WorldWideScience

Sample records for old-fashioned planning implications

  1. 'Swab racks are an old fashioned idea'.

    Mumford, M

    1991-12-01

    Mary Mumford, theatre sister at the Princes of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, was asked to speak in a short debate at an NATN branch meeting, supporting the motion that 'swab racks are an old fashioned idea'. Although she did not like swab racks she had not attempted thus far to do anything about them. In the event, she actually lost the debate--not in principle but because she could offer no effective alternative method of checking swabs. Having been given the incentive, a trial is now being conducted in her hospital similar to that described by Paul Wicker. This is the case presented by Mary Mumford supporting the following motion ... 'that swab racks are an old fashioned idea, which cause more potential problems due to exposure of blood than is proven to be safe in today's theatre environment'.

  2. Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Consciousness and the Intermediate Level Fallacy

    Riccardo Manzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been considerable interest and effort to the possibility to design and implement conscious robots, i.e., the chance that robots may have subjective experiences. Typical approaches as the global workspace, information integration, enaction, cognitive mechanisms, embodiment, i.e., the Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Consciousness, henceforth, GOFAC, share the same conceptual framework. In this paper, we discuss GOFAC's basic tenets and their implication for AI and Robotics. In particular, we point out the intermediate level fallacy as the central issue affecting GOFAC. Finally, we outline a possible alternative conceptual framework toward robot consciousness.

  3. 77 FR 35619 - Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    2012-06-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect... ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks. [[Page 35620...

  4. Primary and secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease : an old-fashioned concept?

    van Venrooij, FV; Stolk, RP; Banga, JD; Erkelens, DW; Grobbee, DE

    Objective. Is the concept of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention an old-fashioned concept that needs to be re-defined? Design. Discussion paper. Results. Cardiovascular prevention means reduction of absolute risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), irrespective of clinical stage.

  5. The structure of double scattering in old-fashioned perturbation theory

    Caneschi, L.; Halliday, I.G.; Schwimmer, A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors study in old-fashioned perturbation theory the time orderings that are relevant for the exchange of two Regge poles (ladders). They determine how the phase of double scattering is established in the Mandelstam diagram. The analysis clarifies the intermediate state structure of the multiple-scattering expansion and the role of the unitarity constraints. (Auth.)

  6. Preference segmentation of health care services: the old-fashioneds, value conscious, affluents and professional want-it-alls.

    Woodside, A G; Nielsen, R L; Walters, F; Muller, G D

    1988-06-01

    The results of a national segmentation study are reported. The findings extend the empirical work of Finn and Lamb and the benefit-seeking conjectures by Kotler and Clarke that consumers with preferences toward specific hospitals can be segmented into a few distinct groups. The groups described in the findings are identified as the value conscious, the affluents, the old-fashioneds, and the professional want-it-alls. Each segment has a unique demographic profile. The substantial importance of doctors' recommendations in influencing hospital choice is supported for all four consumer segments. Suggestions for additional research and hospital marketing strategies are provided.

  7. Are we paying too much attention to cardio-pulmonary nematodes and neglecting old-fashioned worms like Trichuris vulpis?

    Traversa Donato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trichuris vulpis, the dog whipworm, causes an intestinal parasitosis of relevance in current canine veterinary practice. Its occurrence is well-known in pets, kennelled dogs and stray animals, and its eggs contaminate the ground in urban areas all over the world. Moreover, T. vulpis has been occasionally incriminated, though not convincingly substantiated, as a cause of zoonosis. This nematode is erroneously considered an "old-fashioned" pathogen with a consequent lack of up- to- date knowledge on several aspects of the infection. These, in turn, are still controversial and need to be studied in greater depth. This article reviews current knowledge of T. vulpis, together with a discussion of critical points in epidemiology, zoonotic hazard, diagnosis and treatment of canine trichurosis.

  8. Some lessons and thoughts from development of an old-fashioned high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model

    Ohfuchi, Wataru; Enomoto, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mayumi K.; Takaya, Koutarou

    2014-05-01

    Some high-resolution simulations with a conventional atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) were conducted right after the first Earth Simulator started operating in the spring of 2002. More simulations with various resolutions followed. The AGCM in this study, AFES (Agcm For the Earth Simulator), is a primitive equation spectral transform method model with a cumulus convection parameterization. In this presentation, some findings from comparisons between high and low-resolution simulations, and some future perspectives of old-fashioned AGCMs will be discussed. One obvious advantage of increasing resolution is capability of resolving the fine structures of topography and atmospheric flow. By increasing resolution from T39 (about 320 km horizontal grid interval) to T79 (160 km), to T159 (80 km) to T319 (40 km), topographic precipitation over Japan becomes increasingly realistic. This feature is necessary for climate and weather studies involving both global and local aspects. In order to resolve submesoscale (about 100 km horizontal scale) atmospheric circulation, about 10-km grid interval is necessary. Comparing T1279 (10 km) simulations with T319 ones, it is found that, for example, the intensity of heavy rain associated with Baiu front and the central pressure of typhoon become more realistic. These realistic submesoscale phenomena should have impact on larger-sale flow through dynamics and thermodynamics. An interesting finding by increasing horizontal resolution of a conventional AGCM is that some cumulus convection parameterizations, such as Arakawa-Schubert type scheme, gradually stop producing precipitation, while some others, such as Emanuel type, do not. With the former, the grid condensation increases with the model resolution to compensate. Which characteristics are more desirable is arguable but it is an important feature one has to consider when developing a high-resolution conventional AGCM. Many may think that conventional primitive equation

  9. Difficult situations managing diabetic foot. Evidences and personal views: is to operate on patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis old-fashioned?

    Senneville, Eric; Nguyen, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Both medical and surgical approaches have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). In patients with risk factors of bad outcome such as major bone destruction, concomitant acute infections requiring drainage, problems in limb perfusion, highly resistant bacteria, and contraindication for or patient refusal of prolonged antibiotic therapy, the choice of surgery does not require further discussion. On the contrary, modest changes of bone on imaging assessment and no limiting factors as described above make medical treatment an attractive option for patients with DFO provided the rules of antibiotic treatment of chronic osteomyelitis are respected. The key question may not be to oppose surgery and medical treatment but to identify patients who need surgery and those who do not. There is currently no classification or score system that may allow physician to decide whether medical or surgical approach is best adapted to a given patient, and so both experience and skill of the multidisciplinary team appear paramount for guiding the choice of the best adapted ("tailored") strategy in a given patient. In this regard, it would be interesting to compare surgical and medical approaches for DFO that apparently may benefit from one or another (ie, bone lesions seen on plain radiographs of the foot but without bone fragmentation or multiple sites of osteomyelitis, no contraindication to prolonged antibiotic therapy, and location of bone involvement that may allow conservative surgery). Given the current available data on the therapeutic options of DFO, it appears that surgery for those patients is obviously not an old-fashioned option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood

    Aguayo-Patrón, Sandra V.; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a “leaky gut”. These factors have been associated with increased risk of autoimmunity in genetically predisposed children. In addition, food emulsifiers, commonly used in ultra-processed products could modify the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability, which could increase the risk of autoimmunity. In contrast, unprocessed and minimally processed food-based diets have shown the capacity to promote gut microbiota eubiosis, anti-inflammatory response, and epithelial integrity, through bacterial butyrate production. Thus, to decrease the susceptibility to autoimmunity, genetically predisposed children should avoid ultra-processed food products and encourage the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods. PMID:29140275

  11. Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood

    Sandra V. Aguayo-Patrón

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a “leaky gut”. These factors have been associated with increased risk of autoimmunity in genetically predisposed children. In addition, food emulsifiers, commonly used in ultra-processed products could modify the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability, which could increase the risk of autoimmunity. In contrast, unprocessed and minimally processed food-based diets have shown the capacity to promote gut microbiota eubiosis, anti-inflammatory response, and epithelial integrity, through bacterial butyrate production. Thus, to decrease the susceptibility to autoimmunity, genetically predisposed children should avoid ultra-processed food products and encourage the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods.

  12. Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood.

    Aguayo-Patrón, Sandra V; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2017-11-15

    Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut". These factors have been associated with increased risk of autoimmunity in genetically predisposed children. In addition, food emulsifiers, commonly used in ultra-processed products could modify the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability, which could increase the risk of autoimmunity. In contrast, unprocessed and minimally processed food-based diets have shown the capacity to promote gut microbiota eubiosis, anti-inflammatory response, and epithelial integrity, through bacterial butyrate production. Thus, to decrease the susceptibility to autoimmunity, genetically predisposed children should avoid ultra-processed food products and encourage the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods.

  13. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  14. Spatial planning, infrastructure and implementation: Implications for ...

    Infrastructure plays key roles in shaping the spatial form of the city at a macro- ... matrix of knowledge and skills is produced, and the way these fields of study have been ... the case in African cities. ... ternational urban development circles, .... facilities and associated bulk network ..... Urban and Regional Planning Course.

  15. Spatial planning, infrastructure and implementation: Implications for ...

    Infrastructure plays key roles in shaping the spatial form of the city at a macro- and a more local scale, and it influences the sustainability, efficiency and inclusiveness of cities and local areas. Linking infrastructure and spatial planning is therefore critical. Wide-ranging sets of knowledge and skills are required to enable ...

  16. Tourism and spatial transformations; implications for policy and planning

    Ashworth, G.J.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The transformation of space by tourism and recreation is examined and the implications for tourism policy and planning are drawn out. A general model of transformation as a guide to intervention is presented. The first part of the book focuses on the procedures and includes case-studies from the

  17. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source using Google search engine as well as international, national and local journals. The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries.

  18. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  19. Pensions, tax and the anaesthetist: significant implications for workforce planning.

    Pandit, J J

    2016-08-01

    This paper shows how recent tax changes to pensions (i.e. new lifetime and annual allowance contribution limits) mean that NHS consultants will need to adopt one of four rational strategies to work and financial planning. Two of those strategies (termed 'Earn Fast, Drop Out' and 'Never Enter') involve a break between work and pensions. The logical consequence of this break is that consultants may exercise options to maximise their total income, which in turn will result in less work within the NHS and more work in alternative higher paying (e.g. private) sectors. A third strategy ('Go Slow, Stay Low') also involves less-than-full-time NHS work. Only one option ('Do Nothing' as a result of the tax changes) has no effect. In short, the tax changes will predictably lead to future senior consultants devoting proportionately much less of their time to NHS work than before. The article discusses the important implications of this conclusion for NHS workforce planning. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. FAMILY PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS Glory. A. Msacky, MD3 ...

    0655711075

    planning suggests the need for African national governments and population policy ... Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest average fertility rate in the world. .... Generally, the success of family planning programs in Africa is affected by poverty, ...

  1. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways.

    2017-04-01

    This research project was focused on the transportation planning implications of automated/connected : vehicles (AV/CVs) on Texas highways. The research assessed how these potentially transformative : technologies can be included in transportation pl...

