569 - Information Collection; Application for Permit for Use of Roads, Trails, or Areas Restricted by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... commercial users to perform road maintenance commensurate with their use of NFS roads. Forest Service... sharing arrangements, require commercial users of NFS roads to perform maintenance commensurate with their... is used to identify maintenance commensurate with the applicant's road use. The information is...

  20. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  1. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  2. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρaccident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρtraffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  4. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour. Go

  5. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  6. Design and classification of roads from the viewpoint of driving task analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Together with traffic characteristics, road characteristics largely influence the effort the road user will have to make in performing his tasks. Traffic characteristics are not only linked closely to vehicle characteristics but also determined by road users relevant characteristics. In analysing tr

  7. Usability Testing of User Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.

    2013-01-01

    Many guidelines and several standards exist for the development of good user manuals. But even though technical writers comply with all guidelines, problems will typically arise when users apply the manual in practice. Therefore, it is useful to have real users test the manual before it is publis...... it is published. This article discusses user tests in the form of think-aloud tests, with examples from the research project ”User Manuals for older adults"....

  8. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  9. Transportation, road and traffic; Yuso / doro / kotsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, K.; Oshita, T.; Kimura, K.; Ishikura, T. [Ministry of Construction Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Road transportation of cargos and passengers is increasing recently. Securing funds for road construction projects is under severe condition due to retrenchment in finance. The number of four-wheel vehicles possessed by users totaled to 65.18 million at the end of March, 1996, showing 3.0% increase compared with that of the previous year. The number of motorcycles increased by 40 thousand in the area of two-wheel vehicles. The number of light two-wheeled vehicles showed no marked fluctuations. No statistic was made public concerning motor-bicycles. Outlines of the budget for road construction and road maintenance situation are given. The traffic density was much heavier than the increasing rate of the road extension at the end of March, 1996. The advanced road traffic system is a new road traffic system which utilizes most advanced information communication technology to decrease traffic snarls and traffic accidents and to improve the riding comfort of users, and 9 development fields and 20 user service systems are being developed currently. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  11. Informal methods of social control: managing speed behaviour on SA roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The engineering process of setting speed limits is specialised and considers a wide array of factors, including the number of crashes, existing engineering interventions, types of vehicle, road users, vehicle volumes, modes of transport, road...

  12. Road sign identification application using image processing and augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanditha Rasanjana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Now days, Sri Lanka is a rapidly developing country in the world. With this regard, roads are developing in every area. Every year, many new vehicles are entering to the roads. People use roads for their transport requirements. The road signs boards are helped to control road traffic and accident. But today, road accidents are increasing   rapidly. Most people are getting injured. Some people lost their life due to accidents. So many properties are damaged. Therefore, lives, properties, time and money are lost. A main reason of road accidents is a lack of knowledge about road signs and rules. To overcome this problem, “the developed team” has developed a learning Android Mobile Application. It is named “Mansalakuna”. This Mobile Application can be identified road signs using mobile phone camera. The road signs which focused by mobile phone camera, can be identified using the Image Processing Technology. Then, the mobile application is delivered full information about the road signs on user’s mobile phone screen for use the Augmented Reality Technology. The results can be delivered instantly to the user with specific rules, laws and regulations related for that road sign. Otherwise “Mansalakuna” mobile application can be used for learning mobile applications for passengers and drivers on the way. Countries like Sri Lanka, there are no complete above mention mobile applications package for the road users. Therefore, this Android Mobile Application is given a considerable support to users. It is a start to digital era to the road users.

  13. Road Resources Distribution and Evolution Analysis Using a Species Competition Model for Improving Road Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Xiwen; SHI Jing

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the equity of road resources distribution in urban areas by modeling the competitive relationship among different road users.A logistic model is used to describe the development of different traffic modes in the transportation network.The system is similar to the species competition model,so a two-species model is used to analyze the relationship between users based on the stability of the equilibrium points.The Lotka-Volterra model is then used to describe the multi-species cases with numerical examples,showing that this model can describe the effects of the road space distribution on the competitive user relationships.Policy makers must ensure the equity of road resources distribution so that each urban transportation mode is properly developed for sustainable social development.

  14. TransRoad_RDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The centerlines were originally developed under...

  15. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  16. Some implications of an event-based definition of exposure to the risk of road accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving...... the roadway. A typology of events representing a potential for an accident is proposed. Each event can be interpreted as a trial as defined in probability theory. Risk is the proportion of events that result in an accident. Defining exposure as events demanding the attention of road users implies that road...

  17. Quantifying the influence of safe road systems and legal licensing age on road mortality among young adolescents: steps towards system thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Divera; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-01-01

    Based on existing literature, a system thinking approach was used to set up a conceptual model on the interrelationships among the components influencing adolescent road mortality, distinguishing between components at the individual level and at the system level. At the individual level the role of risk behaviour (sometimes deliberate and sometimes from inexperience or other non-deliberate causes) in adolescent road mortality is well documented. However, little is known about the extent to which the 'road system' itself may also have an impact on younger adolescents' road mortality. This, by providing a safe or unsafe road environment for all road users (System-induced exposure) and by allowing access to high-risk vehicles at a young or older age through the legal licensing age. This study seeks to explore these relationships by analysing the extent to which the road mortality of 10 to 17 year olds in various jurisdictions can be predicted from the System-induced Exposure (SiE) in a jurisdiction and from its legal licensing age to drive motor vehicles. SiE was operationalized as the number of road fatalities per 10(5) inhabitants/all ages together, but excluding the 10 to 17 year olds. Data on road fatalities during the years 2001 through 2008 were obtained from the OECD International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD) and from the USA NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database for 29 early and 10 late licensing jurisdictions. Linear mixed models were fitted with annual 'Adolescent road mortality per capita' for 2001 through 2008 as the dependent variable, and time-dependent 'SiE' and time-independent 'Licensing system' as predictor variables. To control for different levels of motorisation, the time-dependent variable 'Annual per capita vehicle distance travelled' was used as a covariate. Licensing system of a jurisdiction was entered as a categorical predictor variable with late licensing countries as a baseline group. The study found support

  18. An Automated Road Roughness Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Angelats, E.

    2017-05-01

    Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  19. Driving down the road toll : videos of lectures given as Adelaide Thinker in Residence 2011-2012.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Professor Fred Wegman is one of the world’s most respected road safety experts. Fred’s residency has focused on making our roads safer, looking at our roads, the vehicles, road users and travel speeds. This record contains his final lecture, completing his third and final visit to South Australia an

  20. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  1. Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and Economic Welfare: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Böbel; Casimir de Rham

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, the subject of road pricing to reduce traffic congestion gained increasing importance in Europe. This paper uses a standard microeconomic approach to show that road user price charging to avoid traffic congestion is optimal from a society’s point of view as it improves economic efficiency of allocating a scarce resource (road space) by reducing the welfare loss (as being measured by a loss in consumer surplus) for everyone in the society.

  2. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  3. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  4. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  5. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Zhang, F. & Dijkstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as "vulnerable road users". This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist ca

  6. Lighting of discontinuities in the course of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1966-01-01

    It immediately follows from the definition of discontinuities that some thought must be devoted to the consequences of their presence with regard to the lighting-arrangements to be made for the road system, because in the first place the road user must be warned in good time that he is approaching p

  7. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Zhang, F. & Dijkstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as "vulnerable road users". This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist

  8. Comparing Propensity Score Methods for Creating Comparable Cohorts of Chiropractic Users and Nonusers in Older, Multiply Comorbid Medicare Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Tosteson, Tor D; Whedon, James M; Leininger, Brent; Lurie, Jon D; Swenson, Rand; Goertz, Christine M; O'Malley, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    Patients who use complementary and integrative health services like chiropractic manipulative treatment (CMT) often have different characteristics than do patients who do not, and these differences can confound attempts to compare outcomes across treatment groups, particularly in observational studies when selection bias may occur. The purposes of this study were to provide an overview on how propensity scoring methods can be used to address selection bias by balancing treatment groups on key variables and to use Medicare data to compare different methods for doing so. We described 2 propensity score methods (matching and weighting). Then we used Medicare data from 2006 to 2012 on older, multiply comorbid patients who had a chronic low back pain episode to demonstrate the impact of applying methods on the balance of demographics of patients between 2 treatment groups (those who received only CMT and those who received no CMT during their episodes). Before application of propensity score methods, patients who used only CMT had different characteristics from those who did not. Propensity score matching diminished observed differences across the treatment groups at the expense of reduced sample size. However, propensity score weighting achieved balance in patient characteristics between the groups and allowed us to keep the entire sample. Although propensity score matching and weighting have similar effects in terms of balancing covariates, weighting has the advantage of maintaining sample size, preserving external validity, and generalizing more naturally to comparisons of 3 or more treatment groups. Researchers should carefully consider which propensity score method to use, as using different methods can generate different results. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  10. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoro Mogaka Eric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. METHODS: Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS. Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219 were male. Nineteen percent (56/300 of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15 had head injury while 38% (115 had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users comprised 33% (99/300 of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9, road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5 and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.1-3.9 were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. CONCLUSION: Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries

  11. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaka, Eric Osoro; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Oundo, Joseph; Omolo, Jared; Luman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219) were male. Nineteen percent (56/300) of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15) had head injury while 38% (115) had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users) comprised 33% (99/300) of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9), road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5) and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=-1.1-3.9) were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries.

  12. The influence of road pricing on physical distribution in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Van Duin, J.H.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing system called, ‘paying differently for mobility’. The main idea is that road users have to pay for using the road infrastructure instead of for owning a car. In the future, the price per kilometre will also depend on the time of the day and

  13. The influence of road pricing on physical distribution in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.; Duin, J.H.R. van

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing system called, 'paying differently for mobility'. The main idea is that road users have to pay for using the road infrastructure instead of for owning a car. In the future, the price per kilometre will also depend on the time of the day and

  14. The influence of road pricing on physical distribution in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.; Duin, J.H.R. van

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing system called, 'paying differently for mobility'. The main idea is that road users have to pay for using the road infrastructure instead of for owning a car. In the future, the price per kilometre will also depend on the time of the day and th

  15. The influence of road pricing on physical distribution in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Van Duin, J.H.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing system called, ‘paying differently for mobility’. The main idea is that road users have to pay for using the road infrastructure instead of for owning a car. In the future, the price per kilometre will also depend on the time of the day and th

  16. Continuous Road Network Generalization throughout All Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Šuba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Until now, road network generalization has mainly been applied to the task of generalizing from one fixed source scale to another fixed target scale. These actions result in large differences in content and representation, e.g., a sudden change of the representation of road segments from areas to lines, which may confuse users. Therefore, we aim at the continuous generalization of a road network for the whole range, from the large scale, where roads are represented as areas, to mid- and small scales, where roads are represented progressively more frequently as lines. As a consequence of this process, there is an intermediate scale range where at the same time some roads will be represented as areas, while others will be represented as lines. We propose a new data model together with a specific data structure where for all map objects, a range of valid map scales is stored. This model is based on the integrated and explicit representation of: (1 a planar area partition; and (2 a linear road network. This enables the generalization process to include the knowledge and understanding of a linear network. This paper further discusses the actual generalization options and algorithms for populating this data structure with high quality vario-scale cartographic content.

  17. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems.

  18. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  19. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  20. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  1. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  2. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  3. Status of road safety and possibilities of improvement in Nepal : a study of Muglin-Kathmandu section of Prithvi Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Duwadi, Bhola

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accident has been a major challenge in Prithivi highway to ensure travel safety. A heterogeneous traffic mix sharing the road with vulnerable road users as well as unsafe road infrastructure and vehicles that are in poor condition contributed to the high fatality rates in this busiest highway in Nepal. The objective of the study was mainly to: identify the various causes of road accidents in the Prithivi highway, examine the factors that how people perceive various aspects of roa...

