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Sample records for older ages evidence

  1. The personal active aging strategies of older adults in Europe: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugar, Miloslav; Čáp, Juraj; Klugarová, Jitka; Marečková, Jana; Roberson, Donald N; Kelnarová, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    There is a consensus that the aging population is beginning to impact on many facets of our life. They have more medical problems and the potential to "drain" the focus of the medical community, as well as national budgets with their accompanying medical bills. Personal strategies related to active aging will help us to better understand and identify how older adults in Europe prepare themselves for the natural process of aging and what are their personal approaches to active aging. The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the older adult's perspective on the personal strategies related to active aging among older adults in Europe. This review considered studies that included older adults (age over 55 years) who live in Europe. This review considered studies that investigated older adults' perspectives on (any) personal strategies related to active aging. Europe (considering "some similarity" in health care systems and retirement policies). This review considered any qualitative designs. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished studies. The extensive search process was conducted in October 2014 and considered published and unpublished studies from the inception of databases until October 2014. Studies published in any language which had an abstract in English, Czech and Slovak languages were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were appraised for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data were extracted from the papers included in the review by two independent reviewers using the standardized JBI-QARI data extraction tool. Data synthesis was performed using the meta-aggregation approach of meta-synthesis recommended by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Fourteen studies were included in this systematic review. From these 14 studies, 42 findings were extracted; findings were

  2. Is refreshing in working memory impaired in older age? Evidence from the retro-cue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Souza, Alessandra S

    2018-04-10

    Impairments in refreshing have been suggested as one source of working memory (WM) deficits in older age. Retro-cues provide an important method of investigating this question: a retro-cue guides attention to one WM item, thereby arguably refreshing it and increasing its accessibility compared with a no-cue baseline. In contrast to the refreshing deficit hypothesis, intact retro-cue benefits have been found in older adults. Refreshing, however, is assumed to boost not one but several WM representations when sequentially applied to them. Hence, intact refreshing requires the flexible switching of attention among WM items. So far, it remains an open question whether older adults show this flexibility. Here, we investigated whether older adults can use multiple cues to sequentially refresh WM representations. Younger and older adults completed a continuous-color delayed-estimation task, in which the number of retro-cues (0, 1, or 2) presented during the retention interval was manipulated. The results showed a similar retro-cue benefit for younger and older adults, even in the two-cue condition in which participants had to switch attention between items to refresh representations in WM. These findings suggest that the capacity to use cues to refresh information in visual WM may be preserved with age. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Trajectories of Verbal Episodic Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Bobak, Martin; Haro, Josep Maria; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-06-01

    To identify distinct latent groups of baseline levels and age-related decline in verbal episodic memory in middle-aged and older adults, and to identify factors associated with these trajectories. Longitudinal study of six data collections over a period of 10 years. Population-based cohort in England. 9,515 community-dwelling adults aged 50-79 years. Six repeated measurements of immediate and delayed recall of 10 words over 10-year follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of baseline levels and subsequent decline in memory in two age categories (50-64 and 65-79 years), and to investigate associations between trajectories and baseline predictors of group membership (gender, education, household wealth, marital status, smoking and physical activity) and time-varying covariates (depressive symptoms and number of chronic conditions). Four trajectories were identified and labelled according to baseline status and decline in memory: very low/decline (9.8%), low/stable (40.2%), average/stable (39.5%) and good/stable (10.5%) in the younger group, and very low/rapid decline (15.7%), low/decline (32.0%), average/stable (38.8%), and good/stable (13.5%) in older participants. In people with stable or declining trajectories, a higher number of depressive symptoms and the presence of cardiovascular diseases were associated with worse memory. Female sex, younger age, and higher education, wealth and physical activity were consistently associated with more favourable trajectories. We identified four memory trajectories. Factors known to be associated with cognitive reserve (such as education, wealth and physical activity) were associated with better memory function while depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease were associated with poorer memory. This suggests that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and better manage cardiovascular risk factors and disease in midlife may help prevent or delay future memory decline. © 2017, Copyright

  4. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  5. Stronger evidence for own-age effects in memory for older as compared to younger adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freund, A.M.; Kouřilová, Sylvie; Kuhl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2011), s. 429-448 ISSN 0965-8211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : own- age effect * memory bias * age relevance * age ing Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2011

  6. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  7. Mortality at older ages and moves in residential and sheltered housing: evidence from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examines the relationship between transitions to residential and sheltered housing and mortality. Past research has focused on housing moves over extended time periods and subsequent mortality. In this paper, annual housing transitions allow the identification of the patterning of housing moves, the duration of stay in each sector and the assessment of the relationship of preceding moves to a heightened risk of dying. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations from the British Household Panel Survey (waves 1993–2008). Records were pooled for all cases where the survey member is 65 years or over and living in private housing at baseline and observed at three consecutive time points, including baseline (N=23 727). Binary logistic regression (death as outcome three waves after baseline) explored the relative strength of different housing transitions, controlling for sociodemographic predictors. Results (1) Transition to residential housing within the previous 12 months was associated with the highest mortality risk. (2) Results support existing findings showing an interaction between marital status and mortality, whereby unmarried persons were more likely to die. (3) Higher male mortality was observed across all housing transitions. Conclusions An older person's move to residential housing is associated with a higher risk of mortality within 12 months of the move. Survivors living in residential housing for more than a year, show a similar probability of dying to those living in sheltered housing. Results highlight that it is the type of accommodation that affects an older person's mortality risk, and the length of time they spend there. PMID:24638058

  8. How do older adults experience and perceive socially assistive robots in aged care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, Tijs; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Gastmans, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of how older adults experience, perceive, think, and feel about the use of socially assistive robots (SARs) in aged care settings. We conducted a literature search for studies that used a qualitative or a mixed-method approach having a significant qualitative element. Pubmed, Cinahl, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases were queried. Candidate articles published in journals and conference proceedings were considered for review. Two independent reviewers assessed the included studies for methodological quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program, after which data on subjects' self-reported opinions and perceptions were extracted and synthesized using thematic analyses. Seventeen studies producing 23 publications were included. Based on the opinions of older adults, four themes emerged in relation to the use of SARS: (1) roles of a SAR; (2) interaction between the older adult and the SAR, which could be further subdivided into (a) the technical aspect of the interaction and (b) the human aspect of the interaction; (3) appearance of the SAR; and (4) normative/ethical issues regarding the use of SARs in aged care. Older adults have clear positive and negative opinions about different aspects of SARs in aged care. Nonetheless, some opinions can be ambiguous and need more attention if SARs are to be considered for use in aged care. Understanding older adults' lived experiences with SARs creates the possibility of using an approach that embeds technological innovation into the care practice itself.

  9. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina T Rogers

    Full Text Available Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty.We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood's Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25.Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50-54; 55-59; 60-64; 65-69; 70-74; 75-79; 80+ on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption.Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults.Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories.

  10. Self-reported health status of older adults in Malaysia and Singapore: evidence from the 2007 Global Ageing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafiz T. A.; Flynn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of self-reported health (SRH) among older adults in Malaysia and Singapore. The study uses data collected in the Global Ageing Study (GLAS) 2007, one of the largest surveys of its kind, specially designed to investigate attitudes towards later life, ageing and retirement. Data were collected from 1002 and 1004 respondents from Malaysia and Singapore respectively. The study found that Singaporeans report a healthier life than Malaysians. T...

  11. Potential for alcohol and drug interactions in older adults: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Older adults are susceptible to adverse effects from the concomitant use of prescription medications and alcohol. This study estimates the prevalence of exposure to alcohol interactive (AI) medications and concomitant alcohol use by therapeutic class in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of a population based sample of older Irish adults aged ≥60 years using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (N = 3,815). AI medications were identified using Stockley’s Drug Interactions, the British National Formulary and the Irish Medicines Formulary. An in-home inventory of medications was used to characterise AI drug exposure by therapeutic class. Self-reported alcohol use was classified as non-drinker, light/moderate and heavy drinking. Comorbidities known to be exacerbated by alcohol were also recorded (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peptic ulcer disease, liver disease, depression, gout or breast cancer), as well as sociodemographic and health factors. Results Seventy-two per cent of participants were exposed to AI medications, with greatest exposure to cardiovascular and CNS agents. Overall, 60% of participants exposed to AI medications reported concomitant alcohol use, compared with 69.5% of non-AI exposed people (p alcohol consumption (both light/moderate and heavier) and AI medications. Current smokers and people with increasing co-morbidities were also at greatest risk for heavy drinking in combination with AI medications. Conclusions The concurrent use of alcohol with AI medications, or with conditions known to be exacerbated by alcohol, is common among older Irish adults. Prescribers should be aware of potential interactions, and screen patients for alcohol use and provide warnings to minimize patient risk. PMID:24766969

  12. Potential for alcohol and drug interactions in older adults: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cousins, Gráinne

    2014-08-01

    Older adults are susceptible to adverse effects from the concomitant use of prescription medications and alcohol. This study estimates the prevalence of exposure to alcohol interactive (AI) medications and concomitant alcohol use by therapeutic class in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults.

  13. The changing impact of the AIDS epidemic on older-age parents in the era of ART: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, John

    2012-03-01

    Previous research makes clear that before antiretroviral therapy (ART), when HIV led to disabling illness and certain death, many older persons as parents of infected adults experienced adverse emotional, material and social consequences. The present study examines how widespread access to ART is transforming the situation in Thailand. Interviews with parents of adult ART recipients reveal that major improvements in the health of their adult children under treatment is associated with major reductions in parental caregiving and expenses associated with their HIV-infected child although parents continue to provide psychological support. Parents own worry about their child's health also declines. Most adult children on ART are able to continue or resume economic activity and many contribute to support of the parental household. ART appears to reduce negative community reaction. Nevertheless, given uncertainty surrounding how long ART can protect against fatal illnesses, whether the adverse impacts of the AIDS epidemic on parents are being eliminated or only postponed remains an open question.

  14. Satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and health in older elderly: cross-sectional evidence from the Bambuí cohort study of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87 were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13, difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78, presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95 and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50 were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.

  15. The role of socio-economic status and neighborhood social capital on loneliness among older adults: evidence from the Sant Boi Aging Study.

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    Domènech-Abella, Joan; Mundó, Jordi; Lara, Elvira; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Haro, Josep Maria; Olaya, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of age in the association between socio-economic status (SES) and loneliness as well as the role of neighborhood social capital (NSC) in the association between individual social capital and loneliness. Data include a representative population-based sample from Sant Boi de Llobregat (a suburb of Barcelona) of 1124 adults aged 50 and over. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the survey data. Interactions between SES and age, and NSC and individual social capital were explored. Among the poorest older adults, older individuals showed a lower likelihood of loneliness (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.30, p social capital showed a lower likelihood of loneliness (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17, 0.73, p social capital after adjusting for covariates. The effect of individual social capital was not significant among individuals living in an area with low NSC. Interventions focusing on low SES middle-aged (50-59 years old) individuals and those aiming to increase NSC could be effective strategies to reduce the prevalence of loneliness in older people.

  16. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  17. Older adult education in Lithuanian ageing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemaitaityte I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.

  18. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

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    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer

  19. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: evidence from 260,061 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-11-01

    While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate association between green space and psychological distress (Kessler scores of 22+) among 260,061 Australians over 45 years old living in New South Wales (2006-2009). Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia survey. Percentage green space was estimated within a 1-kilometre of residence. In comparison to residents of the least green areas, those in the greenest neighbourhoods were at a lower risk of psychological distress (Odds Ratio 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) and were less sedentary (0.81: 0.77, 0.87). An interaction was observed between physical activity and green space (p=0.0028). More green space did not appear to benefit mental health among the least active (0.99: 0.85, 1.15), but there was a protective association for the more physically active (0.82: 0.67, 0.99). For adults in middle-to-older age, green spaces are not only important for promoting physical activity, but the mental health benefits of greener environs appear contingent upon those active lifestyles. © 2013.

  20. Health Insurance and Health Care among the Mid-Aged and Older Chinese: Evidence from the National Baseline Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanchuan; Lei, Xiaoyan; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    We document the recent profile of health insurance and health care among mid-aged and older Chinese using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2011. Overall health insurance coverage is about 93%. Multivariate regressions show that respondents with lower income as measured by per capita expenditure have a lower chance of being insured, as do the less-educated, older, and divorced/widowed women and rural-registered people. Premiums and reimbursement rates of health insurance vary significantly by schemes. Inpatient reimbursement rates for urban people increase with total cost to a plateau of 60%; rural people receive much less. Demographic characteristics such as age, education, marriage status, per capita expenditure, and self-reported health status are not significantly associated with share of out-of-pocket cost after controlling community effects. For health service use, we find large gaps that vary across health insurance plans, especially for inpatient service. People with access to urban health insurance plans are more likely to use health services. In general, Chinese people have easy access to median low-level medical facilities. It is also not difficult to access general hospitals or specialized hospitals, but there exists better access to healthcare facilities in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Genetic variants in telomerase-related genes are associated with an older age at diagnosis in glioma patients: evidence for distinct pathways of gliomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Rice, Terri; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Hansen, Helen M; Zheng, Shichun; McCoy, Lucie S; Bracci, Paige M; Anderson, Erik; Hsuang, George; Wiemels, Joe L; Pico, Alexander R; Smirnov, Ivan; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchell S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Lachance, Daniel H; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Wiencke, John K; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes as glioma risk factors, including 2 (TERT, RTEL1) involved in telomerase structure/function. We examined associations of these 7 established glioma risk loci with age at diagnosis among patients with glioma. SNP genotype data were available for 2286 Caucasian glioma patients from the University of California, San Francisco (n = 1434) and the Mayo Clinic (n = 852). Regression analyses were performed to test for associations between "number of risk alleles" and "age at diagnosis," adjusted for sex and study site and stratified by tumor grade/histology where appropriate. Four SNPs were significantly associated with age at diagnosis. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles at rs55705857 (CCDC26) and at rs498872 (PHLDB1) was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 1.4 × 10(-22) and P = 9.5 × 10(-7), respectively). These SNPs are stronger risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors, which tend to occur in younger patients, and their association with age at diagnosis varied across tumor subtypes. In contrast, carrying more risk alleles at rs2736100 (TERT) and at rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with older age at diagnosis (P = 6.2 × 10(-4) and P = 2.5 × 10(-4), respectively). These SNPs are risk factors for all glioma grades/histologies, and their association with age at diagnosis was consistent across tumor subgroups. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles might be expected to decrease age at diagnosis. However, glioma susceptibility conferred by variation in telomerase-related genes did not follow this pattern. This supports the hypothesis that telomerase-related mechanisms of telomere maintenance are more associated with gliomas that develop later in life than those utilizing telomerase-independent mechanisms (ie, alternative lengthening of telomeres).

  2. Sexuality in older age: essential considerations for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Abi; Gosney, Margot A

    2011-09-01

    This review describes the fact that many elderly people enjoy an active sex life and examines the evidence against the general perception of an 'asexual' old age. It offers an overview of the evidence for healthcare professionals who had not previously considered the sexuality of their older patients. It also describes some of the sexual problems faced by older people, especially the difficulties experienced in disclosing such problems to healthcare professionals. It examines why healthcare professionals routinely avoid discussing sexual problems with older patients, and how this can be improved. It also offers some recommendations for future research in the area, as well as a word of caution regarding the temptation of over-sexualising the ageing process.

  3. The geography of diabetes among the general adults aged 35 years and older in Bangladesh: recent evidence from a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mobarak Hossain Khan

    Full Text Available To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas and region of residence (divided into seven divisions among general adults (35+ years of age in Bangladesh.The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes.The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%, followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2% and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%. Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables. Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity, overweight/obesity and hypertension.Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing lifestyles to reduce the risk

  4. Social participation and the onset of hypertension among the middle-aged and older population: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Raoping; Inoue, Yosuke; Yazawa, Aki; Hao, Xiaoning; Cai, Guoxi; Li, Yueping; Lin, Xiuquan; He, Fei; Yamamoto, Taro

    2018-03-30

    While previous studies have examined the association between health-related behaviors and hypertension, comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of social participation (i.e. participating in community organizations). The aim of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal association between social participation and hypertension among the middle-aged and older population (aged ≥45 years) in China where the prevalence of hypertension has been increasing rapidly in the past few decades. Data came from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study waves 2011 and 2013. Information was obtained from 5483 participants on blood pressure, social participation and covariates. A sex-stratified Poisson regression model with a robust variance estimator was used to examine the associations. During the period between 2011 and 2013, 20.6% of men and 17.2% of women developed hypertension. A Poisson regression model showed that participating in community organizations once a week or more frequently was inversely associated with the onset of hypertension in women (incidence rate ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.95, P = 0.012). Among men, no such association was found. The present study suggests that promoting social participation might help mitigate the disease burden associated with hypertension in China, particularly among women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Systematic review of the evidence for a liberalized diet in the management of diabetes mellitus in older adults residing in aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Olivia; Yaxley, Alison; Walton, Karen; Healy, Erin; Miller, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to review and evaluate the evidence supporting a liberalized diet for the management of diabetes mellitus in aged care homes and examine the effect of this on glycaemia, nutritional status and diabetes comorbidity risk factors. A 3 step search of eight databases followed by independent data extraction and quality assessment by two authors was undertaken. Studies which compared therapeutic diets to a liberalized diet or observation studies reviewing the effects of therapeutic diets on glycaemia and nutritional status were included. Of the 546 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the studies was rated poor and the majority concluded no statistically significant change in diabetes management outcomes with a liberalized diet, but modest increases in glycaemia were observed. Inadequate data was available to determine effects of diet change on nutritional status or diabetes risk factors. Overall studies were in support of a liberalized diet but due to the low quality of the evidence and a lack of significant findings it may not be appropriate to extrapolate these conclusions to inform dietetic practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Housing and respiratory health at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E; Blane, D; de Vries, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A large proportion of the population of England live in substandard housing. Previous research has suggested that poor-quality housing, particularly in terms of cold temperatures, mould, and damp, poses a health risk, particularly for older people. The present study aimed to examine the association between housing conditions and objectively measured respiratory health in a large general population sample of older people in England. Data on housing conditions, respiratory health and relevant covariates were obtained from the second wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multivariate regression methods were used to test the association between contemporary housing conditions and respiratory health while accounting for the potential effect of other factors; including social class, previous life-course housing conditions and childhood respiratory health. Older people who were in fuel poverty or who did not live in a home they owned had significantly worse respiratory health as measured by peak expiratory flow rates. After accounting for covariates, these factors had no effect on any other measures of respiratory health. Self-reported housing problems were not consistently associated with respiratory health. The housing conditions of older people in England, particularly those associated with fuel poverty and living in rented accommodation, may be harmful to some aspects of respiratory health. This has implications for upcoming UK government housing and energy policy decisions.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed (1) to assess the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with 6 common mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior; (2) to test whether gender moderates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3) to assess the association of childhood sexual abuse with health care service use among middle-aged and older adults. The author conducted secondary analyses of data from a population-based, nationally representative sample of 3,493 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and above who were interviewed in England in 2006 and 2007 as part of the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The survey assessed childhood sexual abuse (sexual touching and sexual intercourse), sexual abuse revictimization (experiencing both childhood and adult sexual abuse), demographics, health care service use, 6 common mental disorders according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria (depressive episode, mixed anxiety and depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence, and suicidal behavior. After weighting, the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was 8.0%, and the prevalence of revictimization was 1.9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with mixed anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.63), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11), eating disorders (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.12-3.75), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.20-4.99), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.27-4.27). Revictimization was significantly related to mixed anxiety and depression (AOR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63-6.32), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07-6.35), phobia (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.46), posttraumatic

  8. Extending Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Detection to Older Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Labalue, Philippe; Erpicum, Marie

    2016-01-01

    . Current screening policies (e.g., men aged 65-74 years), however, do not account for aging and increased life expectancy of Western populations. This study investigated AAA detection by extending the target population to older age groups (75-85 years). METHODS: AAA screening was conducted in the County......-74 age group but rose to 7.3% in the age-extended group (75-85 years). Further in addition to age, height, current smoking, history of coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs, and varicose veins were significantly associated with the presence of AAA......BACKGROUND: There is evident benefit in terms of reduced aneurysm-related mortality from screening programs of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years and more. Recent studies in the United Kingdom and Sweden have shown a decline of the prevalence of AAA in the general population...

  9. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  10. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Epidemiology of falls in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of population aging. The magnitude of the problem is described in terms of the classification of falls and measurement of outcomes, including fall incidence rates across settings, sociodemographic determinants, international trends, and costs of falls and fall-related injuries. Finally, public health approaches to minimize falls risk and consequent demand on health care resources are suggested.

  12. Age identity, gender, and perceptions of decline: does feeling older lead to pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H; Shippee, Tetyana P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on past studies of age identity, this article examined whether feeling older was associated with more pessimistic views about cognitive aging. Using respondents aged 55 years and older in the Midlife Development in the United States study, we estimated a series of linear regression models to predict people's dispositions toward their cognitive aging. The main comparison is whether the effects of age identity on cognitive aging differ for men and women. Beyond the effects of chronological age, older age identities were associated with more pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging. This relationship, however, was found only among women. Age identity shapes cognitive aging dispositions, though the gendered nature of this relationship remains somewhat unclear. The findings give further evidence about the far-reaching implications of age identity for successful aging and suggest that future work can explicate how subjective aging processes may differ by gender.

  13. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean

    2016-04-01

    In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.

  14. Job stress and mortality in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Brzyski, Piotr; Florek, Marzena; Brzyska, Monika

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to assess the relationship between the determinants of the psychosocial work environment, as expressed in terms of JDC or ERI models, and all-cause mortality in older individuals. The baseline study was conducted on a cohort comprising a random sample of 65-year-old community-dwelling citizens of Kraków, Poland. All of the 727 participants (410 women, 317 men) were interviewed in their households in the period between 2001 and 2003; a structured questionnaire was used regarding their occupational activity history, which included indexes measuring particular dimensions of their psychosocial work environment based on Karasek's Job Demand-Control model and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model, as well as health-related quality of life and demographic data. Mortality was ascertained by monitoring City Vital Records for 7 years. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. During a 7-year follow-up period, 59 participants (8.1%) died, including 21 women (5.1% of total women) and 38 men (12%) (p quality of life (HRQoL) level at the beginning of old age; however, the relationship between efforts and rewards or demands and control and mortality was not fully confirmed.

  15. Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, MH; Dennison, EM; Sayer, A Aihie; Fielding, R; Cooper, C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common in older age and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, they are both attended by a considerable socioeconomic burden. Osteoporosis was defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1994 as a bone mineral density of less than 2.5 standard deviations below the sex-specific young adult mean and this characterisation has been adopted globally. Subsequently, a further step forward was taken when bone mineral density was incorporated into fracture risk prediction algorithms, such as the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) also developed by the WHO. In contrast, for sarcopenia there have been several diagnostic criteria suggested, initially relating to low muscle mass alone and more recently low muscle mass and muscle function. However, none of these have been universally accepted. This has led to difficulties in accurately delineating the burden of disease, exploring geographic differences, and recruiting appropriate subjects to clinical trials. There is also uncertainty about how improvement in sarcopenia should be measured in pharmaceutical trials. Reasons for these difficulties including the number of facets of muscle health available, e.g. mass, strength, function, and performance, and the various clinical outcomes to which sarcopenia can be related such as falls, fracture, disability and premature mortality. It is imperative that a universal definition of sarcopenia is reached soon to facilitate greater progress in research into this debilitating condition. PMID:25886902

  16. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  17. Evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV: a knowledge synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Trentham, Barry; MacLachlan, Duncan; MacDermid, Joy; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Baxter, Larry; Casey, Alan; Chegwidden, William; Robinson, Greg; Tran, Todd; Wu, Janet; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to develop evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. Design We conducted a knowledge synthesis, combining research evidence specific to HIV, rehabilitation and ageing, with evidence on rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults with HIV. Methods We included highly relevant HIV-specific research addressing rehabilitation and ageing (stream A) and high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults ageing with HIV (stream B). We extracted and synthesised relevant data from the evidence to draft evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation. Draft recommendations were refined based on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and clinician experience, values and preferences, reviewed by an interprofessional team for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) (quality) rating and revision and then circulated to PLHIV and clinicians for external endorsement and final refinement. We then devised overarching recommendations to broadly guide rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. Results This synthesis yielded 8 overarching and 52 specific recommendations. Thirty-six specific recommendations were derived from 108 moderate-level or high-level research articles (meta-analyses and systematic reviews) that described the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for comorbidities that may be experienced by older adults with HIV. Recommendations addressed rehabilitation interventions across eight health conditions: bone and joint disorders, cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, mental health challenges, cognitive impairments, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. Sixteen specific recommendations were derived from 42 research articles specific to rehabilitation with older adults with HIV. The quality of evidence from which these

  18. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Job stress and mortality in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper aims to assess the relationship between the determinants of the psychosocial work environment, as expressed in terms of JDC or ERI models, and all-cause mortality in older individuals. Materials and Methods: The baseline study was conducted on a cohort comprising a random sample of 65-year-old community-dwelling citizens of Kraków, Poland. All of the 727 participants (410 women, 317 men were interviewed in their households in the period between 2001 and 2003; a structured questionnaire was used regarding their occupational activity history, which included indexes measuring particular dimensions of their psychosocial work environment based on Karasek's Job Demand-Control model and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model, as well as health-related quality of life and demographic data. Mortality was ascertained by monitoring City Vital Records for 7 years. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: During a 7-year follow-up period, 59 participants (8.1% died, including 21 women (5.1% of total women and 38 men (12% (p < 0.05. Significant differences in the number of deaths occurred regarding disproportion between physical demands and control in men: those with low physical demands and low control died three times more often than those with high control, regardless of the level of demands. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that significantly higher risk of death was observed only in men with low physical demands and low control, compared to those with low physical demands and high control (Exp(B = 4.65, 95% CI: 1.64-13.2. Conclusions: Observed differences in mortality patterns are similar to the patterns of relationships observed in health-related quality of life (HRQoL level at the beginning of old age; however, the relationship between efforts and rewards or demands and control and mortality was not fully confirmed.

  20. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: I. Age differences in agency and communion during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  2. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  4. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  5. Age-related practice effects across longitudinal neuropsychological assessments in older people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Link, Peter; Fish, Scott; Kraemer, Helena; Jeste, Dilip

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between aging and practice effects on longitudinal neuropsychological assessments was investigated in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Older people with schizophrenia (n = 107; M age = 56.1) and age-comparable nonpsychiatric controls (n = 107; M age = 57.7) were scheduled to receive annual assessments on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests for an average of 2.5 years (range 11 months to 4 years). Mixed-model analyses were used to separately examine the effects of practice and age on test performance. Number of prior assessments (practice) was associated with significant performance improvement across assessments, whereas older age was associated with significant decline in performance. The groups did not differ significantly in extent of age-related cognitive decline, but a three-way interaction among group, age, and practice was found, such that greater age-related decline in practice effects were found for older people with schizophrenia relative to nonpsychiatric participants. This study did not find any evidence of neurodegenerative age-related decline in neuropsychological abilities in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia, but older age was associated with diminished ability to benefit from repeated exposure to cognitive tasks in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia may combine with cognitive decline associated with normal aging to reduce practice effects in older patients. These findings have important implications for the design of studies examining the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive functioning across the life span of people with schizophrenia, as well as clinical trials that attempt to demonstrate cognitive enhancement in these individuals. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Considerations in treating physically active older adults and aging athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Paul R

    2015-04-01

    Life spans are increasing and research is showing more and more how important exercise is to successful aging. Medical practitioners need to appreciate the physiologic and physical changes that occur with age, as well as the significant benefits of physical activity, so they not only can properly treat their older patients but also so they can promote the benefits of exercise to their sedentary older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, H.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  8. How older people with learning disabilities perceive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    2010-07-01

    This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.

  9. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  10. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  11. Gender Inequality in Survival at Older Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, W.; Scherbov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Gender gaps are typically measured by subtracting the survival rates for women from that of men. In most countries and at most ages, these gender gaps indicate a survival rate disadvantage for men. This method is not informative because it is unclear whether larger or smaller gaps would be more equitable. Here we reconceptualize the gender gap in survival based on differences from gender-specific best practice rates and express those gender gaps in the metric years of age. If the age-specific...

  12. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  14. Subjective physical and cognitive age among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older: differences with chronological age and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihira, Hikaru; Furuna, Taketo; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Makino, Keitaro; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between self-reported subjective physical and cognitive age, and actual physical and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older. The sample comprised 275 older adults aged 75-91 years. Two questions were asked regarding subjective age: 'How old do you feel physically?' and 'How old do you feel cognitively?' To assess physical functions, we measured handgrip strength, knee extension strength, standing balance and walking speed. Tests of attention, executive function, processing speed and memory were performed to assess actual cognitive function. Subjective physical and cognitive age was associated with performance on all of the physical and cognitive tests, respectively (p older adults who reported themselves as feeling older than their chronological age had a slower walking speed and lower scores for word-list memory recall than those who did not report themselves as feeling older than their actual age. These findings suggest that promoting a fast walking speed and good memory function may help to maintain a younger subjective physical and cognitive age in older adults aged 75 years and older.

  15. The role of exercise for fall prevention in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tiedemann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common, costly and preventable consequence of sensorimotor impairments that increase in prevalence with advancing age. A fall occurs when the physical ability of the individual is unable to match the immediate demands of the environment and/or of the activity being undertaken. Targeted exercise aimed at improving the physical ability of the individual, such as balance and strength training, is crucial for promoting functional independence and mobility and reducing the risk of falling in older age. Exercise programs that provide a high challenge to balance, have a high dose, include progression of intensity over time and are ongoing are most effective for preventing falls. This paper provides guidance to health professionals involved with the prescription of physical activity and exercise to older people regarding the safe and effective provision of programs aimed at improving strength and balance and preventing falls in older age.

  16. Older people and 'active ageing': Subjective aspects of ageing actively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Paul; McFarquhar, Tara; Bowling, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Following a critical overview of the active ageing concept, a thematic decomposition of 42 transcribed interviews with British people aged 72 years and over indicates that active ageing is understood in relation to physical, cognitive, psychological and social factors, but that these co-exist in complex combinations. The notion of activity in active ageing is grasped in relation to an active/passive distinction which emphasizes the enhancement or diminishment of concrete powers of activity. A 'challenge and response' framework is suggested for future research on active ageing.

  17. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Men who work at age 70 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Martha N; Lum, Terry Y

    2005-01-01

    The federal policy on older workers has shifted from the encouragement of early withdrawal from the labor force to the encouragement of continuous participation in the labor force. In this light, it is instructive to investigate the backgrounds of elderly people who work at age 70 or older. This article presents the findings of a study, using data from the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old Study, that investigated the effects of health, economic conditions (net worth, employer-provided pensions, and supplemental medical insurance coverage), education, and spouse's work status on the probability of working among men aged 70 or older. The study addressed the probability of working, the probability of working fulltime and of working part-time, and the probability of being self-employed and of being employed by others. Implications for policy are discussed.

  19. General practitioners' knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanni; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; Deng, Lanlan

    2015-06-01

    To explore general practitioners (GPs)knowledge of ageing, attitudes towards older people and factors affecting their knowledge and attitudes in a Chinese context. Four hundred GPs were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Aging Semantic Differential (CASD) and the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz (CFAQ1) scale. The CASD scores indicated that GPs had a neutral attitude towards older people. The CFAQ1 scores indicated a low level of knowledge about ageing. GPs' awareness of the mental and social facts of ageing was poorer compared to that of physical facts. Male GPs had a significantly higher negative bias score than female GPs. No other variables had a statistically significant influence on knowledge and attitudes. The findings suggest the need for education interventions for GPs regarding knowledge of ageing and also provide evidence to guide future development of continuing medical programs for this group of medical doctors. © 2013 ACOTA.