  2. Implications of outsourcing on operations planning : findings from the pharmaceutical industry

    Boulaksil, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the implications of outsourcing at the operational planning level, i.e. how the operational planning function is complicated owing to the strategic outsourcing decisions that have been made in the past. Design/methodology/approach – First, a

  3. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  4. Robot Plans and Human Plans: Implications for Models of Communication. Technical Report No. 314.

    Bruce, Bertram

    People in interaction with others organize their perceptions of a social situation in terms of plans even when the others' plans are poorly formulated. They use their models of others' plans in formulating their own. Much of what occurs in discourse centers on a continual communication about and reformulation of one's own plans and one's own…

  5. Climate Change Planning for Military Installations: Findings and Implications

    2010-10-01

    climate change as an emerging issue with potential national security implications. As a result of these concerns, the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is establishing a research and development program to address climate change effects on DoD installations and associated missions. To help establish the program, SERDP tasked Noblis to identify potential climate change effects on military installations and their missions and operations. This report presents the findings portion of this study and

  6. Perception of scale in forest management planning: Challenges and implications

    Swee May Tang; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    Forest management practices imposed at one spatial scale may affect the patterns and processes of ecosystems at other scales. These impacts and feedbacks on the functioning of ecosystems across spatial scales are not well understood. We examined the effects of silvicultural manipulations simulated at two spatial scales of management planning on landscape pattern and...

  7. Airline network development in Europe and its implications for airport planning

    Burghouwt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Order by Fax Printer Friendly PDF Brochure Send to Friend Enquire before Buying Hard Copy Airline Network Development in Europe and its Implications for Airport Planning Ashgate Publishing, March 2007, Pages: 300 Description Table of Contents Enquire before Buying Send to a Friend The ongoing

  8. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Troyer, Sara; Berri, Sally; Narayana, Vrinda; Meirowitz, Amichay; Roberson, Peter L.; Montie, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  9. Old-Fashioned Bus Trips: New Age Professional Development

    Feldhues, Katherine; Epley, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Two 4-H Camp-related bus tours offered new nontraditional professional development (PD) experiences that better align Extension's PD opportunities with the organization's experiential education pedagogy. Creating quality PD opportunities for employees is important because such experiences can affect overall work performance, community connections,…

  10. ESD renews old-fashioned pedagogics in Thai schools

    Breiting, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Om nogle vigtige aspekter af udviklingen af skoler i Thailand under det thailandske undervisningsministerium med dansk bistand, og hvor temaet 'Styrkelse af miljøundervisningen i Thailand' blev brugt til pædagogisk fornyelse på alle niveauer og mere generel skoleudvikling, samtidig med at der ske...

  11. Expert Systems the Old Fashioned Way: Person to Person.

    McCleary, Hunter; Mayer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the services of Teltech, Inc., which mimic the desirable attributes of artificial intelligence and expert systems via a "database" of 5,000 experts in technical areas and interactive literature searches executed by staff. Advantages and shortcomings of the network are exemplified by sample searches. Several sample menus and…

  12. Organizational Behavior in Disasters and Implications for Disaster Planning. Volume 1, Number 2

    1986-07-01

    the personal challenges presented by the disaster. There may be expectations of panic, but what almost always occurs is rational behavior . For many...Similarly, there may be expectations of disorder, but what appears is a great deal of prosocial instead of antisocial behavior . To inexperienced...FEMA 104/July 1986 (5-1 Organizational Behavior in Disasters and IMpliCations for Disaster Planning - ii;~1COPBy Enrico L. Quarante~l , Ph. D

  13. Clinical implications of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for IMRT treatment planning and verification

    Bragg, Christopher M.; Wingate, Katrina; Conway, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the implications of the use of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for the production and dosimetric verification of IMRT plans for treatments of the prostate, parotid, nasopharynx and lung. Methods: 72 IMRT treatment plans produced using the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm were recalculated using the AAA and the dose distributions compared. Twenty-four of the plans were delivered to inhomogeneous phantoms and verification measurements made using a pinpoint ionisation chamber. The agreement between the AAA and measurement was determined. Results: Small differences were seen in the prostate plans, with the AAA predicting slightly lower minimum PTV doses. In the parotid plans, there were small increases in the lens and contralateral parotid doses while the nasopharyngeal plans revealed a reduction in the volume of the PTV covered by the 95% isodose (the V 95% ) when the AAA was used. Large changes were seen in the lung plans, the AAA predicting reductions in the minimum PTV dose and large reductions in the V 95% . The AAA also predicted small increases in the mean dose to the normal lung and the V 20 . In the verification measurements, all AAA calculations were within 3% or 3.5 mm distance to agreement of the measured doses. Conclusions: The AAA should be used in preference to the PBC algorithm for treatments involving low density tissue but this may necessitate re-evaluation of plan acceptability criteria. Improvements to the Multi-Resolution Dose Calculation algorithm used in the inverse planning are required to reduce the convergence error in the presence of lung tissue. There was excellent agreement between the AAA and verification measurements for all sites

  14. Mobility as a positional good : implications for transport policy and planning

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2007-01-17

    Social position refers to a person's social rank. Many goods have positional value because they increase the status of their consumers. Positional goods include fashionable jewellery and clothing, luxurious homes and vehicles, and extravagant entertainment. Many motorists choose vehicles with greater potential speeds and off-road abilities than actually needed because these features are considered prestigious. This paper examined how positional value affects transportation decisions and investigated the resulting economic impacts. These included impacts on social welfare and external costs. The paper also discussed implications for transport policy and planning. The paper discussed the science of happiness and included an excerpt from a newspaper article on money and happiness. The paper also included an analysis of popular television shows and Internet blogs. Transportation impacts were also examined, with reference to motor vehicle ownership, luxury vehicles, mode choice, long-distance recreation travel, planning practices, and industrial development policy. A table was also presented that summarized the categories of prestige value travel impacts. The paper also presented possible offsetting benefits and implications for planning. 40 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  15. Financial woes of the Canada Pension Plan hold implications for physicians

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Although it is unlikely that many Canadian physicians are relying on the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) for retirement security, a forecast that the program is in financial trouble has implications for the medical profession. One is the prospect of a generation of poverty-stricken seniors who could put undue stress on the health care system; another is that as the number of CPP disability claims continues to skyrocket, there may have to be more rigorous scrutiny of hard-to-define medical conditions.

  16. Do different funding mechanisms produce different results? The implications of family planning for fiscal federalism.

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1998-06-01

    The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.

  17. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  18. The segment as the minimal planning unit in speech production and reading aloud: evidence and implications.

    Kawamoto, Alan H; Liu, Qiang; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Speech production and reading aloud studies have much in common, especially the last stages involved in producing a response. We focus on the minimal planning unit (MPU) in articulation. Although most researchers now assume that the MPU is the syllable, we argue that it is at least as small as the segment based on negative response latencies (i.e., response initiation before presentation of the complete target) and longer initial segment durations in a reading aloud task where the initial segment is primed. We also discuss why such evidence was not found in earlier studies. Next, we rebut arguments that the segment cannot be the MPU by appealing to flexible planning scope whereby planning units of different sizes can be used due to individual differences, as well as stimulus and experimental design differences. We also discuss why negative response latencies do not arise in some situations and why anticipatory coarticulation does not preclude the segment MPU. Finally, we argue that the segment MPU is also important because it provides an alternative explanation of results implicated in the serial vs. parallel processing debate.

  19. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  20. Tactical and operational decisions for operating room planning: efficiency and welfare implications.

    Testi, Angela; Tànfani, Elena

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact on welfare implications of a 0-1 linear programming model to solve the Operating Room (OR) planning problem, taking a patient perspective. In particular, given a General Surgery Department made up of different surgical sub-specialties sharing a given number of OR block times, the model determines, during a given planning period, the allocation of those blocks to surgical sub-specialties, i.e. the so called Master Surgical Schedule Problem (MSSP), together with the subsets of elective patients to be operated on in each block time, i.e. the so called Surgical Case Assignment Problem (SCAP). The innovation of the model is two-fold. The first is that OR allocation is "optimal" if the available OR blocks are scheduled simultaneously to the proper subspecialty, at the proper time to the proper patient. The second is defining what "proper" means and include that in the objective function. In our approach what is important is not number of patients who can be treated in a given period but how much welfare loss, due to clinical deterioration or other negative consequences related to excessive waiting, can be prevented. In other words we assume a societal perspective in that we focus on "outcome" (health improving or preventing from worsening) rather than on "output" (delivered procedures). The model can be used both to develop weekly OR planning with given resources (operational decision), and to perform "what if" scenario analysis regarding how to increase the amount of OR time available for the entire department (tactical decision). The model performance is verified by applying it to a real scenario, the elective admissions of the General Surgery Department of the San Martino University Hospital in Genova (Italy). Despite the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, computational results indicate that the model can solve all test problems within 600 s and an average optimality tolerance of less than 0.01%.

  1. Implications of Artefacts Reduction in the Planning CT Originating from Implanted Fiducial Markers

    Kassim, Iskandar; Joosten, Hans; Barnhoorn, Jaco C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of metal artefact reduction (MAR) software to suppress artefacts in reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images originating from small metal objects, like tumor markers and surgical clips, was evaluated. In addition, possible implications of using digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), based on the MAR CT images, for setup verification were analyzed. A phantom and 15 patients with different tumor sites and implanted markers were imaged with a multislice CT scanner. The raw image data was reconstructed both with the clinically used filtered-backprojection (FBP) and with the MAR software. Using the MAR software, improvements in image quality were often observed in CT slices with markers or clips. Especially when several markers were located near to each other, fewer streak artefacts were observed than with the FBP algorithm. In addition, the shape and size of markers could be identified more accurately, reducing the contoured marker volumes by a factor of 2. For the phantom study, the CT numbers measured near to the markers corresponded more closely to the expected values. However, the MAR images were slightly more smoothed compared with the images reconstructed with FBP. For 8 prostate cancer patients in this study, the interobserver variation in 3D marker definition was similar (<0.4 mm) when using DRRs based on either FBP or MAR CT scans. Automatic marker matches also showed a similar success rate. However, differences in automatic match results up to 1 mm, caused by differences in the marker definition, were observed, which turned out to be (borderline) statistically significant (p = 0.06) for 2 patients. In conclusion, the MAR software might improve image quality by suppressing metal artefacts, probably allowing for a more reliable delineation of structures. When implanted markers or clips are used for setup verification, the accuracy may slightly be improved as well, which is relevant when using very tight clinical target volume (CTV) to

  2. Talking about Money Is Taboo: Perceptions of Financial Planning Students and Implications for the Financial Planning Industry

    Alsemgeest, Liezel

    2016-01-01

    Communication about money is a social, cultural and psychological taboo and yet it is essential in the financial planning industry, as a financial planner cannot be effective if all information is not disclosed. This article examines how financial planning students perceive communication about money, their willingness to talk about it and their…

  3. NEAMS Software Licensing, Release, and Distribution: Implications for FY2013 Work Package Planning

    Bernholdt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the NEAMS program is to bring truly predictive modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to the nuclear engineering community in order to enable a new approach to the analysis of nuclear systems. NEAMS anticipates issuing in FY 2018 a full release of its computational 'Fermi Toolkit' aimed at advanced reactor and fuel cycles. The NEAMS toolkit involves extensive software development activities, some of which have already been underway for several years, however, the Advanced Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO), which sponsors the NEAMS program, has not yet issued any official guidance regarding software licensing, release, and distribution policies. This motivated an FY12 task in the Capability Transfer work package to develop and recommend an appropriate set of policies. The current preliminary report is intended to provide awareness of issues with implications for work package planning for FY13. We anticipate a small amount of effort associated with putting into place formal licenses and contributor agreements for NEAMS software which doesn't already have them. We do not anticipate any additional effort or costs associated with software release procedures or schedules beyond those dictated by the quality expectations for the software. The largest potential costs we anticipate would be associated with the setup and maintenance of shared code repositories for development and early access to NEAMS software products. We also anticipate an opportunity, with modest associated costs, to work with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) to clarify export control assessment policies for software under development.