  4. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  5. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  6. Pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin County, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Nogalski, Adam; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Lübek, Tomasz; Zuchora, Beata; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2012-06-01

    Road traffic injury patients admitted to 35 hospitals in Lublin region. To describe the pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin county, Poland. Review of medical records for the period from January 2004 to December 2005. Pedestrians accounted for the largest share of the Road traffic crash (RTC) injury cases (35.8%) and 46.4% of deaths. The highest mortality was observed in motorcycle occupants (7.1%) and victims with abdominal injuries (9.8%). Vulnerable road users represented 71.4% of all RTC deaths, with mortality 5.8%. Early transfers accounted for 82.5% of cases. Mortality in early transfers is 4 times higher than in late transfers. Poland ranks as one of the worst European countries in terms of severity and fatal outcomes of road traffic injuries. Groups of road users in Poland at the highest risk are pedestrians, cyclists, children and young male drivers. The highest mortality rate occurs among road users affected by multiple trauma and head/vertebral column injuries. Alleviation of consequences of road traffic injuries in Poland may be achieved by coordinated efforts and collective responsibility of government, central level agencies, rescue team members and community groups.

  7. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  8. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  9. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  10. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  11. Flagman and Risk Involved in Road Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigneswara Rao Ganapthy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Road construction is a necessary process of development for the comfort and safety of users. Most road construction is a tidies job whereby the duration and safety is always considered very important for the construction management. One of the most crucial factors in a road construction site is the safety of the road users and the construction workers. Proper safety sign and indication system should be utilized to ensure safety to be optimized. The most common practice of safety indication is performed by traffic controller or also known as the flagman. This practice is very crucial in a road construction site in ensuring the smoothness of the road traffic operation and to alert the road users on road construction activity. This paper highlights the risk factor of flagman in certain road construction or road maintenance site. The risk of fatal accidents is high for the flagman since he is placed in the highest risk zones. Authorities and contractors seek for various methods and measures in eliminating the usage of flagman, yet it is impossible since the usage of flagman is considered the best practice around the globe. The research highlights that the usage of a flagman can be replaced by implementing new technologies to automate the task of controlling the traffic flow without human intervention. The intelligent traffic light system which is proposed in this paper can be wisely utilized to overcome problems arising on the safety measures in a road construction site and also in the afford to be in line with the requirements of Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH and Ministry of Works to reduce fatal accidents.

  12. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this topic was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Topic last reviewed: March 2015 For ... see Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Older Population. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Crashes Down Among Older Drivers Fortunately, ...

  13. Qualitative study to explore stakeholder perceptions related to road safety in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Shailaja; Lakshmi, J K; Gupta, Shivam; Gururaj, G; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    The Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme in India focuses on reduction of drink driving and increase in helmet usage in the city of Hyderabad. During the early stages of implementation, perceptions of stakeholders on road safety were explored as part of the monitoring and evaluation process for a better understanding of areas for improving road safety in Hyderabad. Fifteen in-depth interviews with government officials, subject experts, and road traffic injury victims, and four focus group discussions with trauma surgeons, medical interns, nurses, and taxi drivers were conducted, analysed manually, and presented as themes. Respondents found Hyderabad unsafe for road-users. Factors such as inadequate traffic laws, gaps in enforcement, lack of awareness, lack of political will, poor road engineering, and high-risk road users were identified as threats to road safety. The responsibility for road safety was assigned to both individual road-users and the government, with the former bearing the responsibility for safe traffic behaviour, and the latter for infrastructure provision and enforcement of regulations. The establishment of a lead agency to co-ordinate awareness generation, better road engineering, and stricter enforcement of traffic laws with economic and non-economic penalties for suboptimal traffic behaviour, could facilitate improved road safety in Hyderabad.

  14. Network Screening for Smarter Road Sites: A Regional Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grieco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road safety has been a main societal and policy issue in many European countries since the early years of last decade. After the 2000-2010 Road Safety Programme launched by the European Commission, in 2011 the Commission adopted the new 2020 programme, even more demanding than the previous. As the societal consequences of road casualties are increasingly perceived as a core dimension of smart mobility, road safety system is now facing new challenges. Current mobility shifts to softer and greener transportation means raise new safety concerns for an increasingly larger share of vulnerable road users. The need to integrate road safety requirements with other residential, mobility, and environmental policies calls for a more detailed understanding of the phenomenon at different spatial levels and with different observation lenses. The pilot study described in this paper is a contribution to this end. It aims at identifying the accident prone sites of the regional road network to help prioritizing safety interventions, by the regional administration having road planning responsibilities. The study develops a screening approach to select hazardous road locations, outside urban premises, from the Piedmont provincial and state roads. The most recent data for the 2010-2012 years were considered, drawn from the ISTAT road accident database, managed by the CMRSS. The procedure consists of the following steps: identification of the elementary road sections to be screened, through a GIS analysis; definition of the screening groups (road sections have been subdivided in 4 length classes; definition of the selection criteria, with two severity thresholds based on the crash density; classification of the elementary road sections by severity thresholds.

  15. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  16. Sustained User Engagement in Health Information Technology: The Long Road from Implementation to System Optimization of Computerized Physician Order Entry and Clinical Decision Support Systems for Prescribing in Hospitals in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Lee, Lisa; Mozaffar, Hajar; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-10-07

    To explore and understand approaches to user engagement through investigating the range of ways in which health care workers and organizations accommodated the introduction of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) and computerized decision support (CDS) for hospital prescribing. Six hospitals in England, United Kingdom. Qualitative case study. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations of meetings and system use, and collected organizational documents over three time periods from six hospitals. Thematic analysis was initially undertaken within individual cases, followed by cross-case comparisons. We conducted 173 interviews, conducted 24 observations, and collected 17 documents between 2011 and 2015. We found that perceived individual and safety benefits among different user groups tended to facilitate engagement in some, while other less engaged groups developed resistance and unsanctioned workarounds if systems were perceived to be inadequate. We identified both the opportunity and need for sustained engagement across user groups around system enhancement (e.g., through customizing software) and the development of user competencies and effective use. There is an urgent need to move away from an episodic view of engagement focused on the preimplementation phase, to more continuous holistic attempts to engage with and respond to end-users. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  18. Bi-objective network equilibrium, traffic assignment and road pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT; Ehrgott, M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-objective equilibrium models of traffic assignment state that users of road networks travel on routes that are efficient with respect to several objectives, such as travel time and toll. This concept provides a general framework for modelling traffic flow in tolled road networks. We present the concept of time surplus maximisation as a way of handling user preferences. Given a toll, users have a maximum time they are willing to spend for a trip. Time surplus is this maximum time minus a...

  19. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  20. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (4), Serial No. ... Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... the cardinal motives for venturing into the transport industry. (Maduewesi ...

  1. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucosamine and/or Chondroitin Sulphate St. John's wort Saw Palmetto *Adapted from A Healthcare Professional's Guide to ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  3. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  4. Road safety in Canada : 2001 facing the challenge : proceedings of the National Road Safety Symposium, February 13-16, 1994, Toronto, Ontario, organized by the Safety Coordinating Advisory Council of the Transportation Association of Canada TAC and the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators CCMTA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landry, P. Simpson, H.M. & Smith, G. (prep.) Wegman, F.C.M. Dussault, C. Wilson, C. & Wilson, F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to: identify issues and challenges for the effective delivery of road safety programs relating to the road user, the road, and the vehicles; foster greater awareness of existing efforts within the road safety community; and, encourage and support stakeholders. This p

  5. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and environment, and each has had its effect on the development of technology. The closer we come to the current generation, the bigger is the effect of technology on the characteristics of that generation. User needs guide the technology and the technology shapes the users. This WWRF Outlook analyses......The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had...

  6. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...

  7. Road safety campaign is a great success

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.

  8. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  9. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  10. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  11. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  12. Safety; interactions of the various factors of the vehicles, infrastructure, driver, environment system. Contribution to XVII World Road Congress, Sydney, Australia, 8-15 October 1983, question III: Inter-urban roads and motorways, p. 352-354, Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, Paris, 1983.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are plans to set up a data bank which will contain data for pursuing a national road safety policy. This will enable the nation- wide developments in the sphere of road safety and dangers to road users to be monitored (monitoring function) and to pinpoint specific subjects

  13. New optimization strategies of pavement maintenance: A case study for national road network in Indonesia using integrated road management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Correia, A. Gomes; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    A road network requires timely maintenance to keep the road surface in good condition onward better services to improve accessibility and mobility. Strategies and maintenance techniques must be chosen in order to maximize road service level through cost-effective interventions. This approach requires an updated database, which the road network in Indonesia is supported by a manual and visual survey, also using NAASRA profiler. Furthermore, in this paper, the deterministic model of deterioration was used. This optimization model uses life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), applied in an integrated manner, using IRI indicator, and allows determining the priority of treatment, type of treatment and its relation to the cost. The purpose of this paper was focussed on the aspects of road maintenance management, i.e., maintenance optimization models for different levels of traffic and various initial of road distress conditions on the national road network in Indonesia. The implementation of Integrated Road Management System (IRMS) can provide a solution to the problem of cost constraints in the maintenance of the national road network. The results from this study found that as the lowest as agency cost, it will affect the increasing of user cost. With the achievement of the target plan scenario Pl000 with initial value IRI 2, it was found that the routine management throughout the year and in early reconstruction and periodic maintenance with a 30 mm thick overlay, will simultaneously provide a higher net benefit value and has the lowest total cost of transportation.

  14. Roads to Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  15. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  16. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2

  17. Network Wide Service Level-Oriented Route Guidance in Road Traffic Networks: Traffic management in line with the policy objectives of the road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, R.L.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Service level control is a promising strategy to realize policy objectives within road networks like improving network production while taking road user interests, livability and safety into account. In this contribution a service level-oriented route guidance control approach is presented that is a

  18. User design

    CERN Document Server

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A

    2012-01-01

    User Design offers a fresh perspective on how front-line learners (users) can participate in the design of learning environments. The author challenges the universal assumption that front-line users must be relegated to the role of offering input, and that the actual design activity of learning systems must still be conducted only by experts. The book presents a new set of methods and strategies that show how the tools of professional designers can be effectively shared with broad groups of users and other participants in the process of creating their own learning. Drawing

  19. Computer-Mediated Social Support, Older Adults, and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Investigates social support for older adults in the computer-mediated environment. Finds that: satisfaction with Internet providers of social support was significantly higher for high Internet users than for low Internet users, whereas low Internet users were more satisfied with their non-Internet support networks than high Internet users; and…

  20. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NOX, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM2.5) -52, -84...

  1. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    or other treatment for depression in the past 12 months and having a ... homes and communities, are needed in order to enhance their quality of life (WHO, 2015c, p. 4). ... Studies on the association with non-fatal road traffic injury in older adult ...

  2. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road."

  3. The implications of the relative risk for road mortality on road safety programmes in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consunji, Rafael J; Peralta, Ruben R; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    The epidemiology of road deaths and in particular the relative risk for road mortality (RRRM) in Qatar has not been fully defined. This study will analyse and compare the proportionate mortality and age-specific death rates from road traffic injuries (RTIs) and make recommendations for targeted injury prevention programmes for road safety in Qatar. Data from the Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA), for the year 2010, was collected and analysed. All deaths classified as 'ICD-10 (V89) Motor- or Nonmotor-Vehicle, Accident Type of Vehicle Unspecified' were included. There were 247 RTI related deaths in Qatar in 2010. An overall death rate was computed at 14.4 deaths per 100 000 population. The RRRM varied over 10 times among different populations with Qatari males (QM) having an increased RRRM from 10 years of age, those aged 20-29 years had the highest RRRM of 10.2. The lowest RRRM was for Qatari females who did not have a single reported road fatality in 2010. Populations with a significantly elevated RRRM (ie, RRRM>1.0) were non-Qatari men older than 50 years and Qatari males from the age of 10 onward. Proven and definite programmes must be implemented to reduce these unnecessary deaths among the populations at the highest risk. Multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented and their efficacy evaluated.