  20. Older employees’ desired retirement age: a JD-R perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frins, W.; Ruysseveldt, J. van; Dam, K. van; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older employees’ desired retirement age, through an energy-depletion and a motivational process. Furthermore, the importance of gain

  1. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the…

  2. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  3. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  4. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  5. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  6. Perspective taking in older age revisited: a motivational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H; Stanley, Jennifer T; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-10-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a motivational perspective. Perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter (Study 1) or the target in an emotion recognition task (Study 2) was manipulated to examine whether the closeness could influence participants' performance in faux pas recognition (Study 1) and emotion recognition (Study 2). It was found that the well-documented negative age effect (i.e., older adults performed worse than younger adults in faux pas and emotion recognition tasks) was only replicated in the control condition for both tasks. When closeness was experimentally increased, older adults enhanced their performance, and they now performed at a comparable level as younger adults. Findings from the 2 experiments suggest that the reported poorer performance of older adults in perspective-taking tasks might be attributable to a lack of motivation instead of ability to perform in laboratory settings. With the presence of strong motivation, older adults have the ability to perform equally well as younger adults.

  7. Are HIV-Infected Older Adults Aging Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Stephen E; Havlik, Richard

    With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative. Certainly, biological processes that correlate with aging occur earlier in the older adult HIV population. Clinical manifestations of these biological processes are age-associated illnesses occurring in greater numbers (multimorbidity), but they are not accelerated. Specifically cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and renal disease are more common with other comorbidities less certain. Management of this elevated risk for developing multimorbidity is a major concern for patients and their health care teams. The medical system must respond to the evolving needs of this aging and growing older adult population who will dominate the epidemic. Adopting a more holistic approach to their health care management is needed to achieve optimal health and well-being in the HIV-infected older adult. Geriatric care principles best embody this approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Procedures for identifying evidence-based psychological treatments for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Adriana; Scogin, Forrest

    2007-03-01

    The authors describe the methods used to identify evidence-based psychological treatments for older adults in this contribution to the special section. Coding teams were assembled to review the literature on several problems relevant to mental health and aging. These teams used the manual developed by the Committee on Science and Practice of the Society for Clinical Psychology (Division 12) of the American Psychological Association that provided definitions of key constructs used in coding. The authors provide an overview of the process followed by the review teams and of some of the issues that emerged to illustrate the steps involved in the coding procedure. Identifying evidence-based treatments is a fundamental aspect of promoting evidence-based practice with older adults; such practice is advocated by most health care disciplines, including psychology. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  10. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  11. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  12. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored.Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501; p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004.These variables accounted for approximately 57.5%of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3= 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristicsthat impact on older adults’ SOC.

  13. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants' cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants' cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation.

  14. Canadian government's framing of ageing at work and older workers: Echoing positive ageing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Martine; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac; Laplante, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Public representations of ageing can influence how individuals perceive their own experience of ageing. Results of studies on the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)'s governmental messages on older workers suggest that they are mainly constructed around economic productivity and personal responsibility. The goal of this study is to examine how the Canadian government frames issues around ageing, work and older workers. Canada is facing a rapidly ageing workforce, hence the importance of examining how the government discusses ageing at work. A thematic content analysis was conducted on a total of 154 government web pages. Results revealed that predominant themes revolve around economic challenges resulting from an ageing workforce. Older workers are depicted as a key component for the (economic) management of an ageing workforce. More specifically, older workers who intend to continue working are highly valued in the government's messages which present them as productive citizens and role models for "ageing well". Canada's response to the challenges of an ageing workforce echoes the underlying standards of positive ageing models, which may generate, perhaps inadvertently, a new form of ageism by creating intra-and intergenerational divides in the workplace.

  15. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Sexual Problems Among Older Women by Age and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Rostant, Ola S; Pelon, Sally

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence of sexual problems by age and race among older women in the United States and to examine quality of life correlates to sexual dysfunction among non-Hispanic white and African American older women. A cross-sectional study using self-report surveys was conducted among community-dwelling U.S. women, aged 60 years and over. A total of 807 women aged 61-89 years were included. Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with life, depressive symptomatology, and self-rated health. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of the sample was 66 years. Two-thirds of the sample had at least one sexual dysfunction; the most common for both African American and non-Hispanic white women were lack of interest in sex and vaginal dryness. Prevalence varied by age for each of the sexual dysfunctions. The odds of experiencing sexual dysfunction varied with age and race. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, African American women had lower odds of reporting lack of interest in sex or vaginal dryness. Poor self-rated health, depressive symptomatology, and lower satisfaction with life were associated with higher odds of having some sexual dysfunction. Improved understanding of how sexual dysfunction affects women across multiple age ranges and racial/ethnic groups can assist providers in making recommendations for care that are patient centered. The associations that we identified with quality of life factors highlight the need to assess sexual health care in the aging female population.

  17. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  18. Eating disorder symptoms in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction among Older Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other variables, the own perceived level of life…

  20. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction Among Older Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other

  1. Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellizzi, K. M.; Aziz, N. M.; Rowland, J. H.; Arora, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age=75.7, SD=6.1), ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic) as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined) when co morbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for co morbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75-79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential co morbid burden among the older (75-79) minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential co morbid burden.

  2. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  3. Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Bellizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age = 75.7, SD = 6.1, ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined when comorbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for comorbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75–79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential comorbid burden among the older (75–79 minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential comorbid burden.

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Is CBT equally efficacious in adults of working age and older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishita, Naoko; Laidlaw, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the efficacy of CBT for GAD between adults of working age and older people. In addition, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of treatment protocols used in studies with older clients to explore potential factors that may enhance treatment outcomes with this particular client group. Applying the inclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 15 studies with 22 comparisons between CBT and control groups (770 patients). When examining overall effect sizes for CBT for GAD between older people and adults of working age there were no statistically significant differences in outcome. However, overall effect size of CBT for GAD was moderate for older people (g=0.55, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and large for adults of working age (g=0.94, 95% CI 0.52-1.36), suggesting that there is still room for improvement in CBT with older people. The main difference in outcome between CBT for GAD between the two age groups was related to methodological quality in that no older people studies used an intention-to-treat design. The content analysis demonstrated that studies with older clients were conducted according to robust CBT protocols but did not take account of gerontological evidence to make them more age-appropriate. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Creating Age-Friendly Health Systems - A vision for better care of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Kedar S; Berman, Amy; Laderman, Mara; Kabcenell, Andrea; Fulmer, Terry

    2018-03-01

    Safe and effective care of older adults is a crucial issue given the rapid growth of the aging demographic, many of whom have complex health and social needs. At the same time, the health care delivery environment is rapidly changing, offering a new set of opportunities to improve care of older adults. We describe the background, evidence-based changes, and testing, scale-up, and spread strategy that are part of the design of the Creating Age-Friendly Health Systems initiative. The goal is to reach 20% of U.S. hospitals and health systems by 2020, with plans to reach additional hospitals and health systems in subsequent years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ageing out of place: The meaning of home among hispanic older persons living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia; Martins, Diane C; Gillsjö, Catharina; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2017-09-01

    To explore the meaning of home among older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place." Emerging evidence supports the concept of older persons ageing in place. Nurse researchers have demonstrated that older person who age in place have better physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. Less, however, is known about older persons who are "aging out of place," meaning out of their country of origin. With the growth of home health care, there is a need to understand the older immigrants' meaning of home when ageing out of their country of origin. An inductive, qualitative descriptive research design was used. Seventeen Hispanic participants, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Two major finding of the study focused on participants' descriptions of home in their country of origin and in the USA. The majority of participants described their home in their native country as the community, countryside or town (pueblo) and in the U.S.A. as family. The level of social isolation and loneliness among participants was evident. Older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place" integrate their past experiences of sense of place in their native country with their present experiences of home in the USA. The need to understand the role of the community and the family in the provision of nursing care in the home may be more important than the physical structure or setting in which it is delivered. Further intra- and cross-national studies are needed to provide a framework for understanding the issues of ageing and immigration globally. Gerontological nurses need to recognise the complexity of family relationships for older Hispanic persons who are ageing out of place of origin and their risk of depression, social isolation, and loneliness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Understanding the older entrepreneur: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age entrepreneurs in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautonen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper responds to the need for more data on the topical issue of older entrepreneurship by comparing Third Age (50+ years and Prime Age (20-49 years entrepreneurs in Finland. The data comprises responses from 839 small firms which were established 2000-2006. The fact that 16% of these firms were founded by individuals aged 50 or over indicates that older entrepreneurship is not a marginal issue, even though the start-up rate in the Third Age population was found to be slightly less than half of that in the Prime Age cohort. Further, the findings point to the need for more empirical, especially qualitative, research on issues related to the social and cultural perceptions of old age and gender as well as different ‘pull’ motivations leading to entrepreneurship at an older age, which were found to clearly dominate over ‘push’ motives in this context.

  8. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  9. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  10. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  11. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline.

  12. TREATMENT OF CANCER IN THE OLDER AGED PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodovico Balducci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

     Cancer is a disease of aging .  Currently 50% of all malignancies occur in individuals 65 and over and by the year 2030 older individuals will account for 70% of all neoplasms.

     With the aging of the population the management of cancer in the older person with chemotherapy is beoming increasingly common. This treatment may be  safe and effective if some appropriate measures are taken, including, an assessment of the physiologic age of each patient, modification of doses according to the renal function, use of meyelopoietic growth factors prophylactically in presence of moderately toxic chemotherapy, and provision of an adequate caregiver. Cure, prolongation of survival, and symptom palliation are universal goals of medical treatment.   Prolongation of active life expectancy  should be added to the treatment goal of the older aged person .

     

     

  13. Effect of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 on food intake and plasma CCK, leptin, and insulin concentrations in older and young adults: evidence for increased CCK activity as a cause of the anorexia of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIntosh, C.G.; Morley, J.E.; Wishart, J.M.; Morris, H.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Horowitz, M.M.; Chapman, I.M.

    2001-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with reductions in appetite and food intake--the so-called anorexia of aging, which may predispose to protein-energy malnutrition. One possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an increased satiating effect of cholecystokinin (CCK). To investigate the impact of aging on

  14. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Men and women aged 45-69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006-2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n=4166) and follow-up (n=2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (pcognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of age, education and health status on community dwelling older men's health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara

    2012-06-01

    A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.

  16. Suicide and death ideation in older adults obtaining aging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riley, Alisa A; Van Orden, Kimberly A; He, Hua; Richardson, Thomas M; Podgorski, Carol; Conwell, Yeates

    2014-06-01

    To assess the frequency and correlates of death and suicide ideation in older adults accessing aging services. Cross-sectional. Data for this study were collected via in-home interviews. Aging Services Network (ASN) care management clients aged 60 years and older (N = 377) were recruited for this study. The PHQ-9 and the Paykel Suicide Scale were used to assess death and suicide ideation. Correlates of death and suicide ideation were also examined. Fourteen percent of subjects endorsed current death or suicide ideation, 27.9% of subjects endorsed death ideation in the past year, and 9.3% of subjects endorsed suicide ideation in the last year. Current death and suicide ideation were associated with greater depressive symptoms. As compared with individuals without ideation, individuals with death ideation demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptoms, more medical conditions, and lower social support. Individuals with suicide ideation demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and less perceived social support. Finally, as compared with individuals with death ideation, individuals with suicide ideation demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and more alcohol misuse. Death and suicide ideation are common among ASN clients. There were both differences and similarities between correlates of death and suicide ideation. ASN providers are uniquely situated to address many of the correlates of suicide ideation identified in this study; in order to effectively manage suicide ideation in an ASN setting, however, links to primary and mental health care providers are necessary. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting theory of mind in older adults: does age play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alessia; Cavallini, Elena; Bottiroli, Sara; Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on age-related changes in Theory of Mind (ToM) showed a decline in older adults, particularly pronounced over 75 years of age. Evidence that ToM may be enhanced in healthy aging people has been demonstrated, but no study has focused on the role of age on the effects of ToM training for elderly people. The present study was designed to examine the efficacy of a ToM training on practiced (ToM Strange Stories) and transfer tasks (ToM Animations) in both young and older adults. The study involved 127 older adults belonging to two age groups: young-old (Mage = 64.41; SD = 2.49; range: 60-69 years) and old-old (Mage = 75.66; SD = 4.38; range: 70-85 years), randomly assigned to either a ToM group or a control group condition. All participants took part in two 2-hour testing sessions and four 2-hour training sessions. Results showed that both young-old and old-old adults in the ToM group condition improved their ability to reason on complex-mental states significantly more than participants in the control group condition. This positive effect of the training was evident on practiced and transfer ToM tasks. Crucially, age did not moderate the effect of the ToM training. These findings demonstrate that young-old and old-old adults equally benefit from the ToM training. Implications for the positive effect of the ToM training in old-old adults are discussed.

  18. Aging and older adults in three Roman Catholic magazines: Successful aging and the Third and Fourth Ages reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2015-12-01

    This article is a qualitative content analysis of how aging and older adults are represented in the articles of three Roman Catholic magazines in the United States: America, Commonweal, and U.S. Catholic. The findings suggest that, as in mainstream secular magazines, the concept of successful aging is common in portrayals of older adults in the Third Age. Distinctive in Catholic magazine portrayals of successful aging is an emphasis on meaningful activity and on the wisdom that is gained and transmitted in this stage of life. In contrast to the lack of attention to Fourth Age decline in mainstream magazines, in the Catholic publications the difficult features of such deterioration are acknowledged but are also reframed as potential sources of value. The theoretical implications of these more complex faith-based renderings of the Third and Fourth Ages are briefly explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webel, Allison R; Longenecker, Chris T; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E; Schmotzer, Brian J; Salata, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the age and sex of PLWH are associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress, and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age (younger or older than 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-validated survey measurements of stress and isolation, and their heart rate variability over 60 minutes was measured by Holter monitor. The mean (SD) Perceived Stress Scale score was 17.4 (6.94), mean Visual Analog Stress Scale score was 3.51 (2.79), and mean Hawthorne Friendship Scale score, a measure of social isolation, was 17.03 (4.84). Mean heart rate variability expressed as the SD of successive N-N intervals was 65.47 (31.16) msec. In multivariable regression models that controlled for selected demographic variables, there was no relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and age (coefficient = -0.09, p =-0.23) or female gender (coefficient = -0.12, p = 0.93); however, there was a modest relationship between female gender and stress using the Visual Analog Stress Scale (coefficient = 1.24, p = 0.05). Perceived Stress was negatively associated with the Hawthorne Friendship score (coefficient = -0.34, p = 0.05). Hawthorne Friendship score was positively associated with younger age (coefficient = 0.11, p = 0.02). Age was the only independent predictor of physiologic stress as measured by heart rate variability (coefficient = -1.3, p age-related changes in heart rate variability do not appear to be related to perceived stress or social isolation. Future longitudinal research is required to more thoroughly understand this relationship and its impact on the health of PLWH.

  20. Older Adults' Experiences of Sexual Difficulties: Qualitative Findings From the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Tetley, Josie; Lee, David; Nazroo, James

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that sexual activity is important to the quality of life of older adults, and that it can be influenced by physical, psychological, and social factors. However, older adults' experiences of sexual difficulties remain relatively unexplored. This article draws on qualitative data collected as part of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Participants answered a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q), which included an open comment box for further details, 1,084 (1/7) of which were completed. These data were analyzed using Template Analysis, and findings on the experiences of sexual difficulties are presented in this article. Sexual difficulties were contextualized within the couple relationship and could be detrimental to the relationship, particularly if the partner would not seek professional help. Participants reported that sexual difficulties could also have a negative impact on psychological well-being, described mainly as frustration, depression, and sadness. For some participants the supportive nature of their relationship buffered these impacts. Few had sought professional help; those who had reported helpful and unhelpful experiences. These findings add to the limited evidence base and have implications for health care in the context of global aging and a growing recognition of older adults' sexual rights.

  1. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  2. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored. Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501;p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004. These variables accounted for approximately 57.5% of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3 = 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristics that impact on older adults’ SOC. In ’n wêreld wat aan die verouder is, is die potensiaal van bejaardes om goed te verouder

  3. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  4. Successful Aging at Work: Annual Review, 1992-1996: The Older Worker and Transitions to Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Robert O.; DeKoekkoek, Paul D.; Neece, Wynell M.; Patterson, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature 1992-1996 examined aging, job performance, and occupational well-being; successful workplace aging; aging, health, and safety; careers; retirement; older women; and age discrimination. Four conclusions were: (1) research has begun to involve more disciplines; (2) older workers should be considered as individuals; (3)…

  5. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. What older people want: evidence from a study of remote Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gerry; Farmer, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The growing proportions of older people in rural areas have implications for the provision of health and social care services. Older people are more likely to have complex health needs compared with other age groups, requiring a full range of primary, community and acute hospital services. The provision of services to older people in rural areas is challenged by diseconomies of scale, travel costs and difficulties in attracting staff. Policy-makers are requested to include the 'voice' of older people to help provide services that match needs and context. In spite of this, what older people want from health and social care services is a neglected area of investigation. The reported study was conducted in 2005/2006 as part of a European Union Northern Periphery Programme (EU NPP) project called Our Life as Elderly. Its aims were to explore the views of those aged 55 years and over and living in remote communities about current and future health and social care service provision for older people. Evidence was to be collected that could inform policy-makers about changing or improving service delivery. This article summarises emergent themes and considers their implications. The study selected two small remote mainland Scottish Highland communities for in-depth case study. Semi-structured interviews (n = 23), 10 'informal conversations' and 4 focus groups were held with community members aged 55 years and over, in order to provide different types of qualitative data and 'layers' of data to allow reflection. Data analysis was assisted by computerised data management software and performed using the 'framework analysis' approach. Participants did not consider themselves 'old' and expressed the need for independence in older age to be supported by services. Several aspects of services that were undergoing change or restructuring were identified, including arrangements for home care services, meals provision and technological support. Participants valued elements of the

  7. Age and isotope evidence for the evolution of continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorbath, S.

    1978-01-01

    Irreversible chemical differentiation of the mantle's essentially infinite reservoir for at least the past 3800 Ma has produced new continental, sialic crust during several relatively short (ca. 100-300 Ma) episodes which were widely separated in time and may have been of global extent. During each episode (termed 'accretion-differentiation superevent'), juvenile sial underwent profound igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation, resulting in thick (ca. 25-40 km), stable, compositionally gradational, largely indestructible, continental crust exhibiting close grouping of isotopic ages of rock formation, as well as mantle-type initial Sr and Pb isotopic ratios for all major constituents. Isotopic evidence suggests that within most accretion-differentiation superevents - and especially during the earlier ones - continental growth predominated over reworking of older sialic crust. Reworking of older sialic crust can occur in several types of geological environment and appears to have become more prevalent with the passage of geological time. It is usually clearly distinguishable from continental growth, by application of appropriate age and isotope data. (author)

  8. Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of fetal and infant malnutrition on metabolism in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Leitner, Miriam; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    While malnutrition is an important concern in the developing world, Western countries are experiencing a pandemic of obesity and metabolic diseases. This work reviews the current state of knowledge of the effects of malnutrition during early life on metabolism in older age. The impact of early-life determinants on diabetes and related metabolic diseases in later life is elucidated by three different methodological approaches. First, results from animal studies in dietary manipulation models are reviewed. Second, findings from epidemiological studies that often use natural experiments to determine the effects of famines on the health status of the population are discussed. Finally, the relation between maternal or childhood malnutrition and diabetes in adulthood is explored in a big-data study using the entire population of a country across a century. We present overwhelming evidence that the maternal or early childhood nutritional status negatively affects both the short- and long-term health status and development of the offspring, thereby providing starting points to formulate intervention and prevention strategies. In particular, it was found that in the case of early-life exposure to famine, the risk of the offspring to develop type 2 diabetes in older age is up to 125% higher than without famine exposure. Due to its inherent complexity, an understanding of the long-term effects of maternal and childhood malnutrition on metabolism in older age necessitates interdisciplinary and big-data approaches. Only then can we hope to prevent chronic diseases at their earliest beginning. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Participatory and evidence-based recommendations for urban redevelopment following natural disasters: older adults as policy advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael; Keeling, Sally; Wilkinson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To develop community-generated recommendations to inform urban environmental remediation following earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and share these with local decision-makers during a participatory action research process. This study employed three focus group discussions to critique mixed-methods and multiphase results and develop evidence-based recommendations. Participants included 30 volunteers and 8 knowledgeable advisers aged 65 years and older. Participant recommendations addressed the remediation of earthquake-affected suburbs, access to transportation, age-friendly design, safer communities, resilient support agencies, and restoration of resources for social and cultural activities. Older collaborators identified salient barriers to active ageing and options for post-earthquake redevelopment that had not previously been considered in research or policy. Independently living older adults are well placed to work with researchers to develop recommendations to improve the urban environment following natural disasters as well as in times of relative stability. © 2013 ACOTA.

  11. Concerns about aging and caregiving among middle-aged and older lesbian and gay adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Sabbag, Samir; Lee, Chin Chin; Schulz, Richard; Lang, Samantha; Vlahovic, Tatiana; Jaret, Adrienne; Thurston, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of lesbian and gay older adults, research geared towards health and well-being of this population is limited. Many lesbian and gay seniors experience health disparities and are at risk for poor health outcomes. The aims of this study were to gather in-depth information on the concerns of lesbian and gay elders with respect to aging and care needs. The sample included 124 gay men and lesbian women aged 50+ years. Data were gathered via focus groups and questionnaires. The focus groups addressed: (1) concerns about aging in the LGBT community, (2) barriers to needed support and services, (3) concerns about caregiving and (4) needed programs for lesbian and gay seniors. Concerns expressed about aging included: lack of financial security, lack of family or social support, fears about the lack of someone to provide needed care, and discrimination in healthcare or service communities. Participants also indicated concerns about being alone and vulnerable and a need for resources and support programs, specifically for lesbian and gay older adults and for lesbian and gay caregivers. These findings suggest needed areas of support and programs for older gay men and lesbian women. They also suggest that healthcare professionals might need more training regarding the particular needs and concerns of this community.

  12. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED, moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR 17.69 versus (Vs. 7.19, diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36 and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72. The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%, "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%, "severe stress" (44.4%, "severe fatigue" (26.3% and "masturbation" (26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  13. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tan; Jin, Yan; Han, Yin-Fa; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month) were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED), moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 17.69 versus (Vs.) 7.19), diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36) and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72). The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%), "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%)", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%), "severe stress" (44.4%), "severe fatigue" (26.3%) and "masturbation" (26.9%). Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  14. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers’ behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers’ self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers’ behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:20835378

  15. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Hughes, Dyfrig; Linck, Pat; Russell, Ian; Woods, Bob

    2010-08-01

    Promoting the mental well-being of older people has been neglected. To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on mental well-being in people aged 65+. Systematic review, meta-analysis, economic model. Reports published in English, identified by searching 25 databases, 11 websites and references lists of systematic reviews. Eligible studies were those with a comparison or control group or offering qualitative evidence; exercise and physical activity interventions for people aged 65 and above living at home, in the community, in supported housing or in residential care homes; including outcome measures of mental well-being, not simply measures of depression or anxiety. Low-quality studies were excluded from the data synthesis. An overall effect of exercise on mental well-being was found (standardised effect size = 0.27; CI = 0.14-0.40). The included interventions were designed for older people, targeted those who are sedentary and delivered in a community setting, primarily through a group-based approach led by trained leaders. As a minimum, the evidence would suggest two exercise sessions per week, each of 45 min duration. There is some indication that exercise can also improve the mental well-being of frail elders. Economic evidence indicated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (compared with minimal intervention) of pound 7300 and pound 12,100 per quality adjusted life year gained for community-based walking and exercise programmes, respectively. Mental well-being in later life is modifiable through exercise and physical activity. To generalise the findings, there is a need for more evidence of effectiveness from older people in the UK.

  16. Perceptions of emotion and age among younger, midlife, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gennarina D; Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A

    2018-03-01

    Older adults report greater emotional well-being than younger persons, yet negative stereotypes about aging are pervasive. Little is known about age group perceptions of emotion in adulthood, particularly for familiar persons. Thus, this project determined perceptions of general affect in familiar younger and older adults. In two studies, participants (Study 1, younger adult n = 123, older adult n = 43; Study 2, younger adult n = 34, midlife adult n = 41, older adult n = 16) provided self-report data about their affect in general, as well as reported on the affect of a familiar younger person (aged 18--34) and a familiar older person (aged 65 or older). Emotion scales assessed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. Results suggest a less favorable perception of emotion experiences of older adults compared to younger adults. Specifically, participants of all age groups rated older adults as having lower positive emotions and higher negative emotions than is found in self-report data. Perceptions of emotion in older adulthood reflect stereotypes of negative functioning. Older adult participants were not immune to holding negative views about older adults. Negative perceptions about emotion experiences in later life may be detrimental to the physical and mental health of older adults.

  17. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Descartes region - Evidence for Copernican-age volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1972-01-01

    A model that suggests that the high-albedo central region of the Descartes Formation was formed by Copernican-age volcanism was developed from Orbiter photography, Apollo 12 multispectral photography, earth-based spectrophotometry, and thermal IR and radar data. The bright surface either is abundant in centimeter-sized rocks or is formed from an insulating debris layer overlying a surface with an abundance of rocks in the 1- to 20-cm size range. On the basis of these data, the bright unit is thought to be a young pyroclastic deposit mantling older volcanic units of the Descartes Formation. Since the Apollo 16 target point is only 50 km NW of the central part of this unit, evidence for material associated with this unique highland formation should be searched for in returned soil and rock samples.

  19. PREFERENCE THEORY IN ADVANCED AGE AND THE OLDER CZECH WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vidovićová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we make use of preference theory developed by Hakim (2000 in the context of reconciling work and family to cover and explain different patterns of retirement exit paths and retirement satisfaction levels in the Czech Republic. We propose that lifestyle preferences and values may help to explain why some older workers continue to work while others are determined to retire as early as possible. Three types are identified among the 55–65 age group: work oriented, retirement oriented, and adaptive. The data shows that self-perception of the respondent as being active or more rest-oriented is associated with actual labour market activity of the respondent. Different types also perceive and evaluate labour market exit differently, and most importantly they differ in their reaction to various labour market and pension policies and family/partnership conditions. In the discussion we challenge the notion of active ageing as a general “one-size-fits-all” policy and urge that more attention be paid to the role of individual values and preferences when looking at the organisation of latter life roles.

  20. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 85 or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Tomoko; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Michimoto, Koichi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and problems of radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 85 or older. Fifty-three patients (26 men, 27 women) who underwent radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Median age was 87 years (range; 85-99). Treatment policy was classified into curative, semi-curative (treatment field or total dose were limited due to performance status) and palliative therapy. Head-and-neck, bladder and skin cancer were the most common primary disease. The treatment was deemed curative in 27%, semi-curative in 13%, and palliative in 49%. Total dose of semi-curative therapy was almost same compared with curative therapy. The rate of treatment completion and effectiveness were not significantly different in curative therapy and semi-curative therapy. We should consider to reduce the field size to gross target volume, but to treat with substantial dose to make radiotherapy safe and effective. We must be aware that elderly patients have basically low tolerability. (author)

  2. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  3. Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The biomechanics of distance running has not been studied before in older-aged runners but may be different than in younger-aged runners because of musculoskeletal degeneration at older age. This study aimed at determining whether the stance phase kinematics and ground reaction forces in

  4. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The

  5. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  6. Older adults' reasons for using technology while aging in place : a qualitative field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katrien G. Luijkx; Maurice D. Rijnaard; Marianne E. Nieboer; Claire S. van der Voort; Sil Aarts; Joost van Hoof; Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef; Eveline J.M. Wouters; Sebastiaan T.M. Peek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most older adults prefer to age in place, and supporting older adults to remain in their own homes and communities is also favored by policy makers. Technology can play a role in staying independent, active and healthy. However, the use of technology varies considerably among older

  7. The Relationship of Frailty and Hospitalization Among Older People: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Cheng, Chih-Ling

    2018-06-06

    This research explored the relationship between the stages of frailty and risk for hospitalization in older adults and evaluated the risk for hospitalization among the elderly in relation to various frailty assessment indexes. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were carried out. A total of 32,998 older people, 8,666 of whom were hospitalized, were included in this study. Two of the researchers independently collected and reviewed the literature. The key search terms used were "frailty" or "frail," "hospitalization," and "older people" or "older" or "geriatric" or "senior." Data were recorded from January 2001 to July 2016. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted for quality assessment. A systematic search was carried out using Embase and Scopus to analyze the collected literature. A meta-analysis was conducted on eight studies that discussed the relationship between frailty and hospitalization risk in older adults 65 years of age or older. The results showed that frail older people exhibited the highest risk for hospitalization, following by prefrail and robust older people. Next, different frailty assessment indicators were used to predict the risk for hospitalization among older people. All of these indexes also showed that older persons with frailty had the highest risk for hospitalization, followed by prefrail older people. Frailty is a vital issue in geriatric care and is a crucial factor in the hospitalization of older people. Frail older people were at the highest risk for hospitalization, following by prefrail and robust older people. Assessing frailty as early as possible can reduce the hospitalization risk among older people. Professional nursing staff should use frailty indicators in a timely fashion to assess the status of frailty in older people and should effectively develop frailty prevention strategies to decrease the risk for hospitalization and to enhance quality of life

  8. Predicting Perceived Isolation among Midlife and Older LGBT Adults: The Role of Welcoming Aging Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chu, Yoosun; Salmon, Mary Anne

    2017-06-16

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults are more likely to live alone and less likely to have children compared with their heterosexual counterparts. The lack of immediate family system can render older LGBT adults particularly vulnerable to social isolation and its consequences. The current study utilizes social exclusion theory, which asserts that not only material resources but also engagement with and inclusion into the society are necessary for marginalized people to be integrated into the mainstream. The study examines whether aging service providers (e.g., senior centers, adult day care, transportation, employment services) who are perceived by older LGBT adults as welcoming to LGBT people may reduce this population's perceived isolation. Data were collected through a needs assessment survey designed for the aging LGBT community in North Carolina. Adults aged 45 and over who self-identified as LGBT were recruited at several formal and informal groups. The survey yielded 222 valid responses. The outcome variable was perceived isolation. Key independent variables included having experienced welcoming aging service providers and living alone. After controlling for potential confounders and demographics, logistic regression results showed that having experienced welcoming aging service providers was a protective factor against perceived isolation and it also buffered the negative impact of living alone. The findings provided preliminary evidence for a new direction of intervention research-targeting LGBT cultural competence training for medical and social service providers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evidence for a link between changes to gaze behaviour and risk of falling in older adults during adaptive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that gaze stabilization with respect to footfall targets plays a crucial role in the control of visually guided stepping and that there are significant changes to gaze behaviour as we age. However, past research has not measured if age-related changes in gaze behaviour are associated with changes to stepping performance. This paper aims to identify differences in gaze behaviour between young (n=8) adults, older adults determined to be at a low-risk of falling (low-risk, n=4) and older adults prone to falling (high-risk, n=4) performing an adaptive locomotor task and attempts to relate observed differences in gaze behaviour to decline in stepping performance. Participants walked at a self-selected pace along a 9m pathway stepping into two footfall target locations en route. Gaze behaviour and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an ASL 500 gaze tracker interfaced with a Vicon motion analysis system. Results showed that older adults looked significantly sooner to targets, and fixated the targets for longer, than younger adults. There were also significant differences in these measures between high and low-risk older adults. On average, high-risk older adults looked away from targets significantly sooner and demonstrated less accurate and more variable foot placements than younger adults and low-risk older adults. These findings suggest that, as we age, we need more time to plan precise stepping movements and clearly demonstrate that there are differences between low-risk and high-risk older adults in both where and when they look at future stepping targets and the precision with which they subsequently step. We propose that high-risk older adults may prioritize the planning of future actions over the accurate execution of ongoing movements and that adoption of this strategy may contribute to an increased likelihood of falls. Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.

  10. In the eyes of older adults: Self-reported age and adjustment in African and European older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humbold

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore older adults’ perceptions of subjective age and adjustment to ageing and to analyse the correlational structure of the pre-categories in our study: subjective age, indicators of adjustment to ageing and of personal age perception. An exploratory, descriptive mixed-methods design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select 154 older adults aged between 75 and 99 years from three different nationalities. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing two core areas: subjective age and adjustment to ageing. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the correlational structure of the precategories in our study (subjective age and indicators of adjustment to ageing were analysed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Standardised instruments measured regular cognitive abilities. Five categories derived from interviews for subjective age: ‘adapted’, ‘disconnected’, ‘old’, ‘youthful’ and ‘tolerant’. A total of seven categories emerged as indicators of adjustment to ageing: ‘social networking’, ‘health’, ‘time perspective’, ‘spirituality’, ‘financial autonomy’, ‘professional activities’ and ‘fulfilment and leisure’. These results supported a model for each pre-category. Subjective age was explained by a two-factor model: ‘age-conscientious’ and ‘youthful’. A three-dimensional model formed by ‘reconciled’, ‘satisficers’ and ‘maximisers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for adjustment to ageing. A three-dimensional overall model for PAP was formed by ‘age-cognisant’, ‘fulfilled’ and ‘satisficers’. The findings highlighted the underdeveloped potential of subjective age, adjustment to ageing and a personal age perception overall model for this population. Enhancing subjective age and adjustment to ageing might be an important target to improve older adults’ interventions’ outcomes.