  4. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  5. Maternal and child health and family planning service utilization in Guatemala: implications for service integration.

    Seiber, Eric E; Hotchkiss, David R; Rous, Jeffrey J; Berruti, Andrés A

    2005-07-01

    Does the utilization of modern maternal and child health (MCH) services influence subsequent contraceptive use? The answer to this question holds important implications for proposals which advocate MCH and family planning service integration. This study uses data from the 1995/6 Guatemalan Demographic Health Survey and its 1997 Providers Census to test the influence of MCH service utilization on individual contraceptive use decisions. We use a full-information maximum likelihood regression model to control for unobserved heterogeneity. This model produces estimates of the MCH effect, independent of individual women's underlying receptiveness to MCH and contraceptive messages. The results of the analysis indicate that the intensity of MCH service use is indeed positively associated with subsequent contraceptive use among Guatemalan women, even after controlling for observed and unobserved individual- , household- , and community-level factors. Importantly, this finding holds even after controlling for the unobserved factors that 'predispose' some women to use both types of services. Simulations reveal that, for these Guatemalan women, key determinants such as age and primary schooling work indirectly through MCH service use to increase contraceptive utilization.

  6. The Growth Of Kaduna Metropolis Between 1973 And 2012 The Physical Planning Implications

    Afon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the growth and development pattern of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria over a period of 39 years with a view to identifying its physical planning implications. The study employs the use of Remote Sensing data and GIS technology. Data used for the study include Landsat Imagery of 1973 1990 and 2001 and NigeriaSat-1 of 2006 and GeoEye image of 2012 and the population data for 1963 1991 and 2006. The data was used to determine the pattern of growth rate of growth land consumption rate and land absorption efficiency of the study area. The study established that Kaduna metropolis have been increasing like most cities of the world of which the highest growth was witnessed between 2006 to 2012 with 13.4 growth rate per annum. It also revealed that the pattern of growths witnessed were along the major routes. The study also revealed that there is a relationship between population growth and urban growth in Kaduna metropolis The study concluded that the need for available data is vital to the understanding of the dynamic of the urban environment. More commitment had to be done on the part of government and research to ensure that the gap is closed.

  7. How countries link REDD+ interventions to drivers in their readiness plans: implications for monitoring systems

    Salvini, G; Herold, M; De Sy, V; Kissinger, G; Brockhaus, M; Skutsch, M

    2014-01-01

    Countries participating in the REDD+ scheme are in the readiness phase, designing policy interventions to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (DD). In order for REDD+ interventions to be effective, it is essential that they take into account the specific drivers that they aim to address. Moreover it is crucial to design systems that monitor the effectiveness of the planned interventions. In this article we provide a comprehensive and comparative assessment of interventions proposed by 43 REDD+ countries in 98 readiness documents. We summarize the types of interventions and assess if they are formulated referring to the drivers of DD that they are aiming to address. Based on this assessment we consider the implications for systems for monitoring effectiveness of proposed interventions. Most countries reviewed link proposed interventions to specific drivers of DD. The majority of the countries making this link have better driver data quality, in particularly those that present their data in ratio or ordinal terms. Proposed interventions focus not only on activities to reduce deforestation, but also on other forest related REDD+ activities such as sustainable forest management, which reduce forest degradation and enhance forest stocks. Moreover, driver-specific interventions often relate to drivers not only inside but also outside the forest sector. Hence we suggest that monitoring systems need to assess not only deforestation rates through remote sensing, but also degradation and other carbon stock changes within the forest, using more detailed ground level surveys and measurements. In addition, the performance of interventions outside the forest need to be monitored, even if the impacts of these cannot be linked to specific changes in forest carbon stock in specific locations. (paper)

  8. Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority's integrated power system plan

    Winfield, Mark; Gibson, Robert B.; Markvart, Tanya; Gaudreau, Kyrke; Taylor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the results and implications of an illustrative application of a sustainability assessment framework in the design and evaluation of a major integrated power system plan. The paper examines the integrated power system plan developed by the Ontario Power Authority in 2007. The basic framework rests on a generic set of evaluation criteria reflecting basic requirements for progress towards sustainability that was adopted, reinterpreted and applied by the Authority in support of its proposed plan. In response to evident deficiencies in the Authority's work, the authors and colleagues undertook a re-examination using a more fully elaborated sustainability assessment framework, specified for application to power system planning. The results point to a plan and plan components substantially different from those proposed by the Authority. More generally, the results highlight three advantages of applying such a sustainability assessment framework: comprehensive coverage of key requirements for progress towards sustainability while ensuring careful attention to the context and concerns of the sector; emphasis on identifying plan options that avoid major trade-offs among the sustainability criteria and recognition of interactions among the social, ecological, economic and technological realms favouring options that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits.

  9. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning: Scenario Case Studies Using the Resource Planning Model

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations — particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling — to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  10. Hospital churn and casemix instability: implications for planning and educating the nursing workforce.

    Chiarella, Mary; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2011-02-01

    Health workforce planning is a priority for Australian governments at both state and federal levels. Nursing shortages are a significant problem and addressing these shortages is likely to be a component of any workforce plan. This paper looks at the case of hospital nursing and argues that casemix, workforce and management instability inhibit workforce planning for hospital nursing. These issues are related and any efforts to objectively plan the hospital nursing workforce must seek to address them in order to succeed.

  11. The Evolution of Missile Defense Plan from Bush to Obama. Implications for the National Security of Romania

    Ruxandra-Laura BOSILCA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 Romania officially became part of the Obama administration’s missile defense system in Europe which has significantly changed the strategic military relations both in Europe and worldwide. The Bush approach has been revised and progress in several sections has been achieved, both strategically and technically. For Romania, the participation in the missile defence plan, ensures more solid security guarantees, especially in an unpredictable and risk-prone international environment where the U.S. reconsiders its presence in Europe under the pressure of the economic crisis and of a relative decline in power; it has also become a more visible actor – alongside Bulgaria – which were initially excluded by the Bush missile defence plan. This paper’s purpose is to review the main evolutions of the missile defense plan from the Bush to the Obama administration and to outline its implications on the national security of Romania.

  12. Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned—creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  13. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  14. Psychometrics of an original measure of barriers to providing family planning information: Implications for social service providers.

    Bell, Melissa M; Newhill, Christina E

    2017-07-01

    Social service professionals can face challenges in the course of providing family planning information to their clients. This article reports findings from a study that developed an original 27-item measure, the Reproductive Counseling Obstacle Scale (RCOS) designed to measure such obstacles based conceptually on Bandura's social cognitive theory (1986). We examine the reliability and factor structure of the RCOS using a sample of licensed social workers (N = 197). A 20-item revised version of the RCOS was derived using principal component factor analysis. Results indicate that barriers to discussing family planning, as measured by the RCOS, appear to be best represented by a two-factor solution, reflecting self-efficacy/interest and perceived professional obligation/moral concerns. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  15. New source terms and the implications for emergency planning requirements at nuclear power plants in the United State

    Kaiser, G.D.; Cheok, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of current approaches to source term driven changes to NRC emergency planning requirements and addresses significant differences between them. Approaches by IDCOR and EPRI, industry submittals to NRC and alternative risk-based evaluations have been considered. Important issues are discussed, such as the role of Protective Action Guides in determining the radius of the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The significance of current trends towards the prediction of longer warning times and longer durations of release in new source terms is assessed. These trends may help to relax the current notification time requirements. Finally, the implications of apparent support in the regulations for a threshold in warning time beyond which ad hoc protective measures are adequate is discussed

  16. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning. Scenario Case Studies using the Resource Planning Model

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    We examine how model investment decisions change under different model configurations and assumptions related to renewable capacity credit, the inclusion or exclusion of operating reserves, dispatch period sampling, transmission power flow modeling, renewable spur line costs, and the ability of a planning region to import and export power. For all modeled scenarios, we find that under market conditions where new renewable deployment is predominantly driven by renewable portfolio standards, model representations of wind and solar capacity credit and interactions between balancing areas are most influential in avoiding model investments in excess thermal capacity. We also compare computation time between configurations to evaluate tradeoffs between computational burden and model accuracy. From this analysis, we find that certain advanced dispatch representations (e.g., DC optimal power flow) can have dramatic adverse effects on computation time but can be largely inconsequential to model investment outcomes, at least at the renewable penetration levels modeled. Finally, we find that certain underappreciated aspects of new capacity investment decisions and model representations thereof, such as spur lines for new renewable capacity, can influence model outcomes particularly in the renewable technology and location chosen by the model. Though this analysis is not comprehensive and results are specific to the model region, input assumptions, and optimization-modeling framework employed, the findings are intended to provide a guide for model improvement opportunities.

  17. Intraoperative real-time planned conformal prostate brachytherapy: Post-implantation dosimetric outcome and clinical implications

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Cohen, Gil'ad N.; Sharma, Neha; Shippy, Alison M.; Fridman, David; Zaider, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the dosimetric outcome of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with I-125 permanent implantation using an intraoperative real-time conformal planning technique. Methods and materials: Five hundred and sixty-two patients with prostate cancer were treated with I-125 permanent interstitial implantation using a transrectal ultrasound-guided approach. Real-time intraoperative treatment planning software that incorporates inverse planning optimization was used. Dose-volume constraints for this inverse-planning system included: prostate V100 ≥95%, maximal urethral dose ≤120%, and average rectal dose 3 of the rectum was exposed to the prescription dose, the incidence of late grade 2 toxicity rectal toxicity was 9% compared to 4% for smaller volumes of the rectum exposed to similar doses (p = 0.003). No dosimetric parameter in these patients with tight dose confines for the urethra influenced acute or late urinary toxicity. Conclusion: Real-time intraoperative planning was associated with a 90% consistency of achieving the planned intraoperative dose constraints for target coverage and maintaining planned urethral and rectal constraints in a high percentage of implants. Rectal volumes of ≥2.5 cm 3 exposed to the prescription doses were associated with an increased incidence of grade 2 rectal bleeding. Further enhancements in imaging guidance for optimal seed deposition are needed to guarantee optimal dose distribution for all patients. Whether such improvements lead to further reduction in acute and late morbidities associated with therapy requires further study

  18. Trends in landscape research and landscape planning : implications for PhD students

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.; Antrop, M.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces the contents of the book through an analysis of current trends in landscape research and landscape planning and a discussion of the consequences of these trends for PhD students.