  4. Evaluation of the readability of road signs and roadside elements using Mobile Eye tracking device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mazzotta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical signs shall be located on the road according to a proper signalling plan, capable of providing relevant information to drivers in a harmonious, integrated and effective way. To achieve these targets, it is essential to investigate how road users look and perceive vertical signs while driving. For this purpose, an experimental research project was carried out onsite which involved 22 road users, driving on a road stretch comprising different types of vertical signs. By the use of an innovative eye-tracking device, capable of tracking human eye and its movements, it was possible to continuously record the glance aiming point of each road user, obtaining a detailed analysis of driver/ vertical signs interaction.

  5. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  6. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  7. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  8. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  9. Burkina Faso - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct traffic, household, and business surveys as part of the Roads Project evaluation....

  10. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  11. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  12. Road Works Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gertrude Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    @@ CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year, mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools, said Shu Zhan, Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda, in early February.

  13. Traffic disruption in PAM DIRAC road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 8th September to 19th September, ST Division will be doing some road works to install HDPE ducts for optical fibre cables under the PAM DIRAC road. For this reason, the road will be closed during 2 days and alternative arrangements will be put in place to reroute the traffic. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 77779 - 160484 / 75498 - 163198

  14. Time-varying tolls in a dynamic model of road traffic congestion with elastic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model of road traffic congestion is presented, with an elastic overall demand for morning peak road usage, and with the congestion technology used being 'flow congestion'. It is demonstrated that in such a case, the optimal time-varying toll should include a 'flat', time-invariant component when road users share the same desired arrival time. This has important consequences for the design of optimal toll schemes in reality, because it implies that optimal tolls cannot...

  15. Review on Design & Implementation of Road Side Symbol Detection In VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. SACHIN GANJAR; Prof. SHUBHANGI BORKAR

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of vehicular ad-hoc network plays important role in smart traffic management system. Researcher can create VANET by information sharing of road side unit, vehicle and traffic system & implementing it in real world. This system implemented to detect road signs from a moving vehicle. In this technology vehicle is able to detect traffic signs which are on the road side boards e.g. "speed limit" or "school" or "turn ahead". Consider a condition, user is driving a car at ...

  16. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  17. Prediction of road accidents: A Bayesian hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deublein, Markus; Schubert, Matthias; Adey, Bryan T; Köhler, Jochen; Faber, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    In this paper a novel methodology for the prediction of the occurrence of road accidents is presented. The methodology utilizes a combination of three statistical methods: (1) gamma-updating of the occurrence rates of injury accidents and injured road users, (2) hierarchical multivariate Poisson-lognormal regression analysis taking into account correlations amongst multiple dependent model response variables and effects of discrete accident count data e.g. over-dispersion, and (3) Bayesian inference algorithms, which are applied by means of data mining techniques supported by Bayesian Probabilistic Networks in order to represent non-linearity between risk indicating and model response variables, as well as different types of uncertainties which might be present in the development of the specific models. Prior Bayesian Probabilistic Networks are first established by means of multivariate regression analysis of the observed frequencies of the model response variables, e.g. the occurrence of an accident, and observed values of the risk indicating variables, e.g. degree of road curvature. Subsequently, parameter learning is done using updating algorithms, to determine the posterior predictive probability distributions of the model response variables, conditional on the values of the risk indicating variables. The methodology is illustrated through a case study using data of the Austrian rural motorway network. In the case study, on randomly selected road segments the methodology is used to produce a model to predict the expected number of accidents in which an injury has occurred and the expected number of light, severe and fatally injured road users. Additionally, the methodology is used for geo-referenced identification of road sections with increased occurrence probabilities of injury accident events on a road link between two Austrian cities. It is shown that the proposed methodology can be used to develop models to estimate the occurrence of road accidents for any

  18. Vertigo in downhill mountain biking and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Vibert, Dominique; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Perrin, Philippe P

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo has been described after the practice of mountain bike. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vertigo following competitions or training sessions of downhill mountain biking (DMB) or road cycling (RC). One hundred and two DMB riders, 79 road cyclists and 73 control participants filled in a survey intended to evaluate the prevalence of vertigo in daily living activities and following competitions or training sessions. Vertigo causal factors (crashes, head trauma, fatigue, characteristics of the path/road ridden) were recorded. DMB riders and road cyclists did not report more vertigo during daily living activities than controls. But DMB riders older than 30 had more risk to report vertigo than age-matched road cyclists (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 1.23-20.62). Road cyclists aged between 20 and 29 were 2.59-fold (95% CI: 1.06-6.27) more likely to report vertigo than controls. After competitions and training sessions, DMB riders were 2.33-fold (95% CI: 1.22-4.41) more likely to report vertigo than road cyclists. Vertigo causal factors were crash with head trauma in DMB riders and fatigue in road cyclists. Vertigo during daily living activities may be of concern for cyclists, particularly older DMB riders. The accumulation of impacts (crashes, vibrations) during the career of a DMB rider may generate micro-traumatisms of the central nervous system and/or peripheral vestibular structures, particularly the otolith organs. In RC, the pathophysiological mechanisms generating vertigo might be effort-related disturbance of homeostasis. To avoid injuries, DMB riders should be aware that vertigo may occur at the end of training sessions or competitions.

  19. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  20. Multi-user and multi-objective bi-level optimization of degradable road network based on advanced traffic information%基于先进交通信息的多目标多类用户降级路网双层优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明华; 杨晓光; 李夏苗

    2016-01-01

    Under the combined effect of advanced traveler information system (ATIS) and variable message sign (VMS), road network performance optimization and stochastic equilibrium behavior of hybrid traffic (including general traffic and emergency demand increased suddenly) were investigated. Generalized path cost was defined by evacuation reliability and link disutility and a new formula for PS attribute was introduced by incorporating VMS information utility and generalized link cost into the prime formula. Furthermore, an adjusted path size logit (PSL) route choice model was proposed. This led to the establishment of a multi-objective multi-user bi-level programming model with west capacity utilization coefficients of degradable link as optimization variables, in which the lower level was constructed to complete stochastic user equilibrium assignment for hybrid traffic based on the PSL model. For the model, optimization algorithmsbased on evolutionary algorithm was formulated using evacuation reliability to define fitness function. Flow distribution, ATIS penetration rate and compliance rate, and several road network performance values were obtained by the proposed solution algorithms. Computations and analyses show that the models and algorithms are feasible and effective. The optimization approach can dramatically enhance evacuation reliabilities compared with stochastic simulation. VMS information can assist ATIS to improve evacuation reliability and decrease the total expected travel time. Demand growth has considerable impacts on degradable road network performance;however, VMS can still obviously optimize system performance.%考虑先进的出行者信息系统(ATIS)与可变信息板(VMS)的共同影响,研究混合交通(普通交通与突增的应急交通)在降级路网中的随机均衡分配及路网的性能优化。利用应急交通可靠度和路段负效用2个目标定义广义路径费用,并基于VMS信息效用与路段广义费用

  1. Parental beliefs about supervising children when crossing roads and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, David W; Lennon, Alexia; Haworth, Narelle

    2011-03-01

    Pedestrian and cyclist injuries are significant public health issues, together accounting for 11-30% of road deaths in highly motorised countries. Children are particularly at risk. In Australia in 2009 11.4% of pedestrian deaths and 6.4% of cyclist deaths comprised children aged 0-16 years. Parental attitudes and level of supervision are important to children's road safety. Results from a telephone survey with parents of children 5-9 years (N = 147) are reported. Questions addressed beliefs about preventability of injury, appropriate ages for children to cross the road or cycle independently and the frequency of holding 5-9 year old children's hands while crossing the road. Results suggest that parents believe most injuries are preventable and that they personally can act to improve their own safety in the home, on the road, at work, as well as in or on the water. Most parents (68%) indicated children should be 10 years or older before crossing the road or cycling independently. Parents were more likely to report holding younger children's hands (5-6 years) when crossing the road and less likely to do so for 7- to 9-year olds. There was a small effect of child gender, with parents more likely to hold a boy's hand than that of a girl.

  2. The relationship between road safety and congestion on motorways : a literature review of potential effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay a

  3. ICT and Older People: Beyond Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Encuentra, Eulalia; Pousada, Modesta; Gomez-Zuniga, Beni

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use that older, regular users of computers make of information and computer technology in their daily lives. Opinions from such users were obtained regarding what they want these technologies to offer them in the future. By means of a discussion group and an online questionnaire, our critical case examined a group of mature…

  4. [EU policy orientations on road accidents prevention and workplace health promotion in the transport sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolani, L

    2012-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment. Road traffic accidents and road safety are a major public health issue. The Commission of the EU has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional and local levels. Some strategic objectives were identified in order to 1) improve education and training of road users and the quality of the licensing and training system of drivers; 2) make both road infrastructure and vehicles safer. These orientations will translate for the workers of the transport sector in an important initial and periodic training with the aim to improve their health and well-being and to reduce road risk and road accidents, representing a very good example of health promotion.

  5. Improving the effectiveness of road safety campaigns: Current and new practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hoekstra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of campaigns aimed at improving road safety is still the exception rather than the rule. Because of this, ineffective campaigns and campaign techniques are allowed to continue to be utilised without question, while new methods of behaviour modification are often ignored. Therefore, the necessity and advantages of formally evaluating road safety campaign efforts are discussed. This article also describes the pros and cons of some of the more common campaign strategies and introduces a number of new methods that show a great deal of promise for the purpose of road safety campaigns. In order to infuse the field of road safety campaigning with such new insights into road user behaviour and behavioural modification, one should look beyond the confines of road safety campaign standards and learn from the knowledge gained in other disciplines such as economics and social psychology. These new insights are discussed in terms of their implications for the future of road safety campaigns.

  6. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  7. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  8. Automatic Road Network Map Update for the City of Dubai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Paula; Al Hammadi, Omran; Napiorkowska, Milena; Constantini, Fabiano; Callejas, Alberto; Smith, Garin; Petit, David

    2016-08-01

    Dubai is a modern city which is growing at a fast pace, constantly changing and developing. The application presented in this paper is part of the "Smart Application for Feature extraction & 3D modelling using high resolution satellite Imagery (SAFIY)" project, whose main aim is to develop satellite data applications to help the government in Dubai to get up-to-date information on features such as water bodies, vegetation areas, buildings and roads. In this paper we present an application to automatically update the road network map for the city of Dubai using very high resolution satellite imagery, Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 at 0.75 cm resolution. Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 have been recently included as third party contributors to the Copernicus constellation.The algorithms implemented use unsupervised and supervised classification techniques to extract the road pixels. Special road objects such as roundabouts or bridges are also detected using algorithms based on feature descriptors, designed to match the specific characteristics of those objects. Finally, the system identifies the changes in roads and objects from the current road network map in order to update the map. The city of Dubai is 4,114 km and has many different types of neighbourhoods from suburbs to very densely populated areas. Overall, we propose a novel end to end system that automatically updates a road network map and allows a user to manually correct them so that the final resulting map is usable.