  11. Psycho-social influences upon older women's decision to attend cervical screening: A review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Kirsty A; Moss, Esther; Redman, Charles W E; Sherman, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide (WHO, 2016). In many developed countries the incidence of cervical cancer has been significantly reduced by the introduction of organised screening programmes however, in the UK, a fall in screening coverage is becoming a cause for concern. Much research attention has been afforded to younger women but age stratified mortality and incidence data suggest that older women's screening attendance is also worthy of study. This paper provides a review of current evidence concerning the psycho-social influences that older women experience when deciding whether to attend cervical screening. Few studies have focussed on older women and there are significant methodological issues with those that have included them in their samples. Findings from these studies indicate several barriers which may deter older women from screening, such as embarrassment and logistical issues. Drivers to screening include reassurance and a sense of obligation. Physical, social and emotional changes that occur as women age may also have an impact on attendance. This review concludes that there is a clear need for better understanding of the perceptions of older women specifically with regard to cervical cancer and screening. Future research should inform the design of targeted interventions and provision of information to enable informed decision-making regarding cervical screening among older women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2017-01-01

    Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies) and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies). From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9). We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size) and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size). These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  13. Adult Age Differences in Eye Movements During Reading: The Evidence From Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxin; Li, Lin; Li, Sha; Xie, Fang; Chang, Min; Paterson, Kevin B; White, Sarah J; McGowan, Victoria A

    2018-04-16

    Substantial evidence indicates that older readers of alphabetic languages (e.g., English and German) compensate for age-related reading difficulty by employing a more risky reading strategy in which words are skipped more frequently. The effects of healthy aging on reading behavior for nonalphabetic languages, like Chinese, are largely unknown, although this would reveal the extent to which age-related changes in reading strategy are universal. Accordingly, the present research used measures of eye movements to investigate adult age differences in Chinese reading. The eye movements of young (18-30 years) and older (60+ years) Chinese readers were recorded. The older adults exhibited typical patterns of age-related reading difficulty. But rather than employing a more risky reading strategy compared with the younger readers, the older adults read more carefully by skipping words infrequently, making shorter forward eye movements, and fixating closer to the beginnings of two-character target words in sentences. In contrast with the findings for alphabetic languages, older Chinese readers appear to compensate for age-related reading difficulty by employing a more careful reading strategy. Age-related changes in reading strategy therefore appear to be language specific, rather than universal, and may reflect the specific visual and linguistic requirements of the writing system.

  14. Destination memory in social interaction: better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i.e., coloured faces). On a later recognition test, participants had to decide whether they had previously told some proverb to an older/younger destination or not. Prior to this task, participants reported their frequency of contact with other-age groups. The results showed lower destination memory in older adults than in younger adults. Interestingly, older adults displayed better memory for older than for younger destinations. The opposite pattern was seen in younger adults. The low memory for younger destinations, as observed in older adults, was significantly correlated with limited exposure to younger individuals. These findings suggest that for older adults, the social experience can play a crucial role in the destination memory, at least as far as exposure to other-age groups is concerned.

  15. Radiotherapy for prostatic cancer in patients aged 75 or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisada, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Masaaki; Mogami, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Uemura, Masahiko; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru; Nagao, Shuji

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with prostatic cancer treated with radiotherapy giving a mean dose of 60.7 Gy between 1992 and 1997 at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital were reviewed and the treatment outcomes were investigated retrospectively. About two-third of the patients were treated with radiation by linear accelerator with 40 to 46 Gy to the whole pelvis and with 20 to 26 Gy boost to the prostate area and the other one-third were treated only to the prostate area. For almost patients, external beam radiotherapy in combination with endocrine therapy was used. The median duration of follow-up was 36 months. Overall 5-year survival and 5-year relapse-free survival rate were 65.8%, and 88.9%, respectively. Severe rectal late morbidity (over grade 3) according to RTOG grading system were seen in one (2.6%). Although the number of cases was rather small and the follow-up duration was rather short, conventional external beam radiotherapy in combination with endocrine therapy may contribute to the survival benefit of patients with prostatic cancer in aged 75 or older. Radiotherapy for elderly prostatic cancer patients should be treated with an effort to decrease the late morbidity and not to deteriorate the QOL of the patients, because many patients were died of other causes than cancer. (author)

  16. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite boys and girls tennis groups in the older school age. METHODOLOGY: The data from groups of 13 year old boys and girls (13 years and 0 months to 13 years and 11 months were included into the analysis. These players were registered in the first one hundred ranking of International Tennis Federation (ITF according to the total number of ranking points in each year during the period 2007-2011 (500 boys, 500 girls. An ANOVA was used for analysis with a total ranking score as an indicator of competitive success with the age factor (12 levels = 12 months of birth (α = .05. The same analysis was used in sub-groups of boys, respectively girls, registered in ITF separately for each year of the period 2007-2011. Dates of birth of children were obtained from official sources of ITF. In the event of the significance factor of age we performed a simple regression analysis depending on the number of ITF points on the month of birth (p < .05. Analyses were processed in SPSS 21 software (IBM, USA. RESULTS: The analysis showed no significance of age, respective of the month of birth on the total number of points in a boys group (n = 500 (p = .624 and girls group (n = 500 (p = .152 from ITF ranking during five-year period. No significance was found in the boys' groups (n = 100, respective girls' groups (n = 100 registered in ITF ranking in each year of the five-year period. The exception was found only in a boys group in 2007 (p = .021, and significant regression relationship

  17. Working memory training in older adults: Bayesian evidence supporting the absence of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Sabrina; von Bastian, Claudia C

    2017-12-01

    The question of whether working memory training leads to generalized improvements in untrained cognitive abilities is a longstanding and heatedly debated one. Previous research provides mostly ambiguous evidence regarding the presence or absence of transfer effects in older adults. Thus, to draw decisive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of working memory training interventions, methodologically sound studies with larger sample sizes are needed. In this study, we investigated whether or not a computer-based working memory training intervention induced near and far transfer in a large sample of 142 healthy older adults (65 to 80 years). Therefore, we randomly assigned participants to either the experimental group, which completed 25 sessions of adaptive, process-based working memory training, or to the active, adaptive visual search control group. Bayesian linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate performance improvements on the level of abilities, using multiple indicator tasks for near (working memory) and far transfer (fluid intelligence, shifting, and inhibition). Our data provided consistent evidence supporting the absence of near transfer to untrained working memory tasks and the absence of far transfer effects to all of the assessed abilities. Our results suggest that working memory training is not an effective way to improve general cognitive functioning in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  19. The spatialities of ageing: Evidencing increasing spatial polarisation between older and younger adults in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Sabater

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the proportion of older adults in Europe expected to grow significantly over the next few decades, a number of pertinent questions are raised about the socio-spatial processes that underlie residential age segregation, especially in circumstances where it may be increasing. Objective: We present evidence on whether, and to what degree, residential age segregation has changed across neighbourhoods in England and Wales since the 1990s. Methods: We examine the residential patterns of older adults (aged 65 and over compared to those of younger adults (aged 25-40 for neighbourhoods across the country, for neighbourhoods within districts, and for neighbourhoods within districts classified by type. The analyses use harmonised population data for small areas (Output Areas from the 1991, 2001, and 2011 Censuses of England and Wales. Results: The results reveal increasing segregation over time (1991-2011 between older and younger groups across neighbourhoods nationally. Although the index values of segregation tend to be higher in less urban areas, highlighting a strong age and life course dimension of the rural-urban divide, a rapid increase in age segregation is found in urban areas. Moreover, our findings suggest the existence of convergent clusters of increasing age segregation, particularly in urban settings (from small to large cities and former industrial areas in the North of England, thus providing evidence suggesting a further dimension of the North-South divide. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate a growing age bifurcation over time and space, as both older and younger age groups are increasingly living apart. Although the drivers and consequences of these trends in residential age segregation remain unclear, the potential challenge to policies of social cohesion underlines the importance of further research. Contribution: The findings contribute to current debates about relations between age groups and generations in

  20. Aging in community and local NGOs: Empowering marginalized older women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjeong

    2017-10-23

    This article is based on an embedded case study of selected older people's self-help groups in urban South Korea, which aim to assist community-dwelling older adults, particularly poor and marginalized women, to age in their community and remain active and contributing members. The study highlights the importance of the role and capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as partner organizations. Implications are important for other aging societies, particularly in Asia, where older women have been often confined by patriarchal oppression.

  1. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    OpenAIRE

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background:. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods:. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual ...

  2. Older workers motivation to continue to work: five meanings of age: A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de Annet; Jansen, Paul; Kooij, Dorien

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. In this study, we address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  3. Older workers' motivation to continue to work : five meanings of age. A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien; de lange, Annet; Jansen, Paul; Dikkers, Josje

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. This paper aims to address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  4. Women, Work and Age: A Report on Older Women and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Cathy; Steenland, Sally, Ed.

    Fifty-four percent of all midlife and older American women are in the work force. Like their younger counterparts, most older women work in nonprofessional occupations. Regardless of their age, working women earn less than men. Sixty-five percent of working women aged 45 to 64 are married; 30 percent are widowed, divorced, or separated; and 5…

  5. Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2003-07-01

    The biomechanics of distance running has not been studied before in older-aged runners but may be different than in younger-aged runners because of musculoskeletal degeneration at older age. This study aimed at determining whether the stance phase kinematics and ground reaction forces in running are different between younger- and older-aged men. Lower-extremity kinematics using three-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction forces (GRF) using a force plate were assessed in 16 older-aged (55-65 yr) and 13 younger-aged (20-35 yr) well-trained male distance runners running at a self-selected (SRS) and a controlled (CRS) speed of 3.3 m.s-1. The older subjects ran at significantly lower self-selected speeds than the younger subjects (mean 3.34 vs 3.77 m.s-1). In both speed conditions, the older runners exhibited significantly more knee flexion at heel strike and significantly less knee flexion and extension range of motion. No age group differences were present in subtalar joint motion. Impact peak force (1.91 vs 1.70 BW) and maximal initial loading rate (107.5 vs 85.5 BW.s-1) were significantly higher in the older runners at the CRS. Maximal peak vertical and anteroposterior forces and impulses were significantly lower in the older runners at the SRS. The biomechanics of running is different between older- and younger-aged runners on several relevant parameters. The larger impact peak force and initial loading rate indicate a loss of shock-absorbing capacity in the older runners. This may increase their susceptibility to lower-extremity overuse injuries. Moreover, it emphasizes the focus on optimizing cushioning properties in the design and prescription of running shoes and suggests that older-aged runners should be cautious with running under conditions of high impact.

  6. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Panza, Gregory A; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population.

  7. Older Single Gay Men's Body Talk: Resisting and Rigidifying the Aging Discourse in the Gay Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yiu Tung

    2017-01-01

    Previous research saw older gay men as subject to structural marginalization of ageism but yet possessing agency to interpret aging in diverse ways. I move beyond this duality, drawing on the theory of defensive othering to understand how older gay men live with the aging discourse in the gay community. Informed by grounded theory, I analyzed interviews with 25 self-identified single gay men aged 50 or above in England inductively. It emerged that many older gay men found it difficult to escape the discourse that marginalizes the aging body. Even when they argued they were the exception and "looked good," they were discursively producing a two-tier system: they themselves as the "good older gay men," as opposed to the other "bad older gay men," who "had given up." Such a defensive othering tactic seemingly allowed them to resist age norms from applying to them personally, but unintentionally reinforced an ageist discourse.

  8. Age and Gender Differences in Social Network Composition and Social Support Among Older Rural South Africans: Findings From the HAALSI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Morris, Katherine Ann; Manderson, Lenore; Perkins, Jessica M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2018-03-26

    Drawing on the "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa" (HAALSI) baseline survey, we present data on older adults' social networks and receipt of social support in rural South Africa. We examine how age and gender differences in social network characteristics matched with patterns predicted by theories of choice- and constraint-based network contraction in older adults. We used regression analysis on data for 5,059 South African adults aged 40 and older. Older respondents reported fewer important social contacts and less frequent communication than their middle-aged peers, largely due to fewer nonkin connections. Network size difference between older and younger respondents was greater for women than for men. These gender and age differences were explicable by much higher levels of widowhood among older women compared to younger women and older men. There was no evidence for employment-related network contraction or selective retention of emotionally supportive ties. Marriage-related structural constraints impacted on older women's social networks in rural South Africa, but did not explain choice-based network contraction. These findings suggest that many older women in rural Africa, a growing population, may have an unmet need for social support.

  9. Adjustment to Aging, Subjective Age and Age Representation: Assessing a Nationally-Diverse Population of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research sought to analyse older adults’ conceptualization of adjustment to aging (AtA, subjective age (SA and age representation (AR, adding a cross-national comparative perspective to aging well. Method: Questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing three core areas: SA, AtA and AR. Complete information on 231 older adults aged between 74-102 years (M = 83.1; SD = 6.692 from four different nationalities, was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified to contribute to AtA: ‘accomplishment, personal fulfilment and future projects’, ‘occupation, profession, autonomy and leisure’, ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’, ‘valorisation of time and age’, ‘family, social and interpersonal attachment’, ‘stability, quality and financial situation’, and ‘sense of limit and existential issues’. Five categories were identified for SA: ‘with congruence’, ‘without concern’, ‘with apprehension’, ‘young-at-heart’ and ‘good enough’. For AR, eight emergent categories were found: ‘future investment’, ‘reconciliation with life’, ‘present challenge’, ‘regret about the past’, ‘dynamic life’, ‘with contentment’, ‘as an opportunity’ and ‘with dissatisfaction’. Conclusion: This research contributes for a better understanding of what defines AtA, SA and AR in older adults. Moreover, interventions and communication approaches in clinical practice and program development in health care context should focus on shared perceptions of aging well.

  10. New technologies, workplace organisation and the age structure of the workforce: Firm-level evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Aubert; Eve Caroli; Muriel Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between new technologies, innovative workplace practices and the age structure of the workforce in a sample of French manufacturing firms. We find evidence that the wage-bill share of older workers is lower in innovative firms and that the opposite holds for younger workers. This age bias affects both men and women. It is also evidenced within occupational groups, thus suggesting that skills do not completely protect workers against the labour-market ...

  11. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  12. Do social networks affect the use of residential aged care among older Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glonek Gary FV

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.

  13. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated. PMID:25752539

  14. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  15. Updating the Evidence for Physical Activity: Summative Reviews of the Epidemiological Evidence, Prevalence, and Interventions to Promote "Active Aging".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Merom, Dafna; Bull, Fiona C; Buchner, David M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2016-04-01

    There is a global imperative to increase awareness of the emerging evidence on physical activity (PA) among older adults. "Healthy aging" has traditionally focused on preventing chronic disease, but greater efforts are required to reduce frailty and dependency and to maintain independent physical and cognitive function and mental health and well-being. This integrated review updates the epidemiological data on PA, summarizes the existing evidence-based PA guidelines, describes the global magnitude of inactivity, and finally describes the rationale for action. The first section updates the epidemiological evidence for reduced cardiometabolic risk, reduced risks of falls, the burgeoning new evidence on improved cognitive function and functional capacity, and reduced risk of depression, anxiety, and dementia. This is followed by a summary of population prevalence studies among older adults. Finally, we present a "review of reviews" of PA interventions delivered from community or population settings, followed by a consideration of interventions among the "oldest-old," where efforts are needed to increase resistance (strength) training and balance. This review identifies the global importance of considering "active aging" beyond the established benefits attributed to noncommunicable disease prevention alone. Innovative population-level efforts are required to address physical inactivity, prevent loss of muscle strength, and maintain balance in older adults. Specific investment in healthy aging requires global policy support from the World Health Organization and is implemented at the national and regional levels, in order to reduce the burden of disease and disability among older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Forever young: Visual representations of gender and age in online dating sites for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz-Meydan, Ateret; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-06-13

    Online dating has become increasingly popular among older adults following broader social media adoption patterns. The current study examined the visual representations of people on 39 dating sites intended for the older population, with a particular focus on the visualization of the intersection between age and gender. All 39 dating sites for older adults were located through the Google search engine. Visual thematic analysis was performed with reference to general, non-age-related signs (e.g., facial expression, skin color), signs of aging (e.g., perceived age, wrinkles), relational features (e.g., proximity between individuals), and additional features such as number of people presented. The visual analysis in the present study revealed a clear intersection between ageism and sexism in the presentation of older adults. The majority of men and women were smiling and had a fair complexion, with light eye color and perceived age of younger than 60. Older women were presented as younger and wore more cosmetics as compared with older men. The present study stresses the social regulation of sexuality, as only heterosexual couples were presented. The narrow representation of older adults and the anti-aging messages portrayed in the pictures convey that love, intimacy, and sexual activity are for older adults who are "forever young."

  17. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  18. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  19. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-06-01

    Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype's trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004=5009, N2008=5301, N2013=4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype's distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by -0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.352, -0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by -0.293 (CI: -0.403, -0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2010-11-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed.

  1. Physical work capacity in older adults: implications for the aging worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Yardley, Jane E; Martineau, Lucie; Jay, Ollie

    2008-08-01

    In many developed countries, the workforce is rapidly aging. Occupational demands however, have not decreased despite the fact that workers see a decline in physical work capacity with age. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological adaptations to aging, the impact of aging on performance and the benefits of physical fitness in improving functional work capacity in aging individuals. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed, acquiring published articles which examined the physiological changes associated with age-related decrements in the physical work capacity of healthy aging adults. The databases accessed included AARP Ageline, AccessScience, Annual Reviews, CISTI, Cochrane Library, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations (Proquest), Embase, HealthSTAR, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and PASCAL and included relevant information sites obtained on the world wide web. While a great deal of variation exists, an average decline of 20% in physical work capacity has been reported between the ages of 40 and 60 years, due to decreases in aerobic and musculoskeletal capacity. These declines can contribute to decreased work capacity, and consequential increases in work-related injuries and illness. However, differences in habitual physical activity will greatly influence the variability seen in individual physical work capacity and its components. Well-organized, management-supported, work-site health interventions encouraging physical activity during work hours could potentially decrease the incidence of age-related injury and illness. Age-associated functional declines and the accompanying risk of work-related injury can be prevented or at least delayed by the practice of regular physical activity. Older workers could optimally pursue their careers until retirement if they continuously maintain their physical training.

  2. Issues in caregiving for older people with intellectual disabilities and their ageing family carers: a review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Assumpta; Taggart, Laurence; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Slevin, Eamonn

    2014-09-01

    In keeping with worldwide demographic changes and an ageing population, people with intellectual disabilities are living longer and all the evidence suggest that this trend will continue. This 'new' population of older people and their carers will pose challenges for health and social care providers. This paper presents a review of the literature on key issues influencing caregiving for older people with intellectual disabilities and their ageing family carers. The review was undertaken using a framework adapted from the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Papers were identified through the use of databases including CINAHL, Science Direct, PsychoInfo, Blackwell Synergy, the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE. The key themes which emerged from the literature and which consequently form the basis of this review include: ageing family carers, future planning and support services. In the context of family caregiving, older people with intellectual disabilities represent a unique group insofar as they are unlikely to be married and therefore have no spouse or dependents to care for them in later life. As a result, parents (usually mothers) have to continue caring for their son or daughter with an intellectual disability as they both grow older, often resulting in a mutually dependent relationship. The caregiving situation is further complicated by poor emergency and future planning and by a lack of appropriate services for this group of individuals. In light of the emergence of a 'new' population of older people with intellectual disabilities, there is an urgent need to develop services and support structures which will enable these individuals and their ageing carers to 'age in place' and when this is no longer possible, to have appropriate alternatives that recognise the duality of their needs as older people and as people with intellectual disabilities. Opportunities for supervision could be one way to increase individuals' awareness of their own role in the team.

  3. Cognitive Remediation in Middle-Aged or Older Inpatients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hong Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive remediation (CR is effective for improving various cognitive deficits in adult patients with schizophrenia. Although reports of brain plasticity in older adults and the service needs for chronic patients with schizophrenia are increasing, very few randomized controlled trials of CR have been conducted in middle-aged or older inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the efficacy of individualized CR on the cognitive impairments of middle-aged or older inpatients with chronic schizophrenia within the context of comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation (PR by comparing the results obtained with PR only and treatment as usual (TAU.Method: Fifty-seven middle-aged and older individuals with chronic schizophrenia and mild to moderate cognitive deficits were enrolled. Thirty-eight who were undergoing PR were randomly assigned to CR + PR (N = 19 or PR-only (N = 19 groups. Nineteen participants who were undergoing TAU without CR or PR were evaluated pre- and post-treatment.Results: CR was easily provided and well received (drop-out rates = 5.3% by middle-aged or older psychiatric inpatients. Compared to the PR-Only or TAU patients, patients in the CR + PR group showed greater improvement in executive functioning. Compared to TAU patients, CR + PR and PR-only patients showed greater improvement in logical memory. More patients in the CR + PR group improved clinically significantly in executive functioning and logical memory, compared with the PR-only and TAU patients.Conclusions: These results suggested that CR improved some cognitive deficits in middle-aged or older inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and that it was effective as an adjunctive treatment to the usual PR services provided in inpatient settings.Clinical Registration: KCT0002609

  4. Hypermnesia: a further examination of age differences between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hajime; Kato, Koichi; Von Glahn, Nicholas R; Nelson, Meghann E; Widner, Robert L; Goernert, Phillip N

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies that examined age differences in hypermnesia reported inconsistent results. The present experiment investigated whether the different study materials in these studies were responsible for the inconsistency. In particular, the present experiment examined whether the use of a video, as opposed to words and pictures, would eliminate previously reported age differences in hypermnesia. Fifteen college students and 15 older adults viewed a 3-minute video clip followed by two free-recall tests. The results indicated that older adults, as a whole, did not show hypermnesia. However, when older adults were divided into low and high memory groups based on test 1 performance, the high memory group showed hypermnesia whereas the low memory group did not show hypermnesia. The older adults in the low memory group were significantly older than the older adults in the high memory group - indicating that hypermnesia is inversely related to age in older adults. Reminiscence did not show an age-related difference in either the low or high memory group whereas inter-test forgetting did show an age difference in the low memory group. As expected, older adults showed greater inter-test forgetting than young adults in the low memory group. Findings from the present experiment suggest that video produces a pattern of results that is similar to the patterns obtained when words and pictures are used as study material. Thus, it appears that the nature of study material is not the source of inconsistency across the previous studies.

  5. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30–53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure activities, with low participation in physical and mentally stimulating leisure activities. Residence and time spent with primary caregiver were assoc...

  6. Discounting input from older adults: the role of age salience on partner age effects in the social contagion of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle L; McNabb, Jaimie C; Lindeman, Meghan I H; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of partner age on the magnitude of socially suggested false memories. Young participants recalled household scenes in collaboration with an implied young or older adult partner who intentionally recalled false items. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the age of their partner (low age-salience context); in Experiment 2, participants were presented with the age of their partner along with a photograph and biographical information about their partner (high age-salience context); in Experiment 3, age salience was varied within the same experiment. Across experiments, participants in both the low age-salience and high age-salience contexts incorporated their partners' misleading suggestions into their own subsequent recall and recognition reports, thus demonstrating social contagion with implied partners. Importantly, the effect of partner age differed across conditions. Participants in the high age-salience context were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult partners than from young adult partners, but participants in the low age-salience context were equally likely to incorporate suggestions from young and older adult partners. Participants discount the memory of older adult partners only when age is highly salient.

  7. What is the evidence for less shift work tolerance in older workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.M.; Looze, M.P.de

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the suggestion that older people would be less tolerant to shift work. Field studies on age-shift work interaction effects on sleep, fatigue, performance, accidents and health were reviewed. Studies on age-shift (morning, afternoon, night) and age-shift system (roster)

  8. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  9. Aging of Indian women in India: the experience of older women in formal care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Jamuna, D

    2011-01-01

    The feminization of aging is a process that has begun in India but is not occurring uniformly throughout India. Older women are more likely to be widowed, poor, and suffer vulnerability to adverse outcomes like poor health. With the changing social landscape of India, middle-income older women are increasingly opting for 'pay and stay homes', an emerging type of old age home in India. Majority of the 97 women residents of 'pay and stay' homes reported being widowed (68%), and 25% were childless. Childlessness and widowhood were important considerations in the decision to relocate to an old age home. Older women reported higher degrees of psychological closeness and contact with daughters than sons, and the overall social network size was small. High prevalence of diabetes rates among older women carries implications for potential functional disability. Strong advocacy measures for empowering older women in India should be a priority policy directive.

  10. Proactive vs. reactive car driving: EEG evidence for different driving strategies of older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Getzmann, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with a large heterogeneity in the extent of age-related changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. All these functions can influence the performance in complex tasks like car driving. The present study aims to identify potential differences in underlying cognitive processes that may explain inter-individual variability in driving performance. Younger and older participants performed a one-hour monotonous driving task in a driving simulator under varying crosswind conditions, while behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded. Overall, younger and older drivers showed comparable driving performance (lane keeping). However, there was a large difference in driving lane variability within the older group. Dividing the older group in two subgroups with low vs. high driving lane variability revealed differences between the two groups in electrophysiological correlates of mental workload, consumption of mental resources, and activation and sustaining of attention: Older drivers with high driving lane variability showed higher frontal Alpha and Theta activity than older drivers with low driving lane variability and—with increasing crosswind—a more pronounced decrease in Beta activity. These results suggest differences in driving strategies of older and younger drivers, with the older drivers using either a rather proactive and alert driving strategy (indicated by low driving lane variability and lower Alpha and Beta activity), or a rather reactive strategy (indicated by high driving lane variability and higher Alpha activity). PMID:29352314

  11. Perspectives on ageing in place : Older adults' experiences of everyday life in urban neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lager, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Ageing-in-place policies have been implemented by many Western governments in order to delay and decrease older adults’ reliance on expensive institutionalised care. Such policies stimulate older adults to remain in their own homes and neighbourhoods for as long as possible and stress that this is

  12. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  13. Heritability of the Number of Teeth in Middle-Aged and Older Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurushima, Y; Silventoinen, K; Dokkedal, U

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss is a common health concern in older adults. We aimed to estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in the number of teeth in middle-aged and older populations using a population-based cohort of Danish twins. The study included 5,269 Danish...

  14. Destination memory in social interaction: Better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Raffard, S.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2018-01-01

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger

  15. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  16. A grounded theory of successful aging among select incarcerated older Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Heizel Mae; Lozano, Carl James; Valdez, Les Paul; Manzarate, Rowena; Lumawag, Fortuna Angelli Jolyn

    Across the literature, impairment and disability among the older people have been associated with a decline in meeting their special needs. Failure in meeting such needs may cause deterioration of function and threaten successful aging. Accordingly, successful aging studies were carried out among males, in health care institutions, and in communities. In spite of these, the process by which successful aging is experienced by incarcerated older women remains to be a blank spot in research. This study purports to describe the process by which incarcerated older Filipino women experience successful aging. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 15 purposively selected incarcerated older Filipino from a Philippine penal institution exclusive for women. Further, data gathered was reduced to field text and was analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Finally, truthfulness and trustworthiness of the findings were established through member checking. The study generated "The Road to Success Model". Interestingly, five phases relative to successful aging emerged, namely: Struggling, Remotivating, Reforming, Reintegrating and Sustaining. These phases describe how select incarcerated older Filipino women undergo transformation towards successful aging. Similar to a road, each phase is considered a station where one must pass through in order to get to the destination. Findings of the study serve as an impetus for structural and procedural changes in prison, with a view to providing an environment conducive to successful aging and appropriate recognition to the older prisoner's efforts to achieve successful aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is There a Paradox of Aging: When the Negative Aging Stereotype Meets the Positivity Effect in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Lu, Jia; Chen, Guopeng; Dong, Li; Yao, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated. All the participants were asked to select 15 words that best described the elderly from a mixed-word list (positive and negative words were mixed together) and from an unmixed-word list (positive and negative words were separated). Older adults in the control group selected more positive words, whereas among younger adults, selection did not differ by valence in either the mixed- or unmixed-word list conditions. There were no differences between the positive and negative word choices of the younger and older adults in the priming group. We calculated the differences between the numbers of positive and negative words, and the differences in the older adults' word choices were larger than those among the younger adults; the differences were also larger in the control group than in the priming group. The positivity effect worked by choosing positive stimuli rather than avoiding negative stimuli. The role of emotion regulation in older adults was limited, and when the positivity effect faced the effect of the negative aging stereotype, the negative stereotype effect was dominant. Future research should explore the changes in the positivity effect in the face of a positive aging stereotype and what roles other factors (e.g., activation level of the stereotype, arousal level of affective words) might play.

  19. A community-based cross-sectional study of sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Shan; Li, Yuan; Mo, Hai-Yun; Qiu, De-Xing; Zhao, Jing; Luo, Jia-Li; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Sleep quality has been widely studied among western countries. However, there is limited population-based evidence on insomnia in Chinese adult populations, especially in middle-aged and older adults. The aims of present study are to (1) examine the prevalence of poor sleep among Chinese middle-age and older adults, (2) compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) seven domain scores across different physical health statuses, (3) explore factors associated with insomnia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a multi-instrument questionnaire. In total, 1563 residents aged 45 or older in the community were interviewed. The Chinese version of the PSQI was used to assess sleep quality while poor sleep was defined as a total PSQI score >5. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and physical health data were also collected. The prevalence of poor sleep among adults aged over 45 years was 20.67 %. Clusters logistic regression analysis identified that migrant workers, single marital status, lower education level, no physical exercise, illness within 2 weeks, and a higher total number of chronic diseases contribute to increased risk of poor sleep (P quality. Our results indicated that poor sleep was common in middle-aged and older adults. It was associated with identity of migrant worker, education level, exercise, illness within 2 weeks and number of chronic disease. Being ill within 2 weeks and having more chronic diseases were the major physical health-related factors contributing to poor sleep in the middle-aged and older people. Physical health may be a major determinant in sleep quality.

  20. Age differences in the focus of retrieval: Evidence from dual-list free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; Huff, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    In the present experiment, we examined age differences in the focus of retrieval using a dual-list free recall paradigm. Younger and older adults studied 2 lists of unrelated words and recalled from the first list, the second list, or both lists. Older adults showed impaired use of control processes to recall items correctly from a target list and prevent intrusions. This pattern reflected a deficit in recollection verified using a process dissociation procedure. We examined the consequences of an age-related deficit in control processes on the focus of retrieval using measures of temporal organization. Evidence that older adults engaged a broader focus of retrieval than younger adults was shown clearly when participants were instructed to recall from both lists. First-recalled items originated from more distant positions across lists for older adults. We interpret older adults' broader retrieval orientation as consistent with their impaired ability to elaborate cues to constrain retrieval. These findings show that age-related deficits in control processes impair context reinstatement and the subsequent focus of retrieval to target episodes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: II: Cardiovascular Reactivity during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J. M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Ko, Kelly J.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. We examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples, but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration–especially older men. These effects were maintained during a post-task recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. PMID:19485647

  2. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: II. Cardiovascular reactivity during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Ko, Kelly J; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. The authors examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output, and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration-especially in older men. These effects were maintained during a posttask recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do predictors of volunteering in older age differ by health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Galenkamp, Henrike; Papa, Roberta; Socci, Marco; Suanet, Bianca; Schmidt, Andrea; Schulmann, Katharine; Golinowska, Stella; Sowa, Agnieszka; Moreira, Amilcar; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-06-01

    It has been widely recognised that poor health is one of the main barriers to participation in volunteer activities in older age. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the participation of older people in volunteering, especially those in poor health. Based on the resource theory of volunteering, the aim of this study is to better understand the correlates of volunteering among older people with different health statuses, namely those without health problems (neither multimorbidity nor disability), those with mild health problems (multimorbidity or disability), and those with severe health problems (multimorbidity and disability). Data were drawn from the fourth wave (2011-2012, release 1.1.1) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, which includes European people aged 50 years or older. The results showed that variables linked to volunteering were generally similar regardless of health status, but some differences were nevertheless identified. For older people with mild or severe health problems, for instance, depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their involvement in volunteer activities. We found a positive association of being widowed (rather than married) with volunteering in older people with particularly poor health, whereas high income was associated with volunteering in the case of mild health problems only. These results demonstrate that variables associated with volunteer participation partially differ between older people depending on their health status. These differences should be considered by policy makers in their attempts to promote volunteering in older people, as a means of preventing their social exclusion.