  19. Does natural gas make sense for freight? Environmental and resource implications of the "Pickens Plan".

    2013-04-01

    The Pickens Plan is a highly promoted U.S. energy strategy, proposing to use natural gas as a transportation fuel to : displace imported oil and, simultaneously, to increase renewable contributions to national electricity production. While the ...

  20. Changes in Canada pension plan disability rules hold implications for physicians.

    Romaniuk, A

    1995-12-15

    Recent legislative changes to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) have significantly altered eligibility requirements for disability pensions. A CPP medical adviser explains how the changes affect physicians and examines the federal government's definition of "disability."

  1. Planned and unplanned deliveries at home: implications of a changing ratio.

    Murphy, J F; Dauncey, M; Gray, O P; Chalmers, I

    1984-01-01

    The observation that perinatal mortality among babies delivered at home has tended to increase beyond that among babies delivered in consultant obstetric units has caused alarm and prompted recommendations that delivery at home should be further phased out. With data derived from the Cardiff Births Survey the possibility was investigated that this trend might reflect a changing ratio of planned to unplanned domiciliary births. At the beginning of the 1970s deliveries at home that were planned...

  2. Searching for Order Within Chaos: Complexity Theorys Implications to Intelligence Support During Joint Operational Planning

    2017-06-09

    joint operational planning . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Complexity Theory , Complex Systems Theory , Complex Adaptive Systems, Dynamical Systems, Joint...complexity theory to analyze military problems and increase joint staff understanding of the operational environment during joint operational planning ?” the...13). Complex Systems Theory : “the study of the behavior of [complex adaptive] systems” (Ilachinski 2004, 4). For the purpose of this thesis there is

  3. Blended learning on family planning policy requirements: key findings and implications for health professionals.

    Limaye, Rupali J; Ahmed, Naheed; Ohkubo, Saori; Ballard, Anne

    2018-04-01

    To address unmet needs for family planning and advance women's rights, US federal foreign aid recipients must ensure compliance with the family planning legislative and policy requirements. Because many health providers work in rural and remote settings, blended learning, which combines in-person and online experiences, is a promising approach for strengthening their compliance knowledge. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of blended learning that included three components (online course, in-person training and conference call) on retention of family planning compliance knowledge. A total of 660 learners from 44 countries completed the online survey (8% response rate). Study participants were asked about their knowledge of family planning compliance and suggestions to improve their learning experiences. Knowledge retention was higher in the group that utilised all three learning approaches compared with the online course plus conference call group (Pblended learning training resulted in the highest gains in knowledge retention compared with online-only learning. These findings suggest that blended learning and repeat online trainings are critical to ensuring health professionals are aware of family planning compliance regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Planned and unplanned deliveries at home: implications of a changing ratio.

    Murphy, J F; Dauncey, M; Gray, O P; Chalmers, I

    1984-05-12

    The observation that perinatal mortality among babies delivered at home has tended to increase beyond that among babies delivered in consultant obstetric units has caused alarm and prompted recommendations that delivery at home should be further phased out. With data derived from the Cardiff Births Survey the possibility was investigated that this trend might reflect a changing ratio of planned to unplanned domiciliary births. At the beginning of the 1970s deliveries at home that were planned to be so outnumbered those that were not by nearly five to one. By 1979 unplanned deliveries at home outnumbered planned deliveries. The characteristics of the mothers, the health care they received, and the outcome of delivery differed strikingly between planned and unplanned deliveries at home. It is concluded, firstly, that every year the maternity services must try to meet the various needs of about 2000 women in England and Wales who give birth at home without planning to do so; and, secondly, that the heterogeneity of births at home and in hospital will continue to obstruct the search for unbiased estimates of the risks attributable to delivery in specialist obstetric units, general practitioner units, and at home.

  5. Couples' notions about preconception health: implications for framing social marketing plans.

    Lewis, Megan A; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To understand couples' notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. APPROACH/DESIGN: We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P's. Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples' experience with PCH and the four social marketing P's. Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P's for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships.

  6. Local niche planning and its strategic implications for implementation of energy-efficient technology

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    2012-01-01

    -management process for enabling transitions. The study outlines the proactive spatial planning of a Danish local authority in order to illustrate how the strategic work performed in this kind of local development project represents a special form of niche management that is able to create room for innovation...... such a gap between policy visions and their implementation in practice specific forms of strategic work is needed, according to new transformative ideas in spatial planning. The aim of this paper is to characterize the transformative capacities of this kind of strategic work at the spatial scale of the town...... in order to assess how such activities engage with sustainable transitions. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to compare strategic work performed in transformative forms of spatial planning with the strategic work intended in strategic niche management, which represent a change...

  7. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  8. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways : project summary.

    2017-01-01

    Through outreach to stakeholders during the workshops, researchers found that there is a need to be able to explain AV/CV technology and its impacts on long-range transportation plans. Given that the future is uncertain, planners either choose to ign...

  9. Logistic regression analysis of financial literacy implications for retirement planning in Croatia

    Dajana Barbić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial literacy and financial behavior is important, as individuals are increasingly being asked to take responsibility for their financial wellbeing, especially their retirement. Analyzing of individual savings and attitudes towards retirement planning is important, as these types of investments are a way of preserving security during years of financial vulnerability. Research indicates that individuals who do not save adequately for their retirement, generally have a relatively low level of financial literacy. This research investigates the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning in Croatia. To analyze the relationship between financial literacy and planning for retirement, maximum likelihood logistic regression analysis was used. The paper shows that those who answer financial literacy questions correctly are more likely to have a positive attitude towards retirement planning and are more likely to save for retirement, ensuring them of higher levels of financial security in retirement. The Goodness-of-Fit evaluation for the estimated logit model was performed using the Andrews and Hosmer-Lemeshow Tests.

  10. Comparing Pre- and Post-Operative Fontan Hemodynamic Simulations: Implications for the Reliability of Surgical Planning

    Haggerty, Christopher M.; de Zélicourt, Diane A.; Restrepo, Maria; Rossignac, Jarek; Spray, Thomas L.; Kanter, Kirk R.; Fogel, Mark A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual modeling of cardiothoracic surgery is a new paradigm that allows for systematic exploration of various operative strategies and uses engineering principles to predict the optimal patient-specific plan. This study investigates the predictive accuracy of such methods for the surgical palliation of single ventricle heart defects. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based surgical planning was used to model the Fontan procedure for four patients prior to surgery. The objective for each was to identify the operative strategy that best distributed hepatic blood flow to the pulmonary arteries. Post-operative magnetic resonance data were acquired to compare (via CFD) the post-operative hemodynamics with predictions. Results Despite variations in physiologic boundary conditions (e.g., cardiac output, venous flows) and the exact geometry of the surgical baffle, sufficient agreement was observed with respect to hepatic flow distribution (90% confidence interval-14 ± 4.3% difference). There was also good agreement of flow-normalized energetic efficiency predictions (19 ± 4.8% error). Conclusions The hemodynamic outcomes of prospective patient-specific surgical planning of the Fontan procedure are described for the first time with good quantitative comparisons between preoperatively predicted and postoperative simulations. These results demonstrate that surgical planning can be a useful tool for single ventricle cardiothoracic surgery with the ability to deliver significant clinical impact. PMID:22777126

  11. The green economy mirage? Examining the environmental implications of low-carbon growth plans in Taiwan

    Chao, C.-W.; Heijungs, R.; Ma, H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan is attempting to implement the concept of a green economy through a Low Carbon Growth Plan (LCGP). However, the existing decision support tools for this measure have three key limitations: ignorance regarding the open economy; a lack of life cycle thinking; and limited categories of

  12. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  13. A Critical Examination of Senior Executive Leadership Succession Planning and Management with Implications for Underrepresented Minorities

    Jackson, LeKeisha D.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the research questions, this study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design to examine senior executive leadership succession planning at four-year, predominately white, doctoral universities in the state of Georgia. Utilizing the Representative Bureaucracy theory and the Mateso SPM conceptual model, this study…

  14. Couples’ Notions About Preconception Health: Implications for Framing Social Marketing Plans

    Lewis, Megan A.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Levis, Denise M.; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand couples’ notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. Approach/Design We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P’s. Setting Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. Participants A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Method Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples’ experience with PCH and the four social marketing P’s. Results Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P’s for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Conclusion Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships. PMID:23286659

  15. Systematic Reviews of Mechanisms for Financing Family Planning: Findings, Implications, and Future Agenda.

    Lissner, Craig L; Ali, Moazzam

    2016-12-01

    The article describes an international collaboration that systematically reviewed the evidence on financing mechanisms for family planning/contraception, assessed the strength of and summarized the evidence, identified research gaps, and proposed a new research agenda to address the gaps. The review found that the evidence base is weak owing to the paucity of studies, diversity in findings, and variations in intervention, study design, and outcome measures. Of more than 17,000 papers reviewed only 38 met the eligibility criteria. A number of general recommendations on the directions and areas of future research can be drawn. There is a strong need for more robust study designs on the effectiveness of financial incentives in family planning. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  16. Ecosystem services from a degraded peatland of Central Kalimantan: implications for policy, planning, and management.

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Bretr A; Meijaard, Erik; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Struebig, Matthew; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, landscapes are managed for multiple objectives to balance social, economic, and environmental goals. The Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia provides a timely example with globally significant development, carbon, and biodiversity concerns. To inform future policy, planning, and management in the EMRP, we quantified and mapped ecosystem service values, assessed their spatial interactions, and evaluated the potential provision of ecosystem services under future land-use scenarios. We focus on key policy-relevant regulating (carbon stocks and the potential for emissions reduction), provisioning (timber, crops from smallholder agriculture, palm oil), and supporting (biodiversity) services. We found that implementation of existing land-use plans has the potential to improve total ecosystem service provision. We identify a number of significant inefficiencies, trade-offs, and unintended outcomes that may arise. For example, the potential development of existing palm oil concessions over one-third of the region may shift smallholder agriculture into low-productivity regions and substantially impact carbon and biodiversity outcomes. While improved management of conservation zones may enhance the protection of carbon stocks, not all biodiversity features will be represented, and there will be a reduction in timber harvesting and agricultural production. This study highlights how ecosystem service analyses can be structured to better inform policy, planning, and management in globally significant but data-poor regions.

  17. Assessment of Land and Water Resource Implications of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Skelton, S.; Lupton, R.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Carbon Plan presents four low-carbon energy system pathways that achieves 80% GHG emission targets by 2050, stipulated in the UK Climate Change Act (2008). However, some of the energy technologies prescribed under these pathways are land and water intensive; but would the increase demand for land and water under these pathways lead to increased competition and stress on agricultural land, and water resources in the UK? To answer the above question, this study uses an integrated modelling approach, ForeseerTM, which characterises the interdependencies and evaluates the land and water requirement for the pathways, based on scenarios of power plant location, and the energy crop yield projections. The outcome is compared with sustainable limits of resource appropriation to assess potential stresses and competition for water and land by other sectors of the economy. The results show the Carbon Plan pathways have low overall impacts on UK water resources, but agricultural land use and food production could be significantly impacted. The impact on agricultural land use is shown to be mainly driven by projections for transport decarbonisation via indigenously sourced biofuels. On the other hand, the impact on water resources is mainly associated with increased inland thermal electricity generation capacity, which would compete with other industrial and public water demands. The results highlight the need for a critical appraisal of UK's long term low-carbon energy system planning, in particular bioenergy sourcing strategy, and the siting of thermal power generation in order to avert potential resource stress and competition.