  9. Complementary methods for extracting road centerlines from IKONOS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Donna S.; Poulsen, Rick

    2003-03-01

    We present both semi-automated and automated methods for road extraction using IKONOS imagery. The automated method extracts straight-line, gridded road networks by inferring a local grid structure from initial information and then filling in missing pieces using hypothesization and verification. This can be followed by the semi-automated road tracker tool to approximate curvilinear roads and to fill in some of the remaining missing road structure. After a panchromatic texture analysis, our automated method incorporates an object-level processing phase which enables the algorithm to avoid problems arising from interference such as crosswalks and vehicles. It is limited, however, in that the logic is designed for reasoning concerning intersecting grid patterns of straight road segments. Many suburban areas are characterized by curving streets which may not be well-approximated using this automatic method. In these areas, missing content can be filled in using a semi-automated tool which tracks between user-supplied points. The semi-automated algorithm is based on measures derived from both the panchromatic and multispectral bands of IKONOS. We will discuss both of these algorithms in detail and how they fit into our overall solution strategy for road extraction. A presentation of current experimentation and test results will be followed by a discussion of advantages, shortcomings, and directions for future research and improvements.

  10. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  11. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by a...

  12. Silk Road policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Landlocked Asia is blessed with rich mineral and energy resources and has great potential to supply these resources to Europe and eastern Asia. With globalisation of markets progressing rapidly, central Asia is now in the spotlight for its economic activity, as a route for international trade and as the heartland of the `Modern Silk Road` of the 21st century. The article discusses the mineral resources of central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrghystan, Xingjiang, and Mongolia. Energy resources of the region, coal, oil and natural gas, are mentioned. International organizations and industrial companies like Japan are supporting the transformation of these vast largely unexplored areas to market economies. Construction of the New Silk Road has begun, under the UNDP, and improvement of the Silk Road railway is also underway, with Japanese funding. 3 figs.

  13. Drivers’ Interaction with Adaptive Cruise Control on Dry and Snowy Roads with Various Tire-Road Grip Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Koglbauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates drivers’ interaction with Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC in different road conditions and identifies areas of improvement. Ninety-six drivers drove with the ACC in a driving simulator showing either a summer scenery and a dry road with high grip potential or a winter scenery with a snowy road and reduced grip potential. The results show that on snowy roads the drivers set in average a lower ACC speed and preferred a larger ACC time gap. Drivers’ workload and effort were higher when using the ACC on snowy as compared to dry roads. Generally, the use of a shorter ACC gap resulted in lower ratings of comfort, safety, and trust and higher ratings of mental workload and effort in both dry and snowy road conditions. The drivers judged that ACC was braking too late and maintained a too short gap to the forward vehicle, especially when the ACC was set to 1 second as compared to a 1.8-second time gap. A future adaptation of ACC’s control strategy to reduced tire-road grip potential would not only improve comfort and user acceptance of the human driver but also increase the potential to react in emergency situations with braking or evasive steering.

  14. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    in the energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions, since they also enable heavy-duty transport to be electrified such as trucks and buses. It is unlikely that these forms of transport will be electrified without electric roads, due to the relatively high cost of on-board battery storage....... battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric...

  15. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  16. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  17. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  18. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  19. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  20. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  1. VT E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  2. Grant County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  3. Supervising road safety in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sagástegui, Freddy; Abogado, Adjuntía para el Medio Ambiente, Servicios Públicos y Pueblos Indígenas, Defensoría del Pueblo. Lima, Perú.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. facing ...

  4. Road construction in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, L.; Benkovics, I.

    1985-01-01

    The need and reasons of road construction for rubber-tyre vehicles in various mine sections are examined. A detailed analysis is given of the direct and indirect influences of underground haulage ways and transport roads on the parameters of mine performance. The various mine road construction technologies are overviewed. Experiences are presented with road construction in the Mecsek Ore Mines Company, Plant 3, Hungary. The cost factors of four construction technologies are compared.

  5. Road safety management by objectives: a critical analysis of the Norwegian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2008-05-01

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration has developed a comprehensive system of road safety management by objectives. A broad set of objectives regarding road user behaviour, vehicle safety standards and the safety of roads has been formulated as part of the National Transport Plan for the term 2010--2019. These objectives have been derived from an overall objective of reducing the number of killed or seriously injured road users by 50% before the year 2020. This paper describes the system and provides a critical analysis of it. Factors that influence the effectiveness of management by objectives are identified. It is concluded that while the system of management by objectives developed in Norway has a number of attractive characteristics it also has a number of weak points that may limit its effectiveness. It is therefore by no means certain that the objective of reducing fatalities and serious injuries by 50% will be realised.

  6. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily intere

  7. Run-off-road crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one-third of all fatalities and one-sixth of all seriously injured are the consequence of run-off-road crashes. The outcome of run-off-road crashes is relatively severe, one fatality in five seriously injured, which is twice the average in the Netherlands. Serious run-off-road cr

  8. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  9. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  10. EARTH ROADS ARE EASY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the mundane—clay, sand, gravel, calcium chloride, oil, and tar—to the extraordinary—water glass, adobe clay, beet juice, and carpeting.There is no more dfficult problem confronting highway engineers than that of properly constructing and maintaining an earth road. The work may be less spectacular than the construction and maintenance of hard-surfaced roads, but there is greater latitude in location, methods of construction and choice of materials, consequently there is more scope for the exercise of sound judgment on the part of the engineer.1

  11. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  12. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...

  13. Road and Street Centerlines, Roads, road surfaces, Published in 2009, Central College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2009. It is described as 'Roads, road surfaces'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  14. Can road traffic law enforcement permanently reduce the number of accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnskau, T; Elvik, R

    1992-10-01

    In this paper it is argued that conventional analyses of road user adaptation to traffic law enforcement, based on parametric rational-choice theory, are flawed. Such analyses only consider road-user actions as a response to enforcement level and penalty size and do not simultaneously consider enforcement as a response to road-user behaviour. If each party is considered a rational agent who adapts to the other's behaviour, the proper way to analyze the outcomes is by the way of game theory. A game-theoretic model is presented and the main implications are: (i) most attempts at enforcing road traffic legislation will not have any lasting effects, either on road-user behaviour or on accidents; (ii) imposing stricter penalties (in the form of higher fines or longer prison sentences) will not affect road-user behaviour; (iii) imposing stricter penalties will reduce the level of enforcement; (iv) implementing automatic traffic surveillance techniques and/or allocating enforcement resources according to a chance mechanism, and not according to police estimates of violation probability, can make enforcement effects last, but both alternatives are difficult to implement. Relevant empirical studies are reviewed, and they seem to support the conclusions arrived at by the game-theoretic model.

  15. Roads - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  16. Pedestrian self-reported use of smart phones: Positive attitudes and high exposure influence intentions to cross the road while distracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Alexia; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Matthews, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours. Self-reported frequency of using a smart phone for three levels of distraction (visual and cognitive-texting/internet; cognitive only- voice calls; audio only-listening to music) while crossing the road was collected. Results indicated that about 20% of the sample had high exposure to smart phone use while crossing, especially 18-30year olds who were significantly more likely than other age groups to report frequent exposure. TPB constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control significantly predicted intentions to use a smart phone while crossing the road, accounting for 62% of variance in Intentions for the entire sample, and 54% of the variance for 18-30year olds. Additional variables of Mobile Phone Involvement and Group Norms provided an additional significant 6% of the variance explained for both groups. Attitude was by far the strongest predictor for both the whole sample and for 18-30year olds, accounting for 38% and 41% explained variance, respectively. This suggests that pedestrians with positive attitudes towards using their smart phones while crossing the road have stronger intentions to do so. Moreover, high exposure was associated with stronger intentions to

  17. Enabling Routes of Road Network Constrained Movements as Mobile Service Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...... vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported...

  18. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  19. 3D Modelling, Animation and Simulation of Mammal’s Migration Across Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talapka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented article is dealing with the new methods which are designated for data collection of mammals migrating across traffic networks. Nowadays, road construction and securing of older roads is usually accompanied by finding new solutions. Because of lack of collected data we have new opportunities how we can collect this input. The article below describes the most efficient method which is suitable for the model creation, process of creation and issues which are connected with the creation of simulations.

  20. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...... take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...

  1. The road coloring problem

    CERN Document Server

    Trahtman, A N

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  2. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  3. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  4. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management...

  5. Afghanistan’s Road Infrastructure: Sustainment Challenges and Lack of Repairs Put U.S. Investment at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    disputed this claim and stated that the MOPW receives all revenues from the fuel tax and road user fees. During the course of this audit , we could not...Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR 17-11 Audit Report Afghanistan’s Road Infrastructure: Sustainment...objectives of this audit were to determine the extent to which (1) U.S. agencies have fully accounted for the road construction they funded in

  6. August: Road Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Eldorado France, 2008 85' Road movie Directed by: Bouly Lanners Cast: Bouly Lanners, Fabrice Adde Philippe Nahon Yvan is an auto salesman who makes a good living dealing in American luxury cars. One evening, Yvan comes home to discover a burglar has made his way into his home, and a quick search reveals the criminal, Elie is hiding under his bed, and when the thief finally emerges he turns out to be a junkie who is feeling the first stages of withdrawal.

  7. Snow Roads and Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    CONSTRUCT ROADS FOR MARCHING COLUMNS ALL ARMS (1) Pass over the trace twice with (1) Two passes with the harrow the harrow. and roller. (2) After harrowing...should be accomplished by successive passes with beams or slabs to the towing bars. A method forballasting D-7 orD-8 tractortracks. Normally twoto five... waffle -type snow surface (Fig. 85)and is notas suitable for snow pavement surface has been previously compacted snow compaction as other types of rollers

  8. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established.

  9. Optimal Road Capacity Building : Road Planning by Marginal Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    NEMOTO, Toshinori; Misui, Yuki; Kajiwara, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new road planning and financing scheme based on short-term social marginal cost pricing that facilitates the establishment of optimal road standards in the long term. We conducted a simulation analysis based on the proposed planning scheme and observed that the simulation calculated the optimal road capacity in the future, and thus proved that the new planning scheme is feasible.

  10. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  11. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  12. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  13. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life, Gender, and Culture of Older People Users of Health Services in the Multicultural Landscape of the City of Ceuta (Spain): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Sánchez-Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Aguilar Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Ruiz-Villaverde, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are influenced by sociodemographic variables and by cultural-religious concepts of health, disease, and old age, among others. To assess the HRQOL of older people in a population with a long history of multiculturalism, the city of Ceuta (Spain), and to compare the results with Spanish reference values. A total of 372 individuals (55.4% females) were interviewed using the Spanish version of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The subjects' mean age was 70.9 (SD = 5) years: 253 were Christians, 93 Muslims, and 26 Jews, representing the proportions in the overall population of these cultural-religious groups. HRQOL differs according to the cultural-religious affiliation, which specifically affects social and psychological dimensions. All groups obtained lower social function scores than the reference values, especially the Muslim and Jewish groups. Health care providers may consider integrating culturally sensitive interventions to improve HRQOL. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A GIS-based Matched Case-control Study of Road Characteristics in Farm Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Mello, Elizabeth R; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2016-11-01

    Farm vehicle-related crashes (crashes) are hazardous for farm and non-farm vehicle users; however, most studies examine risk factors of injury given a crash, and shed little light on risk factors of crashes. We evaluated the association of road sinuosity and gradient with crashes in nine Midwestern States from 2005 to 2010. We collected crash data from the state departments of transportation, and road segment data from the Environmental Sciences Research Institute. We measured gradient and sinuosity of road segments using ArcGIS. A road segment with a crash was defined as a case (n = 6,848), and that without a crash was defined as a control. Controls were matched to cases by ZIP code, road type, and length in 1:1 (controls = 6,808) matching scheme. In addition, a 1:many control matched scheme was employed such that all road segments adjacent to the case would serve as controls (n = 24,390). We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable conditional logistic regression. The adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% gradient was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.75) as compared with a leveled (<1% gradient) road segment. Compared with a straight (<1% sinuosity) road segment, the adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% sinuosity was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.52). Roads with increased gradient and sinuosity had fewer farm crashes. These associations may be due to cautious driving behaviors on curvy or steep roads and road side signage alerting drivers of impending curve or grade.