  5. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.

  6. Ageing in an inconvenient paradise: the immigrant experiences of older Korean people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jae; Kim, Chang Gi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the immigrant experiences of older Korean people and their intergenerational family relationships in the New Zealand context. Data were collected from qualitative interviews with older people, community leaders and professionals in Christchurch and Auckland. Data analysis was conducted using concept mapping techniques in the cross-cultural context where two languages were simultaneously used. The findings of the study show that older Korean people in New Zealand were likely to face multiple challenges due to the combined effects of immigration and ageing in a new country. Some older people experienced difficulties in managing their immigrant lives and intergenerational relationships in the transnational family context in which their family members were dispersed across two or more nations. The immigrant experiences of older migrants might be affected by an 'invisible' source of isolation and exclusion at familial, community, societal and transnational levels. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  7. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pasion

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies. From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9. We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size. These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  8. Organizational age cultures: The interplay of chief executive officers age and attitudes toward younger and older employees

    OpenAIRE

    Zacher, Hannes; Gielnik, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the interactive effects of chief executive officer (CEO) age and CEO attitudes toward younger and older employees on organisational age cultures. Data was collected from 66 CEOs of small and medium-sized businesses and 274 employees. Results were consistent with expectations based on organisational culture and upper echelons theories. The relationship between CEO age and organisational age culture for younger employees was negative for CEOs with a less positive attit...

  9. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Bandelow; Xin Xu; Shifu Xiao; Eef Hogervorst

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL). Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no p...

  10. Stereotypes of Aging: Their Effects on the Health of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rylee A. Dionigi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present findings on the effects of stereotypes of aging on health outcomes related to older adults, such as physical and mental functioning (specifically) and overall well-being and perceived quality of life (more broadly). This review shows that both positive and negative stereotypes of aging can have enabling and constraining effects on the actions, performance, decisions, attitudes, and, consequently, holistic health of an older adult. This review further h...

  11. Older peoples experiences involving the decision to transition to an aged care home

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanzadeh Vahid; Pakpour Vahid; Rahmani Azad; Lorraine Chenoweth Lynnette; Mohammadi Eesa

    2016-01-01

    The decision to relocate to an aged care home can is important change in older adults live but little attention has been paid to their experiences of this decision. The study explored older people’s experiences involving the decision to transition to an aged care home. Data were obtained via semi-structured interviews with 17 participants, which were content analyzed. Results: Transition motives, ambiguity, participation in decision making and decision making meaning were four the...

  12. Memory reactivation in healthy aging: evidence of stimulus-specific dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent, Marie; Abdi, Hervé; Bondad, Ashley; Buchsbaum, Bradley R

    2014-03-19

    We investigated how aging affects the neural specificity of mental replay, the act of conjuring up past experiences in one's mind. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analysis to quantify the similarity between brain activity elicited by the perception and memory of complex multimodal stimuli. Young and older human adults viewed and mentally replayed short videos from long-term memory while undergoing fMRI. We identified a wide array of cortical regions involved in visual, auditory, and spatial processing that supported stimulus-specific representation at perception as well as during mental replay. Evidence of age-related dedifferentiation was subtle at perception but more salient during mental replay, and age differences at perception could not account for older adults' reduced neural reactivation specificity. Performance on a post-scan recognition task for video details correlated with neural reactivation in young but not in older adults, indicating that in-scan reactivation benefited post-scan recognition in young adults, but that some older adults may have benefited from alternative rehearsal strategies. Although young adults recalled more details about the video stimuli than older adults on a post-scan recall task, patterns of neural reactivation correlated with post-scan recall in both age groups. These results demonstrate that the mechanisms supporting recall and recollection are linked to accurate neural reactivation in both young and older adults, but that age affects how efficiently these mechanisms can support memory's representational specificity in a way that cannot simply be accounted for by degraded sensory processes.

  13. Comparison of the middle-aged and older users' adoption of mobile health services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Mo, Xiuting; Liu, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Given the increasing number of older people, China has become an aging society. A mobile health service is a type of health informatics that provides personalized healthcare advice to those who require it, especially the older people and the middle-aged. However, few studies consider the adoption of mobile health services with regard to older and middle-aged users. This paper explored a research model based on the value attitude behavior model, theory of planned behavior, and four aging characteristic constructs to investigate how older and middle-aged citizens adopted mobile health services. The hypothesized model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of 424 residents older than 40 years in China. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the significance of the path coefficients. The findings revealed that (1) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, and resistance to change can be used to predict intention to use mobile health services for the middle-aged group; (2) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, technology anxiety, and self-actualization need positively affected the behavior intention of older users; and (3) subjective norm and perceived physical condition showed no significant effects on the behavior intention to use mobile health services for the two groups. The theoretical and practical implications and contributions of this study are then discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  15. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  16. Organisational age cultures : The interplay of chief executive officers age and attitudes toward younger and older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Gielnik, Michael M.

    This article investigates the interactive effects of chief executive officer (CEO) age and CEO attitudes toward younger and older employees on organisational age cultures. Data was collected from 66 CEOs of small and medium-sized businesses and 274 employees. Results were consistent with

  17. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2017-03-01

    Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone. Also, androgen deficiency-like symptoms and end-organ deficits respond to targeted treatments (such as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction) without evidence that hypogonadal men are refractory. Unfortunately, lifestyle interventions remain difficult and may be insufficient even if successful. Testosterone therapy should be considered primarily for men who have significant clinical features of androgen deficiency and unequivocally low testosterone levels. Testosterone should be initiated either concomitantly with a trial of lifestyle measures, or after such a trial fails, after a tailored diagnostic work-up, exclusion of contraindications, and appropriate counseling. There is modest evidence that functional hypogonadism responds to lifestyle measures and optimization of comorbidities. If achievable, these interventions may have demonstrable health benefits beyond the potential for increasing testosterone levels. Therefore, treatment of underlying causes of functional hypogonadism and of symptoms should be used either as an initial or adjunctive approach to testosterone therapy.

  18. An improved age-activity relationship for cool stars older than a gigayear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, R. S.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Watson, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Stars with convective envelopes display magnetic activity, which decreases over time due to the magnetic braking of the star. This age dependence of magnetic activity is well studied for younger stars, but the nature of this dependence for older stars is not well understood. This is mainly because...... absolute stellar ages for older stars are hard to measure. However, relatively accurate stellar ages have recently come into reach through asteroseismology. In this work, we present X-ray luminosities, which are a measure for magnetic activity displayed by the stellar coronae, for 24 stars with well......-determined ages older than a gigayear. We find 14 stars with detectable X-ray luminosities and use these to calibrate the age-activity relationship. We find a relationship between stellar X-ray luminosity, normalized by the stellar surface area, and age that is steeper than the relationships found for younger...

  19. Evidence for a Selectively Regulated Prioritization Shift Depending on Walking Situations in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Salkovic, Dina; Hobert, Markus A.; Bellut, Carolin; Funer, Florian; Renno, Sarah; Haertner, Linda; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Staebler, Jana; Geritz, Johanna; Suenkel, Ulrike; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from t...

  20. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we ...

  1. Understanding HIV-related stigma in older age in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The combination of HIV- and age-related stigma exacerbates prevalence of HIV infection and late diagnosis and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy among older populations (Moore, 2012; Richards et al. 2013). Interventions to address these stigmas must be grounded in understanding of situated systems of beliefs about illness and older age. This study analyses constructions of HIV and older age that underpinned the stigmatisation of older adults with HIV in rural Balaka, Malawi. It draws on data from a series of in-depth interviews (N = 135) with adults aged 50-∼90 (N = 43) in 2008-2010. Around 40% (n = 18) of the sample had HIV. Dominant understandings of HIV in Balaka pertained to the sexual transmission of the virus and poor prognosis of those infected. They intersected with understandings of ageing. Narratives about older age and HIV in older age both centred on the importance of having bodily, moral and social power to perform broadly-defined "work". Those who could not work were physically and socially excluded from the social world. This status, labelled as "child-like", was feared by all participants. In participants' narratives, growing old involves a gradual decline in the power required to produce one's membership of the social world through work. HIV infection in old age is understood to accelerate this decline. Understandings of the sexual transmission of HIV, in older age, imply the absence of moral power and in turn, loss of social power. The prognosis of those with HIV, in older age, reflects and causes amplified loss of bodily power. In generating dependency, this loss of bodily power infantilises older care recipients and jeopardises their family's survival, resulting in further loss of social power. This age-and HIV-related loss of power to produce social membership through work is the discrediting attribute at the heart of the stigmatisation of older people with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Collaborative remembering in older adults: age-invariant outcomes in the context of episodic recall deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-09-01

    Rapidly growing research reveals complex yet systematic consequences of collaboration on memory in young adults, but much less is known about this phenomenon in older adults. Young and older adults studied a list of categorized words and took three successive recall tests. Test 1 and 3 were always taken individually, and Test 2 was done either in triads or alone. Despite older adults recalling less overall than young adults, both age groups exhibited similar costs and benefits of collaboration: Collaboration reduced both correct and false recall during collaborative remembering, was associated with more positive beliefs about its value, and produced reminiscence, collective memory, and some forgetting in its cascading effects on postcollaborative recall. We examine the role of retrieval organization in these effects. As environmental support may play a substantial role in healthy aging, the relatively preserved effects of collaboration on memory in older adults hold promise for testing judicious uses of group remembering in aging.

  3. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old * alcohol consumption (light, moderate factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long–term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.

  4. Health Equity and Aging of Bisexual Older Adults: Pathways of Risk and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals' unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The relationship between attitudes toward aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Aslan, Gülbahar; Kartal, Asiye; Özen Çınar, İlgün; Koştu, Nazan

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the factors that are associated with health-promoting behaviours in older adults is necessary to increase their willingness and motivation to participate in health-promotion activities. Understanding context-specific attitudes in relation to their influence on health-promoting behaviours is crucial in designing efficient interventions that foster health-promoting behaviours among older adults. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults in Turkey. The study used a descriptive-correlational design. A convenience sample of 448 community-dwelling older adults who were 65 years and older and cognitively intact were selected from 6 family health centres in the city of Denizli in Turkey. The data were collected between March and June of 2014 using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging, the psychosocial loss subscale, and education were statistically significant predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging were the strongest predictor of health-promoting behaviours in older adults. Attitude towards aging is a factor that affects health-promoting behaviours, and it should be considered during interventions for improving health promoting behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Alvin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Context: Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Evidence Synthesis: Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone. Also, androgen deficiency–like symptoms and end-organ deficits respond to targeted treatments (such as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction) without evidence that hypogonadal men are refractory. Unfortunately, lifestyle interventions remain difficult and may be insufficient even if successful. Testosterone therapy should be considered primarily for men who have significant clinical features of androgen deficiency and unequivocally low testosterone levels. Testosterone should be initiated either concomitantly with a trial of lifestyle measures, or after such a trial fails, after a tailored diagnostic work-up, exclusion of contraindications, and appropriate counseling. Conclusions: There is modest evidence that functional hypogonadism responds to lifestyle measures and optimization of comorbidities. If achievable, these interventions may have demonstrable health benefits beyond the potential for increasing testosterone levels. Therefore, treatment of underlying causes of functional hypogonadism and of symptoms should be used either as an initial or adjunctive approach to testosterone therapy. PMID:28359097

  7. A qualitative description of successful aging through different decades of older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kelly; Weir, Patricia L

    2017-12-01

    To qualitatively examine factors that contribute to successful aging during different decades of older adulthood. Fundamental qualitative description was adopted as the methodological framework. Through purposeful sampling, 42 community dwelling older adults (mean age = 79.6 years, age range = 65-97 years; 19 males) were recruited. Focus groups (6) segmented by decade of life were conducted with participants 65-74 (n = 17) and 75-84 (n = 17) years of age. Semi-structured interviews (16) were conducted with four participants from each decade, as well as participants 85 years of age and older (n = 8). Data analyses were conducted independently for each decade of life and included inductive analysis of textual data through continuous comparisons of meaning units. Three primary themes related to successful aging were identified across all decades of older adulthood: (1) staying healthy (secondary themes: genetics and lifestyle choices), (2) maintaining an active engagement in life (secondary themes: social engagement and cognitive engagement), and (3) keeping a positive outlook on life. Participants in specific decades of older adulthood identified three additional secondary themes related to maintaining an active engagement in life: finances (65-74 and 85+ years), social support (75+ years), and successful marriage (75+ years). Similarly, only adults 65-84 years of age identified a secondary theme for keeping a positive outlook on life: acceptance and adaptation. Primary themes related to successful aging were agreed upon by participants in all decades of older adulthood, while age-based differences existed among secondary themes. Thus, what it means to age successfully may be age-dependent.

  8. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Depression Detection in Older Adults With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellen Leslie; Raue, Patrick J; Halpert, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Depression and dementia are the two most common psychiatric syndromes in the older adult population. Depression in older adults with and without dementia often goes unrecognized and untreated. The current guideline recommends a three-step procedure that can be used across health care settings to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms. Implementation of the evidence-based guideline requires administration of the Mini-Mental State Examination and either the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form or Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, depending on level of cognitive functioning. The algorithm provided is designed to be used by nurses, physicians, and social workers for the purpose of depression screening in older adults with dementia. Detection of depression in individuals with dementia is hindered by a lack of a validated, brief screening tool. More research is needed on the use of such screenings among older adults with cognitive impairment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  12. Revisiting measurement invariance in intelligence testing in aging research: Evidence for almost complete metric invariance across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Briana N; Hyun, Jinshil; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Invariance of intelligence across age is often assumed but infrequently explicitly tested. Horn and McArdle (1992) tested measurement invariance of intelligence, providing adequate model fit but might not consider all relevant aspects such as sub-test differences. The goal of the current paper is to explore age-related invariance of the WAIS-R using an alternative model that allows direct tests of age on WAIS-R subtests. Cross-sectional data on 940 participants aged 16-75 from the WAIS-R normative values were used. Subtests examined were information, comprehension, similarities, vocabulary, picture completion, block design, picture arrangement, and object assembly. The two intelligence factors considered were fluid and crystallized intelligence. Self-reported ages were divided into young (16-22, n = 300), adult (29-39, n = 275), middle (40-60, n = 205), and older (61-75, n = 160) adult groups. Results suggested partial metric invariance holds. Although most of the subtests reflected fluid and crystalized intelligence similarly across different ages, invariance did not hold for block design on fluid intelligence and picture arrangement on crystallized intelligence for older adults. Additionally, there was evidence of a correlated residual between information and vocabulary for the young adults only. This partial metric invariance model yielded acceptable model fit compared to previously-proposed invariance models of Horn and McArdle (1992). Almost complete metric invariance holds for a two-factor model of intelligence. Most of the subtests were invariant across age groups, suggesting little evidence for age-related bias in the WAIS-R. However, we did find unique relationships between two subtests and intelligence. Future studies should examine age-related differences in subtests when testing measurement invariance in intelligence.

  13. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  14. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  15. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥ 50 years of age defined as "older' and < 50 defined as "younger.' Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with < 2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤ 0.43 indicated recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 26 cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥ 50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients.

  16. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients: an evidence-based study of a high risk group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    .1-0.3). In combination with other types of disorder, affective disorders were found to modify an increased risk of suicide. First versus later admission for depression was a better predictor for suicide than age at first hospitalization for depression (before or after age 60 years). More than half of suicides occurred......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...

  17. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  18. Depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in older cancer patients: a comparison across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that older cancer patients experience lower psychological distress than younger patients, but most prior studies do not differentiate between age groups within the 'older' category. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among different age groups of older cancer patients. Participants were composed of 321 cancer patients 60 years and older, who were divided into three age groups: 60-69, 70-79, and 80+ years. The participants answered the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, which included subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and the cancer-related problem list, in addition to providing personal and cancer-related details. Depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and cancer-related problems were lowest in the 70-79 years age group and highest in the 80+ years age group. Comparisons between pairs of groups showed significant differences between each of the groups in Brief Symptom Inventory total scores and between the 80+ years age group and the other two groups in regard to depressive symptoms and cancer-related problems. Differences, related to anxiety and somatic symptoms, were significant for the 70-79 year olds, in comparison with the youngest and oldest groups. Intensity of symptoms was explained by older age, higher number of cancer-related problems, female gender, and lower income. Nonlinear relations exist between age and psychological symptoms, which is in line with the postponement of age-related health and functional decline in the modern era. These results suggest that the study of psychological reactions to cancer should examine differences between age groups among older cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived duration of emotional events: evidence for a positivity effect in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jeffrey R; Tanner, Jessica; Clarke, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Arousal and negative affect modulate the effect of emotion on the subjective experience of the passage of time. Given that older adults are less aroused by negative emotional stimuli, and report lower levels of negative affect, compared with younger adults, the present study examined whether the effect of emotion on time perception differed in older and younger adults. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for emotional (i.e., angry, sad, happy) and neutral facial expressions presented at varying temporal intervals. Older adults perceived the duration of both positive and threatening events longer than neutral events, whereas younger adults only perceived threatening events longer than neutral events. The results, which are partially consistent with the positivity effect of aging postulated by the socioemotional selectivity theory, are the first to show how the effect of emotion on perceived duration affects older adults, and support previous research indicating that only threatening events prolong perceived duration in younger adults.

  1. Generativity in Older Age: A Challenge for Universities of the Third Age (U3A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which university programs for older people should change to cater to the interests and concerns of generative older people. We describe university programs offered at present, underlining their emphasis on personal growth and on learning for the sake of learning. We argue that these programs are not entirely…

  2. The influence of older age on breast cancer treatment decisions and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; McCormick, Beryl; Yahalom, Joachim; Borgen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Information concerning the differences between older and younger women with breast cancer, treated with standard therapy, is lacking from many prospective series. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence treatment decisions and determine if women age 65 and older are treated differently than younger women. The outcomes of older women would then be compared to younger women to determine if treatment differences influence outcome. Methods and Materials: The records of 558 women with early invasive breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Four hundred thirty-two women under the age of 65 (range: 24-64) and 126 women age 65 and older (range: 65-85) were assessed for treatment differences including breast reexcision, extent of axillary dissection, extent of breast and nodal irradiation, and the use of chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Differences in the treatment of the two groups were determined and the end points of local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were compared. Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Results: The two treatment groups had identical pathologic TNM staging with the exception that 21% of the older age group and 5% of the younger age group did not undergo axillary dissection. Women age 65 and older were less likely to have a reexcision, extensive axillary dissection, chemotherapy, or nodal irradiation. They were more likely to receive hormonal therapy. Reexcision in older women was positively influenced by a family history of breast cancer and negatively influenced by a history of previous malignancy. None of the patients who were treated without an axillary dissection suffered a regional recurrence. Although local control was better in older patients, there were no differences in disease-free or overall survival for the two groups. Discussion: The findings of this study reveal that older patients have significant treatment

  3. Age but not Philadelphia positivity impairs outcome in older/elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Piotr; Lennmyr, Emma; Ahlberg, Lucia; Bernell, Per; Hulegårdh, Erik; Karbach, Holger; Karlsson, Karin; Tomaszewska-Toporska, Beata; Åström, Maria; Hallböök, Heléne

    2017-08-01

    Older/elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are poorly represented in clinical trials. Using Swedish national leukemia registries, we investigated disease/patient characteristics, treatment choices, outcome, and the impact of an age-adapted protocol (introduced in 2009) in this population-based study of patients aged 55-85 years, diagnosed with ALL 2005-2012. Of 174 patients, 82% had B-phenotype, 11% Burkitt leukemia (excluded), and 7% T-phenotype. Philadelphia chromosome positivity (Ph+) occurred in 35%. Of the 155 B- and T-ALL patients, 80% were treated with intensive protocols, and 20% with a palliative approach. Higher age and WHO performance status ≥2 influenced the choice of palliation. Intensive, palliative, and both approaches resulted in complete remission rate 83/16/70% and 3-year overall survival (OS) 32/3/26%. The age-adapted protocol did not improve outcome. With intensive treatment, platelet count ≤35×10 9 /L and age ≥75 years were adverse prognostic factors for OS, Ph+ was not. Male sex was an adverse prognostic factor in the 55-64 year age-group. We report a high frequency of Ph+ in older/elderly patients, with no evidence of poorer outcome compared to Ph-negative disease. Overall prognosis for elderly patients with ALL remains dismal, despite the use of age-adapted treatment. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  5. Time trends in heavy drinking among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Christina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated an increasing proportion of heavy drinking among middle-aged and older Danes. Trends in consumption are often extremely sensitive to influence from various components of the time trends but only few have explored the age, period and cohort-related influences...... that the proportion of heavy drinking women increases in younger birth cohorts. This trend is not observed for men as their drinking pattern mainly increase slightly by calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: Our Danish observations for older aged individuals correspond to the social and cultural changes in the 1960s and 1970s...

  6. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  7. Expanding the Circle of Knowledge: Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among North American Older Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Jessica E; Grenier, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous older peoples' voices and experiences remain largely absent in the dominant models and critical scholarship on aging and late life. This article examines the relevance of the model of successful aging for Indigenous peoples in North America. This article presents the results of a review of the published conceptual literature on successful aging among Indigenous peoples. Our intent was to explore the current state of the field of successful aging among Indigenous peoples and suggest dimensions that may be more reflective of Indigenous voices and experiences that leads to a more inclusive model of successful aging. Based on our review, we suggest four dimensions that may broaden understandings of successful aging to be more inclusive of Indigenous older people: health and wellness, empowerment and resilience, engagement and behavior, and connectedness. Our review suggests that Indigenous peoples' voices and experiences are beginning to be included in academic literature on successful aging. However, we suggest that understandings of successful aging be broadened based on our summative findings and a process of community involvement. Such processes can lead to the development of models that are more inclusive to a wide range of older people, including Indigenous older peoples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Negotiations of the Ageing Process: Older Adults' Stories of Sports Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the talk of older athletes, with particular focus on how the context of sport helps them negotiate the ageing process. It draws on personal stories provided by 44 World Masters Games competitors (23 women; 21 men; aged 56-90 years; "M" = 72). Four themes emerged: "There's no such thing as…

  9. Reducing Ageism: Education About Aging and Extended Contact With Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Ashley; Levy, Sheri R

    2017-11-19

    Ageism is of increasing concern due to the growing older population worldwide and youth-centered focus of many societies. The current investigation tested the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model for the first time. Two online experimental studies examined 2 key factors for reducing ageism: education about aging (providing accurate information about aging) and extended contact (knowledge of positive intergenerational contact) as well as their potential combined effect (education plus extended contact). In Study 1, 354 undergraduates in all 3 experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (delayed post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests), when controlling for pre-study attitudes. In Study 2, 505 national community participants (ages 18-59) in all experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (immediate post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests). In summary, across 2 online studies, education about aging and knowledge of intergenerational extended contact improved attitudes toward older adults and aging knowledge. Thus, brief, online ageism-reduction strategies can be an effective way to combat ageism. These strategies hold promise to be tested in other settings, with other samples, and to be elaborated into more in-depth interventions that aim to reduce ageism in everyday culture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Physical fitness related to age and physical activity in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P

    Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness

  11. Astronomy for older eyes a guide for aging backyard astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2017-01-01

    This book is for the aging amateur astronomy population, including newcomers to astronomy in their retirement and hobbyists who loved peering through a telescope as a child. Whether a novice or an experienced observer, the practice of astronomy differs over the years. This guide will extend the enjoyment of astronomy well into the Golden Years by addressing topics such as eye and overall health issues, recommendations on telescope equipment, and astronomy-related social activities especially suited for seniors. Many Baby-Boomers reaching retirement age are seeking new activities, and amateur astronomy is a perfect fit as a leisure time activity. Established backyard astronomers who began their love of astronomy in their youth , meanwhile, may face many physical and mental challenges in continuing their lifelong hobby as they age beyond their 55th birthdays. That perfect telescope purchased when they were thirty years old now suddenly at sixty years old feels like an immovable object in the living room. The 20...

  12. Residential Mobility and Cognitive Function Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Dupre, Matthew E; Østbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Wu, Bei

    2018-01-01

    To assess the association between rural and urban residential mobility and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. We used data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health that included adults age 50+ from China ( N = 12,410). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine how residential mobility and age at migration were associated with cognitive function. Urban and urban-to-urban residents had the highest level of cognitive function, whereas rural and rural-to-rural residents had the poorest cognitive function. Persons who migrated to/within rural areas before age 20 had poorer cognitive function than those who migrated during later adulthood. Socioeconomic factors played a major role in accounting for the disparities in cognition; however, the association remained significant after inclusion of all covariates. Residential mobility and age at migration have significant implications for cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China.

  13. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  14. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  15. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Do Older Adults Need Sleep? A Review of Neuroimaging, Sleep, and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K

    2017-09-01

    Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views. Therefore, this review examines the neuroimaging literature to determine whether age-related changes in sleep cause-or are caused by-age-related changes in brain structure, function, and pathology. In middle-aged and older adults, poorer sleep quality, greater nighttime hypoxia, and shorter sleep duration related to cortical thinning in frontal regions implicated in slow wave generation, in frontoparietal networks implicated in cognitive control, and in hippocampal regions implicated in memory consolidation. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was associated with higher amyloid burden and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, a network that is disrupted in the pathway to Alzheimer's disease. All adults need sleep, but cortical thinning and amyloidal deposition with advancing age may weaken the brain's ability to produce restorative sleep. Therefore, sleep in older adults may not always support identical functions for physical, mental, and cognitive health as in young adults.

  17. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  18. Is Delirium the Cognitive Harbinger of Frailty in Older Adults? A Review about the Existing Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bellelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a clinical syndrome defined by the age-related depletion of the individual’s homeostatic reserves, determining an increased susceptibility to stressors and disproportionate exposure to negative health changes. The physiological systems that are involved in the determination of frailty are mutually interrelated, so that when decline starts in a given system, implications may also regard the other systems. Indeed, it has been shown that the number of abnormal systems is more predictive of frailty than those of the abnormalities in any particular system. Delirium is a transient neurocognitive disorder, characterized by an acute onset and fluctuating course, inattention, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral abnormalities, that complicates one out of five hospital admissions. Delirium is independently associated with the same negative outcomes of frailty and, like frailty, its pathogenesis is usually multifactorial, depending on complex inter-relationships between predisposing and precipitating factors. By definition, a somatic cause should be identified, or at least suspected, to diagnose delirium. Delirium and frailty potentially share multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathways, meaning that they could be thought of as the two sides to the same coin. This review aims at summarizing the existing evidence, referring both to human and animal models, to postulate that delirium may represent the cognitive harbinger of a state of frailty in older persons experiencing an acute clinical event.

  19. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2018-01-11

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    older age. This relationship seems especially evident among individuals with a recent oncological diagnosis. Health professionals in charge of older adult care should be aware of this association in order to improve outcomes of older adults who survived cancer. PMID:26856729

  1. Impact of age-relevant goals on future thinking in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Leann K; Spaniol, Julia

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated how personal goals influence age differences in episodic future thinking. Research suggests that personal goals change with age and like autobiographical memory, future thinking is thought to be organised and impacted by personal goals. It was hypothesised that cueing older adults with age-relevant goals should modulate age differences in episodic details and may also influence phenomenological characteristics of imagined scenarios. Healthy younger and older adults completed the Future Thinking Interview [Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Age-related changes in the episodic simulation of future events. Psychological Science, 19(1), 33-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02043.x ] adapted to activate age-appropriate goals. Narratives were scored with an established protocol to obtain objective measures of episodic and semantic details. Subjective features such as emotionality and personal significance showed age differences as a function of goal domain while other features (e.g., vividness) were unaffected. However, consistent with prior reports, older adults produced fewer episodic details than younger adults and this was not modulated by goal domain. The results do not indicate that goal activation affects level of episodic detail. With respect to phenomenological aspects of future thinking, however, younger adults show more sensitivity to goal activation, compared with older adults.

  2. EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OLD AGE AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN AN INSTITUTIONAL FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Urbanová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the research was to determine attitudes towards old age in older adults living in institutional facilities, and to compare them with the population standard. A further aim was to determine differences in attitudes towards old age by gender, age, level of education, and self-sufficiency in the older adults surveyed. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A research sample consisting of 121 elderly people living in retirement homes. Data were collected using a Czech version of the AAQ questionnaire (Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, and Barthelʼs test of Activities of daily living was used to assess levels of self-sufficiency. Results: Older adults awarded the highest score (most positive attitude in the domain of psychosocial losses. In comparison with the population standard, older adults rated the domain of physical change (p < 0.001 and psychological growth (p < 0.001 negatively. The domain of psychosocial losses was assessed more positively by men (p < 0.001 and the elderly with moderate dependence (p < 0.001; the domain of physical changes was also positively assessed by men (p = 0.001, and older adults with university education (p = 0.002; the domain of psychological growth was rated more positively by adults over 85 years (p = 0.001, and the elderly with basic education (p = 0.040. Conclusion: Determining older adults´ attitudes towards ageing in institutional care may help in the preparation of individual care plans aimed at supporting clients in areas that have been evaluated negatively. Keywords: institutional care, quality of life, attitudes, old age, ageing, self-sufficiency.

  3. Associations between aging-related changes in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Robitaille, Annie; Piccinin, Andrea; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Hofer, Scott M

    2018-03-08

    Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently. We used four search engines: Embase, PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Of 459 unique citations, 6 met our full criteria: 4 studies reported a longitudinal association between rates of change in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults, 2 of which reported the magnitudes of these associations as ranging from low to moderate; 2 studies reported significant cross-sectional but not longitudinal associations among rates of change. All studies concluded that cognitive function and grip strength declined, on average, with increasing age, although with little to no evidence for longitudinal associations among rates of change. Future research is urged to expand the study of physical and cognitive associations in old age using a within-person and multi-study integrative approach to evaluate the reliability of longitudinal results with greater emphasis on the magnitude of this association.

  4. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  5. The prevention and management of constipation in older adults in a residential aged care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    The need to implement programs for developing leadership and practice improvement skills using an evidence-based practice approach to practice change is becoming more apparent in the health and aged care services. This is no more apparent than in high care residential health and aged care services, where health professionals are increasingly required to provide care for older people with multifocal and complex healthcare needs. This paper describes one of the projects undertaken as part of the Joanna Briggs Institute Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing Clinical Aged Care Fellowship program from February 2005 to June 2005. This purpose of this particular project was twofold. First it sought to improve the local practice in the prevention and management of constipation and that this practice was performed according to the best available evidence. Second to use the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Guidance (PACES) program to implement a process of audit and feedback as a strategy to improve practice. The project was designed to link in with the facility's existing quality improvement program and better practice continence management project. The project was conducted over 6 months and was divided into six stages involving the identification of evidence-based standards of care, an initial audit to determine appropriate sample size, a clinical audit across the facility, planning of the implementation process, implementation of the action plan and re-audit to assess practice change. Overall, the results were extremely positive and demonstrated a real improvement in practice relating to constipation in the project facility. This success, however, needs to be seen in the context of the benefits of having the support of senior management, an existing quality improvement and continence management better practice project, and a culture of clinical review. Although there will always be more work to be done, the success of this project can be

  6. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Aging in Community: Developing a More Holistic Approach to Enhance Older Adults' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Joan K; Madigan, Elizabeth A; Rantz, Marilyn; Skemp, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Public health advances have contributed to increased longevity; however, individuals are more likely to live longer with multiple chronic conditions. The existing health care system primarily focuses on treating disease rather than addressing well-being as a holistic construct that includes physical, social, and environmental components. The current commentary emphasizes the importance of supporting healthy active aging and aging in community. The barriers to aging in community and the state of the intervention science in response to this problem are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. Active aging is more than managing illness or care transitions-it promotes engagement, participation, dignity, self-fulfillment, self-determination, and support for older adults. To support aging in community and healthy active aging, a paradigm shift is needed in how the well-being of older adults is thought about and supported. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Mazar, Nina; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Burgeno, Jessica; Schoeke, Andrej; Ariely, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differences in risk seeking are more likely to emerge when choices include a certain option (a sure gain or a sure loss). In four experiments, we found that age differences in risk preferences only emerged when participants were offered a choice between a risky and a certain gamble but not when offered two risky gambles. In particular, Experiments 1 and 2 included only gambles about potential gains. Here, compared with younger adults, older adults preferred a certain gain over a chance to win a larger gain and thus, exhibited more risk aversion in the domain of gains. But in Experiments 3 and 4, when offered the chance to take a small sure loss rather than risking a larger loss, older adults exhibited more risk seeking in the domain of losses than younger adults. Both their greater preference for sure gains and greater avoidance of sure losses suggest that older adults weigh certainty more heavily than younger adults. Experiment 4 also indicates that older adults focus more on positive emotions than younger adults do when considering their options and that this emotional shift can at least partially account for age differences in how much people are swayed by certainty in their choices. PMID:23066800

  9. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Sc...