  18. Water stress, water salience, and the implications for water supply planning

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Effectively addressing the water supply challenges posed by urbanization and climate change requires a holistic understanding of the water supply system, including the impact of human behavior on system dynamics. Decision makers have limits to available information and information processing capacity, and their attention is not equally distributed among risks. The salience of a given risk is higher when increased attention is directed to it and though perceived risk may increase, real risk does not change. Relevant to water supply planning is how and when water stress results in an increased salience of water risks. This work takes a socio-hydrological approach to develop a water supply planning model that includes water consumption as an endogenous variable, in the context of Las Vegas, NV. To understand the benefits and limitations of this approach, this model is compared to a traditional planning model that uses water consumption scenarios. Both models are applied to project system reliability and water stress under four streamflow and demographic scenarios, and to assess supply side responses to changing conditions. The endogenous demand model enables the identification of feedback between both supply and demand management decisions on future water consumption and system performance. This model, while specific to the Las Vegas case, demonstrates a prototypical modeling framework capable of examining water-supply demand interactions by incorporating water stress driven conservation.

  19. The Costs of Decedents in the Medicare Program: Implications for Payments to Medicare+Choice Plans

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Garber, Alan M; McClellan, Mark; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2004-01-01

    Objective To discuss and quantify the incentives that Medicare managed care plans have to avoid (through selective enrollment or disenrollment) people who are at risk for very high costs, focusing on Medicare beneficiaries in the last year of life—a group that accounts for more than one-quarter of Medicare's annual expenditures. Data Source Medicare administrative claims for 1994 and 1995. Study Design We calculated the payment a plan would have received under three risk-adjustment systems for each beneficiary in our 1995 sample based on his or her age, gender, county of residence, original reason for Medicare entitlement, and principal inpatient diagnoses received during any hospital stays in 1994. We compared these amounts to the actual costs incurred by those beneficiaries. We then looked for clinical categories that were predictive of costs, including costs in a beneficiary's last year of life, not accounted for by the risk adjusters. Data Extraction Methods The analyses were conducted using claims for a 5 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries who died in 1995 and a matched group of survivors. Principal Findings Medicare is currently implementing the Principal Inpatient Diagnostic Cost Groups (PIP-DCG) risk adjustment payment system to address the problem of risk selection in the Medicare+Choice program. We quantify the strong financial disincentives to enroll terminally ill beneficiaries that plans still have under this risk adjustment system. We also show that up to one-third of the selection observed between Medicare HMOs and the traditional fee-for-service system could be due to differential enrollment of decedents. A risk adjustment system that incorporated more of the available diagnostic information would attenuate this disincentive; however, plans could still use clinical information (not included in the risk adjustment scheme) to identify beneficiaries whose expected costs exceed expected payments. Conclusions More disaggregated prospective

  20. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  1. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level.

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 - more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5-10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services

  2. SU-F-T-345: Quasi-Dead Beams: Clinical Relevance and Implications for Automatic Planning

    Price, R; Veltchev, I; Lin, T; Gleason, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Beam direction selection for fixed-beam IMRT planning is typically a manual process. Severe dose-volume limits on critical structures in the thorax often result in atypical selection of beam directions as compared to other body sites. This work demonstrates the potential consequences as well as clinical relevance. Methods: 21 thoracic cases treated with 5–7 beam directions, 6 cases including non-coplanar arrangements, with fractional doses of 150–411cGy were analyzed. Endpoints included per-beam modulation scaling factor (MSF), variation from equal weighting, and delivery QA passing rate. Results: During analysis of patient-specific delivery QA a sub-standard passing rate was found for a single 5-field plan (90.48% of pixels evaluated passing 3% dose, 3mm DTA). During investigation it was found that a single beam demonstrated a MSF of 34.7 and contributed only 2.7% to the mean dose of the target. In addition, the variation from equal weighting for this beam was 17.3% absolute resulting in another beam with a MSF of 4.6 contributing 41.9% to the mean dose to the target; a variation of 21.9% from equal weighting. The average MSF for the remaining 20 cases was 4.0 (SD 1.8) with an average absolute deviation of 2.8% from equal weighting (SD 3.1%). Conclusion: Optimization in commercial treatment planning systems typically results in relatively equally weighted beams. Extreme variation from this can result in excessively high MSFs (very small segments) and potential decreases in agreement between planned and delivered dose distributions. In addition, the resultant beam may contribute minimal dose to the target (quasi-dead beam); a byproduct being increased treatment time and associated localization uncertainties. Potential ramifications exist for automatic planning algorithms should they allow for user-defined beam directions. Additionally, these quasi-dead beams may be embedded in the libraries for model-based systems potentially resulting in inefficient

  3. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    Waugh, W.J. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Integrating Youth into Community Development: Implications for Policy Planning and Program Evaluation

    Rosemary V. Barnett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As non-profits, volunteer groups, and nongovernmental organizations take on increasingly larger roles in contributing to local well-being, the active collaboration between youth and adults is vital to the long-term success of community development efforts. Similarly, as service activities become standardized components of high-school programs, youth are empowered to becoming long-term contributors to local development efforts. Through this process youth engage in shared citizenship, leading to greater investment in their communities. This research was based on the premise that youth, acting as central parts of the community development process, have the capacity to improve local well-being. It reflects input from 12 key informants and 418 youth who participated in a survey conducted on the development issues contributing to their involvement. The findings of this study provide insights into the factors most directly shaping youth attitudes and involvement in their communities, as well as presenting direct implications for applied use.

  5. Distribution Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems in Germany – Implications on Grid Planning and Grid Operation

    Stetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic is the most dispersed renewable energy source in Germany, typically interconnected to low and medium voltage systems. In recent years, cost-intensive grid reinforcements had to be undertaken all across Germany’s distribution grids in order to increase their hosting capacity for these photovoltaic installations. This paper presents an overview on research results which show that photovoltaic itself can provide ancillary services to reduce its cost of interconnection. Especially the provision of reactive power turned out to be a technically effective and economically efficient method to increase a grid’s hosting capacity for photovoltaic capacity. Different reactive power control methods were investigated, revealing significant differences with regards to their grid operation implications. Business cases for residential-scale photovoltaic applications have shifted from feed-in-tariff based active power feed-in to self-consumption. However, increasing the photovoltaic self-consumption by additional battery-storage systems is still not economically reliable in Germany. (author)

  6. Effect of travel distance on household demand for typhoid vaccines: implications for planning.

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lauria, Donald T; Poulos, Christine; Dong, Baiqing; Whittington, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever causes millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. Vaccinations would mitigate this problem, but the users would probably have to pay some or most of the cost. Several willingness-to-pay studies have assessed the effect of price on private demand to provide a basis for financial planning of campaigns, but the effect of travel distance, which is a potentially important determinant of demand, has not been studied. This paper thus has two objectives: (i) conduct a willingness-to-pay survey to assess the effects of distance, price and other variables on the private demand for typhoid vaccinations in a rural township of China where a campaign is under consideration; and (ii) embed the demand function in a mathematical model to address three planning questions; should each village have its own clinic, would one clinic be best or should the number of clinics be something in-between? Private vaccine demand was found to depend on and be inelastic with respect to both price and travel distance. A 1-km increase in distance caused the number of vaccinations demanded to decrease the same as a $0.5 increase in price. Thus, the marginal rate of substitution was $0.5 per km. A single clinic would be best for the township only if diseconomies of scale in supplying vaccinations exceeded the marginal rate of substitution. Otherwise, multiple clinics close to users would be optimal. Thus, deciding the number, location and capacities of clinics for vaccination planning is as important as deciding what price(s) to charge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Implications of American Mathematics Graduates’ Career Development on the Career Planning of Chinese Mathematics Graduates

    Zhang Shuntao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with an careful analysis of the factors that cause Chinese mathematics graduate’s heavy pressure in job hunting and career development, followed by a detailed introduction of American mathematics graduates’ positive employment potential and their benign career development prospect. Finally the author puts forward that mathematics majors should plan their curriculum study in relation to their future career development, with the help of systematic, professional career development consultancy and guidance. Suggestions on how to improve mathematics majors employment competitiveness are also provided in this article.

  8. Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm: Implications for planning

    Eltham, Douglas C.; Harrison, Gareth P.; Allen, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    While independently conducted polls suggest significant public support for wind energy, there are often objections to particular wind farm developments from the local population which can result in planning permission being declined and a restriction in the ability to meet renewable energy and greenhouse gas reduction targets. The aim of the study was to determine whether the pre-construction opinions held by communities local to a wind farm change after an extended period following commissioning. Residents of St. Newlyn East, Cornwall, England, were asked to recall their opinions of Carland Cross wind farm in 1991 and 2006. Statistically significant changes in opinion were observed for attitudes regarding the wind farm's visual attractiveness and the importance of the energy security it provides. This study continues by exploring potential reasons for this in the context of recent literature on public attitudes towards renewable energy. The findings of this study support the proposals in the 2007 UK White Paper, Planning for a Sustainable Future, for community engagement early in the project process and for the requirement of infrastructure to be debated at the national level

  9. Assessing Climate Vulnerabilities of Food Distribution Center Sites in Greater Boston and Their Regional Implications: Climate Adaptation Planning in Practice

    Teferra, A.; Watson, C.; Douglas, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Metro Boston region, an area whose civic leaders have been at the forefront of climate resilience initiatives in recent years, is finalizing a flood vulnerability assessment of food distribution center sites located north of Boston, with the support of the University of Massachusetts Boston and the American Geophysical Union's Thriving Earth Exchange program. The community-scientist collaboration emerged because of the need for more local analyses of the area to inform climate resiliency policy and planning actions for the region. A significant amount of the metro region's food supply passes through two major distribution centers in the cities of Everett and Chelsea, just north of the Mystic River. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), on behalf of the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce, is working with Chris Watson and Ellen Douglas of UMass Boston to build on existing analyses of the region's food system and climate vulnerabilities and to develop a report identifying flood risk exposure to the sites. The analysis brings in dynamic modeling techniques that incorporate storm surge and sea level rise projections under different climate scenarios, and aims to align methodologies with those of other regional analyses, such as Climate Ready Boston and the City of Cambridge's Vulnerability Assessment. The study is helping to inform MAPC's and the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce's understanding of this critical food distribution infrastructure, illustrate the larger regional implications of climate impacts on food distribution in the Greater Boston area, and guide the development of site-specific strategies for addressing identified vulnerabilities.