  16. Environmental factors influencing older adults’ walking for transportation: a study using walk-along interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberg Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International. An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Results Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity, walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches, traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users, familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons, social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay and weather. Conclusions The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should

  17. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  18. Road traffic mortality in the Slovak Republic in 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek

    2016-10-02

    Road traffic mortality takes an enormous toll in every society. Transport safety interventions play a crucial role in improving the situation. In the period 1996-2014 several road safety measures, including a complex new road traffic law in 2009, were implemented in the Slovak Republic, introducing stricter conditions for road users. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the trends in road user mortality in the Slovak Republic in individual age groups by sex during the study period 1996-2014. Data on overall mortality in the Slovak Republic for the period 1996-2014 were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Mortality rates were age-adjusted to the European standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to assess the statistical significance of change in time trends of calculated standardized mortality rates. Mortality rates of all types of road users as well as all age groups and both sexes in the Slovak Republic in the period 1996-2014 are decreasing. The male : female ratio decreased from 4:1 in 1996 to 2:1 in 2014. Motor vehicle users (other than motorcyclists) and pedestrians have the highest mortality rates among road user groups. Both of these groups show a significant decline in mortality rates over the study period. Within the age groups, people age 65 years and over have the highest mortality rates, followed by the age groups 25-64 and 15-24 years old. Joinpoint regression confirmed a steady, significant decline in all mortality rates over the study period. A statistically significant decrease in mortality rates in the last years of the study period was observed in the age group 25-64 and in male motorcycle users. Assessing the impact of the 2009 road traffic law, a drop was observed in the average standardized mortality rate of all road traffic users from 14.56 per 100,000 person years in the period 1996-2008 to 7.69 per 100,000 person years in the period 2009-2014. A similar drop in the average standardized

  19. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  20. Cost effective maintenance to supply end user value: Visionary or utopian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; Alten, K.; Turk, M.R.; Palić, S.Š.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure stakeholders expect maintenance managers to deliver acceptable End User Service Levels (EUSL), such as availability, comfort, and safety. Means of controlling these requirements involve technical maintenance and operative measures. Within the ERANET Road Program 'Effective asset manag

  1. Cost effective maintenance to supply end user value: Visionary or utopian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; Alten, K.; Turk, M.R.; Palić, S.Š.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure stakeholders expect maintenance managers to deliver acceptable End User Service Levels (EUSL), such as availability, comfort, and safety. Means of controlling these requirements involve technical maintenance and operative measures. Within the ERANET Road Program 'Effective asset

  2. Road Works Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gertrude; Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    China to invest $532 million in Rwanda in 2011 CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year,mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools,said Shu Zhan,Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda,in early February. "We need to have adequate field surveys,wide consultation and detailed ’homework,’ in order to come up with tailor-made solutions that meet local needs," Shu said in an interview with ChinAfrica.

  3. RoadTrip Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apple iPod系列产品最让人遗憾的地方,就是缺少对于调频收音机的支持。所以我们只好通过各种配件为它增加功能。这款RoadTrip“巧克力”,不仅能让iPod增加收音机的功能,还可以通过调频把iPod中的音乐发出出来。

  4. Road traffic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo 王正国

    2003-01-01

    @@ The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars.Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO.

  5. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  6. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Aramaki, Shingo; Kitazono, Yuhki; Mu, Shenglin; Tanaka, Kanya; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous. PMID:27754326

  7. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  8. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  9. Goal Directed Relative Skyline Queries in Time Dependent Road Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, K B Priya

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless GIS technology is progressing rapidly in the area of mobile communications. Location-based spatial queries are becoming an integral part of many new mobile applications. The Skyline queries are latest apps under Location-based services. In this paper we introduce Goal Directed Relative Skyline queries on Time dependent (GD-RST) road networks. The algorithm uses travel time as a metric in finding the data object by considering multiple query points (multi-source skyline) relative to user location and in the user direction of travelling. We design an efficient algorithm based on Filter phase, Heap phase and Refine Skyline phases. At the end, we propose a dynamic skyline caching (DSC) mechanism which helps to reduce the computation cost for future skyline queries. The experimental evaluation reflects the performance of GD-RST algorithm over the traditional branch and bound algorithm for skyline queries in real road networks.

  10. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Mendoza–Díaz; E. Abarca–Pérez; A.G. Centeno–Saad

    2009-01-01

    A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project...

  11. Mobility Assistance for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a scooter supporting the mobility of older people. The scooter is equipped with a drive assistance system and a special scooter navigation system. The drive assistance system consists of a velocity controller, a steering controller, and a collision avoidance system. In this paper it is demonstrated how the challenging control and steering tasks are modified to increase safety for older people. A special scooter navigation system is presented, to support elderly people in navigating on a safe route through the city using sidewalks, pedestrian lights and crosswalks. For extended positioning requirements a hybrid positioning system was developed combining GPS, WLAN, and inertial sensor data. By combination of these technical improvements it is demonstrated how older people are able to preserve their self-determined and independent life. Usability research was done with focus groups in order to become familiar with global user demands and expectations towards a mobility assistance system. Results show that the system components are expected to assist the user in navigation, steering and speed control rather than to take complete control on the driving situation.

  12. Risky attitudes towards road use in pre-drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea E; McKenna, Frank P

    2008-05-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are one of the principal causes of adolescent disability or mortality and male drivers are more likely to be involved in road accidents than female drivers. In part such associations between driver age and sex have been linked to differences in risky behaviour (e.g. speed, violations) and individual characteristics (e.g. sensation seeking, deviant behaviour). The aim of this research is to determine whether associations between risky road user behaviour and individual characteristics are a function of driver behaviour or whether they are intrinsic and measurable in individuals too young to drive. Five hundred and sixty-seven pre-driver students aged 11-16 from three secondary schools completed questionnaires measuring enthusiasm for speed, sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards driver violations. Boys reported more risky attitudes than girls for all measures. Associations between sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards risky road use were present from early adolescence and were strongest around age 14, before individuals learn to drive. Risky attitudes towards road use are associated with individual characteristics and are observed in adolescents long before they learn to drive. Safe attitudes towards road use and driver behaviour should be promoted from childhood in order to be effective.

  13. Health burden of serious road injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, W; Bos, N; Stipdonk, H

    2016-11-16

    The consequences of injuries in terms of disabilities and health burden are relevant for policy making. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge on this topic and discusses the health burden of serious road injuries in The Netherlands. The overview of current knowledge on disabilities following a road crash is based on a literature review. The health burden of serious road injuries is quantified in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), by combining incidence data from the Dutch hospital discharge register with information about temporary and lifelong disability. Literature shows that road traffic injuries can have a major impact on victims' physical and psychological well-being and functioning. Reported proportions of people with disability vary between 11 and 80% depending on the type of casualties, time elapsed since the crash, and the health impacts considered. Together, all casualties involving serious injuries in The Netherlands in 2009 account for about 38,000 YLD, compared to 25,000 years of life lost (YLL) of fatalities. Ninety percent of the burden of injury is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 20% of all those seriously injured in road accidents. Lower leg injuries and head injuries represent a high share in the total burden of injury as have cyclists that are injured in a crash without a motorized vehicle. Pedestrians and powered 2-wheeler users show the highest burden of injury per casualty. Given their major impacts and contribution to health burden, road policy making should also be aimed at reducing the number of serious road injuries and limiting the resulting health impacts.

  14. How do older netcitizens compare with their younger counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, A; Renold, C; Henke, M

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is modifying the lives of people around the world. Although many talk about the democratization of knowledge and information, differences remain among users as older netcitizens are under-represented and less involved. We use national and representative U.S. data, the Current Population Survey, to show age-based differences. We complement our analysis with web-based data, the Georgia Tech World Wide Web User Surveys, to show Internet characteristics and trends by age for netcitizens. Results show that older users compose a lower share of Internet users than that of the total U.S. population; however, once they join the ranks of avid Internet users, older netcitizens are similar to their younger counterparts.

  15. The relationship between road safety and congestion on motorways : a literature review of potential effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay and stress, and environmental pollution increases. The effects of traffic congestion on traffic safety, however, are less obvious. This literature review investigates the relationship between conges...

  16. Road following for blindBike: an assistive bike navigation system for low vision persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Lynne; Overell, William

    2017-05-01

    Road Following is a critical component of blindBike, our assistive biking application for the visually impaired. This paper talks about the overall blindBike system and goals prominently featuring Road Following, which is the task of directing the user to follow the right side of the road. This work unlike what is commonly found for self-driving cars does not depend on lane line markings. 2D computer vision techniques are explored to solve the problem of Road Following. Statistical techniques including the use of Gaussian Mixture Models are employed. blindBike is developed as an Android Application and is running on a smartphone device. Other sensors including Gyroscope and GPS are utilized. Both Urban and suburban scenarios are tested and results are given. The success and challenges faced by blindBike's Road Following module are presented along with future avenues of work.

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... users (i.e., pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists), (3) involvement of heavy vehicles, (4) speed limits of 80–90 km/h, (5) longer distance to the nearest hospital, and (6) peripheral rural regions....

  18. All Road Density (18km)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Density (km / km^2) of all roads in the western United States. Dataset was developed to generalize the 2000 US Census TIGER/Line Roads layer to a density within 18km...

  19. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  20. Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the sequel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Diana S

    2015-11-01

    Housing an illicit, online drug retail market generating sales in the millions of USD, the Silk Road was a profitable marketplace with a growing and loyal consumer base. Following its FBI-forced shut down in October 2013, the Silk Road enjoyed newfound fame that contributed to an increase in new users downloading and accessing the Tor Network; however, with this particular marketplace out of order, Silk Road 2 was launched to fill the void. The goals of this study were to (1) compare the metrics of Silk Road 2 to the original site, and to (2) determine if there were any indications of the presence of more sophisticated drug trafficking operations. Data were collected from Silk Road 2 during the months of August and September 2014 using webcrawling software. Silk Road 2 was a much smaller marketplace than the original Silk Road. Of the 1834 unique items for sale, 348 were drug items sold by 145 distinct vendors shipping from 19 countries. Of the drug items advertised, most were stimulants and hallucinogens. The United States is both the number one country of origin for drug sales on Silk Road 2 and the number one destination country. Interestingly, 73% of all vendor accounts on Silk Road 2 advertised drug items, even though drugs only constituted 19% of all items advertised. This study was the first to research Silk Road 2, the replacement illicit marketplace to the original virtual Silk Road. This study was also the first to examine indications of the presence of more coordinated drug trafficking efforts in an online setting. The findings indicated that while Silk Road 2 was not primarily a drug market, there were indications that some vendor accounts may have connections reaching beyond a base retail market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Road traffic injuries in the People's Republic of China, 1951-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Xiang, Huiyun; Jing, Ruiwei; Tu, Zhibin

    2011-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have become the leading cause of injury deaths in China. This article analyzed the trends in all crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities from road traffic crashes from 1951 to 2008 and compared the crash frequency, crash severity, and crash patterns by provinces, types of road, and injured road users. Road traffic crash data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security and National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Over the past 5 decades, road traffic injuries have increased substantially in China. From 1951 to 2008, the total number of road traffic crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities increased by 43-fold, 58-fold, and 85-fold, respectively. Linear regression suggested a significant decline of 30.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-35.3) in the mortality rate per 100,000 people during the period 2002 to 2008. From 2004 to 2008, road traffic crash mortality rate per 100,000 people varied greatly in China from the lowest of 3.0 in Henan in 2008 to the highest of 21.7 in Xizang in 2004. RTIs in China disproportionally affected the following populations: males, persons 21 to 50 years of age, pedestrians, and motorcyclists/bicyclists. Adults aged more than 65 years accounted for approximately 10 percent of total road traffic deaths. Road types and RTIs severity were closely related; highways were associated with greater mortality rates. Road traffic injuries have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  2. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  3. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  4. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  5. Willingness to use mobile application for smartphone for improving road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Angelo Stephen; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years mobile devices have reached a large amount of consumers in both developed and high-growth world economies. In 2013, 97% of the Italian population owns a mobile phone, and 62% owns a smartphone. Application software for mobile devices is largely proposed to consumers, and several mobile applications were oriented toward the improvement of road safety and road accident risk reduction. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey oriented to preventively investigate on the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road condition by means of mobile devices. Road users were informed about the characteristics of a mobile application, and then they were invited to complete a questionnaire. Experimental data were used for capturing road user attitudes toward the use of the smartphone to improve road safety, and to establish the preferences for the different features of the proposed mobile application. To this end, we choose to use the ordered probit model methodology. We demonstrate that the adopted methodology accounts for the differential impacts of the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road conditions on the overall willingness to receive and/or to give information through an application software for mobile devices.