  10. Satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and health in older elderly: cross-sectional evidence from the Bambuí cohort study of aging Satisfação com a vizinhança e saúde entre idosos mais velhos: análise seccional do estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87 were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13, difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78, presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95 and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50 were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.Para investigar a associação entre a satisfação com a vizinhança e a percepção de saúde entre idosos mais velhos, foram analisados os dados de 814 participantes do 11º seguimento do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí, por meio da regressão de Poisson robusta. Idosos mais satisfeitos com sua vizinhança apresentaram melhor percepção de saúde (RP = 0,75; IC95%: 0,63-0,87. A percepção de saúde foi significativamente pior para idosos com múltiplas condições crônicas (duas, RP = 1,69; IC95%: 1,05-2,70 e três ou mais, RP = 1,99; IC95%: 1,27-3,13, para aqueles com dificuldade de realizar atividades da vida diária (RP = 1,51; IC95%: 1,28-1,78, com sintomas depressivos (RP = 1,68; IC95%: 1,44-1,95 e com menor frequência de exercícios físicos durante os períodos de lazer nos últimos 90 dias (menos que uma vez por

  11. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D

    2018-01-01

    Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...

  12. Neighborhood age structure and cognitive function in a nationally-representative sample of older adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Esther M; Shih, Regina A; Slaughter, Mary E; Weden, Margaret M; Cagney, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that living in a neighborhood with a greater percentage of older adults is associated with better individual health, including lower depression, better self-rated health, and a decreased risk of overall mortality. However, much of the work to date suffers from four limitations. First, none of the U.S.-based studies examine the association at the national level. Second, no studies have examined three important hypothesized mechanisms - neighborhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood social and physical characteristics - which are significantly correlated with both neighborhood age structure and health. Third, no U.S. study has longitudinally examined cognitive health trajectories. We build on this literature by examining nine years of nationally-representative data from the Health and Retirement Study (2002-2010) on men and women aged 51 and over linked with Census data to examine the relationship between the percentage of adults 65 and older in a neighborhood and individual cognitive health trajectories. Our results indicate that living in a neighborhood with a greater percentage of older adults is related to better individual cognition at baseline but we did not find any significant association with cognitive decline. We also explored potential mediators including neighborhood socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood cohesion and perceived neighborhood physical disorder. We did not find evidence that neighborhood socioeconomic status explains this relationship; however, there is suggestive evidence that perceived cohesion and disorder may explain some of the association between age structure and cognition. Although more work is needed to identify the precise mechanisms, this work may suggest a potential contextual target for public health interventions to prevent cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Older peoples experiences involving the decision to transition to an aged care home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanzadeh Vahid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The decision to relocate to an aged care home can is important change in older adults live but little attention has been paid to their experiences of this decision. The study explored older people’s experiences involving the decision to transition to an aged care home. Data were obtained via semi-structured interviews with 17 participants, which were content analyzed. Results: Transition motives, ambiguity, participation in decision making and decision making meaning were four themes extracted through data analysis. Conclusions: In the main, the decision to transition to an aged care home had been made without the older person’s participation. In addition, due to inadequate information about aged care home services, participants experienced a great deal of ambiguity in the decision-making process. Moreover, transition into aged care homes had different meaning for the participants. The findings suggest that far greater emphasis must be placed on having older people involved in the decision to move into residential aged care, providing them with more information about service offerings and making psychological support accessible to them prior to and following transition to the home

  15. Why older workers work beyond the retirement age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewdas, Ranu; de Wind, Astrid; van der Zwaan, Lennart G L; van der Borg, Wieke E; Steenbeek, Romy; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2017-08-22

    The aims of the present study were to: 1) gain insight into reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age from older workers' perspectives, and 2) explore how the domains of the research framework Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) can be applied to working beyond retirement age. A qualitative research design included individual interviews (n = 15) and three focus groups (n = 18 participants) conducted with older workers aged 65 years and older continuing in a paid job or self-employment. Interview participants were recruited from an existing STREAM cohort study. Focus group participants were recruited from companies and employment agencies. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. The most important motives for working beyond retirement age were maintaining daily routines and financial benefit. Good health and flexible work arrangements were mentioned as important preconditions. The themes emerging from the categorization of the motives and preconditions corresponded to the domains of health, work characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors from the STREAM research framework. However, our analysis revealed one additional theme-purpose in life. This study offers important new insights into the various preconditions and motives that influence working beyond retirement age. In addition, the five domains of the STREAM research framework, including the additional domain of 'purpose in life', seem to be applicable to working beyond retirement age. This knowledge contributes to the development of work-related interventions that enhance older workers' motivation to prolong their working lives.

  16. Leisure Consumption and well-Being among Older Adults : Does Age or Life Situation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Wilska, Terhi-Anna; Kokko, Katja

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between leisure consumption and well-being in older adults (50–74 years old). To find out whether these associations are age-specific, they were compared with the associations observed among younger adults (18–49 years old). Differences between the older adults by age and life situation were also examined. This study was based on the “Finland 2014 – Consumption and Life style” survey (N = 1351), conducted among a representative sample of the Finnish ad...

  17. Quality of Life and Health State of Long – Term Unemployed in Older Production Age

    OpenAIRE

    Worach-Kardas, Halina; Kostrzewski, Szymon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the subjective quality of life (QoL) and health state of unemployed people at the age of 45 and older in the city environment. The study also aimed at evaluating some social and demographic factors on the quality of life and health of the unemployed. A group of 454 unemployed people aged 45 and older, registered in labour offices in the city of Łódź, Poland were included in the study. Two groups were formed: short-term and long-term unemploy...

  18. Relationship between age and promotion orientation depends on perceived older worker stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2013-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed a negative relationship between chronological age and promotion orientation, that is, the motivational orientation toward approaching possible gains. In addition, experimental research has demonstrated that activating positive self-relevant stereotypes (e.g., for men, the stereotype that men are good at math) can stimulate increases in promotion orientation. Integrating and applying this research to the work context, we hypothesized that the relationship between age and promotion orientation would depend on employees' perceptions of the stereotype of older workers in their work context, such that there would be no negative relationship between age and promotion orientation when individuals perceive a more positive older worker stereotype. We analyzed the relationships between age, perceived older worker stereotype (POWS), and promotion orientation using a sample of working adults (N = 337) aged 19-64 years. Results revealed a significant age by POWS interaction such that there was a negative relationship between age and promotion orientation when POWS was less positive. However, there was no relationship between age and promotion orientation when POWS was more positive. Results suggest that the negative relationship between age and promotion orientation depends on contextual factors such as POWS.

  19. Hearing difficulties and feelings of social isolation among Canadians aged 45 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-11-16

    Social isolation is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality. Social isolation can be a concern for older Canadians, especially those with conditions that interfere with making and maintaining social connections. The 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) collected data from a population-based sample of Canadians aged 45 or older living in private households. Frequencies, cross-tabulations and logistic regression were used to examine the prevalence of hearing difficulties and social isolation, and associations between them when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, other functional limitations (for example, vision, mobility, and cognition), incontinence, and fear of falling. Social isolation was more common among 45- to 59-year-olds than among people aged 60 or older. Women were more likely than men to be socially isolated (16% versus 12%), but they were less likely to report hearing difficulties (5% versus 7%). Hearing difficulties were more prevalent at older ages: 25% of men and 18% of women at age 75 or older. When sociodemographic factors (age, education, living arrangements, regular driver, workforce participation), incontinence, fear of falling, and functional limitations were taken into account, the odds of being socially isolated increased with the severity of the hearing impairment among women but not among men (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). Hearing difficulties are associated with age, and therefore, a growing public health concern as Canada's population ages. For women, hearing difficulties were found to be associated with social isolation.

  20. Toward "Age-Friendly Slums"? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Kano, Megumi; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-10-20

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an "age-friendly slums" initiative going forward.

  1. Toward “Age-Friendly Slums”? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-01-01

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an “age-friendly slums” initiative going forward. PMID:29053576

  2. Effect of health-related stereotypes on physiological responses of hypertensive middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Corinne; Bosworth, Hayden B; Hess, Thomas M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the influence of health stereotypes on stress response among middle-aged and older men. It was hypothesized that anxiety and cardiovascular reactivity would increase when health stereotypes were activated among veterans seeking care in an outpatient setting. Among a sample of 122 veteran patients with hypertension, the level of stereotype activation varied by means of reference to either their health status (health stereotypes) or, conversely, some personally valued leisure activities (no stereotype activation). Predicted stereotype-related increases in anxiety, galvanized skin conductance, and blood pressure were evident. Potential explanations for these results are explored, including those relating to the negative health stereotypes associated with being a patient.

  3. Older American Indians' Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P; Schure, Marc B; Goins, R Turner

    2016-06-23

    Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed.

  4. Firms' contribution to the internal and external employability of older employees: evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Anita

    2015-03-01

    In the examination of older employees' employability, one can distinguish between internal and external employability. Internal employability can be measured by individual employment stability, and external employability occurs when employees replace one employment relationship with another. Most studies focus on the personal skills and characteristics that are necessary to maintain employability. However, external factors also contribute to individual employability. Therefore, this study examines which organisational attributes of firms contribute to older employees' employability in Germany. Taking firm and individual characteristics into account, the results of discrete-time survival models show that in specific organisational structures, older employees have higher internal employability. Accordingly, older employees are more likely to maintain employment in the service sector and in recruiting organisations facing (skilled) labour shortages. However, the results also indicate that financially investing organisations facilitate early labour market exits. With regard to older employees' external employability, the results show only little evidence indicating an association between organisational attributes of firms and the likelihood of job change.

  5. Education Inequalities in Health Among Older European Men and Women: The Role of Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, Bruno; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2017-08-01

    We assessed whether education inequalities in health among older people can be partially explained by different levels of active aging among educational groups. We applied logistic regression and the Karlson, Holm, & Breen (KHB) decomposition method using the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe on individuals aged 50+ years ( N = 27,579). Active aging included social participation, paid work, and provision of grandchild care. Health was measured by good self-perceived health, low number of depressive symptoms, and absence of limitations because of health in activities people usually do. We found a positive educational gradient for each of the three health measures. Up to a third of the health gaps between high and low educated were associated with differences in engagement in active aging activities. Policies devoted at stimulating an active participation in society among older people should be particularly focused on lower educated groups.

  6. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  7. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior: Differences in Middle Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Jennifer R; Randall, Brandy A

    2016-10-01

    Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors. Given this, it was expected that community cohesion would predict prosocial behavior despite age, and that grit would provide motivation for older adults, so the current study examined whether age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior. Data were used from 188 upper-Midwest adults (aged 37-89). Multiple regression analyses showed that age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior such that grit predicted prosocial behavior in older adults but not middle age adults. A sense of community cohesion was predictive of prosocial behavior despite age. While grit may promote generative acts in different ways depending on age, a sense of community cohesion may foster community contributions despite age. The discussion focuses on future directions and ways to promote generativity using this research.

  9. Processing Distracting Non-face Emotional Images: No Evidence of an Age-Related Positivity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Mark; Murray, Janice E

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive aging may be accompanied by increased prioritization of social and emotional goals that enhance positive experiences and emotional states. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this may be achieved by giving preference to positive information and avoiding or suppressing negative information. Although there is some evidence of a positivity bias in controlled attention tasks, it remains unclear whether a positivity bias extends to the processing of affective stimuli presented outside focused attention. In two experiments, we investigated age-related differences in the effects of to-be-ignored non-face affective images on target processing. In Experiment 1, 27 older (64-90 years) and 25 young adults (19-29 years) made speeded valence judgments about centrally presented positive or negative target images taken from the International Affective Picture System. To-be-ignored distractor images were presented above and below the target image and were either positive, negative, or neutral in valence. The distractors were considered task relevant because they shared emotional characteristics with the target stimuli. Both older and young adults responded slower to targets when distractor valence was incongruent with target valence relative to when distractors were neutral. Older adults responded faster to positive than to negative targets but did not show increased interference effects from positive distractors. In Experiment 2, affective distractors were task irrelevant as the target was a three-digit array and did not share emotional characteristics with the distractors. Twenty-six older (63-84 years) and 30 young adults (18-30 years) gave speeded responses on a digit disparity task while ignoring the affective distractors positioned in the periphery. Task performance in either age group was not influenced by the task-irrelevant affective images. In keeping with the socioemotional selectivity theory, these findings suggest that older adults preferentially

  10. Subjective Age and Health Perceptions of Older Persons: Maintaining the Youthful Bias in Sickness and in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Self-reports of 250 persons over age 50 confirmed increasing bias toward reporting more youthful age as one ages. Optimistic perceptions of health were maintained in older subjects. Results from two subsets of sample (n=48) indicated that youthful and optimistic bias occurred both in older persons with poorer/failing health and in persons in…

  11. DYNAPENIA AND METABOLIC HEALTH IN OBESE AND NON-OBESE OLDER ADULTS AGED 70 YEARS AND OLDER: THE LIFE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S; Beavers, DP; Manini, TM; Fielding, R; Newman, A; Church, T; Kritchevsky, SB; Conroy, D; McDermott, MM; Botoseneanu, A; Hauser, ME; Pahor, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynapenia and metabolic risk factors in obese and non-obese older adults. Methods A total of 1453 men and women (age ≥ 70 years) from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study were categorized as (1) non-dynapenic/non-obese (NDYN-NO), (2) dynapenic/non-obese (DYN-NO), (3) non-dynapenic/obese (NDYN-O), or (4) dynapenic/obese (DYN-O), based on muscle strength (FNIH criteria) and body mass index. Dependent variables were blood lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, presence of at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria and other chronic conditions. Results A significantly higher likelihood of having abdominal obesity criteria in NDYN-NO compared to DYN-NO groups (55.6 vs 45.1%, p ≤ 0.01) was observed. Waist circumference was also significantly higher in obese groups (DYN-O=114.0±12.9 and NDYN-O=111.2±13.1) than in non-obese (NDYN-NO=93.1±10.7 and DYN-NO=92.2±11.2, p ≤ 0.01); and higher in NDYN-O compared to DYN-O (p = 0.008). Additionally, NDYN-O demonstrated higher diastolic blood pressure compared to DYN-O (70.9±10.1 vs 67.7±9.7, p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found across dynapenia and obesity status for all other metabolic components (p>0.05). The odds of having metabolic syndrome or its individual components were similar in obese and non-obese, combined or not with dynapenia (non-significant OR [95%CI]). Conclusion Non-obese dynapenic older adults had fewer metabolic disease risk factors than non-obese and non-dynapenic older adults. Moreover, among obese older adults, dynapenia was associated with lower risk of meeting metabolic syndrome criteria for waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally, the presence of dynapenia did not increase cardiometabolic disease risk in either obese or non-obese older adults. PMID:27914851

  12. Trends and correlates of marijuana use among late middle-aged and older adults in the United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Cummings-Vaughn, Lenise A; Holzer, Katherine J; Nelson, Erik J; AbiNader, Millan; Oh, Sehun

    2017-02-01

    Recent trend studies suggest that marijuana use is on the rise among the general population of adults ages 18 and older in the United States. However, little is known about the trends in marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk/protective factors among American adults during the latter part of adulthood. Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected from late middle-aged (ages 50-64) and older adults (ages 65 and older) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014. The prevalence of past-year marijuana use among late middle-aged adults increased significantly from a low of 2.95% in 2003 to a high of 9.08% in 2014. Similarly, the prevalence of marijuana use increased significantly among older adults from a low of 0.15% in 2003 to a high of 2.04% in 2014. Notably, the upward trends in marijuana use remained significant even when accounting for sociodemographic, substance use, behavioral, and health-related factors. We also found that decreases in marijuana-specific protective factors were associated with the observed trend changes in marijuana use among late middle-aged and older adults, and observed a weakening of the association between late-middle aged marijuana use and risk propensity, other illicit drug use, and criminal justice system involvement over the course of the study. Findings from the present study provide robust evidence indicating that marijuana use among older Americans has increased markedly in recent years, with the most evident changes observed between 2008 and 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health among middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-04-01

    The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.

  14. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  15. Aging and Resilience: Older Women’s Responses to Change and Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari L. Gulbrandsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the qualitative study was to describe women’s resilience in older adulthood according to older women’s interpretations of their experiences and the contexts of their lives. Intersectionality and critical feminist gerontology served as theoretical frameworks for examining, interpreting and highlighted the dynamic nature of intersecting identities and the interrelationships between identity and contextual factors. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify themes that represent older women’s subjective interpretations of their experiences with adversity and to construct definitions of resilience based on their experiences. The aspects of identity that women in the study associated with their experiences of adversity and their resilience were age, physical and mental health, marital status and income. Women in the study emphasized how subjective interpretations influenced the meaning they associated with events, circumstances, or changes that accompanied aging and their understanding of the role of identities in those experiences.

  16. Effects of aging on the function of the urinary system: longitudinal changes with age in selected urine parameters in a hospitalized population of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although normal aging does not have a pernicious effect on the homeostasis of fluids, renal reserve in elderly people can be depleted. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal changes with age in basic urine parameters (specific gravity and pH in older men and women, depending on their body height and relative body weight. Longitudinal data on these two quantitative traits of the urine were available for 142 physically healthy individuals, including 68 men and 74 women. All subjects were 45 years of age at the beginning and 70 at the end of the period under investigation. All measurements were taken in accordance with internationally accepted requirements. Specific gravity was assessed using a hydrometer, and pH was measured using a pH meter. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were performed. No significant sex differences in specific gravity or urine pH were observed. In both sexes, urine specific gravity decreased with age according to exponential model of regression. In men, there was a gradual increase in the pH of the urine until age 65, and the best fitting regression model was polynomial. In women, on the other hand, there was an exiguous decrease in urine pH throughout the period under study, and the best fitting regression model proved to be exponential. As the process of renal aging commences relatively early in ontogeny and manifests itself in many structural and functional changes, urinalysis and other more sophisticated methods of diagnosis of renal diseases are essential for proper assessment of health status of adults and older individuals. The rate of age-related changes in the analyzed traits of the urine was commensurate in both sexes, thereby revealing no evidence of significant sex differences in terms of renal aging in the period between 45 and 70 years of age.

  17. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  18. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  19. Comparison of access, outcomes and experiences of older adults and working age adults in psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Robert; Farquharson, Lorna; Clapp, Melissa; Crawford, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the access, experiences and outcomes of older adults receiving psychological therapies in comparison with adults of working age Primary and secondary care providers of psychological therapy services participated in the National Audit of Psychological Therapies. The main standards of access, experience and outcomes were measured by retrospective case records audits of people who completed therapy and a service user questionnaire. Outcomes were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. A total of 220 services across 97 organisations took part, 137 (62%) in primary care. Service user questionnaires were received from 14 425 (20%) respondents. A total of 122 740 records were audited, of whom 7794 (6.4%) were older adults. They were under represented as 13% of the sample would have been expected to be over 65 years according to age adjusted psychiatric morbidity figures. People over 75 years had the third expected referral rate. Significantly, more older adults than working age adults completed therapy (59.6% vs 48.6%) and were assessed as having 'recovered' post-treatment (58.5% vs 45.5%). Older adults were more satisfied with waiting times and numbers of sessions, but there were no differences in self-reported experience of therapy. Although older adults are less likely to gain access to psychological therapies, they appear to have better outcomes than working age adults. Further work is needed to improve access for older people. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cognitive ability across the life course and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-11-01

    Elevated cortisol levels have been hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging, but study findings are inconsistent. In the present study, we examined the association between salivary cortisol in older age and cognitive ability across the life course. We used data from 370 members of the 36-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947, who underwent cognitive testing at age 11 years and were then followed up at around age 78 years, completing further cognitive tests and providing diurnal salivary cortisol samples. We hypothesized that higher cortisol levels would be associated with lower cognitive ability in older age and greater cognitive decline from childhood to older age but also lower childhood cognitive ability. Few of the tested associations were significant, and of those that were, most suggested a positive relationship between cortisol and cognitive ability. Only 1 cognitive measure showed any sign of cortisol-related impairment. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no results remained significant. These findings suggest that cortisol may not play an important role in cognitive aging across the life course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. ERP evidence that auditory-visual speech facilitates working memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frtusova, Jana B; Winneke, Axel H; Phillips, Natalie A

    2013-06-01

    Auditory-visual (AV) speech enhances speech perception and facilitates auditory processing, as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Considering a perspective of shared resources between perceptual and cognitive processes, facilitated speech perception may render more resources available for higher-order functions. This study examined whether AV speech facilitation leads to better working memory (WM) performance in 23 younger and 20 older adults. Participants completed an n-back task (0- to 3-back) under visual-only (V-only), auditory-only (A-only), and AV conditions. The results showed faster responses across all memory loads and improved accuracy in the most demanding conditions (2- and 3-back) during AV compared with unisensory conditions. Older adults benefited from the AV presentation to the same extent as younger adults. WM performance of older adults during the AV presentation did not differ from that of younger adults in the A-only condition, suggesting that an AV presentation can help to counteract some of the age-related WM decline. The ERPs showed a decrease in the auditory N1 amplitude during the AV compared with A-only presentation in older adults, suggesting that the facilitation of perceptual processing becomes especially beneficial with aging. Additionally, the N1 occurred earlier in the AV than in the A-only condition for both age groups. These AV-induced modulations of auditory processing correlated with improvement in certain behavioral and ERP measures of WM. These results support an integrated model between perception and cognition, and suggest that processing speech under AV conditions enhances WM performance of both younger and older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aging and risky decision-making: New ERP evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Mapelli, Daniela; Arcara, Giorgio; Amodio, Piero; Tamburin, Stefano; Schiff, Sami

    2017-02-15

    Several pieces of evidence have highlighted the presence of an age-related decline in risky decision-making (DM), but the reason of this decline is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of feedback processing in risky DM. Twenty-one younger (age 50 years) adults were tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) during Event Related Potentials (ERP) recording. The analysis was focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3, two ERP components that represent different stages of feedback processing. Behavioral results revealed that older adults, despite showing a significant learning trend, completed the IGT with a gain of a smaller amount of money compared to the younger ones. ERP results revealed that while the FRN response was comparable in the two groups, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced after negative feedback in older adults, compared with the younger ones. Furthermore, the difference in the P3 amplitude evoked by positive and negative feedback was significantly correlated with age. Hence, the present findings suggest that older adults seem to be less willing to shift attention from positive to negative information, and that this relevant change in the later stages of feedback processing could be the cause of a poor performance in risky DM contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pain in older adults should not be seen as part of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Paul

    2008-12-01

    A life in pain is something no one should have to face but a new report from Help the Aged shows how many older people are doing just that. Giving dignified, high quality care should be the first priority of all working in the care sector. The role pain management plays in delivering this goal is essential.

  5. Monitoring walking and cycling of middle-aged to older community dwellers using wireless wearable accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Beenakker, Karel G.M.; Butala, Pankil M.; Lin, Cheng Chieh; Little, Thomas D.C.; Maier, Andrea B.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Vartanian, Richard; Wagenaar, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gait parameters have been shown to be an important indicator of several age-related cognitive and physical declines of older adults. In this paper we propose a method to monitor and analyze walking and cycling activities based on a triaxial accelerometer worn on one ankle. We use an

  6. Monitoring walking and cycling of middle-aged to older community dwellers using wireless wearable accelerometers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Beenakker, Karel G.M.; Butala, Pankil M.; Lin, Cheng Chieh; Little, Thomas D.C.; Maier, Andrea B.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Vartanian, Richard; Wagenaar, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gait parameters have been shown to be an important indicator of several age-related cognitive and physical declines of older adults. In this paper we propose a method to monitor and analyze walking and cycling activities based on a triaxial accelerometer worn on one ankle. We use an

  7. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  8. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…

  9. How Older People Think about Images of Aging in Advertising and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review documents distorted images of aging in mass media and advertising, including underrepresentation and stereotyping. Older consumers are dissatisfied with these images, and their growing purchasing power is forcing advertisers to make more effective appeals. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  10. Age Friendly Universities and Engagement with Older Adults: Moving from Principles to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Craig A.; Mark, Rob; Slowey, Maria; Knopf, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The global society is facing a new burgeoning element: an ageing population. Response to the educational needs and interests of older adults requires innovative pedagogies and practices of teaching, research, and community engagement. While traditionally geared towards provision for younger adults, the case is presented that universities have the…

  11. U3A Online: A Virtual University of the Third Age for Isolated Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Data from 29 older adults in University of the Third Age Online in 1999 and 34 in 2001 indicated that women outnumbered men; more than 70% were from large urban areas; and 70% had professional, business, and managerial backgrounds. Many are unable to participate in mainstream adult education and derive purpose and enjoyment from virtual…

  12. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  13. Age at immigration and the incomes of older immigrants, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kevin; Tienda, Marta

    2015-03-01

    Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994-2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  15. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed.

  16. 'Help me! I'm old!' How negative aging stereotypes create dependency among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudin, Genevieve; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of negative aging stereotypes on self-reported loneliness, risk-taking, subjective health, and help-seeking behavior in a French sample of older adults. The aim of this study was to show the detrimental effects of negative aging stereotypes on older adults' self-evaluations and behaviors, therefore contributing to the explanations of the iatrogenic effect of social environments that increase dependency (e.g., health care institutions). In the first experiment conducted on 57 older adults, we explored the effects of positive, neutral, or negative stereotype activation on the feeling of loneliness and risk taking decision. The second experiment (n = 60) examined the impact of stereotype activation on subjective health, self-reported extraversion as well as on a genuine help-seeking behavior, by allowing participants to ask for the experimenter's help while completing a task. As predicted, negative stereotype activation resulted in lower levels of risk taking, subjective health and extraversion, and in higher feelings of loneliness and a more frequent help-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that the mere activation of negative stereotypes can have broad and deleterious effects on older individuals' self-evaluation and functioning, which in turn may contribute to the often observed dependency among older people.

  17. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  18. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  19. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  20. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  1. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Acute Pain Management Practices for Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Xie, Xian-Jin; Herr, Keela A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-11-01

    Little is known regarding sustainability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) following implementation. This article reports sustainability of evidence-based acute pain management practices in hospitalized older adults following testing of a multifaceted Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) implementation intervention. A cluster randomized trial with follow-up period was conducted in 12 Midwest U.S. hospitals (six experimental, six comparison). Use of evidence-based acute pain management practices and mean pain intensity were analyzed using generalized estimating equations across two time points (following implementation and 18 months later) to determine sustainability of TRIP intervention effects. Summative Index scores and six of seven practices were sustained. Experimental and comparison group differences for mean pain intensity over 72 hours following admission were sustained. Results revealed most evidence-based acute pain management practices were sustained for 18 months following implementation. Further work is needed to identify factors affecting sustainability of EBPs to guide development and testing of sustainability strategies.

  2. Adult Age Differences in Dual Information Processes: Implications for the Role of Affective and Deliberative Processes in Older Adults' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel; Auman, Corinne

    2007-03-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for judgment and decision theory and important pragmatic implications for older-adult decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age. However, age-related adaptive processes, including motivated selectivity in the use of deliberative capacity, an increased focus on emotional goals, and greater experience, predict better or worse decisions for older adults depending on the situation. The aim of the current review is to examine adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes in order to understand their potential impact on judgments and decisions. We review evidence for the role of these dual processes in judgment and decision making and then review two representative life-span perspectives (based on aging-related changes to cognitive or motivational processes) on the interplay between these processes. We present relevant predictions for older-adult decisions and make note of contradictions and gaps that currently exist in the literature. Finally, we review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and how theories and findings regarding dual processes could be applied to decision theory and decision aiding. In particular, we focus on prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) and how prospect theory and theories regarding age differences in information processing can inform one another. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  3. Types of phone usage: Age differences between younger and older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Nicoleta Vulpe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available I Even if more and more people use mobile phones, the gap between younger and older age groups persists and its importance is timely and widened given the present ageing and digital inequality phenomena. How wide is the difference on types of phone usage between different age groups? For answering this research question, we employ binary logistic regressions on several types of phone usage keeping into account age and controlling for region, education, income and whether respondents use a feature phone or a smartphone. The analysed data come from the Spring Change Assessment Survey 2010 provided by the Pew Research Center and it is representative for the United States of America. Our results show that, net of the all the variables included in the model, older persons are less likely than younger persons to use such phone functions, but the strength of association is low. Education and income are relevant for these functions. Using a smartphone in comparison with using a feature phone is important in all the situations included, as well as income. Considering models only for older persons, over 65 years of age, college and income are less relevant. Using a smartphone is more likely than using a feature phone to encourage all types of phone usage, independently of age.

  4. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  5. Colonoscopy screening among US adults aged 40 or older with a family history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Han; Xirasagar, Sudha; Li, Yi-Jhen; de Groen, Piet C

    2015-05-21

    Colonoscopy screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. CRC screening is recommended at age 50 for average-risk people. Screening of first-degree relatives of CRC patients is recommended to begin at age 40 or 10 years before the age at diagnosis of the youngest relative diagnosed with CRC. CRC incidence has increased recently among younger Americans while it has declined among older Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether first-degree relatives of CRC patients are being screened according to recommended guidelines. We studied colonoscopy screening rates among the US population reporting a CRC family history using 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Of 26,064 study-eligible respondents, 2,470 reported a CRC family history; of those with a family history, 45.6% had a colonoscopy (25.2% in 2005 and 65.8% 2010). The colonoscopy rate among first-degree relatives aged 40 to 49 in 2010 (38.3%) was about half that of first-degree relatives aged 50 or older (69.7%). First-degree relatives were nearly twice as likely as nonfirst-degree relatives to have a colonoscopy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9), but those aged 40 to 49 were less likely to have a colonoscopy than those in older age groups (AOR, 2.6 for age 50-64; AOR, 3.6 for age ≥65). Interactions with age, insurance, and race/ethnicity were not significant. Having health insurance tripled the likelihood of screening. Despite a 5-fold increase in colonoscopy screening rates since 2005, rates among first-degree relatives younger than the conventional screening age have lagged. Screening promotion targeted to this group may halt the recent rising trend of CRC among younger Americans.

  6. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  7. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  8. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rachael L; Maantay, Juliana A; Fahs, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI) by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET) was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE) survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  9. Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: older Chinese look away from positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Lu, Alice Y; Goren, Deborah; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Wadlinger, Heather A; Wilson, Hugh R

    2008-06-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that with age, people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life, leading them to pay more attention to positive relative to negative/neutral stimuli. The authors argue that cultures that differ in what they consider to be emotionally meaningful may show this preference to different extents. Using eye-tracking techniques, the authors compared visual attention toward emotional (happy, fearful, sad, and angry) and neutral facial expressions among 46 younger and 57 older Hong Kong Chinese. In contrast to prior Western findings, older but not younger Chinese looked away from happy facial expressions, suggesting that they do not show attentional preferences toward positive stimuli.