  10. Climatic-Induced Shifts in the Distribution of Teak ( Tectona grandis) in Tropical Asia: Implications for Forest Management and Planning

    Deb, Jiban Chandra; Phinn, Stuart; Butt, Nathalie; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2017-09-01

    Modelling the future suitable climate space for tree species has become a widely used tool for forest management planning under global climate change. Teak ( Tectona grandis) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwood species in the international timber market, and natural teak forests are distributed from India through Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. The extents of teak forests are shrinking due to deforestation and the local impacts of global climate change. However, the direct impacts of climate changes on the continental-scale distributions of native and non-native teak have not been examined. In this study, we developed a species distribution model for teak across its entire native distribution in tropical Asia, and its non-native distribution in Bangladesh. We used presence-only records of trees and twelve environmental variables that were most representative for current teak distributions in South and Southeast Asia. MaxEnt (maximum entropy) models were used to model the distributions of teak under current and future climate scenarios. We found that land use/land cover change and elevation were the two most important variables explaining the current and future distributions of native and non-native teak in tropical Asia. Changes in annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and annual mean actual evapotranspiration may result in shifts in the distributions of teak across tropical Asia. We discuss the implications for the conservation of critical teak habitats, forest management planning, and risks of biological invasion that may occur due to its cultivation in non-native ranges.

  11. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning

    Samantha J. Tol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dugongs (Dugong dugon are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia.

  12. A Resource Planning Aid for Assessing the Personnel and Logistics Implications of Tactical Operations

    1981-06-01

    data on 13 force weapon systems and 38 equipment items. The following data items are required: "* Authorized1 "* On- handI "* Lost corps records ...y4 C.4 C14 Q4 0 ur-4C % (A4 -H H P: N ý N ý 4 F- w H4N 0 - H %_ P4 %C D ed ci 44 0 0 0 00e 00 44 N N *- c . CO’ U OH0Ht0 r U -j 00.4 ൱ 0.h 4.4 H0 0...diaplays they develop. Purpose: To provide a permanent record of data and to aid staff interaction and planning. ()A requirement exists to develop and

  13. Coding accuracy for Parkinson's disease hospital admissions: implications for healthcare planning in the UK.

    Muzerengi, S; Rick, C; Begaj, I; Ives, N; Evison, F; Woolley, R L; Clarke, C E

    2017-05-01

    Hospital Episode Statistics data are used for healthcare planning and hospital reimbursements. Reliability of these data is dependent on the accuracy of individual hospitals reporting Secondary Uses Service (SUS) which includes hospitalisation. The number and coding accuracy for Parkinson's disease hospital admissions at a tertiary centre in Birmingham was assessed. Retrospective, routine-data-based study. A retrospective electronic database search for all Parkinson's disease patients admitted to the tertiary hospital over a 4-year period (2009-2013) was performed on the SUS database using International Classification of Disease codes, and on the local inpatient electronic prescription database, Prescription and Information Communications System, using medication prescriptions. Capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the number of patients and admissions missed by both databases. From the two databases, between July 2009 and June 2013, 1068 patients with Parkinson's disease accounted for 1999 admissions. During these admissions, the Parkinson's disease was coded as a primary or secondary diagnosis. Ninety-one percent of these admissions were recorded on the SUS database. Capture-recapture methods estimated that the number of Parkinson's disease patients admitted during this period was 1127 patients (95% confidence interval: 1107-1146). A supplementary search of both SUS and Prescription and Information Communications System was undertaken using the hospital numbers of these 1068 patients. This identified another 479 admissions. SUS database under-estimated Parkinson's disease admissions by 27% during the study period. The accuracy of disease coding is critical for healthcare policy planning and must be improved. If the under-reporting of Parkinson's disease admissions on the SUS database is repeated nationally, expenditure on Parkinson's disease admissions in England is under-estimated by approximately £61 million per year. Copyright © 2016 The Royal

  14. Implications of Wind-Assisted Aerial Navigation for Titan Mission Planning and Science Exploration

    Elfes, A.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Fathpour, N.; Blackmore, L.; Newman, C.; Kuwata, Y.; Wolf, M.; Assad, C.

    2010-01-01

    The recent Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) proposal incorporates a montgolfiere (hot air balloon) as part of its architecture. Standard montgolfiere balloons generate lift through heating of the atmospheric gases inside the envelope, and use a vent valve for altitude control. A Titan aerobot (robotic aerial vehicle) would have to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electric power, and the excess heat generated can be used to provide thermal lift for a montgolfiere. A hybrid montgolfiere design could have propellers mounted on the gondola to generate horizontal thrust; in spite of the unfavorable aerodynamic drag caused by the shape of the balloon, a limited amount of lateral controllability could be achieved. In planning an aerial mission at Titan, it is extremely important to assess how the moon-wide wind field can be used to extend the navigation capabilities of an aerobot and thereby enhance the scientific return of the mission. In this paper we explore what guidance, navigation and control capabilities can be achieved by a vehicle that uses the Titan wind field. The control planning approach is based on passive wind field riding. The aerobot would use vertical control to select wind layers that would lead it towards a predefined science target, adding horizontal propulsion if available. The work presented in this paper is based on aerodynamic models that characterize balloon performance at Titan, and on TitanWRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), a model that incorporates heat convection, circulation, radiation, Titan haze properties, Saturn's tidal forcing, and other planetary phenomena. Our results show that a simple unpropelled montgolfiere without horizontal actuation will be able to reach a broad array of science targets within the constraints of the wind field. The study also indicates that even a small amount of horizontal thrust allows the balloon to reach any area of interest on Titan, and to do so in a fraction of the time needed

  15. Architectural accessibility of shools: Implications for individual education plans for pupils with physical disabilities

    Nikolić Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In available studies of inclusive practice and IEP, emphasis was placed on the activities undertaken to reach the accessibility of teaching programs for students with special needs. Architectural accessibility of schools and its implementation for IEP has not been researched enough. The main aim of this research was to highlight the importance of architectural barriers for the process of creating IEP for pupils with physical disabilities, trough determining a current situation in regular elementary schools in Belgrade. An observation list, with 38 variables of architectural accessibility was used in this research. The sample consisted of 12 elementary schools in “Zvezdara” Municipality, Belgrade. The results show that there is complete architectural accessibility in nine out of 38 variables. All nine variables belong to “universal design”. In other variables, elements that measure specific components of architectural accessibility for pupils with physical disabilities mainly intermit. This must be taken into consideration when we discuss IEP, primarily from the aspect of planning additional help and support to professionals, providing additional time for pupils’ work and learning in class, and providing adequate place for learning.

  16. Visitor interest in zoo animals and the implications for collection planning and zoo education programmes.

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    As zoos have sought to further their conservation missions, they have become powerful providers of environmental education. Outside of "formal" education initiatives, such as those designed for school and other organized groups, or structured public talks programmes, much of the learning potential that the zoo has to offer is around the viewing of animals and the response of visitors to them. In this, zoo learning is a very personal construct, develops from the previous knowledge, and experiences and motivations of each individual. In this article, we make the assertion that learning potential, although difficult to quantify, is very much related to the attractiveness of animal species and the interest that visitors show in them. Using standard behaviorist measures of attraction and interest (the proportion of visitors that stop and for how long), we analyzed the relative interest in 40 zoo species held in a modern UK zoo and the variables that are significant in predicting that popularity. Further to this, the suggestion is made that the zoo collection planning process could use such information to make more informed decisions about which species should be housed for their educational value. Taxonomic grouping was found to be the most significant predictor of visitor interest--that is, visitors were far more interested in mammals than any other group--although body size (length), increasing animal activity and whether the species was the primary or "flagship" species in an exhibit or not, were all found to have a significant bearing on visitor interest. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Care for elderly patients in Africa: Analysis of the financial implications of the SESAME plan on the budget of the regional hospital center in Thies, Senegal].

    Faye, A; Diousse, P; Seck, I; Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Diagne-Camara, M; Tal-Dia, A; Dia, La

    2010-04-01

    The SESAME plan has been implemented at the Thies Regional Hospital Center (TRHC) for one year. The purpose of this study was to analyze the financial implications of the plan on the hospital budget for the sustainability of care for persons aged 60 and over. This descriptive study included analysis of budget data from October 2006 to September 2007 plus information obtained by interviewing the accountant and head of SESAME plan. The number of patients managed, sources of CHRT funding, grants from various SESAME plan partners, and expenditures for each partner were determined. The weight of the SESAME plan in the CHRT operating budget was determined by calculating the ratio of the overall cost of care for elderly persons in relation to the hospital's revenues and SESAME grants. During the study period, the CHRT received a total of 17375 elderly persons including 89% with no pension or social security. The institute pension scheme (IPRES) covered 21% of the plan as compared to 79% for the state. Utilization plan grants in relation to funding source was 41% for IPRES and 124% for the State. The total cost of services provided to beneficiaries of the SESAME plan exceeded the aggregate amount by 26 083 847 CFA francs. The weight of the SESAME plan in the operating cost of the CHRT was 17%. Prefinancing a plan to cover elderly care in hospitals should be sufficient to prevent deficits from impacting negatively on the operating budget of the hospital.

  18. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  19. Water stress as a trigger of demand change: exploring the implications for drought planning

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in the Anthropocene is a function of both supply and demand. Despite its importance, demand is typically incorporated into planning models exogenously using a single scenario of demand change over time. Alternatively, demand is incorporated endogenously in hydro-economic models based on the assumption of rationality. However, actors are constrained by limited information and information processing capabilities, casting doubt on the rationality assumption. Though the risk of water shortage changes incrementally with demand growth and hydrologic change, significant shifts in management are punctuated and often linked to periods of stress. The observation of lasting decreases in per capita demands in a number of cities during periods of water stress prompts an alternate hypothesis: the occurrence of water stress increases the tendency of cities to promote and enforce efficient technologies and behaviors and the tendency of users to adopt them. We show the relevance of this hypothesis by building a model of a hypothetical surface water system to answer the following question: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? The model links the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). Under SOP, demand is fulfilled unless available supply drops below demand; under HP, water releases are reduced in anticipation of a deficit to decrease the risk of a large shortfall. The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result per capita demand decrease during periods of water stress are more frequent but less drastic and the additive effect of small adjustments decreases the tendency of the system to overshoot available supplies.

  20. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  1. Movement integration in elementary classrooms: Teacher perceptions and implications for program planning.

    Webster, Collin A; Zarrett, Nicole; Cook, Brittany S; Egan, Cate; Nesbitt, Danielle; Weaver, R Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Movement integration (MI), which involves infusing physical activity (PA) into regular classroom time in schools, is widely recommended to help children meet the national guideline of 60min of PA each day. Understanding the perspective of elementary classroom teachers (ECTs) toward MI is critical to program planning for interventions/professional development. This study examined the MI perceptions of ECTs in order to inform the design and implementation of a school-based pilot program that focused in part on increasing children's PA through MI. Twelve ECTs (Grades 1-3) from four schools were selected to participate based on their responses to a survey about their use of MI. Based on the idea that MI programming should be designed with particular attention to teachers who integrate relatively few movement opportunities in their classrooms, the intent was to select the teacher who reported integrating movement the least at her/his respective grade level at each school. However, not all of these teachers agreed to participate in the study. The final sample included two groups of ECTs, including eight lowest integrating teachers and four additional teachers. Each ECT participated in an interview during the semester before the pilot program was implemented. Through qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts, four themes emerged: (a) challenges and barriers (e.g., lack of time), (b) current and ideal resources (e.g., school support), (c) current implementation processes (e.g., scheduling MI into daily routines), and (e) teachers' ideas and tips for MI (e.g., stick with it and learn as you go). The themes were supported by data from both groups of teachers. This study's findings can inform future efforts to increase movement opportunities for children during regular classroom time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabarcoding avian diets at airports: implications for birdstrike hazard management planning.