  6. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  7. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  8. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  9. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  10. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  11. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Zhang, Fan; Dijkstra, Atze

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as 'vulnerable road users'. This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist casualties. However, this research is rather limited and the results cannot (easily) be transferred from one setting or country to another: generalization of results should only be done with the utmost care, if it is to be done at all. Interventions to reduce cyclist casualties worldwide seem to be of an incidental nature; that is to say, they are implemented in a rather isolated way. In a Safe System approach, such as the Dutch Sustainable Safety vision, the inherent risks of traffic are dealt with in a systematic, proactive way. We illustrate how this approach is especially effective for vulnerable road users, such as cyclists. Finally, the paper addresses the question of whether it is possible to make more cycling good for road safety. We conclude that when the number of cyclists increases, the number of fatalities may increase, but will not necessarily do so, and the outcome is dependent on specific conditions. There is strong evidence that well-designed bicycle facilities-physically separated networks-reduce risks for cyclists, and therefore have an impact on the net safety result, for example if car-kilometres are substituted by bicycle kilometres. Policies to support cycling should incorporate these findings in order to make more cycling good for road safety.

  12. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secon

  13. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secon

  14. A simulator study investigating how motorcyclists approach side-road hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David

    2013-03-01

    The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone.

  15. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on reduc

  17. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  18. Road Safety: The Vital but Neglected Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Patsy

    1989-01-01

    Teacher training students (N=153) in England were surveyed about road safety education. Attitudes of students about their preparation for teaching road safety, ways of integrating road safety into the primary and secondary curriculum, and obstacles to teaching road safety in schools are discussed. (IAH)

  19. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Lopez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road

  20. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Alvarez; T. Gevers; A.M. Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road homo

  1. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roedenbeck, I.A.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.E.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Klar, N.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addr

  2. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Lopez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road homo

  3. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  4. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  5. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  6. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the
    populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of
    road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill).
    For road

  7. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the
    populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of
    road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill).
    For road p

  8. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NOX, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM2.5) -52, -84......This report explains the parts of the Danish emission inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2010 the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions......, -81, and -65 %, respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO2 the emission drop 99 % (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH3 emissions increased by 2232 % (due to the introduction of catalyst cars...

  9. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    have increased by 36 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NOX and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due......This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2006 the fuel use and CO2 emissions for road transport...... to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO2 the emission drop is 99% (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH3 emissions increase by 3065% (due to the introduction of catalyst cars). For other mobile sources the calculated emission changes...

  10. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  11. Modeling road-cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, T S; Norton, K I; Lowe, E L; Olive, S; Reay, F; Ly, S

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a complete set of equations for a "first principles" mathematical model of road-cycling performance, including corrections for the effect of winds, tire pressure and wheel radius, altitude, relative humidity, rotational kinetic energy, drafting, and changed drag. The relevant physiological, biophysical, and environmental variables were measured in 41 experienced cyclists completing a 26-km road time trial. The correlation between actual and predicted times was 0.89 (P road-cycling performance are maximal O2 consumption, fractional utilization of maximal O2 consumption, mechanical efficiency, and projected frontal area. The model is then applied to some practical problems in road cycling: the effect of drafting, the advantage of using smaller front wheels, the effects of added mass, the importance of rotational kinetic energy, the effect of changes in drag due to changes in bicycle configuration, the normalization of performances under different conditions, and the limits of human performance.

  12. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  13. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  14. LOGISTICS FLOWS IN THE ROAD SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tsarenkova, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Logistical torrents in the system of road economy is consider and distinctive sings which evoke peculiarity his activity and specific quality, be formed. During execution of works on object reveal optimum direction of move road-structure technology, which transformaintion to transport logistical road-structure torrents. Elements of information torrents on micro level, which reflection demand to the condition car road and scheme of forming financial torrents in road complex are work out; offer...

  15. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  16. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  17. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  18. Road rage victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Sharpley, Justin M

    2007-09-01

    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students. Based on the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a self-administered survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (n = 7726), the contribution of demographic factors (gender, region, driver's license status, grade, overall marks) to three road rage victimization measures was examined with logistic regression analysis. Just over half of students (53.2%) had been victims of shouts, curses and rude gestures in the past year, 8.9% were threatened with damage to their vehicle or personal injury and 6.2% experienced an attempt or actual damage to their vehicle or personal injury. Logistic regression analyses revealed that being a victim of shouting was significantly related to region, driver's license status, and grade. Victimization by threats was significantly related to gender, driver's license, grade, and marks. Being a victim of attempts or actual vehicle damage or injury was significantly related to region, driver's license, and marks. This study provides the first indication of prevalence of road rage victimization among adolescents. Road rage victimization in its milder form is common, involving just over half of Ontario students in grades 7-12. About 1 in 10 students were threatened with vehicle damage or personal injury, and about 1 in 20 were victims of attempts or actual damage or injury.

  19. [Forecast the trend of burden from fatal road traffic injuries between 2015 and 2030 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aichun; Tian, Danping; Huang, Yuanxiu; Gao, Lin; Deng, Xin; Li, Li; He, Qiong; Chen, Tianmu; Hu, Guoqing; Wu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    To predict the burden caused by fatal road traffic injuries from 2015 to 2030. We searched the websites of United Nations Population Division,United States Department of Agriculture, World Health Organization, China Energy Research Foundation and other agencies to obtain the predictive values of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization, motorization and education from 2015 to 2030 in China. Predicted values were then applied to log-linear models to estimate the numbers and years of life lost due to road traffic injuries from 2015 to 2030. The mortality rate caused by road traffic injury decreased slightly, from 13.7/100 000 in 2015 to 11.8/100 000 in 2030. 191, 189, 183, 169 thousand persons were estimated to die from road traffic crashes in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030, respectively, showing a declining trend. Years of Life Lost (YLLs) caused by road traffic deaths were predicted to be 6 918, 6 634, 6 189, 5 513 thousand years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030, respectively, also showing a gradual downward trend. But the YLLs displayed an increase among people at 55 years of age or older, between 2015 and 2030. Results from the sensitivity analysis showed a stable forecasting result. Mortality, number of deaths and YLLs from road traffic crashes were predicted to decrease slightly, between 2015 and 2030 but the number of deaths and YLLs due to road traffic injuries will continue to increase from 2015 to 2030.

  20. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of Safet

  1. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of

  2. An Automated Grass-Based Procedure to Assess the Geometrical Accuracy of the Openstreetmap Paris Road Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the largest spatial database of the world. One of the most frequently occurring geospatial elements within this database is the road network, whose quality is crucial for applications such as routing and navigation. Several methods have been proposed for the assessment of OSM road network quality, however they are often tightly coupled to the characteristics of the authoritative dataset involved in the comparison. This makes it hard to replicate and extend these methods. This study relies on an automated procedure which was recently developed for comparing OSM with any road network dataset. It is based on three Python modules for the open source GRASS GIS software and provides measures of OSM road network spatial accuracy and completeness. Provided that the user is familiar with the authoritative dataset used, he can adjust the values of the parameters involved thanks to the flexibility of the procedure. The method is applied to assess the quality of the Paris OSM road network dataset through a comparison against the French official dataset provided by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN). The results show that the Paris OSM road network has both a high completeness and spatial accuracy. It has a greater length than the IGN road network, and is found to be suitable for applications requiring spatial accuracies up to 5-6 m. Also, the results confirm the flexibility of the procedure for supporting users in carrying out their own comparisons between OSM and reference road datasets.

  3. Vanuatu - HDM-4 Analysis of the Efate Ring Road and the Santo East Coast Road

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) provided funds for the upgrade of two roads in Vanuatu. These were the Efate Ring Road and the Santo East Coast Road. Both...

  4. Simulating autonomous driving styles: Accelerations for three road profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.

  5. An economic evaluation of incremental resources to road safety programmes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, J

    1999-01-01

    Road crashes are related to the level of traffic, road and weather conditions, and most importantly, road user behaviour, which is a function of the level of enforcement, education and advertising campaigns. Safety programmes such as enforcement and advertising campaigns against drink-driving, speeding or seatbelt wearing aim to improve road user behaviour, and thereby to reduce the number and severity of crashes. This paper estimates incremental safety outcomes of these programmes over time and compares them with their resource costs. Due to the common outcome of several programmes, it is difficult to identify the effects of individual programmes. This paper tries to separate out the effects of non-roading safety programmes as a group from roading improvements. The analysis shows that safety programmes in New Zealand produce high incremental returns. Given that the crash risks in New Zealand are high in comparison with most other OECD countries, there is considerable scope for improvements to be made. The high incremental benefit/cost ratio over time supports this view and indicates that the investment in safety programmes is well below the optimal level.

  6. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  7. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  8. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  9. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  10. Franklin: User Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  11. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  12. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  13. Acoustic user interfaces for ambient-assisted living technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Stefan; Moritz, Niko; Appell, Jens-E; Meis, Markus; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses technologies for acoustic user interaction in ambient-assisted living (AAL) scenarios. Acoustic user interfaces allow for a natural and convenient way to interact with technical systems e.g. via sound or speech presentation or via speech input by means of automatic speech recognition (ASR) as well as by detection and classification of acoustic events. Older persons targeted by AAL technologies especially need more easy-to-use methods to interact with inherently complex supporting technology. As an example we designed and evaluated an application for acoustic user interaction with a multi-media reminder and calendar system. For this purpose, mainly older participants were involved in user studies to continuously evaluate and support the development strictly following a user-centred design process. The results suggest a wide acceptance of acoustic user interfaces by older users either for controlling inherently complex AAL systems by using robust ASR technologies or as a natural and ambient way of presenting information to the user. However, further research is needed to increase the robustness of ASR systems when using hands-free equipment, i.e. to provide a real ambient way of interaction, and to introduce personalised speech and sound presentation schemes accounting for the individual hearing capabilities and sound preferences.

  14. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  15. Experimental road signs in a simulated environment research programme – experiment procedures and assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruszewski Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of experimental signs on public roads may cause some risks due to driver misunderstanding or misinterpretation, especially when seen for the first time. To minimize this risk, driver reaction and sign understanding can be tested in a safe and relatively cheap simulation-based environment. The consortium running the project “Experimental road marking and its effect on road user behaviour” suggested a similar methodology. The project included a simulation-based research program. The consortium proposed a set of experimental signs which have a strong potential for improving road safety and traffic conditions. The paper outlines the simulation-based research programme involving experimental signs and a proposed experiment procedure. Simulation scenarios and procedures were selected to achieve the required message and goals of implementation. In addition, an analysis is proposed of the factors and indicators of each sign and its effects.