  10. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted at a large academic medical center. Data on previous medical history, chief complaint, self-perceived illness severity, demographic information, and mode of arrival to the ED were collected on all subjects. Those who arrived to the ED via EMS also were asked reasons why they opted to call an ambulance for their illness/injury. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify survey responses, and multivariable regression was used to assess the independent effect of age on mode of ED arrival. Data from 1,058 subjects were analyzed, 449 (42%) of whom arrived to the ED via EMS. Compared to adultstransportation to the ED via ambulance; however, this effect is attenuated by number of chronic medical conditions and history of depression. Additional research is needed to account for confounders unmeasured in this study and to elucidate reasons for the increased frequency of EMS use among older adults. Jones CMC , Wasserman EB , Li T , Amidon A , Abbott M , Shah MN . The effect of older age on EMS use for transportation to an emergency department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):261-268.

  11. Age-related response to redeemed antidepressants measured by completed suicide in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Conwell, Yeates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if the suicide rate of older adults prescribed antidepressants varies with age and to assess the proportion of older adults who died by suicide that had recently been prescribed antidepressants. METHODS: A population-based cohort study using a nationwide linkage of individua...... between estimated prevalence of depression and antidepressant prescription rate in persons dying by suicide underscores the need for assessment of depression in the oldest old.......OBJECTIVE: To examine if the suicide rate of older adults prescribed antidepressants varies with age and to assess the proportion of older adults who died by suicide that had recently been prescribed antidepressants. METHODS: A population-based cohort study using a nationwide linkage of individual......-level records was conducted on all persons aged 50+ living in Denmark during 1996-2006 (1,215,524 men and 1,343,568 women). Suicide rates by treatment status were calculated using data on all antidepressant prescriptions redeemed at pharmacies. RESULTS: Individual-level data covered 9,354,620 and 10...

  12. The quality of life of older people aging in place: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleerberghe, Patricia; De Witte, Nico; Claes, Claudia; Schalock, Robert L; Verté, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    In order to cope with the challenges that are the result of an aging population, policies and services promote keeping elders in the community and letting them age in place rather than sending them to specialized institutions. Aging in place refers to the option where people can stay in their homes as they age. This policy option, however, poses various challenges and may also threaten the quality of life of the aging. A literature review was performed on the quality of life of older people aging in place to determine whether the actual assessment of quality of life can be used within aging in place. Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Research Network were searched for publications on "Ag(e)ing in place" AND "Quality of life." Although assessment is crucial to a policy pursuing a good quality of life, literature reveals that it is seldom performed. Only a small part of the studies report on the assessment of quality of life, including the instruments used and the results. The findings also indicate that there is no consensus on the definition of quality of life or its domains structures. As no existing instrument assessing the quality of life of older people aging in place could be identified, such a tool should be developed, because any policy towards this growing group of people should be complemented by an evaluation.

  13. Age identity, self-rated health, and life satisfaction among older adults in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this quantitative study were to (1) ascertain to what extent older adults aged 50 and above feel and desire to be younger than their age, and classify themselves as young versus old; (2) compare these patterns with those found among other cross-cultural populations; and (3) assess the extent to which self-rated health and life satisfaction predict age identities. This study was carried out on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 50 and older. This sample was constructed using the quota method to strive for representativeness. Most of the respondents wanted to be younger than their chronological age (51.8 %), but only 27.8 % felt younger than they were. Moreover, 80 % of the sample claimed to be old. Self-rated health predicted felt age and the feeling of being old. Furthermore, the less-satisfied Dakar residents were with their life, the younger they wanted to be. We first discuss our results in a comparative perspective focused on how orientations toward individualism and collectivism could be related to age identity, and on demographic characteristics of the Senegalese population-where life expectancy is 59.3 years old. We then analyze the relevance of age identity dimensions as indicators of successful aging in Dakar.

  14. Socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course and oral health in older age: findings from a longitudinal study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2018-04-19

    The influence of life-course socioeconomic disadvantage on oral health at older ages is not well-established. We examined the influence of socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age on oral health at older ages, and tested conceptual life-course models (sensitive period, accumulation of risk, social mobility) to determine which best described observed associations. A representative cohort of British men aged 71-92 in 2010-12 included socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age. Oral health assessment at 71-92 years (n = 1622) included tooth count, periodontal disease and self-rated oral health (excellent/good, fair/poor) (n = 2147). Life-course models (adjusted for age and town of residence) were compared with a saturated model using Likelihood-ratio tests. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, middle-age and older age was associated with complete tooth loss at 71-92 years-age and town adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.39 (1.02-1.90), 2.26 (1.70-3.01), 1.83 (1.35-2.49), respectively. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and middle-age was associated with poor self-rated oral health; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.48 (1.19-1.85) and 1.45 (1.18-1.78), respectively. A sensitive period for socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age provided the best model fit for tooth loss, while accumulation of risk model was the strongest for poor self-rated oral health. None of the life-course models were significant for periodontal disease measures. Socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age has a particularly strong influence on tooth loss in older age. Poor self-rated oral health in older age is influenced by socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course. Addressing socioeconomic factors in middle and older ages are likely to be important for better oral health in later life.

  15. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGEISM AND SUBJECTIVE AGE OF OLDER PEOPLE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz HESS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmata on older people in society remains a big problem in the whole of Europe. It can lead to a lower self-esteem and is even as sociated with higher suicide rates. This study questioned whether the identification with one’s own age group is associated with an individual’s perceived stigma on the group of 70+, which has been unexamined so far for European citizens. Method: Data were derived from the European Social Survey (ESS. The sample consisted of 7878 persons aged 70+ stratified by three age groups. Group 1 = 70 – 75, Group 2= 76 – 80 and Group 3= >80. Independent T-test and Multiple regression analyses were used to examine influence of perceived stigmata in society on identification with one’s own age group, controlled for the covariates gender, household’s income, education, subjective general health, limitations in activities of daily life, marital status, having children living at home and having children not living at home. Results: A significant association was found for Group 1 (70 – 75 and Group 2 (76 – 80. Participants of these age groups, who reported a higher perception of stigmata for older people (70+, identified themselves less with their age group. No significant effect was found for Group 3 (people 80+. Conclusion: The results suggest that people older than 80 are less affected by stigmata of society on old age than younger groups (aged 70 - 80. Future research is necessary to examine the mechanisms which lead to a lower identification with their age of people aged 70 to 80.

  16. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Anticholinergic drugs and negative outcomes in the older population: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collamati, Agnese; Martone, Anna Maria; Poscia, Andrea; Brandi, Vincenzo; Celi, Michela; Marzetti, Emanuele; Cherubini, Antonio; Landi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The use of medication with anticholinergic properties is widespread among older subjects. Many drugs of common use such as antispasmodics, bronchodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, anti-hypertensive drugs, antiparkinson agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and psychotropic drugs have been demonstrated to have an anticholinergic activity. The most frequent adverse effects are dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia and neurologic impairment such as confusion, agitation and coma. A growing evidence from experimental studies and clinical observations suggests that drugs with anticholinergic properties can cause physical and mental impairment in the elderly population. However, the morbidity and management issues associated with unwanted anticholinergic activity are underestimated and frequently overlooked. Moreover, their possible relation with specific negative outcome in the elderly population is still not firmly established. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the relationship between the use of drugs with anticholinergic activity and negative outcomes in older persons. We searched PubMed and Cochrane combining the search terms "anticholinergic", "delirium", "cognitive impairment", "falls", "mortality" and "discontinuation". Medicines with anticholinergic properties may increase the risks of functional and cognitive decline, morbidity, institutionalization and mortality in older people. However, such evidences are still not conclusive probably due to possible confounding factors. In particular, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of discontinuation of drug with anticholinergic properties. Overall, minimizing anticholinergic burden should always be encouraged in clinical practice to improve short-term memory, confusion and delirium, quality of life and daily functioning.

  18. Donor Smoking and Older Age Increases Morbidity and Mortality After Lung Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, H H; Møller, C H; Zemtsovski, M

    2017-01-01

    survival as well as CLAD-free survival was significantly lower with donors ≥55 years. CONCLUSIONS: Donor smoking history and older donor age impact lung function, mortality, and CLAD-free survival after transplantation. Because of a shortage of organs, extended donor criteria may be considered while taking......BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free...... of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors. Donors were divided into three groups: group 1 included smokers, group 2 nonsmokers, and group 3 had unknown smoking...

  19. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  20. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Older women in an aging world: achieving health across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, R; Howe, A L

    1996-01-01

    This article, based on a report (Women, aging and health: achieving health across the life span) prepared for the WHO Global Commission on Women's Health under the guidance of WHO's Aging and Health Programme, presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age. The authors review the various facets of the "gender transition" brought about by demographic and epidemiological transitions, drawing attention to contrasts between the situation in developing countries in Asia and Latin America and that in Eastern Europe, for example. The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world (a factor which renders them particularly vulnerable in many socioeconomic and health respects). Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect. A basic goal for global strategies relating to the health of older women is formulated: reduction of the inequities in life expectancy between developed and developing countries.

  2. Parenting style in childhood and mortality risk at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Longitudinal cohort study of 1964 community-dwelling adults aged 65-79 years. The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and gender. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  4. The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. In elderly subjects, decreased NK cell activity has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence and severity of viral infection, highlighting the clinical implications that age-associated changes in NK cell biology have on the health of older adults. However, is an increased susceptibility to viral infection the only consequence of these age-related changes in NK cell function? Recently, evidence has emerged that has shown that in addition to eliminating transformed cells, NK cells are involved in many other biological processes such as immune regulation, anti-microbial immune responses and the recognition and elimination of senescent cells, novel functions that involve NK-mediated cytotoxicity and/or cytokine production. Thus, the decrease in NK cell function that accompanies physiological ageing is likely to have wider implications for the health of older adults than originally thought. Here, we give a detailed description of the changes in NK cell biology that accompany human ageing and propose that certain features of the ageing process such as: (i) the increased reactivation rates of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (ii) the slower resolution of inflammatory responses and (iii) the increased incidence of bacterial and fungal infection are attributable in part to an age-associated decline in NK cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Why older workers work beyond the retirement age: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Sewdas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to: 1 gain insight into reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age from older workers’ perspectives, and 2 explore how the domains of the research framework Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM can be applied to working beyond retirement age. Methods A qualitative research design included individual interviews (n = 15 and three focus groups (n = 18 participants conducted with older workers aged 65 years and older continuing in a paid job or self-employment. Interview participants were recruited from an existing STREAM cohort study. Focus group participants were recruited from companies and employment agencies. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results The most important motives for working beyond retirement age were maintaining daily routines and financial benefit. Good health and flexible work arrangements were mentioned as important preconditions. The themes emerging from the categorization of the motives and preconditions corresponded to the domains of health, work characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors from the STREAM research framework. However, our analysis revealed one additional theme—purpose in life. Conclusion This study offers important new insights into the various preconditions and motives that influence working beyond retirement age. In addition, the five domains of the STREAM research framework, including the additional domain of ‘purpose in life’, seem to be applicable to working beyond retirement age. This knowledge contributes to the development of work-related interventions that enhance older workers’ motivation to prolong their working lives.

  6. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Training Recollection in Healthy Older Adults: Clear Improvements on the Training Task, but Little Evidence of Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vess eStamenova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging holds negative consequences for memory, in particular for the ability to recollect the precise details of an experience. With this in mind, Jennings and Jacoby (2003 developed a recollection training method using a single-probe recognition memory paradigm in which new items (i.e., foils were repeated during the test phase at increasingly long intervals. In previous reports, this method has appeared to improve older adults’ performance on several non-trained cognitive tasks. We aimed to further examine potential transfer effects of this training paradigm and to determine which cognitive functions might predict training gains. Fifty-one older adults were assigned to either recollection training (n = 30 or an active control condition (n = 21 for six sessions over two weeks. Afterward, the recollection training group showed a greatly enhanced ability to reject the repeated foils. Surprisingly, however, the training and the control groups improved to the same degree as one another in recognition accuracy (d’ on their respective training tasks. Further, despite the recollection group’s significant improvement in rejecting the repeated foils, we observed little evidence of transfer to non-trained tasks (including a temporal source memory test. Age and higher baseline scores on a measure of global cognitive function (as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and working memory (as measured by Digit Span Backward predicted gains made by the recollection training group members.

  8. Hip Arthroscopy in Patients Age 40 or Older: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Ekhtiari, Seper; Simunovic, Nicole; Safran, Marc R; Philippon, Marc J; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2017-02-01

    To (1) report clinical outcomes, complication rates, and total hip arthroplasty (THA) conversion rates for patients age 40 or older who underwent hip arthroscopy, and (2) report any age-related predictors of outcome identified in the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were abstracted from eligible studies. No meta-analysis was performed because of heterogeneity amongst studies. Seventeen studies were included in this review comprising 16,327 patients, including 9,954 patients age 40 or older. All studies reported statistically significant improvements in outcomes after hip arthroscopy for femoral osteochondroplasty, labral repair, or unspecified indications. In patients 40 or older who underwent labral debridement, these improvements were not clinically significant. Obesity and osteoarthritic changes predicted poorer outcomes. Only 1 of 3 studies directly comparing the 2 groups found that patients 40 or older had a significantly less improvement in a standardized hip outcome score than patients under 40 after hip arthroscopy, but all found that patients 40 or older had significantly higher rates of THA conversion. The rate of conversion to THA was 18.1% for patients 40 or older, 23.1% for patients over 50, and 25.2% for patients over 60 with a mean of 25.0 months to THA. Indications for hip arthroscopy including femoral osteochondroplasty and labral repair resulted in clinically significant improvements in patients 40 or older in most research studies examined in this review, whereas labral debridement did not produce clinically significant improvements postoperatively in the same studies. In these studies, the rate of conversion to THA is higher than in patients under 40 and increases with each decade of life, with many individual studies showing a significant increase in the rate of THA conversion. Hip arthroscopy may be suitable for some patients 40 or older, but patient selection is key and patients

  9. An investigation of predictors of successful aging in the workplace among Hong Kong Chinese older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M S

    2012-03-01

    We examined associations between successful aging in the workplace (adaptability and health, positive relationship, occupational growth, personal security, and continuous focus on goals) and two major factors of work stressors (work family conflict and discrimination against older workers) and coping resources (perceived organizational support, supportive human resource policies, and social support from friends and family) among Chinese older workers in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we also examined whether coping resources moderate the negative effect derived from work stressors on successful aging. A total of 242 Chinese full-time workers aged 40 years or above were recruited in a self-administered questionnaire survey study in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression results showed that family-to-work conflict was significantly related to successful aging, except the dimension of personal security. Work-to-family conflict and discrimination, however, were not related to successful aging in the workplace. In terms of coping resources, perceived organizational support was related to all dimensions of successful aging in the workplace. We also found that training and development was a significant correlate of occupational growth. Social support from friends and family was positively related to three successful aging dimensions, including adaptability and health, personal security and continuous focus on goals. Finally, when facing discrimination in the workplace, support from organizations and from friends and family were particularly important for old-older workers (aged 55 years or above) to achieve better adaptability and health. Perceived organizational support and social support from friends and family were important correlates of successful aging in the workplace. Limitation and recommendations for organizational intervention were discussed.

  10. Holistic Wellness in Older Adulthood: Group Differences Based on Age and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2018-01-01

    To understand how demographic variables and depression symptoms relate to the prevalence of wellness, resilience, and age perception within a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In all, 200 residents across 12 senior housing sites were surveyed. Research questions included the following: (1) Do group differences exist in wellness, resilience, and age perception based on age, sex, race, education, and depression symptoms? (2) Which profile of variables is most strongly associated with self-rated depression among older adults? Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine group differences. A discriminant analysis demonstrated which variables comprised the profile of individuals who ascribed to depression symptoms. Younger respondents (i.e., age 55-70) had significantly lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .034) and resilience (η 2 = .052). Respondents suffering from depression symptoms had lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .155), resilience (η 2 = .163), and positive age perception (η 2 = .067) and higher rates of negative age perception (η 2 = .052). The discriminant analysis correctly categorized 75.3% of the cases related to depression symptoms, and resilience and certain forms of wellness were most relevant. The current study sheds light into within-group differences in wellness, resilience, and age perception that depend on variables such as age and depression.

  11. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  12. Is income equality also better for your cognitive health? A multilevel analysis on trajectories of cognitive function at older ages

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Anja; Chauvel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive function and decline. Data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), providing information on cognitive function (fluency, immediate and delayed recall) of respondents aged 50-80 years coming from a total of 16 European countries that participated in at least two wa...

  13. Correlates of social and emotional loneliness in older people: evidence from an English community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Lena; McKee, Kevin J

    2014-05-01

    Loneliness is an important influence on quality of life in old age and has been conceptualised as consisting of two dimensions, social and emotional. This article describes analyses that sought to produce models of social and emotional loneliness in older people, using demographic, psychological and health, and social variables. Older people (aged 65+, n=1255) from the Barnsley metropolitan area of the United Kingdom were recruited randomly from within a stratified sampling frame and received a questionnaire-based interview (response rate: 68.1%). The questionnaire contained items and scales on demographic, psychological and health, and social characteristics, and a validated measure of loneliness that assesses both social and emotional loneliness. Of the respondents, 7.7% were found to be severely or very severely lonely, while another 38.3% were moderately lonely. Social and emotional loneliness shared 19.36% variance. Being male, being widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, low-income comfort, low contact with family, low contact with friends, low activity, low perceived community integration, and receipt of community care were significant predictors of social loneliness (R=0.50, R2=0.25, F(18, 979)=18.17, psocial loneliness. Consequently, policy on loneliness in older people should be directed to developing a range of divergent intervention strategies if both emotional and social loneliness are to be reduced.

  14. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50-89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  15. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  16. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  17. Association between age associated cognitive decline and health related quality of life among Iranian older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Nejati, Vahid; Shati, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Age associated cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging is related with lower levels of functioning in real life, and may interfere with maintaining independence and health related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, health related quality of life and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults were evaluated with the aim of exploring the association between them by adjusting for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study, was implemented on 425 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over, between August 2016 and October 2016 in health centers of the municipality of Tehran, Iran, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess cognitive function and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) to assess HRQL. The relation between HRQL and cognitive function was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the impact of cognitive function on HRQL adjusted for potential confounders was estimated by linear regression model. All analyses were done using SPSS, version 22.0. A positive significant correlation between cognitive function and quality of life (r=0.434; pcognitive function was associated with HRQL in older adults with age associated cognitive function. Two variables of educational level and depression can affect the relation between cognitive decline and HRQL.

  18. Heritability of the Number of Teeth in Middle-Aged and Older Danish Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Y; Silventoinen, K; Dokkedal, U; Skytthe, A; Mucci, L A; Christensen, K; Hjelmborg, J V B

    2017-12-01

    Tooth loss is a common health concern in older adults. We aimed to estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in the number of teeth in middle-aged and older populations using a population-based cohort of Danish twins. The study included 5,269 Danish middle-aged or older twins who provided data on the number of teeth at baseline by structured interviews. The data were analyzed using univariate liability threshold modeling, stratified by sex and age, to estimate familial risk of tooth loss as well as estimates of heritability. In the whole cohorts, 23% of participants were edentate and 53% had retained 20 or more teeth. A statistical model including additive genetic factors and environmental factors partly shared by co-twins and partly unique to each individual twin gave the best statistical fit for the number of teeth in both age categories as well as in men and women. Overall, additive genetic factors explained 36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23% to 49%), common environmental factors 20% (95% CI: 9% to 31%), and unique environmental factors 44% (95% CI: 40% to 48%) of the total variation of the number of teeth. This study indicates that a substantial part of the variation in tooth loss is explained by genetic as well as environmental factors shared by co-twins. Our results implied that family background importantly affects tooth loss in both the middle-aged and the older populations. Family history is thus an important factor to take into account in dental health care.

  19. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  20. Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    There have long been suggestions that aging is tightly linked to the complex dynamics of the physiological systems that maintain homeostasis, and in particular to dysregulation of regulatory networks of molecules. This review synthesizes recent work that is starting to provide evidence for the importance of such complex systems dynamics in aging. There is now clear evidence that physiological dysregulation--the gradual breakdown in the capacity of complex regulatory networks to maintain homeostasis--is an emergent property of these regulatory networks, and that it plays an important role in aging. It can be measured simply using small numbers of biomarkers. Additionally, there are indications of the importance during aging of emergent physiological processes, functional processes that cannot be easily understood through clear metabolic pathways, but can nonetheless be precisely quantified and studied. The overall role of such complex systems dynamics in aging remains an important open question, and to understand it future studies will need to distinguish and integrate related aspects of aging research, including multi-factorial theories of aging, systems biology, bioinformatics, network approaches, robustness, and loss of complexity.

  1. The association between social support and cognitive function in Mexican adults aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin

    Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives of LGBTQ Older Adults on Aging in Place: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Jennifer M; Dickman Portz, Jennifer; King, Diane K; Wright, Leslie A; Helander, Kenneth; Retrum, Jessica H; Gozansky, Wendolyn S

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study conducted by a community-research partnership used multiple types of data collection to examine variables relevant for LGBTQ older adults who wished to age in place in their urban Denver neighborhood. Focus groups, interviews, and a town hall meeting were used to identify barriers and supports to aging in place. Participants (N = 73) identified primarily as lesbian or gay, aged 50-69, and lived with a partner. Ageism, heterosexism, and cisgenderism emerged as cross-cutting themes that negatively impact access to health care, housing, social support, home assistance, and legal services. Resilience from weathering a lifetime of discrimination was identified as a strength to handle aging challenges. Recommendations for establishing an aging in place model included establishing welcoming communities and resource centers and increasing cultural competence of service providers. This study provides a unique contribution to understanding the psychosocial, medical, and legal barriers for successfully aging in place.

  3. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.

  4. Ageing well? A cross-country analysis of the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Loos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘aging well’ discourse advances the idea of making older people responsible for their capability to stay healthy and active. In the context of an increased ageing population, which poses several challenges to countries’ government, this discourse has become dominant in Europe. We explore the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people in seven European countries (Finland, UK, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Poland and Romania, using an analytical approached based on visual content analysis, inspired by the dimensional model of national cultural differences from the Hofstede model (1991; 2001; 2011. We used two out of the five Hofstede dimensions: Individualism/Collectivism (IDV and Masculinity/Femininity (MAS. The results demonstrated that in all seven countries older people are mostly visually represented as healthy/active, which reflects a dominant ‘ageing well’ discourse in Europe. The results also demonstrated that in most cases older people tend to be represented together with others, which is not consonant with the dominant ‘ageing well’ discourse in Europe. A last finding was that the visual representation of older people is in about half of the cases in line with these Hofstede dimensions. We discuss the implications of these findings claiming that the ‘ageing well’ discourse might lead to ‘visual ageism’. Organizations could keep this in mind while using pictures for their website or in other media and consider to use various kind of pictures, or to avoid using pictures of older people that stigmatize, marginalize or injure. They could look into the cultural situatedness and intersectional character of age relations and consider alternative strategies of both visibility and invisibility to talk with and about our ageing societies.

  5. Frailty and life satisfaction in Shanghai older adults: The roles of age and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Gu, Danan; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between frailty and life satisfaction and the roles of age and social vulnerability underlying the links in Chinese older adults. Using a cross-sectional sample of 1970 adults aged 65 and older in 2013 in Shanghai, we employed regression analyses to investigate the interaction between frailty and age on life satisfaction in the whole sample and in different social vulnerability groups. Life satisfaction was measured using a sum score of satisfaction with thirteen domains. Using a cumulative deficit approach, frailty was constructed from fifty-two variables and social vulnerability was derived from thirty-five variables. Frailty was negatively associated with life satisfaction. The interaction between frailty and age was significant for life satisfaction, such that the negative association between frailty and life satisfaction was stronger among the young-old aged 65-79 than among the old-old aged 80+. Moreover, frailty's stronger association with life satisfaction in the young-old than in the old-old was only found among those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of social vulnerability, but not for those in the 1st tertile of social vulnerability. Relation between frailty and life satisfaction likely weakens with age. A higher level of social vulnerability enlarges the negative impact of frailty on life satisfaction with a greater extent in the young-old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Aging Attitudes Predict Greater Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2016-08-03

    In order to understand conflicting findings regarding the emotional reactions of older adults to daily stressors, we examined the possibility that negative aging attitudes could function as an important individual differences factor related to stressor reactivity. Using a daily dairy design, we examined the aging attitudes of 43 older adults reporting on 380 total days. Participants reported their aging attitudes on Day 1, followed by their stressor exposure and negative affect on Days 2-9. Covariates included age, gender, education, and personality. Using multilevel modeling, our results suggest that individuals with more positive aging attitudes report consistent levels of affect across study days regardless of stressors, whereas those with more negative aging attitudes reported increased emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Positive aging attitudes may serve as a resource that helps buffer reactions to daily stressors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  8. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  9. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding genetic and lifestyle factors, and in particular to ill-defined and low levels of physical activity. This study assessed the relationship between age and a diverse range of physiological functions in a cohort of highly active older individuals (cyclists) aged 55-79 years in whom the effects of lifestyle factors would be ameliorated. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. V̇O2max was most closely associated with age, but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The data suggest that the relationship between human ageing and physiological function is highly individualistic and modified by inactivity. Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55-79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular

  10. Understanding aging in a Middle Eastern context: the SHARE-Israel survey of persons aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development of SHARE-Israel, the survey of persons aged 50 and older in Israel, and preliminary results from an early data release. The introduction of an HRS-inspired computer-based survey into a Middle East country required linguistic and cultural adaptations of the survey mechanisms that had not been previously experienced in other countries. Preliminary findings showed that the majority group of veteran Jewish-Israelis aged 50 and over is in a favorable position in terms of health, employment status and household income compared to Arab-Israelis and to new immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union. Arab-Israelis aged 50 and over are at greater risk due to greater disability and lower incomes. Recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union are at greatest risk. They report having the highest degree of depression, long term problems and activity limitation, the fewest children, low rates of home ownership and low incomes. Comparing the older Israeli population with their European counterparts revealed that Israelis are more depressed; more Israeli women are employed, and fewer Israeli men are retired; and household income in Israel is lower, but rises relatively when correcting for purchasing power parity. These trends point to several areas that will require attention in the formulation of public policy on behalf of the aging population in Israel.

  11. Good places for ageing in place: development of objective built environment measures for investigating links with older people's wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Lynne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the role of the built environment in public health. Relatively little research to date investigates its impact on healthy ageing. Ageing in place has been adopted as a key strategy for coping with the challenges of longevity. What is needed is a better understanding of how individual characteristics of older people's residential environments (from front door to wider neighbourhood contribute to their wellbeing, in order to provide the basis for evidence-based housing/urban design and development of interventions. This research aimed to develop a tool to objectively measure a large range of built environment characteristics, as the basis for a preliminary study of potential relationships with a number of 'place-related' functional, emotional and social wellbeing constructs. Methods Through a review of urban design literature, design documents, and existing measures, a new tool, the NeDeCC (Neighbourhood Design Characteristics Checklist was developed. It was piloted, refined, and its reliability validated through inter-rater tests. A range of place-related wellbeing constructs were identified and measured through interviews with 200 older people living in a wide variety of rural-urban environments and different types of housing in England. The NeDeCC was used to measure the residential environment of each participant, and significant bivariate relationships with wellbeing variables were identified. Results The NeDeCC was found to have convincing face and construct validity and good inter-rater and test/retest reliability, though it would benefit from use of digital data sources such as Google Earth to eliminate the need for on-site survey. The significant relationships found in the study suggest that there may be characteristics of residential environments of potential relevance for older people's lives that have been overlooked in research to date, and that it may be worthwhile to question some of

  12. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fern?ndez-Ballesteros, Roc?o

    2016-01-01

    Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong ada...

  13. Aging in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Contemporary Older Persons' Views About Daily Life, Health, and the Experience of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nancy J; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults' own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  14. Evidence-Based Programs for Older Adults: A Disconnect Between U.S. National Strategy and Local Senior Center Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobitt, Julie; Schwingel, Andiara

    2017-01-01

    While U.S. national policies have been developed to support evidence-based (EB) lifestyle programs for older adults, there has been limited research to determine the extent to which these programs actually reach local communities. This study sought to identify factors that impact the implementation of EB physical activity, nutrition, and chronic disease management programs at regional (Area Agencies on Aging [AAAs]) and community levels (senior Centers [SCs]). Interviews were conducted with directors of four AAAs and 12 SCs to understand their perspectives on EB program implementation. Narratives revealed differences between AAAs and SCs regarding knowledge about EB programs and reasons to promote and adopt these programs. The only agreement occurred when discussing concerns about funding and program inflexibility. Substantial gaps exist between how EB lifestyle programs are promoted and implemented at the regional and community levels.

  15. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  16. Binge drinking and insomnia in middle-aged and older adults: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Mauro, Pia M; Mojtabai, Ramin; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol use in later life has been linked to poor sleep. However, the association between binge drinking, which is common among middle-aged and older adults, and insomnia has not been previously assessed. We studied participants aged 50 years and older (n = 6027) from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study who reported the number of days they had ≥4 drinks on one occasion in the prior 3 months. Participants also reported the frequency of four insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between binge drinking frequency and insomnia. Overall, 32.5% of participants had >0 to ≤2 binge drinking days/week; and 3.6% had >2 binge drinking days/week. After adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, body mass index, and elevated depressive symptoms, participants who binged >2 days/week had a 64% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.47, p = 0.017). Participants reporting >0 to ≤2 binge days/week also had a 35% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.15-1.59, p = 0.001). When smoking was added to the regression model, these associations fell just below the level of significance. Results suggest that binge drinking is associated with a greater risk of insomnia among adults aged 50 years and older, although this relationship may be driven in part by current smoking behavior. The relatively high prevalence of both binge drinking and sleep complaints among middle-aged and older populations warrants further investigation into binge drinking as a potential cause of late-life insomnia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have

  18. Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  19. Overlooked potential: older-age parents in the era of ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathalie; Knodel, John; Kiry Kim, Sovan; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2008-11-01

    The advent of widespread ART provision in low- and middle-income countries requires not just medical attention, but also social and psychological support to encourage and monitor strict adherence to drug regimens. Developing innovative approaches to providing this broad support is a major challenge, especially within the financial constraints of resource-limited countries hardest hit by the epidemic. In this study, we examine the role of older-age parents in monitoring ART treatment and caring for their HIV-infected children and grandchildren in Cambodia. Our results are based on 25 open-ended interviews with older-age parents of people with AIDS (PWHA). A high level of co-residence when PWHA become ill and a sense of parental responsibility and emotional attachment facilitate high parental involvement in their children's and grandchildren's illness, care and treatment. Our interviews indicate that parents play an important role in encouraging their children to get tested and to access treatment if they test positive. They consistently monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and opportunistic infections and remind PWHA to attend medical appointments and support-group meetings. Parents also provide for the nutrition and hygiene of PWHA essential to the success of ART treatments. We find that despite low levels of education, older parents were able to express clear, correct and detailed knowledge of complicated ART treatment regimens, nutrition and hygiene. Overall, our findings show that older parents play a pivotal role in care and treatment if they are provided with proper resources and training and have the ability to understand the necessity and details of ensuring strict adherence to medications. Based on these results, we suggest that explicitly including older parents in policy and programs for care and treatment would allow Cambodia and other countries to take advantage of this unique and effective but overlooked asset in AIDS care and treatment.