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Murray, Dáithí C; Houston, Jayne; Rutherford, William; Bellgard, Matthew I; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2013-12-11

    Wildlife collisions with aircraft cost the airline industry billions of dollars per annum and represent a public safety risk. Clearly, adapting aerodrome habitats to become less attractive to hazardous wildlife will reduce the incidence of collisions. Formulating effective habitat management strategies relies on accurate species identification of high-risk species. This can be successfully achieved for all strikes either through morphology and/or DNA-based identifications. Beyond species identification, dietary analysis of birdstrike gut contents can provide valuable intelligence for airport hazard management practices in regards to what food is attracting which species to aerodromes. Here, we present birdstrike identification and dietary data from Perth Airport, Western Australia, an aerodrome that saw approximately 140,000 aircraft movements in 2012. Next-generation high throughput DNA sequencing was employed to investigate 77 carcasses from 16 bird species collected over a 12-month period. Five DNA markers, which broadly characterize vertebrates, invertebrates and plants, were used to target three animal mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and COI) and a plastid gene (trnL) from DNA extracted from birdstrike carcass gastrointestinal tracts. Over 151,000 DNA sequences were generated, filtered and analyzed by a fusion-tag amplicon sequencing approach. Across the 77 carcasses, the most commonly identified vertebrate was Mus musculus (house mouse). Acrididae (grasshoppers) was the most common invertebrate family identified, and Poaceae (grasses) the most commonly identified plant family. The DNA-based dietary data has the potential to provide some key insights into feeding ecologies within and around the aerodrome. The data generated here, together with the methodological approach, will greatly assist in the development of hazard management plans and, in combination with existing observational studies, provide an improved way to monitor the effectiveness of

  3. A therapist’s perspective of a financial planning course: Implications for financial therapy education and trainings

    Megan Ann McCoy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the autoethnography of a doctoral Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT student studying finances in a graduate course. A dataset in the form of field notes was created through recording observations and reflective journaling during the 15 week financial planning course. This data set included observations and insights on various skills and knowledge that would be helpful for conducting financial therapy, the professional and personal growth of a therapist integrating finances into her clinical work, and evaluations regarding how financial courses can be beneficial for therapists and planners who are interested in the interaction between relational and financial issues. Based on the first author’s experiences, reflections and conversations with the second author, four themes were developed. The themes were: (a Seeing the Unnoticed: Challenging Implicit Assumptions, (b Critically Examining My Own Money Scripts, (c What can Therapists Learn From the Financial Discipline, and (d What Financial Planners can Learn from the Clinical Disciplines. Implications for the burgeoning field of financial therapy are discussed, with special attention given to cross-discipline education and training.

  4. Characterization of spatial distribution of Tetranychus urticae in peppermint in California and implication for improving sampling plan.

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of peppermint in California, USA. Spider mite feeding on peppermint leaves causes physiological changes in the plant, which coupling with the favorable environmental condition can lead to increased mite infestations. Significant yield loss can occur in absence of pest monitoring and timely management. Understating the within-field spatial distribution of T. urticae is critical for the development of reliable sampling plan. The study reported here aims to characterize the spatial distribution of mite infestation in four commercial peppermint fields in northern California using spatial techniques, variogram and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). Variogram analysis revealed that there was a strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) mite population in 13 of 17 sampling dates and the physical distance of the aggregation reached maximum to 7 m in peppermint fields. Using SADIE, 11 of 17 sampling dates showed aggregated distribution pattern of mite infestation. Combining results from variogram and SADIE analysis, the spatial aggregation of T. urticae was evident in all four fields for all 17 sampling dates evaluated. Comparing spatial association using SADIE, ca. 62% of the total sampling pairs showed a positive association of mite spatial distribution patterns between two consecutive sampling dates, which indicates a strong spatial and temporal stability of mite infestation in peppermint fields. These results are discussed in relation to behavior of spider mite distribution within field, and its implications for improving sampling guidelines that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management.

  5. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  6. Old-fashioned charm and newfangled electronics make today's oil scouts formidable figures

    Lorenz, A.

    1999-01-01

    A profile of oil scouting, a secretive trade within the petroleum industry, was presented. Scouting began as early as 1949 when, in a fiercely competitive industry, a scout had to gain any information anyway he could regarding a competitor's drilling activity. Scouts were particularly useful when the industry was new because it was profitable to pay a field scout to watch a competitor's well from a hilltop with binoculars. If a scout informed their company that a given lease looked promising, the company would snap up that lease and the scout earned his wages many times over. Today's oil scout is more likely to be an independent consultant than a company employee. Their equipment ranges from devices such as parabolic microphones, wireless transmitters, night vision goggles, de-bugging devices, tools for listening through solid objects, and cell phone monitors. Acquired information can be invaluable and can prevent companies from making expensive mistakes, particularly in take-over situations. Estimates range from 100 to 150 independent scouts in Alberta. 2 figs

  7. Trustworthy Digital Repositories: Building Trust the Old Fashion Way, EARNING IT.

    Kinkade, D.; Chandler, C. L.; Shepherd, A.; Rauch, S.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Allison, M. D.; Copley, N. J.; Ake, H.; York, A.

    2016-12-01

    There are several drivers increasing the importance of high quality data management and curation in today's research process (e.g., OSTP PARR memo, journal publishers, funders, academic and private institutions), and proper management is necessary throughout the data lifecycle to enable reuse and reproducibility of results. Many digital data repositories are capable of satisfying the basic management needs of an investigator looking to share their data (i.e., publish data in the public domain), but repository services vary greatly and not all provide mature services that facilitate discovery, access, and reuse of research data. Domain-specific repositories play a vital role in the data curation process by working closely with investigators to create robust metadata, perform first order QC, and assemble and publish research data. In addition, they may employ technologies and services that enable increased discovery, access, and long-term archive. However, smaller domain facilities operate in varying states of capacity and curation ability. Within this repository environment, individual investigators (driven by publishers, funders, or institutions) need to find trustworthy repositories for their data; and funders need to direct investigators to quality repositories to ensure return on their investment. So, how can one determine the best home for valuable research data? Metrics can be applied to varying aspects of data curation, and many credentialing organizations offer services that assess and certify the trustworthiness of a given data management facility. Unfortunately, many of these certifications can be inaccessible to a small repository in cost, time, or scope. Are there alternatives? This presentation will discuss methods and approaches used by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO; a domain-specific, intermediate digital data repository) to demonstrate trustworthiness in the face of a daunting accreditation landscape.

  8. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    the ripening period could be explained by free-radical-induced cross-linking of myosin and the formation of aggregates. In addition, degradation of these aggregates correlated with the decrease in hardness observed at 371 days. CONCLUSIONS: Texture changes during ripening of salted herrings can be explained...... of salted herrings. The aim of this study was to measure the texture changes during ripening using two differentmethods and to correlate the texture changeswith brine composition andwith biochemical modifications at themolecular level. RESULTS: During ripening (up to 151 days), hardness was higher in salted...... herrings compared to raw herrings, irrespective of the brine composition. However, the increase in hardness of herring prepared with extra brine occurred later. After prolonged storage (371 days), hardness was found for both batches to decrease to the level of raw herring. The increase in hardness during...

  9. The television, an instrument old-fashioned or critical for the future of the European Union ?

    Violaine HACKER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized information society, the institutional machinery - willing to promote media policy in the framework of the “knowledge economy” - may stand only wishful-thinking, if media literacy is not utilized as a boon for citizens facing new forms of Medias. Communication on TV in the public sphere is no longer located in the industrial era, described by J. Habermas with his notion of “discursive democracy”. In a more complex and subject to conflict public space, policy-makers have to integrate and manage contradictions as regards the economic vision of global public goods and the ethical vision of the common good. In a competitive industrial environment, the notion of cultural diversity - seen in Europe as a common good (before the WTO and UNESCO - is supposed to combine the promotion of European citizenship, to respect local identities and to implement national industries in a global context. The EU tries timidly to fit into globalization as a soft power in order to collude with new cultural players, but remains a fragmented power among nations searching for a direction.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  11. Measurements of Extensive Aerosol Optical Properties During TexAQS II: Implications for PM Compliance and Planning

    Wright, M. E.; Atkinson, D. B.; Luke, W. T.

    2007-12-01

    In 2000, the Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) was designated as a non-attainment area for several criteria air pollutants by the US EPA. In order to meet the requirements of the federal Clean Air Act, the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II) was designed to update the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by providing scientific air quality data over 18 months from June 2005 to October 2006. The data presented here was collected as part of the Texas Radical and Aerosol Measurement Program (TRAMP), a substudy of TexAQS II. Bulk aerosol optical properties were measured for six weeks atop the 60 m high Southwest Moody Tower on the University of Houston campus. The measurements were collected using a cavity ring-down transmissometer/nephelometer (CRDT/N) and consisted of the extensive aerosol coefficients: extinction (bext) at 532 and 1064 nm and scattering (bscat) at 530nm. In addition to daily and whole study averages and calculated mass values, positive correlations between the 1064 nm extinction and 532 nm absorption (babs = bext - bscat) values are displayed for this study period for the first time. Correlation between the particle scattering coefficient and the sum of AMS measured (UNH - PI: R. Griffin) sulfate and organic particle mass concentrations as well as covariance between optical properties and O3, CO and NOx values (ARL/NOAA - PI: W. Luke) are also examined. No correlation is expected between coarse particles (PM10), which are typically primary biogenic suspended soil minerals or windblown dust, and high ozone concentrations. Ozone levels are highest during periods of low wind when coarse particulate is likely to be at a minimum. On the other hand, secondary particles and O3 should be correlated on short time scales because both species tend to have the same precursors, NOx and VOC's, and formation of particles is favored during stagnant conditions. Fine particles (PM2.5) should also correlate with CO since both species have a common emission source. Wind

  12. Assessment Planning within the Context of University English Language Teaching (ELT) in China: Implications for Teacher Assessment Literacy

    Xu, Yueting

    2016-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy (AL) is a concern for both educational assessment and teacher education research. As part of teacher AL, teacher competency of assessment planning has remained underexplored. To address this gap, this study explored how a group of 20 contest-winning university English teachers in China planned for assessment through…

  13. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning

    Maxwell, C.