  16. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  17. Information System on Road Conditions in Croatia- Plans of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Jenić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of information about road conditions in theRepublic of Croatia do nor meet the needs of their users- roadvehicle mororists, regarding their content, updating criteria andtimely announcement and warning of potential risks for thedrivers. Neither do they meet the criteria of monitoring and supportduring poor traffic and weather conditions. The paper considerscritically the cwTent situation in the information systemabout the road conditions in the Republic of Croatia, and studiesthe reasons for such a condition. It also gives guidelines forimproving the level of quality of this service and the plans for itsdevelopment. It mentions the activities that should be carriedout in order to improve the whole information system regardingupgrading oft he current system in the segments of receiving anddistributing information, application of new technical andtechnological solutions (CPS, RDS, TMC, development andimprovement of the information and communication infrastructure,data exchange network, introduction of navigationsystems, etc.

  18. ECONOMIC EVALUATION: LIFE CYCLE OF THE NATIONAL GAMES ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS. VIDYA NITIN PATIL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing importance of sustainable undertaking, purchasing and building, designers, consultants and pavement managers now tend to make more rational decisions than before when comparing the pros and cons of the construction, maintenance and management of various types of road pavements. Asphalt and concrete pavements offer specific advantages that need to be compared when selecting the most favorable option for long-life pavements. Financial decisions can be based on life cycle cost. Life Cycle Cost analysis is to arrive at such an economic equitable assessment of competing design alternatives and it further useful for budget planning. The paper describes life cycle cost analysis of the assets of road pavement byusing present worth method. The information regarding the user cost and vehicle operating cost as per IRC recommendation is also discussed in detail.

  19. Prediction of road accidents: A Bayesian hierarchical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deublein, Markus; Schubert, Matthias; Adey, Bryan T.;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a novel methodology for the prediction of the occurrence of road accidents is presented. The methodology utilizes a combination of three statistical methods: (1) gamma-updating of the occurrence rates of injury accidents and injured road users, (2) hierarchical multivariate Poisson......-lognormal regression analysis taking into account correlations amongst multiple dependent model response variables and effects of discrete accident count data e.g. over-dispersion, and (3) Bayesian inference algorithms, which are applied by means of data mining techniques supported by Bayesian Probabilistic Networks...... in order to represent non-linearity between risk indicating and model response variables, as well as different types of uncertainties which might be present in the development of the specific models.Prior Bayesian Probabilistic Networks are first established by means of multivariate regression analysis...

  20. AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERING AND EFFICIENT PARTICLE FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenita Subash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of geospatial data in government, military, industry, research, and other sectors have need foraccurate display of roads and other terrain information in areas where there are ongoing operations orlocations of interest. Hence, road extraction that is significantly more automated than the employment ofcostly and scarce human resources has become a challenging technical issue for the geospatialcommunity. An automatic road extraction based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF and variablestructured multiple model particle filter (VS-MMPF from satellite images is addressed. EKF traces themedian axis of a single road segment while VS-MMPF traces all road branches initializing at theintersection. In case of Local Linearization Particle filter (LLPF, a large number of particles are usedand therefore high computational expense is usually required in order to attain certain accuracy androbustness. The basic idea is to reduce the whole sampling space of the multiple model system to the modesubspace by marginalization over the target subspace and choose better importance function for modestate sampling. The core of the system is based on profile matching. During the estimation, new referenceprofiles were generated and stored in the road template memory for future correlation analysis, thuscovering the space of road profiles. .

  1. Can draconian law enforcement solve the South African Road Safety crisis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mohammed, SO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic law enforcement has been defined as the area of activity aimed at controlling road user behaviour by preventive, persuasive and punitive measures in order to effect the safe and efficient movement of traffic. The Department of Transport...

  2. Daytime running lights DRL : consultative document commissioned by the Road Safety Directorate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A survey on the effectiveness of daytime running lights for motor vehicles is described. A report on the introduction of the system is made giving particularly consideration to three questions (1) what effect is the system likely to have in the Netherlands. Drawbacks for certain types of road users

  3. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  4. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S. C.; Kalivoda, M.; Vacarro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Samaras, Z.; Lewis, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  5. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S. C.; Kalivoda, M.; Vacarro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Samaras, Z.; Lewis, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  6. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  7. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  8. A global strategy for road building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  9. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  10. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUSRIA DARMA; MOHAMED REHAN KARIM; SULAIMAN ABDULLAH

    2017-09-01

    Various initiatives, strategies and programmes have been taken by the Government of Malaysia to resolve issues pertaining to road traffic deaths. Nevertheless, the implementation of the programmes outlined in Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006 needs to be enhanced in order to achieve the set targets. In this regard, it is imperative for all parties concerning road safety to determine the factors that significantly contribute to road traffic deaths. According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in reducing the number of injuries due to road traffic accidents up to a certain extent. This study is focussed on analysing road traffic deaths caused by various road environment elements recorded by the police from 2000 to 2011 in order to determine their distribution, proportion and relationship with fatal accidents. The Chi-square test and Marascuilo procedure with 5% level of significance are used in this study. Based on locality, the number of road traffic deaths in rural area (66%) is significantly higher compared with that in urban areas (34%). Based on road category, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for federal roads, whereas the highest rate of fatalities per kilometre is recorded for expressways. Based on road segment, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for straight road segments, followed by bends. In addition, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for Y/T junctions,followed by cross junctions. The lowest number of road traffic deaths is recorded for interchanges and roundabouts. The results show that only 11.25% of the total road traffic deaths are related to road defects. The highest proportion of deaths due to road defects (48.6%) is associated with lack of street lighting provision,whereas road shoulder edge drop-off and potholes contribute 15.4% and 11.2% of road traffic deaths,respectively.

  11. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  12. Online dating across the life span: Users' relationship goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkin, Josephine A; Robles, Theodore F; Wiley, Joshua F; Gonzaga, Gian C

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing data from an eHarmony.com relationship questionnaire completed by new users (N = 5,434), this study identifies prioritized goals in new romantic relationships and whether importance of these goals differs by participants' age and gender. Overall, users valued interpersonal communication more than sex appeal. Older users rated sexual attraction as slightly less important than younger users did, but they still highly valued the goal. Women placed even greater emphasis on communication over sexual attraction compared to men. However, although men valued sexual attraction more than women at all ages, only the youngest women valued interpersonal communication more than young men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Protocols for toll road systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A problem in a tolling system like AutoPASS is the number of unidentified passages due to unreadable license plates. As a consequence money is lost for the toll road companies. A scheme is proposed that uses anonymous statistics to aid in the process of allocating resources for manual controls. Due to legal requirements for anonymity of data produced at toll plazas, a model that simulates the traffic frequencies on Norwegian roads is developed and implemented in Java. Using the toll plazas th...

  14. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  15. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  16. Feasibility study of an attention training application for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline; Colancecco, Elise; Dick, Robert; Hannan, John; Lin, Feng Vankee

    2015-09-01

    Technology-based attention training has demonstrated promise in its potential to improve cognitive functioning in older people. Developing mobile applications, with older users specifically in mind, may support future dissemination of these interventions and integration into daily life. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an Attention Training Application (ATA) for community-dwelling older adults using mobile technology. A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used to capture older adults' feedback on the usability and acceptability of the ATA. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 9) from two independent living facilities participated in a 2-hour training and practice session with the ATA. Participants were given personally tailored instructions for using the mobile device and the ATA specifically. Following a practice session, participants provided ratings on multiple components of the ATA and completed an audio-recorded, semi-structured interview to provide detailed descriptions of their experience and perceptions. An iterative process of content analysis was used to characterise the open-ended responses. Participants rated the ATA favourably overall on several 0-10 scales including likeability [8.5 (1.6)], interest [8.8 (2.3)] and satisfaction [8.2 (1.9)]. The qualitative analyses revealed several issues relevant to the feasibility of the ATA among older people including the importance of the technological background of the user, limiting negative feedback, challenges with the touch screen interface, personal preferences for challenge, extending the practice period and the difficulty of the dual-task condition. The use of the ATA is feasible in the older adult population. Future development should specifically consider personal characteristics as well as preferences to maximise usability and acceptability among older people. Older adults enjoyed the ATA. This opens doors to user-friendly technological interventions that may be

  17. Older adults' perceptions of home telehealth services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimperman, Miha; Brenčič, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; Stanonik, Mateja de Leonni

    2013-10-01

    The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market.

  18. De Baca County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city streets in DeBaca...

  19. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  20. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available formally implemented in South Africa. This paper assesses recent international developments pertaining to road safety auditing and reports on a review of the experience by road safety practitioners in South Africa. It concludes with recommendations...

  1. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  2. The angular nature of road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Arcaute, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Road networks are characterised by several structural and geometric properties. Their topological structure determines partially its hierarchical arrangement, but since these are networks that are spatially situated and, therefore, spatially constrained, to fully understand the role that each road plays in the system it is fundamental to characterize the influence that geometrical properties have over the network's behaviour. In this work, we percolate the UK's road network using the relative angle between street segments as the occupation probability. We argue that road networks undergo a non-equilibrium first-order phase transition at the moment the main roads start to interconnect forming the spanning percolation cluster. The percolation process uncovers the hierarchical structure of the roads in the network, and as such, its classification. Furthermore, this technique serves to extract the set of most important roads of the network and to create a hierarchical index for each road in the system.

  3. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  4. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de Andre

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire ma

  5. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  6. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  7. System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a 'vision zero', or 'safe system' style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  8. User evaluation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    2004-01-01

    The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented......The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented...

  9. User Privacy and Empowerment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2017-01-01

    of personal information and its manage-ment. Thus, empowering users and enhancing awareness are essential to compre-hending the value of secrecy. This paper also introduced latest advances in the domain of privacy issues like User Managed Access (UMA) can state suitable requirements for user empowerment...... and will cater to redefine the trustworthy relationship between service providers and users. Subsequently, this paper con-cludes with suggestions for providing empowerment to the user and developing user-centric, transparent business models.......Today, the service providers are capable of assembling a huge measure of user information using Big data techniques. For service providers, user infor-mation has become a vital asset. The present business models are attentive to collect extensive users’ information to extract useful knowledge...

  10. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  11. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  12. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation evo

  13. Optimal Redesign of the Dutch Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.; Schrijver, J.M.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Immers, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch national road network has been developed over several decades. In the past, roads were constructed according to the then current spatial and transportation planning philosophies. Because the existing road network is a result of a long process of successive developments, the question can be

  14. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  15. Road geometry classification by adaptive shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Álvarez; T. Gevers; F. Diego; A.M. López

    2012-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important for different applications in transportation, such as autonomous driving, vehicle collision warning, and pedestrian crossing detection. Common approaches to road detection are based on low-level road appearance (e.g., color or texture) and neglect of the scen

  16. Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Jan Henk

    2011-01-01

    In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical

  17. Effects of road infrastructure and traffic complexity in speed adaptation behaviour of distracted drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving remains a major human factors issue in the transport system. A significant safety concern is that driving while distracted by a mobile phone potentially modifies the driving speed leading to conflicts with other road users and consequently increases crash risk. However, the lack of systematic knowledge of the mechanisms involved in speed adaptation of distracted drivers constrains the explanation and modelling of the extent of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate speed adaptation of distracted drivers under varying road infrastructure and traffic complexity conditions. The CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator was used to test participants on a simulated road with different traffic conditions, such as free flow traffic along straight roads, driving in urbanized areas, and driving in heavy traffic along suburban roads. Thirty-two licensed young drivers drove the simulator under three phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld phone conversations. To understand the relationships between distraction, road infrastructure and traffic complexity, speed adaptation calculated as the deviation of driving speed from the posted speed limit was modelled using a decision tree. The identified groups of road infrastructure and traffic characteristics from the decision tree were then modelled with a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) with repeated measures to develop inferences about speed adaptation behaviour of distracted drivers. The GLMM also included driver characteristics and secondary task demands as predictors of speed adaptation. Results indicated that complex road environments like urbanization, car-following situations along suburban roads, and curved road alignment significantly influenced speed adaptation behaviour. Distracted drivers selected a lower speed while driving along a curved road or during car-following situations, but speed adaptation was negligible in the

  18. Finding sex partners on-line: a new high-risk practice among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombeck, Rita

    2003-06-01

    By the year 2004, it is estimated that more than 34 million older Americans will be Internet users. The revolution in mass communication has changed the way people of all ages interact. Studies indicate that love and romance rate very high among the concerns of older adults using the Internet, and older adults are using it to meet other people. Numerous web sites targeting older adults include channels for developing personal relationships. Although studies suggest that individuals who seek out sex partners on the Internet may be at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, very little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of older adults who seek and find sexual partners on-line. Because the number of older Internet users is predicted to grow exponentially as baby boomers age, research is needed about the Internet attitudes and practices of older adults.