  20. Ageing well? : A cross-country analysis of the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078758475; Ivan, Loredana; Fernández-Ardèvol, Mireia; Sourbati, Maria; Ekström, Maria; Wilińska, Monika; Carlo, Simone; Schiau, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    The ‘aging well’ discourse advances the idea of making older people responsible for their capability to stay healthy and active. In the context of an increased ageing population, which poses several challenges to countries’ government, this discourse has become dominant in Europe. We explore the way

  1. Ageing well? A cross-country analysis of the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.; Ivan, L.; Fernández-Ardèvol, M.; Sourbati, M.; Ekström, M.; Wilińska, M.; Carlo, S.; Schiau, I.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘aging well’ discourse advances the idea of making older people responsible for their capability to stay healthy and active. In the context of an increased ageing population, which poses several challenges to countries’ government, this discourse has become dominant in Europe. We explore the way

  2. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  3. A qualitative study to examine older adults' perceptions of health: Keys to aging successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Kraemer, Sandra; Hawkins, Kevin; Wicker, Ellen R; Armstrong, Douglas G

    Older adult health is often defined in clinical terms. Research has demonstrated that many older adults self-report aging successfully regardless of clinical health status. This qualitative study used claims data to identify older adults on three levels of health status: healthy and active, managing diseases, or very sick, to better understand how health is defined and maintained. In total, 32 participants from two cities were interviewed. Interviews were audio- and video-recorded and then transcribed. Thematic analysis identified five themes: disconnectedness between objective and subjective health; health defined to include psychological and social components; resilience and coping mechanisms indicative of successful aging; social support systems integral to health; and the goal of maintaining functioning. These results indicate the importance of individual perceptions of health rather than just counts of chronic diseases. Health management programs should provide holistic approaches to maximize health outcomes and to promote successful aging. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing Age-Ralated Changes of Balance Performance In Youth and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Nobahar Ahari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current study was to compare the effect of aging on balance in different sensory conditions. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study we compared 20 healthy youth (with age 22.75±2.29 and 20 healthy older adults (with age 65.1±4.16 in single leg standing in different sensory conditions. Sensory conditions were open eye/ hard surface (OEHS, closed eye/ hard surface (CEHS, closed eye/ foam surface (CEFS as balance tasks. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and Independent Sample t-test were used. Results: findings showed significant difference between youth and older adults in all three sensory conditions. In addition, in each group, there was significant difference between OEHS and CEHS/ CEFS. Hence, significant difference was seen between CEHS and CEFS in each group. Conclusion: based of our findings sensory information is more critical for balance in elderly than youth. In addition, standing on One-Leg can be used as a proper test for evaluation of older adults.

  5. Aging, hypertension and physiological tremor: the contribution of the cardioballistic impulse to tremorgenesis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-03-15

    For older adults, an increase in physiological tremor is a common motor feature. This increase is believed to primarily reflect a general decline in function of the neuromuscular system. However, given that tremor is derived from a number of intrinsic sources, age-related changes in other physiological functions like the cardiac system may also negatively alter tremor output. The aim of this study was to examine what impact age and increased cardiac input (hypertension) have on physiological tremor. Heart rate, blood pressure, and postural/resting tremor were recorded in three groups; 1) young, healthy adults, 2) old, normotensive adults, and 3) old, hypertensive adults. The results demonstrated that the old hypertensive adults had greater postural tremor compared to the young healthy individuals. Coherence analysis revealed significant coupling between blood pressure-tremor and between heart rate-tremor for all individuals. The strength of this coupling was greatest for the older, hypertensive individuals. Together these results show that, for older adults, the combined effects of age and cardiac disease have the greatest impact on physiological tremor rather than any single factor alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Thallium content in adults older than 45 ages at Hezhang County of Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Yao, Dancheng; Feng, Jiali; Zeng, Dong; Fan, Di; Shang, Qi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feature of Thallium content in adults of heavy metal contaminated district due to mining of Hezhang County, Guizhou Province. METHODS The subjects older than 45 ages were randomly recruited from the mineralized district (Magu village) and no-mineralized district (Salaxi viillage) , urine of villagers were collected and thallium content in urine were detected with ICP-MS. The average thallium contents in urine of Magu villagers were higner than those of Salaxi villagers,The urinary thallium contents of female were higner than those of male. The urinary thallium contents of residents in two districts were mostly under the upper limit of exposure in human bodies. There was no villager suffered from chronic poisoning of thallium in the two observing districts, the 95% upper limits of urinary thallium content for nonoccupational women older than 45 ages in Magu village was 8 microg/gCr and those for other nonoccupational subjects older than 45 ages was 5 microg/gCr.

  7. Leisure as a resource for successful aging by older adults with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan L; Nimrod, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), the purpose of this article is to examine leisure-related goals of older adults with chronic conditions and the strategies they use to not only successfully manage their chronic health conditions but live well with them. Semi-structured in-person interviews were conducted with 18 community-dwelling older adults (nine males, nine females, ages 58-87 years) with a variety of chronic conditions. Inductive and deductive within and cross-case thematic analyses resulted in descriptions of changes and continuity in participants' leisure participation following the onset of their chronic condition and construction of four themes: drawing on existing resources for continued involvement, setting leisure-based goals, using strategies to get more out of life, and more than managing: living a life of meaning. Implications for promoting successful aging are discussed, specifically the benefits of incorporating information and skill-building to help older adults recognize that leisure can be a resource for healthy aging and self-managing their chronic health condition.

  8. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  9. Evidence-Based Approaches to Remedy and Also to Prevent Abuse of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse is a global issue, with an estimated 4–10% of older persons in Canada abused each year. Although Canadian legislation has been created to prevent and punish the abuse of older persons living in nursing homes and other care facilities, community-dwelling older persons are at greater risk of abuse. This paper highlights the importance of evidence-based actions targeted at three determinants of health: (a personal health practices and coping skills, (b social support networks, and (c social environments. Two research studies are profiled as case studies that illustrate the ready possibility and value of two specific types of actions on community-based older-person abuse. This paper argues for the immediate and widespread adoption of these evidence-based measures and for additional empirical evidence to guide the correction of underreporting of abuse, raise awareness of its serious nature, and increase options to not only stop it but ultimately prevent it.

  10. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81......% (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13...

  11. Care co-ordination for older people in the third sector: scoping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendstern, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Jasper, Rowan; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2018-05-01

    The third sector has played a significant role internationally in the delivery of adult social care services for many years. Its contribution to care co-ordination activities for older people, however, in England and elsewhere, is relatively unknown. A scoping review was therefore conducted to ascertain the character of the literature, the nature and extent of third sector care co-ordination activity, and to identify evidence gaps. It was undertaken between autumn 2013 and summer 2014 and updated with additional searches in 2016. Electronic and manual searches of international literature using distinct terms for different approaches to care co-ordination were undertaken. From a total of 835 papers, 26 met inclusion criteria. Data were organised in relation to care co-ordination approaches, types of third sector organisation and care recipients. Papers were predominantly from the UK and published this century. Key findings included that: a minority of literature focused specifically on older people and that those doing so described only one care co-ordination approach; third sector services tended to be associated with independence and person-centred practice; and working with the statutory sector, a prerequisite of care co-ordination, was challenging and required a range of features to be in place to support effective partnerships. Strengths and weaknesses of care co-ordination practice in the third sector according to key stakeholder groups were also highlighted. Areas for future research included the need for: a specific focus on older people's experiences; an investigation of workforce issues; detailed examination of third sector practices, outcomes and costs; interactions with the statutory sector; and an examination of quality assurance systems and their appropriateness to third sector practice. The main implication of the findings is a need to nurture variety within the third sector in order to provide older people and other adults with the range of service

  12. Age- and function-related regional changes in cortical folding of the default mode network in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockwitz, Christiane; Caspers, Svenja; Lux, Silke; Jütten, Kerstin; Schleicher, Axel; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in the functional architecture of the default mode network (DMN), e.g. a posterior to anterior shift (PASA) of activations. The putative structural correlate for this functional reorganization, however, is largely unknown. Changes in gyrification, i.e. decreases of cortical folding were found to be a marker of atrophy of the brain in later decades of life. Therefore, the present study assessed local gyrification indices of the DMN in relation to age and cognitive performance in 749 older adults aged 55-85 years. Age-related decreases in local gyrification indices were found in the anterior part of the DMN [particularly; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)] of the right hemisphere, and the medial posterior parts of the DMN [particularly; posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus] of both hemispheres. Positive correlations between cognitive performance and local gyrification indices were found for (1) selective attention and left PCC/precuneus, (2) visual/visual-spatial working memory and bilateral PCC/precuneus and right angular gyrus (AG), and (3) semantic verbal fluency and right AG and right mPFC. The more pronounced age-related decrease in local gyrification indices of the posterior parts of the DMN supports the functionally motivated PASA theory by correlated structural changes. Surprisingly, the prominent age-related decrease in local gyrification indices in right hemispheric ROIs provides evidence for a structural underpinning of the right hemi-aging hypothesis. Noticeably, the performance-related changes in local gyrification largely involved the same parts of the DMN that were subject to age-related local gyrification decreases. Thus, the present study lends support for a combined structural and functional theory of aging, in that the functional changes in the DMN during aging are accompanied by comparably localized structural alterations.

  13. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Farsi version of Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire in Iranian older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeh N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nahid Rejeh,1 Majideh Heravi-Karimooi,1 Mojtaba Vaismoradi,2 Pauline Griffiths,3 Maryam Nikkhah,4 Tahereh Bahrami4 1Elderly Care Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; 2Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Norway; 3College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK; 4Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran Background: Attitudes to the aging process are affected by the individual’s sociocultural background. The measurement of this important concept among older people in various societies requires the use of tools that are able to demonstrate both reliability and validity.Objective: The objectives of this study were to translate and validate the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ and investigate its psychometric features among Iranian older people.Methods: In this methodological study, the Farsi version of the AAQ was validated among 400 Iranian older adults who were members of citizen clubs in an urban area of Iran. Content, face and construct (exploratory factor analysis validities of the AAQ were assessed. In addition, its reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency and stability. For discriminant validity, the discriminant power of the AAQ in terms of gender and education levels was evaluated. Criterion validity showed a significant correlation between the most subscales of the AAQ and the Short Form 36 (SF-36 and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.Results: The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the construct validity of the AAQ. The result of the test–retest reliability with a 2-week interval was satisfactory and reported as r=0.90 (p<0.001. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was reported as 0.75 for the whole instrument and 0.85–0.93 for its dimensions. There were associations between the AAQ subscales

  16. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  17. Effect of the NU-AGE Diet on Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseglia, Anna; Xu, W.; Fratiglioni, Laura; Fabbri, Cristina; Berendsen, A.M.; Bialecka-Debek, Agata; Jennings, A.; Gillings, Rachel; Meunier, N.; Caumon, E.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Pietruszka, B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing

  18. The association between health literacy and self-management abilities in adults aged 75 and older, and its moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-11-01

    Low health literacy is an important predictor of poor health outcomes and well-being among older adults. A reason may be that low health literacy decreases older adults' self-management abilities. We therefore assessed the association between health literacy and self-management abilities among adults aged 75 and older, and the impact of demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, and health status on this association. We used data of 1052 older adults, gathered for a previously conducted randomized controlled trial on Embrace, an integrated elderly care model. These data pertained to health literacy, self-management abilities, demographic background, socioeconomic situation, and health status. Health literacy was measured by the validated three-item Brief Health Literacy Screening instrument. Self-management abilities were measured by the validated Self-Management Ability Scale (SMAS-30). After adjustment for confounders, self-management abilities were poorer in older adults with low health literacy (β = .34, p older adults than in low-educated older adults. Sex, age, living situation, income, presence of chronic illness, and mental health status did not moderate the association between health literacy and self-management abilities. Low health literacy is associated with poor self-management abilities in a wide range of older adults. Early recognition of low health literacy among adults of 75 years and older and interventions to improve health literacy might be very beneficial for older adults.

  19. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall-but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation-were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory.

  20. Association Between Sensory Impairment and Dementia in Older Adults: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanan; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2018-03-01

    To determine the association between sensory impairment and dementia in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional. Older adults in 31 provinces of China. Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 250,752). Psychiatrists ascertained dementia based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Sensory impairment was measured as only hearing impairment, only vision impairment, and combined sensory impairment (combined hearing and vision impairment). Hearing impairment was defined as greater than 40 dB loss in the better ear according to the standard of the World Health Organization (WHO) Prevention of Deafness and Hearing Impairment (PDH) standard 97.3. Ophthalmologists assessed vision impairment according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) criteria (low vision: 0.05≤BCVA ≤0.29; blindness: no light perception ≤ BCVA without sensory impairment, 0.83% (95% CI = 0.70-0.99%) with only visual impairment, 0.61 (95% CI = 0.53-0.71%) with only hearing impairment, and 1.27% (95% CI = 1.00-1.61%) with combined sensory impairments. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, vision impairment (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.28-1.96) and combined sensory impairments (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.23-2.20) were associated with greater risk of severe to extremely severe dementia. Hearing impairment was not significantly associated with dementia. Sensory impairments are associated with greater risk of dementia in Chinese older adults. Studies are needed to further explore the pathway of this association in Chinese elderly adults and to provide suggestions to improve health status for this population. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  2. Strategies for continuing professional development among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses: a biographical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Inge A; Poell, Rob F; Berings, Marjolein G M C; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-05-01

    A nursing career can last for more than 40 years, during which continuing professional development is essential. Nurses participate in a variety of learning activities that correspond with their developmental motives. Lifespan psychology shows that work-related motives change with age, leading to the expectation that motives for continuing professional development also change. Nevertheless, little is known about nurses' continuing professional development strategies in different age groups. To explore continuing professional development strategies among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, from a biographical perspective. Data were analysed using a vertical process aimed at creating individual learning biographies, and a horizontal process directed at discovering differences and similarities between age groups. Twenty-one nurses in three age groups from general and academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In all age groups, daily work was an important trigger for professional development on the ward. Performing extra or new tasks appeared to be an additional trigger for undertaking learning activities external to the ward. Learning experiences in nurses' private lives also contributed to their continuing professional development. Besides these similarities, the data revealed differences in career stages and private lives, which appeared to be related to differences in continuing professional development strategy; 'gaining experience and building a career' held particularly true among younger nurses, 'work-life balance' and 'keeping work interesting and varied' to middle-aged nurses, and 'consistency at work' to older nurses. Professional development strategies can aim at performing daily patient care, extra tasks and other roles. Age differences in these strategies appear to relate to tenure, perspectives on the future, and situations at home. These insights could help hospitals to orientate continuing

  3. Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a central role in every human life from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, highlight what should be noticed and remembered, and guide decisions and actions. As emotions are central to daily functioning, it is important to understand how aging affects perception, memory, experience, as well as regulation of emotions. The Frontiers research topic Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior takes a step into uncovering emotional aging considering both brain and behavioral processes. The contributions featured in this issue adopt innovative theoretical perspectives and use novel methodological approaches to target a variety of topics that can be categorized into three overarching questions: How do cognition and emotion interact in aging in brain and behavior? What are behavioral and brain-related moderators of emotional aging? Does emotion-regulatory success as reflected in brain and behavior change with age? In this perspective paper we discuss theoretical innovation, methodological approach, and scientific advancement of the thirteen papers in the context of the broader literature on emotional aging. We conclude by reflecting on topics untouched and future directions to take.

  4. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  6. Effects of aging and insulin resistant states on protein anabolic responses in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jose A; Jacob, Kathryn Wright; Chevalier, Stéphanie

    2018-07-15

    Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure simultaneously glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0.007) and was highly correlated with the clamp glucose rate of disposal (r = 0.671, p anabolism compared with young ones. As most of the anabolism occurs during feeding, we studied the fed-state metabolic responses with aging using the hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic and hyperaminoacidemic clamp, including muscle biopsies. Older women showed comparable whole-body protein anabolic responses and stimulation of mixed-muscle protein synthesis by feeding to the young. The responses of skeletal muscle insulin signaling through the Akt-mTORC1 pathway were also unaltered, and therefore consistent with muscle protein synthesis results. Given that type 2 diabetes infers insulin resistance of protein metabolism with aging, we studied 10 healthy, 8 obese, and 8 obese type 2 diabetic elderly women using the HYPER-1 clamp. When compared to the group of young lean women to define the effects of obesity and diabetes with aging, whole-body change in net protein balance with hyperinsulinemia was similarly blunted in obese and diabetic older women. However, only elderly obese women with diabetes had lower net balance than lean older women. We conclude that with usual aging, the blunted whole-body anabolic response in elderly subjects is mediated by the failure of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis to the same extent as in the young, especially in men. This blunted response can be overcome at the whole-body and muscle

  7. Factors associated with Spanish older people's membership in political organizations: the role of active aging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    This study explores older people's membership in political organizations by using data from the Survey on older people 2010, carried out by Spain's National Institute for older people and social services. The objectives were to describe the extent of this kind of participation among Spaniards aged 65 and over, and to analyze the factors that are associated with it. Results show that only slightly less than 7 % of the sample belonged to a political organization. To analyze the factors related to this membership, a set of models of multivariate analyses were run, including socioeconomic resources and participation in other types of active aging activity (participation in leisure, learning, and productive activities). Educational level, leisure activities, learning activities, and only volunteering in the case of productive activities were found to be associated with membership in political organizations. Results provide partial support for the socioeconomic resources model and suggest that engagement in leisure activities, learning activities, and volunteering might have an enhancing effect on membership in political organizations.

  8. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Procter-Gray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account.

  9. Age is no barrier: predictors of academic success in older learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Abbie-Rose; Ward, David D.; Stuart, Kimberley E.; Summers, Mathew J.; Valenzuela, Michael J.; King, Anna E.; Saunders, Nichole L.; Summers, Jeffrey; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James C.

    2017-11-01

    Although predictors of academic success have been identified in young adults, such predictors are unlikely to translate directly to an older student population, where such information is scarce. The current study aimed to examine cognitive, psychosocial, lifetime, and genetic predictors of university-level academic performance in older adults (50-79 years old). Participants were mostly female (71%) and had a greater than high school education level (M = 14.06 years, SD = 2.76), on average. Two multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The first examined all potential predictors of grade point average (GPA) in the subset of participants who had volunteered samples for genetic analysis (N = 181). Significant predictors of GPA were then re-examined in a second multiple linear regression using the full sample (N = 329). Our data show that the cognitive domains of episodic memory and language processing, in conjunction with midlife engagement in cognitively stimulating activities, have a role in predicting academic performance as measured by GPA in the first year of study. In contrast, it was determined that age, IQ, gender, working memory, psychosocial factors, and common brain gene polymorphisms linked to brain function, plasticity and degeneration (APOE, BDNF, COMT, KIBRA, SERT) did not influence academic performance. These findings demonstrate that ageing does not impede academic achievement, and that discrete cognitive skills as well as lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating activities can promote academic success in older adults.

  10. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-01

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  12. Social determinants of bone densitometry uptake for osteoporosis risk in patients aged 50yr and older: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sharon L; Wluka, Anita E; Gould, Haslinda; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Leslie, William D; Ebeling, Peter R; Oldenburg, Brian; Kotowicz, Mark A; Pasco, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization identifies that osteoporosis is one of the leading health problems in the Western world. An increased risk of fragility fracture is observed in more socially disadvantaged individuals in most Western countries. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the procedure of choice to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding social determinants of DXA utilization for osteoporosis detection in patients aged 50yr and older using a computer-aided search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO from January 1994 to December 2010. Five cross-sectional studies, incorporating 16 separate analyses, were identified for inclusion in this review. The best evidence analysis identified limited evidence for a positive association between either income or education with DXA utilization; furthermore, the best evidence analysis found no evidence for an association between either marital status or working status and DXA utilization. Further research is required to identify whether a relationship exists and elucidate reasons for disparities in DXA utilization between different social groups, such as choice and referral processes, as a necessary precursor in identifying modifiable determinants and appropriate strategies to promote preventive screening to identify fracture risk. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villiers-Tuthill, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour patterns in older groups, including tobacco and alcohol use, are key factors in chronic disease prevention. We explore ageing self-perceptions as motivating factors behind smoking and drinking alcohol in older adults, and the complex reasons why individuals engage harmfully in these behaviours.

  14. European Top Managers’ Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations’ Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations’ recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We

  15. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Jaap Oude; Henkens, Kene; Schippers, Joop

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We

  16. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available David E Vance1, Mark Brennan2, Comfort Enah1, Glenda L Smith1, Jaspreet Kaur31School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2New York University College of Nursing, AIDS Community Research Initiative of America, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychology and Edward R. Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.Keywords: HIV, aging, spirituality, religion, stigma, coping, successful aging

  17. Cellular evidence for selfish spermatogonial selection in aged human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, G J; Goriely, A; Wilkie, A O M

    2014-05-01

    Owing to a recent trend for delayed paternity, the genomic integrity of spermatozoa of older men has become a focus of increased interest. Older fathers are at higher risk for their children to be born with several monogenic conditions collectively termed paternal age effect (PAE) disorders, which include achondroplasia, Apert syndrome and Costello syndrome. These disorders are caused by specific mutations originating almost exclusively from the male germline, in genes encoding components of the tyrosine kinase receptor/RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. These particular mutations, occurring randomly during mitotic divisions of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), are predicted to confer a selective/growth advantage on the mutant SSC. This selective advantage leads to a clonal expansion of the mutant cells over time, which generates mutant spermatozoa at levels significantly above the background mutation rate. This phenomenon, termed selfish spermatogonial selection, is likely to occur in all men. In rare cases, probably because of additional mutational events, selfish spermatogonial selection may lead to spermatocytic seminoma. The studies that initially predicted the clonal nature of selfish spermatogonial selection were based on DNA analysis, rather than the visualization of mutant clones in intact testes. In a recent study that aimed to identify these clones directly, we stained serial sections of fixed testes for expression of melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGEA4), a marker of spermatogonia. A subset of seminiferous tubules with an appearance and distribution compatible with the predicted mutant clones were identified. In these tubules, termed 'immunopositive tubules', there is an increased density of spermatogonia positive for markers related to selfish selection (FGFR3) and SSC self-renewal (phosphorylated AKT). Here we detail the properties of the immunopositive tubules and how they relate to the predicted mutant clones, as well as discussing the utility of

  18. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses.We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  19. Expectations Regarding Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Aili I.; Watts, Amber S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined how expectations regarding aging (ERA) influence physical activity participation and physical function. Method: We surveyed 148 older adults about their ERA (ERA-38), health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), and self-rated health (RAND-36). We tested the mediating effect of physical activity on the relationships between ERA and physical function. Results: Positive expectations were associated with more engagement in physical activity (B = 0.016, p physical function (B = 0.521, p Physical activity mediated the relationship between ERA and physical function (B = 5.890, p physically active lifestyles in older adults and may influence health outcomes, such as physical function. Future research should evaluate whether attempts to increase physical activity are more successful when modifications to ERA are also targeted. PMID:28491915

  20. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn F. Lalor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care.

  1. Older residents' perspectives on aged sexuality in institutionalized elderly care: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate older residents' thoughts on, experiences of and engagement in sexual behavior and aged sexuality within institutionalized elderly care. Systematic literature review. We conducted an extensive search of the electronic databases Cinahl, Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Invert for papers published between January 1980 and October 2014 when the searches were closed. Additional papers were identified through forward and backward citation chasing. Data from relevant studies were extracted by means of a data extraction form. Relevant data were isolated, summarized, compared, related and categorized according to theme. Quality assessment of the included studies focused on their adequacy of reporting the study's research aim, sampling, collection, and analysis procedures, ethical considerations and results. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. These studies varied in research design (using surveys, vignettes, focus groups, interviews, or observation), objectives, quality of reporting, and sample characteristics (i.e. male and/or female long-term care residents with and/or without dementia). Yet, they all point to the relevance of sex and sexuality in old age and emphasize the highly individual character of both sexual interest and expression. Older residents who wish to sexually express themselves, might do this in a wide variety of ways, including, but not limited to, daydreaming, dressing-up, looking for emotional and intellectual intimacy, stroking, caressing, kissing, and engaging in sexual intercourse. Overall, residents appear to have a rather positive attitude toward aged sexuality as such. When it comes to specific sexual behaviors or homosexuality, however, attitudes tend to be more negative. The perceived appropriateness of the displayed behavior is a predominant factor in determining older people's reactions to the sexual behavior of co-residents, rather than the potential

  2. Habitually exercising older men do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Gary L; Donato, Anthony J; LaRocca, Thomas J; Eskurza, Iratxe; Silver, Annemarie E; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older men who perform habitual aerobic exercise do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress compared with their sedentary peers. Older exercising men (n=13, 62±2 years) had higher (Pexercise oxygen consumption (42±1 vs. 29±1 mL kg(-1) per minute) vs. sedentary men (n=28, 63±1 years). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of vascular endothelial function, was greater (Pexercising vs. sedentary older men (6.3±0.5 vs. 4.9±0.4%Δ) and not different than young controls (n=20, 25±1 years, 7.1±0.5%Δ). In vascular endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery, nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was 51% lower in the exercising vs. sedentary older men (0.38±0.06 vs. 0.77±0.10 AU). This was associated with lower endothelial expression of the oxidant enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p47(phox) subunit, 0.33±0.05 vs. 0.61±0.09 AU) and the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) (p65 subunit, 0.36±0.05 vs. 0.72±0.09 AU). Expression of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) (0.57±0.13 vs. 0.30±0.04 AU) and activity of endothelium-bound extracellular SOD were greater (6.4±0.5 vs. 5.0±0.6 U mL(-1) per minute) in the exercising men (both Pexercising older men. Older men who exercise regularly do not demonstrate vascular endothelial oxidative stress, and this may be a key molecular mechanism underlying their reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Experiential health from an ageing and migration perspective: the case of older Finland-Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, Gunilla; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2010-02-01

    Research has shown that immigrants and minority groups tend to have a lower health status compared to the majority population. The Finnish immigrants in Sweden are no exception. The Finland-Swedes, i.e., persons living in Finland who have Swedish as their mother language, seem to be an exception, however. They have been found to have better health and longer life expectancy compared to the Finnish majority. Research on health among migrated Finland-Swedes is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe and deepen the understanding of how older Finland-Swedes living as immigrants in Sweden, as well as re-migrants in Finland, experienced their health. Data was collected through 39 qualitative interviews with 29 older Finland-Swedes aged 65 or more. Data was analysed through qualitative thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in five themes: Ageing means becoming frail and closer to death; Despite frailty and old age it is possible to feel well and experience peace; Being grateful for health as a source of life; Health comes from inner strength and external sources; Migration meant a mental and physical burden to health. Overall, both ageing and migration were experienced as jeopardising health.

  4. Cognitive function and associated factors among older people in Taiwan: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive function and the risk and the protective factors by age and sex among Taiwanese older people. The data were from a nation-representative panel of older people in Taiwan. The participants completing both the 2003 and 2007 waves were included for analysis in this study (n=3228). Descriptive analysis and generalized linear model were applied, and the samples were stratified by age groups and by sex. The factors related to higher cognitive function at the intercept included being younger, male, higher education, and doing unpaid work. At the time slope, the age effect and physical function difficulties would reduce the cognitive function across time, while education and providing informational support would increase the cognitive function across time. There were age- and sex-differences in the factors related to cognitive function, particularly on the working status and social participation. Different health promotion strategies to target these populations should be accordingly developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Move or Suffer": Is Age-Segregation the New Norm for Older Americans Living Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Halpern, Jodi

    2016-08-01

    Despite ethical claims that civic societies should foster intergenerational integration, age-segregation is a widespread yet understudied phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons that led community-dwelling older Americans to relocate into senior housing. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and ethnographic interviews with 47 older adults living alone in San Francisco, California. Half of study participants lived in housing for seniors, the other half in conventional housing. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative methods. Findings illuminate the dynamics that favor age-segregation. Senior housing might be cheaper, safer, and offer more socializing opportunities than conventional housing. Yet, tenants of senior housing may also experience isolation, crime, and distress. Findings suggest that rather than individual preference, cultural, political, and economic factors inform the individual decision to relocate into age-segregated settings. Findings also call for an increased awareness on the ethical implications of societies increasingly segregated by age. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and white matter (WM) microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired from 127 individuals (age range 41–86 years). IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: “high HOMA-IR” (≥2.5, n = 27) and “low HOMA-IR” (HOMA-IR group demonstrated decreased axial diffusivity broadly throughout the cerebral WM in areas such as the corpus callosum, corona radiata, cerebral peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and WM underlying the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of corpus callosum and parts of the superior and anterior corona radiata, compared with the low HOMA-IR group, independent of age, WM signal abnormality volume, and antihypertensive medication status. These regions additionally demonstrated linear associations between diffusion measures and HOMA-IR across all subjects, with higher HOMA-IR values being correlated with lower axial diffusivity. Conclusions: In generally healthy adults, greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24771537

  7. The Aging Urban Brain: Analyzing Outdoor Physical Activity Using the Emotiv Affectiv Suite in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Tilley, Sara; Mavros, Panagiotis; Cinderby, Steve; Coyne, Richard; Thin, Neil; Bennett, Gary; Thompson, Catharine Ward

    2017-12-01

    This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place. Each walk lasted around 15 min and was undertaken at the pace of the participant. We report on the outputs for these responses derived from the Emotiv Affectiv Suite software, which creates emotional parameters ('excitement', 'frustration', 'engagement' and 'meditation') with a real-time value assigned to them. The six walking scenarios were compared using a form of high dimensional correlated component regression (CCR) on difference data, capturing the change between one setting and another. The results showed that levels of 'engagement' were higher in the urban green space compared to those of the urban busy and urban quiet spaces, whereas levels of 'excitement' were higher in the urban busy environment compared with those of the urban green space and quiet urban space. In both cases, this effect is shown regardless of the order of exposure to these different environments. These results suggest that there are neural signatures associated with the experience of different urban spaces which may reflect the older age of the sample as well as the condition of the spaces themselves. The urban green space appears to have a restorative effect on this group of older adults.

  8. Patterns of emergency ambulance use, 2009-13: a comparison of older people living in Residential Aged Care Facilities and the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, R; Gabbe, B; Tran, T D; Smith, K; Lowthian, J A

    2018-04-24

    to examine demand for emergency ambulances by older people. retrospective cohort study using secondary analysis of routinely collected clinical and administrative data from Ambulance Victoria, and population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Victoria, Australia. people aged 65 years and over, living in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACF) and the community, attended by emergency ambulance paramedics, 2009-13. rates of emergency ambulance attendance. older people living in RACF experienced high rates of emergency ambulance attendance, up to four times those for age- and sex-matched people living in the community. Rates remained constant during the study period equating to a consistent, 1.45% average annual increase in absolute demand. Rates peak among the 80-84-year group where the number of attendances equates to greater than one for every RACF-dwelling person each year. Increased demand was associated with winter months, increasing age and being male. these data provide strong evidence of high rates of emergency ambulance use by people aged 65 years and over living in RACF. These results demonstrate a clear relationship between increased rate of ambulance use among this vulnerable group of older Australians and residence, sex, age and season. Overall, absolute demand continues to increase each year adding to strain on health resources. Additional research is needed to elucidate individual characteristics, illness and health system contributors to ambulance use to inform strategies to appropriately reduce demand.

  9. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. First Episode of Self-Harm in Older Age : A Report From the 10-Year Prospective Manchester Self-Harm Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Cooper, Jayne; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steeg, Sarah; Kapur, Nay; Purandare, Nitin B.

    Objective: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  11. First episode of self-harm in older age: a report from the 10-year prospective Manchester Self-Harm project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Cooper, J.; Murphy, E.; Steeg, S.; Kapur, N.; Purandare, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  12. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Phelan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ with a history of repeated falls or fall-related healthcare use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79±8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged 6 primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety to 78% (for vitamin D. An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21% and home safety (24%. Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall risk factors (P=0.003. Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p=.04 and perform more fall risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p=.007 than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.

  13. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  14. Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program: Shaping a Healthy Future for Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Pike, Kathleen M; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Elinson, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    As the size of the elderly population increases, so do the challenges of and barriers to high-quality, affordable health care. The Health and Aging Policy Fellows (HAPF) Program is designed to provide health and aging professionals with the skills and experience to help lead the effort in reducing these barriers and shaping a healthy and productive future for older Americans. Since its inception in 2008, the program has affected not only the fellows who participate, but also the field of health and aging policy. Work needs to be done to sustain this program so that more fellows can participate and sound policies for the elderly population can continue to be shaped and improved. This report describes the HAPF Program, including its background (rationale, description, partners, progress, effect), lessons learned, challenges and solutions, and policy implications. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students’ Empathy for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. Methods. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults’ experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. Results. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Conclusion. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. PMID:26396274

  16. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students' Empathy for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.

  17. Strategies for improving the lives of US women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS: an evidence map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gaelen P; Di, Mengyang; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Halladay, Christopher; Smith, Bryant T; Iyer, Suchitra; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2018-02-02

    While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays, the population living with HIV/AIDS is approximately 24% women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many of the older women who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging. This work aims to identify and characterize empirical studies of strategies for the comprehensive management of women over 40, including transgender women, who live with HIV/AIDS. Forty was chosen as an operational age cutoff to identify premenopausal women who are less likely to bear children, as well as peri- and postmenopausal women. We conducted a literature search after discussions with a diverse panel of content experts and other stakeholders and developed an evidence map that identified 890 citations that address questions having to do with programs and barriers to engaging with programs, as well as the role of insurance and comorbidities, and have enrolled older women who live with HIV/AIDS. Of these, only 37 (4%) reported results of interest for women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS, or examined interactions between gender and older age that would allow predictions in this subgroup. Few of the 37 eligible studies focused on women facing obvious challenges, such as immigrants, transgender, physically abused, or those recently released from prison. No studies focused on women caring for dependents, including children and grandchildren, or those diagnosed after age 40. The evidence base that is directly applicable to women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS in the USA is limited, and the research need is broad. We propose research prioritization strategies for this population.

  18. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  19. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  20. Social networks and alcohol use among older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Spilman, Samantha L; Liao, Diana H; Sacco, Paul; Moore, Alison A

    2018-04-01

    This study compared the association between social networks and alcohol consumption among middle-aged (MA) and older adults (OA) to better understand the nature of the relationship between those two factors among OA and MA. We examined Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Current drinkers aged over 50 were subdivided into two age groups: MA (50-64, n = 5214) and OA (65 and older, n = 3070). Each age group was stratified into drinking levels (low-risk vs. at-risk) based on alcohol consumption. The size and diversity of social networks were measured. Logistic regression models were used to examine age differences in the association between the social networks (size and diversity) and the probability of at-risk drinking among two age groups. A significant association between the social networks diversity and lower odds of at-risk drinking was found among MA and OA. However, the relationship between the diversity of social networks and the likelihood of at-risk drinking was weaker for OA than for MA. The association between social networks size and at-risk drinking was not significant among MA and OA. The current study suggests that the association between social networks diversity and alcohol use among OA differs from the association among MA, and few social networks were associated with alcohol use among OA. In the future, research should consider an in-depth exploration of the nature of social networks and alcohol consumption by using longitudinal designs and advanced methods of exploring drinking networks.

  1. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  2. Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: evidence from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Robin; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Mugurungi, Owen; Rhead, Rebecca; Takaruza, Albert; Maswera, Rufurwokuda; Nyamukapa, Constance

    2017-06-19

    Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). A total of 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of intersurvey periods. Last sexual partner age difference and age-disparate relationships [intergenerational (≥10 years age difference) and intragenerational (5-9 years) versus age-homogeneous (0-4 years)] were tested for associations with HIV incidence in Cox regressions. A proximate determinants framework was used to explore factors possibly explaining variations in the contribution of age-disparate relationships to HIV incidence between populations and over time. About 126 HIV infections occurred over 8777 person-years (1.43 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.68). Sixty-five percent of women reported partner age differences of at least 5 years. Increasing partner age differences were associated with higher HIV incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)]. Intergenerational relationships tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.78 (0.96-3.29)] but not intragenerational relationships [aHR = 0.91 (0.47-1.76)]. Secondary education was associated with reductions in intergenerational relationships [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.49 (0.36-0.68)]. Intergenerational relationships were associated with partners having concurrent relationships [aOR = 2.59 (1.81-3.70)], which tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.74 (0.96-3.17)]. Associations between age disparity and HIV incidence did not change over time. Sexual relationships with older men expose young women to increased risk of HIV acquisition in Manicaland, which did not change over time, even with introduction

  3. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  4. Old, older and too old: age limits for medically assisted fatherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Andrea Mechanick

    2017-02-01

    How old is too old to be a father? Can you be a little bit older or "old-ish" to be a dad without being considered an "older dad"? At some point, does one simply become too old to be a father? Unless a man requires medical assistance in family building, that answer has historically turned solely on his opportunity to have a willing female partner of reproductive age. As with so many other aspects of family building, assisted reproductive technologies have transformed the possibilities for-and spawned heated debates about-maternal age. Much attention has been given to this contentious topic for potential mothers, with many programs putting age-related limitations in place for their female patients. This article considers whether there should also be limits-and how we should approach that question-for men who require and seek medical assistance to become fathers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacogenetics of neurological and psychiatric diseases at older age: has the time come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozupone, Madia; Panza, Francesco; Stella, Eleonora; La Montagna, Maddalena; Bisceglia, Paola; Miscio, Giuseppe; Galizia, Ilaria; Daniele, Antonio; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Bellomo, Antonello; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, a number of pharmacological approaches for treating neuropsychiatric conditions at older age have proven to be inadequate. The resulting increased prevalence of therapeutic failures (TF) and a worsening of clinical symptoms often linked to adverse reactions (ADRs), are perhaps among the major causes of the increasing rate of hospitalizations and institutionalizations observed in these patients. Areas covered: This review underlines the importance of pharmacogenetic data to fingerprint the pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric late-life conditions throughout the analysis of metabolizing enzymes and transporters of psychotropic drugs, mainly those of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family. Pharmacodynamic response measures as treatment effects mediated through targets (i.e., receptors in the brain) may also contribute to this image. Expert opinion: CYP genetics is the basis of a continuum on which environmental and physiological factors act, modeling the phenotype observed in clinical practice with advancing age. Furthermore, other specific polymorphic genes influence drug response through differential effects of their functional genetic variants. The known genotypes associated with an altered metabolizer status and drug transporters may help clinical decision-making to avoid concomitant treatments, reduce therapeutic attempts and increase drug safety in neuropsychiatric conditions in older age, after controlling for other clinical variables.

  6. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Maneka S; Kerse, Ngaire; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-12-23

    To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited-66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary--presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary--functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer). Those with less significant physical impairment were found to be at greater risk of inflammatory

  7. The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David F; Nicholson, Thomas; White, John B; Bradley, Dana Burr; Bonaguro, John

    2010-07-01

    Between now and 2030, the number of adults aged 65 and older in the United States will almost double, from around 37 million to more than 70 million, an increase from 12% of the U.S. population to almost 20%. It was long held that, with only a few isolated exceptions, substance abuse simply did not exist among this population. In light of the impact of the baby boom generation, this assumption may no longer be valid. The authors examined admissions of persons 55 years and older (n = 918,955) from the Treatment Episode Data Set (1998-2006). Total admissions with a primary drug problem with alcohol have remained relatively stable over this time. Admissions for problems with a primary drug other than alcohol have shown a steady and substantial increase. Clearly, data from the Treatment Episode Data Set indicate a coming wave of older addicts whose primary problem is not alcohol. The authors suspect that this wave is led primarily by the continuing emergence of the baby boomer generation.

  8. Clinical evaluation of gallium-67 scintigraphy in comparison with autopsy findings in the older ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimohara, Yasuaki; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Kimura, Yuji; Nishino, Hideo; Ide, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Norimitsu; Chiba, Kazuo.

    1987-01-01

    A correlative study of autopsy findings and retrospective review of gallium scintigrams were performed in 106 older ages cases. Of these cases studied, 57 % demonstrated positive gallium study in the present series. Histological correlation was undertaken in cases of lung cancer. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest incidence of positive results (83 %), whereas adenocarcinoma was the lowest (35 %). There is no apparent correlation between subtypes of histological classification of adenocarcinoma and abnormal accumulation of gallium. However, abnormal accumulation of the nuclide seems to be rather related with interstitial reactions, namely fibrotic changes, lymphocyte infiltration and vascularization. (author)

  9. Variation of Blunt Traumatic Injury with Age in Older Adults: Statewide Analysis 2011-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Earl-Royal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death and disability in adults ≥ 65 years old, but there are few epidemiological studies addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to assess how characteristics of blunt traumatic injuries in adults ≥ 65 vary by age. Methods: Using data from the a single-state trauma registry, this retrospective cohort study examined injured patients ≥ 65 admitted to all Level I and Level II trauma centers in Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2014 (n=38,562. Patients were stratified by age into three subgroups (age 65-74; 75-84; ≥85. We compared demographics, injury, and system-level across groups. Results: We found significant increases in the proportion of female gender, (48.6% vs. 58.7% vs. 67.7%, white race (89.1% vs. 92.6% vs. 94.6%, and non-Hispanic ethnicity (97.5% vs. 98.6% vs. 99.4% across advancing age across age groups, respectively. As age increased, the proportion of falls (69.9% vs. 82.1% vs. 90.3%, in-hospital mortality (4.6% vs. 6.2% vs. 6.8%, and proportion of patients arriving to the hospital via ambulance also increased (73.6% vs. 75.8% vs. 81.1%, while median injury severity plateaued (9.0% all groups and the proportion of Level I trauma alerts (10.6% vs. 8.2% vs. 6.7% decreased. We found no trend between age and patient transfer status. The five most common diagnoses were vertebral fracture, rib fracture, head contusion, open head wound, and intracranial hemorrhage, with vertebral fracture and head contusion increasing with age, and rib fracture decreasing with age. Conclusion: In a large cohort of older adults with trauma (n= 38,000, we found, with advancing age, a decrease in trauma alert level, despite an increase in mortality and a decrease in demographic diversity. This descriptive study provides a framework for future research on the relationship between age and blunt traumatic injury in older adults.

  10. User Requirements for Technology to Assist Aging in Place: Qualitative Study of Older People and Their Informal Support Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Phoebe; Hunter, Inga; Whiddett, Dick; Lockhart, Caroline; Guesgen, Hans; Singh, Amardeep

    2018-06-06

    Informal support is essential for enabling many older people to age in place. However, there is limited research examining the information needs of older adults' informal support networks and how these could be met through home monitoring and information and communication technologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate how technologies that connect older adults to their informal and formal support networks could assist aging in place and enhance older adults' health and well-being. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 older adults and a total of 31 members of their self-identified informal support networks. They were asked questions about their information needs and how technology could support the older adults to age in place. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed. The analysis identified three overarching themes: (1) the social enablers theme, which outlined how timing, informal support networks, and safety concerns assist the older adults' uptake of technology, (2) the technology concerns theme, which outlined concerns about cost, usability, information security and privacy, and technology superseding face-to-face contact, and (3) the information desired theme, which outlined what information should be collected and transferred and who should make decisions about this. Older adults and their informal support networks may be receptive to technology that monitors older adults within the home if it enables aging in place for longer. However, cost, privacy, security, and usability barriers would need to be considered and the system should be individualizable to older adults' changing needs. The user requirements identified from this study and described in this paper have informed the development of a technology that is currently being prototyped. ©Phoebe Elers, Inga Hunter, Dick Whiddett, Caroline Lockhart, Hans Guesgen, Amardeep Singh. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 06.06.2018.

  11. Evaluating the physiological reserves of older patients with cancer: the value of potential biomarkers of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Hatse, Sigrid; Brouwers, Barbara; Pawelec, Graham; Falandry, Claire; Wedding, Ulrich; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Repetto, Lazzaro; Ring, Alistair; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Aging of an individual entails a progressive decline of functional reserves and loss of homeostasis that eventually lead to mortality. This process is highly individualized and is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This individualization and the diversity of factors influencing aging result in a significant heterogeneity among people with the same chronological age, representing a major challenge in daily oncology practice. Thus, many factors other than mere chronological age will contribute to treatment tolerance and outcome in the older patients with cancer. Clinical/comprehensive geriatric assessment can provide information on the general health status of individuals, but is far from perfect as a prognostic/predictive tool for individual patients. On the other hand, aging can also be assessed in terms of biological changes in certain tissues like the blood compartment which result from adaptive alterations due to past history of exposures, as well as intrinsic aging processes. There are major signs of 'aging' in lymphocytes (e.g. lymphocyte subset distribution, telomere length, p16INK4A expression), and also in (inflammatory) cytokine expression and gene expression patterns. These result from a combination of the above two processes, overlaying genetic predispositions which contribute significantly to the aging phenotype. These potential "aging biomarkers" might provide additional prognostic/predictive information supplementing clinical evaluation. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the most relevant potential "aging biomarkers" (markers that indicate the biological functional age of patients) which focus on the biological background, the (limited) available clinical data, and technical challenges. Despite their great potential interest, there is a need for much more (validated) clinical data before these biomarkers could be used in a routine clinical setting. This manuscript tries to provide a guideline on how

  12. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We investigate two types of age-related workplace norms, namely age equality norms (whether younger and older workers should be treated equally) and retirement age norms (when older workers are expected to retire) while controlling for organizational and national contexts. Data collected among top managers of 1,088 organizations from six European countries were used for the study. Logistic regression models were run to estimate the effects of age-related workplace norms on four different organizational outcomes: (a) recruiting older workers, (b) encouraging working until normal retirement age, (c) encouraging working beyond normal retirement age, and (d) rehiring retired former employees. Age-related workplace norms of top managers affect their organizations' practices, but in different ways. Age equality norms positively affect practices before the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes a and b), whereas retirement age norms positively affect practices after the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes c and d). Changing age-related workplace norms of important actors in organizations may be conducive to better employment opportunities and a higher level of employment participation of older workers. However, care should be taken to target the right types of norms, since targeting different norms may yield different outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 'Taking care' in the age of AIDS: older rural South Africans' strategies for surviving the HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Nicole; Mojola, Sanyu A; Schatz, Enid; Williams, Jill R; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Older adults have been largely overlooked in community studies of HIV in highly endemic African countries. In our rural study site in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, HIV prevalence among those aged 50 and older is 16.5%, suggesting that older adults are at risk of both acquiring and transmitting HIV. This paper utilises community-based focus-group interviews with older rural South African men and women to better understand the normative environment in which they come to understand and make decisions about their health as they age in an HIV endemic setting. We analyse the dimensions of an inductively emerging theme: ku ti hlayisa (to take care of yourself). For older adults, 'taking care' in an age of AIDS represented: (1) an individualised pathway to achieving old-age respectability through the taking up of responsibilities and behaviours that characterise being an older person, (2) a set of gendered norms and strategies for reducing one's HIV risk, and (3) a shared responsibility for attenuating the impact of the HIV epidemic in the local community. Findings reflect the individual, interdependent and communal ways in which older rural South Africans understand HIV risk and prevention, ways that also map onto current epidemiological thinking for improving HIV-related outcomes in high-prevalence settings.

  14. Radiotherapy for patients with malignant diseases aged 85 years or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hirofumi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and problems of radiotherapy for patients aged 85 or older. Forty-five patients were assessed (oldest old group): They were 85 years of age or older and had received radiotherapy between September 2002 and September 2005. Sixty-nine patients, 75 years of age at the start of radiotherapy, were also assessed (old group). In the oldest old group, there were 21 men and 24 women, and median age was 87 years (range; 85-99). The sites of disease were: 10 in head and neck, 5 in lung, 5 in malignant lymphoma, 4 in skin, 4 in esophagus, 2 in breast, 2 in uterine cervix, 2 in rectum, 2 in soft tissue, 2 in metastatic bone tumor, 7 in others. The treatment was deemed curative in 49%, palliative in 40%, and others in 11%. Treatment fields were limited due to performance status (PS) or age in 13 patients. The rate of treatment completion was 91% (41/45). Eleven of 26 inpatients were admitted because of difficulty in hospital visit. Seventeen of 19 outpatients needed familial escort. Of patients completed radiotherapy, 47% of the patients achieved complete response (CR), 37% achieved partial response (PR), and 16% achieved no change (NC) in the group of curative radiotherapy, and 88% of the patients achieved effective response, and only 2 cases resulted in ineffective response in the group of palliative radiotherapy. While only one patient received grade 3 dermatitis and mucositis, other patients received grade 2 and below adverse events. Three patients resulted in deterioration of PS, and 2 patients deteriorated dementia. Although higher rates in female patients, worse PS, and limitation of treatment field were seen in the oldest old group, there were no significant difference in terms of the rate of treatment completion, effectiveness, and adverse events between the two groups. Our study showed radiotherapy is effective and well tolerated in patients aged 85 or older. Considering the oldest old requiring radiotherapy

  15. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging.

  16. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Bermúdez Rey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4–9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  18. Radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 80 and older: a study of effectiveness and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, Babu; Balducci, Lodovico; Venkattaramanabalaji, G.V.; Casey, Linda; Greenberg, Harvey M.; Del Regato, Juan A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To profile cancer patients aged 80 and older undergoing radiotherapy and to study the tumor response and side effects of therapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients aged 80 and older who received radiation therapy at James A. Haley Veterans Hospital and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center between 1988 and 1995. A total of 203 patients aged 80-94 received radiotherapy during this period. Treatment sites included head and neck [50], breast [16], chest [37], pelvis [53], and miscellaneous [39]. Age, treatment site, field size, total dose, response to treatment, treatment interruptions, incidence and severity of weight loss, myelosuppression, diarrhea, mucositis, dermatitis, and follow-up status are assessed using our departmental records and hospital tumor registry. Results: Of 191 patients evaluated, 179 (94%) completed the treatment without serious complications. A total of 195 sites were irradiated. Twelve patients (6%) required interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic responses were seen in 86 out of 112 patients (77%) treated with curative intent (with 67% complete response) and in 67 out of 83 patients (81%) treated with palliative intent. The causes of treatment interruptions included weight loss from diarrhea, dysphagia, and progressive disease. Treatment interruptions were more likely in patients treated with large treatment fields. In patients treated for upper aero-digestive tract cancer, Grade 3 and 4 mucositis was noted in 20 and 2% of patients, respectively. Grade 1 and 2 enteritis was noted in 43% of patients treated for pelvic malignancies. Grade 3 dermatitis was noted only in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated by the oldest old. Age is not a contraindication to aggressive radiotherapy

  19. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  20. Age differences among older adults in the use of emotion regulation strategies. What happens among over 85s and centenarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Igone; Etxebarria, Itziar; Urdaneta, Elena; Yanguas, Jose Javier

    2016-09-01

    Past research on emotion regulation strategies has concluded that older adults use more passive strategies than young adults. However, we found scarce research in this field focusing on the oldest old (i.e. those aged 85 and over). The aim of this study was to analyze whether or not differences exist in the way older adults aged 85 and over (centenarians included) use emotion regulation strategies, in comparison with younger age groups (65-74 and 75-84 years old). Participants were 257 older adults from Spain, all aged between 65 and 104. The sample was divided into four age groups: 65-74; 75-84; 85-94; and 95-104 years old. Participants completed the Strategy Questionnaire after reading each of the vignettes designed to elicit feelings of either sadness or anger. The questionnaire measures four types of regulation strategies: Passive, Express, Solve and Seek. The 85-94 age group and centenarians were found to use proactive (Express, Seek) and Solve strategies less in comparison with younger age groups when regulating sadness and anger. In contrast, an increased use of Passive strategies was observed in the regulation of both emotions in the 85-94 age group. Significant differences were also found between centenarians and younger age groups in the use of Passive strategies for sadness, although not for anger. Age differences were observed in the use of emotion regulation strategies, with older age groups using proactive strategies less and passive strategies more.

  1. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  2. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  3. Physical Aspects of Healthy Aging: Assessments of Three Measures of Balance for Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina D. Ceria-Ulep

    2010-01-01

    Results. The EPESE and NHANES batteries of tests were not sufficiently challenging to allow successful discrimination among subjects in good health, even older subjects. The GBPS allowed objective quantitative measurements, but the test-retest correlations generally were not high. The GBPS variables correlated with age only when subjects stood on a foam pad; they also were correlated with anthropometric variables. Conclusion. Both EPESE and NHANES balance tests were too easy for healthy subjects. The GBPS had generally low reliability coefficients except for the most difficult testing condition (foam pad, eyes closed. Both height and body fat were associated with GBPS scores, necessitating adjusting for these variables if using balance as a predictor of future health.

  4. Death wishes among older people assessed for home support and long-term aged residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary; Edwards, Siobhan; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-12-01

    Death wishes in older people are common and may progress to suicidal ideation and attempts. This study used routinely collected data from the interRAI Home Care assessment to examine the prevalence and clinical predictors of death wishes in older New Zealanders assessed for home support and long-term aged residential care. Data were collected from 35 734 people aged over 65 during 2012-2014. Chi-squared analyses were used to determine significant relationships between the presence of death wishes and demographic factors, health and functional status, and emotional and psychosocial well-being. A three-step hierarchical logistic regression model was used to determine the predictive variables of death wishes, and odds ratios were calculated. Death wishes were present in 9.5% of the sample. The following factors were significantly associated with death wishes: physical health (poor self-reported health, recurrent falls, severe fatigue and inadequate pain control), psychological factors (depression, major stressors and anxiety), social factors (loneliness and decline in social activities) and impaired cognition. Depression (odds ratio = 2.54, 95% confidence interval = 2.29-2.81), loneliness (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% confidence interval = 2.20-2.63) and poor self-reported health (odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.78-3.07) had the greatest odds ratios in the full model. Clinically significant depression alone cannot fully account for the development of death wishes in the elderly, and several factors are independently associated with death wishes. This knowledge can help clinicians caring for older persons to identify people who are most at risk of developing death wishes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS: private health plan and medical care utilization by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate whether holding a private health plan affects the consumption of medical services (hospitalization and visits to a doctor and use of medications by older adults. All residents in Bambuí town (Minas Gerais, Brazil aged > or = 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected. From these, 92.2% were interviewed and 85.9% were examined (blood tests and physical measurements. After adjustments for counfounders, those under exclusive public coverage (n = 1,296, compared with those holding a private health plan (n = 310, presented some evidence of having worse health status, reported less visits to a doctor, and used a small number of prescribed medications. The main explanation for the aged holding a private health plan was economic, not health. Even though those who had only public health coverage complained more in relation to medical care (70.9%, an important proportion of the aged with a private health care plan presented some kind of complaint (45.2%. Another worrying factor was the difficulty to acquire medication because of financial problems (47.2 and 25.2% reported, respectively. Further investigations are needed to verify whether our results can be generalized to other communities of the country.

  6. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From ... years or older with diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, ...

  7. Risks and benefits of colonoscopy in patients aged 80 and older: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jurado da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to compare colonoscopy results in patients aged 50-79 and those aged 80 and older. Patients and Methods: a total of 533 diagnostic colonoscopies performed from August 2011 to January 2012 were evaluated in a prospective study analyzing age, ASA classification, co- morbidities, endoscopic findings, time to reach the cecum, number of complete examina- tions, difficulties and complications. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical data whereas Student's t test to compare means. A p value 0.05, ASA > 2 difficult examination: 41 (20% versus 6 (60% p 0.05. Complete colonoscopy in 450 (94% versus 45 (83%, p 0.05 Time to reach the cecum was 39 ± 10 minutes for difficult procedures and 13 ± 9 for the easy ones. Conclusion: age 80 and older is associated with more adverse events during colonoscopy. Resumo: Objetivo: avaliar riscos em colonoscopia após 80 anos de idade. Pacientes e métodos: entre agosto de 2011 e janeiro de 2012 realizamos colonoscopias em 533 pacientes. Grupo A: idade entre 50 e 79 e Grupo B > de 80 anos. Parâmetros analisados: ASA, comorbidades, achados endoscópicos, tempo de chegada ao ceco, número de exames com- pletos, dificuldade e complicações. Usamos teste Qui-quadrado para comparar proporção e teste t de Student para média e desvio padrão. p 0,05 > ASA 2 difícil 41 (20% e 6 (60% p 0.05. Exame completo 450 (94% e 45 (83% p 0,05. Tempo em minutos 39 ± 10 para os difíceis e 13 ± 9 para os fáceis. Conclusão: a idade de 80 anos constitui um risco para a realização de colonoscopia. Keywords: Colonoscopy, Risks, Complications, Older age, Elderly, Palavras-chave: Colonoscopia, Riscos, Complicações, Idade avançada, Terceira idade

  8. Big Five personality and depression diagnosis, severity and age of onset in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, A M L; Comijs, H C; Dhondt, A D F; van Marwijk, H W J; van der Mast, R C; Naarding, P; Oude Voshaar, R C; Stek, M L

    2013-10-01

    Personality may play an important role in late-life depression. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the Big Five personality domains and the diagnosis, severity and age of onset of late-life depression. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was cross-sectionally used in 352 depressed and 125 non-depressed older adults participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). Depression diagnosis was determined by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Logistic and linear regression analyses were applied. Adjustments were made for sociodemographic, cognitive, health and psychosocial variables. Both the presence of a depression diagnosis and severity of depression were significantly associated with higher Neuroticism (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.28-1.43 and B=1.06, ppersonality measures. This study confirms an association between personality and late-life depression. Remarkable is the association found between high Openness and earlier age of depression onset. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone age assessment practices in infants and older children among Society for Pediatric Radiology members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal A.; Tsai, Andy; Stamm, Aymeric; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous bone age estimation techniques exist, but little is known about what methods radiologists use in clinical practice. To determine which methods pediatric radiologists use to assess bone age in children, and their confidence in these methods. Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) members were invited to complete an online survey regarding bone age assessment. Respondents were asked to identify the methods used and their confidence with their technique for the following groups: Infants (<1 year old), 1- to 3-year-olds and 3- to 18-year-olds. Of the 937 SPR members invited, 441 responded (47%). For infants, 70% of respondents use the hand/wrist method of Greulich and Pyle, 27% use a hemiskeleton method (e.g., Sontag or Elgenmark), and 14.4% use the knee method of Pyle and Hoerr. Of these respondents, 34% were not confident with their technique. For 1- to 3-year-olds, 86% used Greulich and Pyle, and 19% used a hemiskeleton method; 21% were not confident with their technique in this age group. For 3- to 18-year-olds, 97% used Greulich and Pyle, and only 6% of respondents were not confident with their technique in this category. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the chronological age of the patient had the greatest impact on reader confidence, with the odds ratios for confidence being 4 times greater in the 3- to 18-year-olds category compared to the younger groups. For children older than 3 years, the majority of pediatric radiologists are very confident in their use of Greulich and Pyle for bone age assessment. However a variety of methodologies are used when assessing bone age in infants and younger children, and pediatric radiologists are less confident assessing bone age in these children. This survey highlights the need for a consensus protocol on bone age assessment of younger children and infants that provides readers with a higher degree of confidence. (orig.)

  10. Modernization, Aging and Coresidence of Older Persons: the Sri Lankan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasiri de Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the modernization on the living arrangements of elderly people in six selected communities representing urban, semi-urban, estate, rural, colonized settlement and fishing villages in Sri Lanka. The paper concludes that the modernization of the economy and society has exacerbated an intergenerational rift leading to an intensification of tensions between elderly people and other family members, despite the fact that the percentage of older people living with their children remains high. Such coresidence or intergenerational living comprises many types of living arrangements, and leads to mixed results for care of the elderly. Many elderly people have developed mechanisms to counteract the negative effects of coresidence: seeking independence during old age, by earning their own income and living alone or living with the spouse, indulging in behaviors such as drinking, spending time outside the home with friends of similar age, or creating their own living space within coresidence.

  11. Intraindividual variability is related to cognitive change in older adults: evidence for within-person coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors addressed the longitudinal nature of intraindividual variability over 3 years. A sample of 304 community-dwelling older adults, initially between the ages of 64 and 92 years, completed 4 waves of annual testing on a battery of accuracy- and latency-based tests covering a wide range of cognitive complexity. Increases in response-time inconsistency on moderately and highly complex tasks were associated with increasing age, but there were significant individual differences in change across the entire sample. The time-varying covariation between cognition and inconsistency was significant across the 1-year intervals and remained stable across both time and age. On occasions when intraindividual variability was high, participants' cognitive performance was correspondingly low. The strength of the coupling relationship was greater for more fluid cognitive domains such as memory, reasoning, and processing speed than for more crystallized domains such as verbal ability. Variability based on moderately and highly complex tasks provided the strongest prediction. These results suggest that intraindividual variability is highly sensitive to even subtle changes in cognitive ability. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  13. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  14. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Sedimentary Rocks of the 3.6 - 3.2 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt: No Evidence for Older Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Harrington, J.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal setting of early Archean greenstone belts and whether they formed on or associated with blocks of older continental crust or in more oceanic settings remains a major issue in Archean geology. We report detrital zircon U-Pb age data from sandstones of the 3.26-3.20 Ga Fig Tree and Moodies Groups and from 3.47 to 3.23 Ga meteorite impact-related deposits in the 3.55-3.20 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. The provenance signatures of these sediments are characterized by zircon age peaks at 3.54, 3.46, 3.40, 3.30, and 3.25 Ga. These clusters are coincident either with the ages of major episodes of felsic to intermediate igneous activity within and around the belt or with the ages of thin felsic tuffs reflecting distant volcanic activity. Only 15 of the reported 3410 grains (old zircons could represent felsic rocks in older, unexposed parts of the BGB sequence, but are too few to provide evidence for a continental source. This finding offers further evidence that the large, thick, high-standing, highly evolved blocks of continental crust with an andesitic bulk composition that characterize the Earth during younger geologic times were scarce in the early Archean.

  15. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  16. Older adults motivated choice for technological innovation: evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, A.S.; Rogers, W.A.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  17. What Do Older Adults Seek in Their Potential Romantic Partners? Evidence from Online Personal Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William D.; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the…

  18. Hematology and biochemistry of aging-evidence of "anemia of the elderly" in old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Lauren B; Pannone, Stephen C; Truelove, Matthew P; Olver, Christine S; Santangelo, Kelly S

    2017-03-01

    Effects of aging on hematologic and biochemical variables are well described in people. Anemia of the elderly is attributed to iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, chronic kidney disease, myelodysplasia, or idiopathic causes. Limited studies have examined these variables in aging dogs, but they have typically examined single breeds in research settings. The objective of this study was to identify differences in CBC and biochemistry values between adult and aged dogs of many breeds. Dogs presenting for wellness examinations and minor dental/elective surgeries that were otherwise clinically healthy were retrospectively identified. Dogs were categorized by age: adult (1-7.9 years), senior (8-11.9 years), and geriatric (12+ years). Standard CBC and biochemistry data were collated. Asian breeds, Greyhounds, and dogs with data indicating overt underlying disease were excluded. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare groups with statistical significance set at P ≤ .05. Hematocrit, MCV, and serum iron decreased with age, indicating possible iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE), due to iron deficiency or low-grade chronic inflammation. Total proteins, globulins, and platelet counts increased with age while albumin decreased, suggesting low-grade inflammation. Urea was increased in older dogs without a concurrent increase in creatinine, which points toward gastrointestinal bleeding or dehydration. Clinically healthy, aging dogs have changes in laboratory variables that indicate altered physiologies compared to younger adult animals, including evidence of IRE, inflammation, and potential gastrointestinal bleeding, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly human beings. Future studies will examine markers of iron metabolism and inflammation in aging dogs. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Numerical evidences of universal trap-like aging dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Marinari, Enzo

    2018-04-01

    Trap models have been initially proposed as toy models for dynamical relaxation in extremely simplified rough potential energy landscapes. Their importance has recently grown considerably thanks to the discovery that the trap-like aging mechanism directly controls the out-of-equilibrium relaxation processes of more sophisticated spin models, that are considered as the solvable counterpart of real disordered systems. Further establishing the connection between these spin models, out-of-equilibrium behavior and the trap like aging mechanism could shed new light on the properties, which are still largely mysterious, for the activated out-of-equilibrium dynamics of disordered systems. In this work we discuss numerical evidence based on the computations of the permanence times of an emergent trap-like aging behavior in a variety of very simple disordered models—developed from the trap model paradigm. Our numerical results are backed by analytic derivations and heuristic discussions. Such exploration reveals some of the tricks needed to reveal the trap behavior in spite of the occurrence of secondary processes, of the existence of dynamical correlations and of strong finite system’s size effects.

  20. The Sex, Age, and Me study: recruitment and sampling for a large mixed-methods study of sexual health and relationships in an older Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-09-01

    Older people are often excluded from large studies of sexual health, as it is assumed that they are not having sex or are reluctant to talk about sensitive topics and are therefore difficult to recruit. We outline the sampling and recruitment strategies from a recent study on sexual health and relationships among older people. Sex, Age and Me was a nationwide Australian study that examined sexual health, relationship patterns, safer-sex practices and STI knowledge of Australians aged 60 years and over. The study used a mixed-methods approach to establish baseline levels of knowledge and to develop deeper insights into older adult's understandings and practices relating to sexual health. Data collection took place in 2015, with 2137 participants completing a quantitative survey and 53 participating in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. As the feasibility of this type of study has been largely untested until now, we provide detailed information on the study's recruitment strategies and methods. We also compare key characteristics of our sample with national estimates to assess its degree of representativeness. This study provides evidence to challenge the assumptions that older people will not take part in sexual health-related research and details a novel and successful way to recruit participants in this area.

  1. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  2. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health <