  19. Headway times and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with

  20. Basics of a Good Road:

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, Dudley

    2014-01-01

    This Asphalt 101 presentation will focus on the following topics: foundation preparation basics for a good road (subgrades, subgrade treatments, aggregate base; overlay preparation; and mixture thickness standards); what properties are critical to testing standards, quality, and inspection (materials, placement and compaction, use of INDOT specifications/certifications, APAI Local Government Specification Guide); and pavement preservation with 4.75 mm thin overlay.

  1. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as architectur

  2. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  3. Pollution-free road lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  4. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as architectur

  5. Road freight and the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makamo, N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  6. IN SPHERE OF ROAD BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhov Oleg Fedorovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is necessary to use concession bases of development of national transport systems more widely considering the importance of road building, and also that fact that interests of the state and managing subjects - participants of investment building activity have differently directed vectors.

  7. Transparent User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking text examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication -- where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure. Topics and features: discu

  8. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  9. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia.

  10. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...

  11. CaMath user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ben-chin; Daly, B.

    1994-07-13

    CaMath is an external Mathematica package which can be loaded into Mathematica by a user. CaMath consists of a special set of channel access functions which provides the Mathematica users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. The available functions for CaMath, their functionality, and their syntax are described herein. This document also gives examples how a Mathematica user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using Mathematica. Few examples of Mathematica module of using CaMath functions are also given in this document.

  12. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  14. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  15. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  16. THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FOREST ROAD BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Muška, Aina; Bičevskis, Matīss

    2010-01-01

    Forest road density in Latvia is insufficient, although the Joint Stock Company ‘‘Latvijas valsts meži” (“Latvian State Forestry”) performs active forest road building. The hypothesis of the research is that the resources invested in a forest road building pay off during its use. The goal of the research is to study the economic benefit from forest road building. The authors’ research showed that the total costs of forest road building and use could result in Ls 246,779 over 40 years or Ls 6,...

  17. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...

  18. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  19. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF RURAL ROADS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Maletin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to revise the existing classification of rural roads in Serbia, which is rather old and defined on administrative criteria, the research developed a proposal for functional classification and categorization of primary rural roads. This resulted in four classes of rural roads based on their basic function and, with the introduction of five spatial accessibility levels, road classes are subdivided in eight road types. Based on the Serbia State Spatial Plan data, centers of gravitation together with border crossings are classified in four categories and desire lines of major transport function levels are defined. Based on this information and traffic count data the proposal of new primary rural road network in Serbia reduces the total length of the existing one with approximately the same overall accessibility level. Proposed categorization of rural roads as primary, regional and local ones is founded on functional classification and coincides with reorganization of governmental structure in Serbia.

  20. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Werner Schiehlen

    2006-08-01

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations. This paper deals with the influence of random road profiles on the vertical dynamics of road vehicles characterized by stochastic processes. Switching from road profile displacement to road profile velocity results in white noise excitation facilitating mathematical analysis. Some fundamentals of power spectral density analysis and covariance analysis are reviewed. A quarter car model is used to show the advantages of the covariance analysis resulting immediately in standard variations characterizing the vehicle’s performance.

  1. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  2. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  3. The effect of a road safety educational program for kindergarten children on their parents' behavior and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Avnieli, Shani

    2016-10-01

    Road safety education for children is one of the most important means for raising awareness of road safety and for educating children to behave safely as pedestrians, bicycle riders, and vehicle passengers. The current research presents a novel attempt to examine the effect of a unique road safety educational program for kindergarten children on a secondary target group-the parents. The program, named the "Zahav Bagan" program (ZBP), is presented at kindergartens once a week during the entire academic year. It is conducted by senior citizen volunteers and is part of the formal education of the children. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the behavior, awareness, and knowledge about child road safety, of two groups of parents-those whose children participated in the ZBP group, and those whose children did not; this latter group was the control group. A telephone-based survey was conducted using a sample of 76 ZBP parents and 59 control group parents. Results of the survey showed no effect of ZBP on parents' knowledge of child road safety law and recommendations, but more importantly, the results did show a significant effect in terms of parents' observance of safe behavior and in their awareness of road safety in everyday life. These results confirm the importance of educational programs on road safety, especially as triggers and reminders to children and to their parents, to act as cautious road users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  5. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  6. Ethical Concerns in Usability Testing Involving Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe Hansen

    Based on experience from the research project “User Manuals for Older Adults”, this paper discusses whether there are special ethical concerns with older adults as test persons in a usability test involving the think-aloud method. In this context, older adults are defined as individuals with normal...... cognitive and physical problems of ageing. The paper concludes that usability testing is necessary as a part of the design cycle, but that special care can be taken to ensure that test persons do not feel disempowered during the test....

  7. User costs as one of main advantages of precast concrete application in highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Radan

    2017-09-01

    Road user cost primarily refer to the monetized components of road (re)construction impacts, such as the user delay costs, vehicle operating costs, crash costs and emission costs. Objective of this paper is to analyze and appraise the advantages and benefits of the innovative prefabrication approach in contrast to traditional cast-in-place construction method. The goal is to reduce these additional costs borne by motorists and the community at-large as a result of road construction activity to their minimum through application of the prefabrication. Assessing two basic possible approaches to highway infrastructure construction - casting the road pavements and structures either in place or precast off the site - it can be concluded that the initial capital investment costs do not vary much. Substantial differences can be recognized when comparing their life-cycle costs and an extent to which their construction process affects the public, environment and the local economy. Prefabrication of any structure component off-site offers major construction time and user cost savings in comparison with the traditional cast-in-place methods of construction. Precast prestressed road pavements’ technology and precasting bridges’ parts and elements offers dramatic increase in durability, while it also substantially decreases construction time and resulting user costs.

  8. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  9. Review on Design & Implementation of Road Side Symbol Detection In VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. SACHIN GANJAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of vehicular ad-hoc network plays important role in smart traffic management system. Researcher can create VANET by information sharing of road side unit, vehicle and traffic system & implementing it in real world. This system implemented to detect road signs from a moving vehicle. In this technology vehicle is able to detect traffic signs which are on the road side boards e.g. "speed limit" or "school" or "turn ahead". Consider a condition, user is driving a car at night or in rainy season then it is not possible for driver to keep watch on each and every road symbol or the message plates like turn, speed breaker, school, diversion etc. Here in this proposed system every road side board or symbol will use one signal transmitter and the moment vehicle passes from that road side board the vehicle will receive signals with the help of receiver and indicates the symbol on LCD display which is in the car. So that the driver can able to concentrate on driving vehicle.

  10. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tél. 72978 - 164082

  11. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 72978 - 164082

  12. Effect of Road Lighting on the Quality of Dual Carriageway Road Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Edigbe Johnnie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is exciting because it introduced a new quality of road service assessment approach. The study explored the effect of road lighting on the quality of dual carriageway road service. Based on the hypothesis that road lighting has no significant effect on the level of road service, an impact study was carried out in Skudai town, Malaysia. Twenty four hours continuous traffic volume, vehicle types and speeds data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions for two directional flows. Results show that travel speeds speed during daylight and road lighting periods did not differ significantly. The study concluded road lighting does not affect the quality of road service significantly.

  13. Renovating Older Schools: Reusing Older Schools Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State. Educational Design Inst.

    A slide presentation examines the decisionmaking process behind whether a community should renovate their older school facilities or abandon them for new facilities. Three factors to be considered in this decision are addressed and involve the school's location, the history of the school, and the relationship of the school to the community and the…

  14. Market design : Common Nordic end-user market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    No later than 2015, suppliers in the Nordic countries should be able to offer electricity to consumers in any Nordic country on equal terms. In this report NordREG has analyzed the present situation in the Nordic countries and identified the issues that should be harmonised in order to establish a common Nordic end-user market. In this report NordREG also suggests an indicative road map for the implementation process. (Author)

  15. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    condition was changed with the decreased use of snow chains and increasing use of studded tires. The studded tires wear down the road surface in a...region, white anorthosite of a uniform and unweathered type is usable as an additive to asphalt con- crete and wear surfacing for asphalt gravel...CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAGE(W/em Daateoo 20. Abstract (cont’d) resistance to weathering, and the degree of luminosity. Quartzites have the best wear

  16. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available plastic deformation. Deficiencies in any of these properties result in poor riding quality and high maintenance requirements as well as an increased loss of material from the road. It is thus essential that the best available material is used... of the specification illustrated in Figure 1 is the ability to identify potential problems associated with materials not meeting the specifications. This allows the implementer to make judgments regarding the consequences of using material outside...

  17. Methanol - alternative fuel road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muendler, H.

    1980-09-01

    This brochure names the fuel properties that are required for road traffic, discusses the replacement of petrol by methanol, discusses the possibilities of manufacturing methanol, draws up a timetable and an organigram for a (M-15) large scale test and compares costs of petrol, methanol, synthesis process petrol and hydrogenation process petrol. Furthermore, the technical requirements of vehicles as well as test results of exhaust gas emissions are also discussed.

  18. Mobility management and road safety.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mobility management stands for organizing 'smart travel' and focuses on reducing the amount of car mobility (particularly during peak hours) by stimulating travellers to refrain from travelling (telecommuting), to travel at a different time of day (avoiding peak hours) or to choose a different means of transport. Mobility management should result in, for instance, improved accessibility and less environmental impact; road safety is hardly mentioned as an objective. Mobility management can inc...

  19. Revival of the Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, bordering eight countries and providing a corridor to the Central Asian region, was once famous for the Silk Road. But now this region is often reported by Western media as having the problems of "political separatism, economic exclusion and religious fundamentalism." Professor David Gosset with the Shanghai-based China Europe International Business School analyzed Xinjiang's development, which he framed as "Xinjiang's experience." According to him, Xinjiang has ...

  20. Some Reflections on Designing Effective Social Telerehabilitation Services for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Marzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The share of the population aged 65 years and over is increasing in every EU Member State, candidate country, and EFTA Member State. WHO/Europe has established a Subnetwork on Healthy Ageing within the European Healthy Cities Network and provides guidance to Member States in developing profiles of healthy ageing, since, given the increasing number of older adults, maintaining their health status is a crucial issue.  This article, which is part of the Latvian national scientific program VPP INOSOCTEREHI, focuses on the issues related to the design, implementation, and assessment of user interfaces that can maximize usability in social telerehabilitation systems for older adult users. This is a very real challenge, since older adults don’t form a homogeneous class. Investigating older adults’ skills and their attitudes towards the perceived usefulness of computer applications could be helpful in identifying some sub-sets of older adult users and their typical behaviours.