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters

  14. Understanding culture in territorial management and its implications for spatial planning. The case of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions in the Netherlands and Thailand

    Suwanna Rongwiriyaphanich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiences have shown that the implementation of planning policy does not always lead to the originally intended territorial management outcomes. This issue
is particularly crucial when policy ideas, institutions, models and programmes are transferred into places with different cultural settings without adaptations (Knieling and Othengrafen 2009b; Sanyal 2005. These unexpected consequences in planning practice and management outcomes have brought a significant amount of attention to the importance and roles of culture on shaping decision-making in territorial management process and determining transferability of a policy (Friedmann 2005a, 2005b; de Jong and Mamadouh 2002; Sanyal 2005; Ostrom 2005a; Knieling and Othengrafen 2009b. However, conceptual frameworks that seek to understand the roles of culture and its implications for spatial planning are still rather limited. This study presents and applies an integrative conceptual framework which is used
to explain how culture, planning policy and territorial management outcomes are interrelated, and what the implications are for spatial planning. The framework integrates relevant theories and ideas from anthropology, organisational management and political sciences to understand influences of culture on spatial planning. The integrative framework suggests a way of characterising territorial management in the form of ideal types. This helps simplify cultures regarding territorial management to make them comparable. It enables an analysis of ‘cultures’ that includes a broader scope of culture than existing frameworks that focus primarily on ‘planning cultures’ expressed in forms of planning systems, organisations and instruments. This broader scope includes also the implicit expressions of culture in informal forms, such as ideas, customs and social behaviours shared by involved actors in the management of a given territory. The framework also offers two analytical perspectives

  15. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Objectives in Extension Strategic Plans: Findings and Implications for Improved Public Health Impact

    Harden, Samantha M.; Lindsay, Anne; Everette, Alicia; Gunter, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Extension programming that incorporates both physical activity and dietary behaviors is necessary for the prevention of certain chronic diseases, including obesity. The purpose of the study presented here was to systematically identify the presence of physical activity objectives in the strategic plan for each Extension system in the United…

  16. Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design

    Meyer, Han; Stolk, Egbert; Tan, Ekim

    2012-01-01

    Today, our cities are an embodiment of the complex, historical evolution of knowledge, desires and technology. Our planned and designed activities co-evolve with our aspirations, mediated by the existing technologies and social structures.  The city represents the accretion and accumulation of successive layers of collective activity, structuring and being structured by other, increasingly distant cities, reaching now right around the globe. This historical and structural development cannot therefore be understood or captured by any set of fixed quantitative relations. Structural changes imply that the patterns of growth, and their underlying reasons change over time, and therefore that any attempt to control the morphology of cities and their patterns of flow by means of planning and design, must be dynamical, based on the mechanisms that drive the changes occurring at a given moment. This carefully edited post-proceedings volume gathers a snapshot view by leading researchers in field, of current complexity...

  17. The Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commissions Blended Retirement Plan: A First Look at Marine Corps Implications

    2016-03-01

    of war as its “ultimate auditor .”16 The value of force management changes must be explained to Marines and their families in terms that:  Clearly...neighborhoods, send children to good schools, keep families safe, and buy the things needed for day-to-day living. This is why people work and why...plan appears to be rapidly working its way through the legislative process in a form closely resembling the MCRMC recommendation. As the services

  18. Implications of land and resource management planning for the oil and gas industry in B.C

    Thompson, D.; Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the land use planning work underway in British Columbia and its impact on the oil and gas industry was presented. The plans are to double the park and protected areas in the province. Historically, parks in the province were designated on the basis of advice from technical staff with a small amount of public consultation. Today, public debate about the establishment of new protected areas has made several significant several changes to the decision-making process in British Columbia. The result is a process that although complex, provides better understanding between industry, environmental interests and government. As an illustration of the effectiveness of this process, the issue of finding innovative solutions to resource development interests while respecting environmental values, such as the management objectives for the Muskwa Kechika Area in northeast British Columbia, and the opportunity for directional oil and gas drilling under selected new protected areas were discussed. Application of the process was also demonstrated in discussing the two sub-regional Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMP) in Fort Nelson and Fort St. John, which cover a remote wild area of almost fourteen and a half million hectares in the northeast corner of the province. The economy of the region is based on agriculture, natural gas exploration and development, forest products, and nature based tourism. The LRMP process allowed the government to consider and accept the concept of directional drilling under some new protected areas as long as there were no surface disturbances

  19. Planned Home VBAC in the United States, 2004-2009: Outcomes, Maternity Care Practices, and Implications for Shared Decision Making.

    Cox, Kim J; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Cheyney, Melissa; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, the number of planned home vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) has increased. This study describes the maternal and neonatal outcomes for women who planned a VBAC at home with midwives who were contributing data to the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 cohort during the years 2004-2009. Two subsamples were created from the parent cohort: 12,092 multiparous women without a prior cesarean and 1,052 women with a prior cesarean. Descriptive statistics were calculated for maternal and neonatal outcomes for both groups. Sensitivity analyses comparing women with a prior vaginal birth and those who were at the lowest risk with various subgroups in the parent cohort were also conducted. Women with a prior cesarean had a VBAC rate of 87 percent, although transfer rates were higher compared with women without a prior cesarean (18% vs 7%, p history of cesarean (p = 0.015). Although there is a high likelihood of a vaginal birth at home, women planning a home VBAC should be counseled regarding maternal transfer rates and potential for increased risk to the newborn, particularly if uterine rupture occurs in the home setting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Role of the parameters involved in the plan optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose and radiobiological implications

    Widesott, L; Strigari, L; Pressello, M C; Landoni, V; Benassi, M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role and the weight of the parameters involved in the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) method, for prostate and head-and-neck plans. We systematically varied the parameters (gEUD max and weight) involved in the gEUD-based optimization of rectal wall and parotid glands. We found that the proper value of weight factor, still guaranteeing planning treatment volumes coverage, produced similar organs at risks dose-volume (DV) histograms for different gEUD max with fixed a = 1. Most of all, we formulated a simple relation that links the reference gEUD max and the associated weight factor. As secondary objective, we evaluated plans obtained with the gEUD-based optimization and ones based on DV criteria, using the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. gEUD criteria seemed to improve sparing of rectum and parotid glands with respect to DV-based optimization: the mean dose, the V 40 and V 50 values to the rectal wall were decreased of about 10%, the mean dose to parotids decreased of about 20-30%. But more than the OARs sparing, we underlined the halving of the OARs optimization time with the implementation of the gEUD-based cost function. Using NTCP models we enhanced differences between the two optimization criteria for parotid glands, but no for rectum wall

  1. Biodiversity conservation in a changing climate: a review of threats and implications for conservation planning in Myanmar.

    Rao, Madhu; Saw Htun; Platt, Steven G; Tizard, Robert; Poole, Colin; Than Myint; Watson, James E M

    2013-11-01

    High levels of species richness and endemism make Myanmar a regional priority for conservation. However, decades of economic and political sanctions have resulted in low conservation investment to effectively tackle threats to biodiversity. Recent sweeping political reforms have placed Myanmar on the fast track to economic development-the expectation is increased economic investments focused on the exploitation of the country's rich, and relatively intact, natural resources. Within a context of weak regulatory capacity and inadequate environmental safeguards, rapid economic development is likely to have far-reaching negative implications for already threatened biodiversity and natural-resource-dependent human communities. Climate change will further exacerbate prevailing threats given Myanmar's high exposure and vulnerability. The aim of this review is to examine the implications of increased economic growth and a changing climate within the larger context of biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. We summarize conservation challenges, assess direct climatological impacts on biodiversity and conclude with recommendations for long-term adaptation approaches for biodiversity conservation.

  2. Analysing urban planning implications from an electric vehicles scenario for urban structure-, transport- and energy-systems

    Rid, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen; Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachgebiet Stadt- und Regionaloekonomie; Pesch, Franz; Wewer, Max; Sperle, Tilman [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen

    2013-06-01

    Depending on scenarios of actual electric vehicles on the road, ''electric mobility'' will heavily affect urban planning and infrastructure. We analyze these effects by developing an ''urban typology for electro-mobility''. By doing so, we seek to demonstrate that both requirements from electric vehicle scenarios (infrastructure, on-site provision of renewable energy etc.) and potential benefits (noise-reduction, NOx-reduction, modal-split etc.) are dependent on the urban context. The typology was developed according to preliminary studies' results recommending to use the GFZ (Gross Floor Area) and residential density to describe different types of urban structure, but additionally makes use of the proportion of public space and number of resident families (per ha net residential area) to extract five different ''urban types for electro-mobility''. Electro-mobility will have a significant climate effect only if 'green' electric power production is able to provide the additional amount of renewable energy needed. On-site power plants must be further developed to reduce externalities from large scale power plants providing C02-free energy (e.g. externalities from offshore wind energy plants). The potential to produce renewable energy from on-site power plants is dependent on the type of the urban context: Advanced ''plus-energy-concepts'' for example, today, are restricted to building scales of low-density residential zones, whereas in inner city zones, buildings have to provide energy for far more people per floorspace or for cooling purposes, as well. On-site renewable energy plants should be placed in urban settings, where they can work most efficiently and where they can be best integrated into the urban context given, hence, electro-mobility needs to be viewed from an urban perspective. Many other projects, so far, have investigated technical solutions to improve

  3. Does the urethral angle change with leg position? Implications for urethral-based CT-planned transperineal prostate implants

    Bednarz, Greg; Ning, Yue; Waterman, Frank M.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dicker, Adam P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: CT based treatment planning for transperineal prostate implants allows for angulation of transperineal needles to avoid the pubic bones by changing the template angle. It requires fluoroscopic guidance and utilizes identification of the urethra by radiopaque markers inside the Foley catheter at the time of the implant. The needle trajectory is relative to the urethral angle as visualized by lateral fluoroscopic views. Patients who have a treatment planning CT in preparation for a transperineal prostate implant are typically scanned in the leg-down/straight position. However, the implant is done in the lithotomy position and changes in the template angle to adapt to the new urethral angle are often required. We have evaluated the relationship between leg position and the position of the prostatic urethra to predict the change in the planned template angle. Material and Methods: To duplicate the lithotomy position a custom designed foot holder was constructed that attached to a flatbed CT scanner. A Foley catheter was inserted with radio-opaque contrast placed in the balloon. Bladder contrast was also utilized. A catheter with 1 cm spaced dummy seeds was placed inside the Foley catheter. A radio-opaque catheter was inserted into the rectum. Fifteen patients had pre-implant scans performed in the leg-down/straight and lithotomy position. The prostate, urethra, bladder and rectum were contoured utilizing a 3D-brachytherapy software system and analyzed. Results: Fourteen of the patients (93%) had changes in urethral angle when evaluated in the lithotomy relative to the led-down/straight position. The mean angle change was - 9.8 degrees (Std. Error 1.47 degrees; p < 0.0001) when in the lithotomy position. The changes were not correlated with prostatic volume or clinical stage. All patients who had urethral angle changes would have required adjustments in the template angle. Conclusions: 1) The objective of treatment planning for prostate implants is to

  4. Implication of spot position error on plan quality and patient safety in pencil-beam-scanning proton therapy

    Yu, Juan; Beltran, Chris J., E-mail: beltran.chris@mayo.edu; Herman, Michael G. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively and systematically assess dosimetric effects induced by spot positioning error as a function of spot spacing (SS) on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan quality and to facilitate evaluation of safety tolerance limits on spot position. Methods: Spot position errors (PE) ranging from 1 to 2 mm were simulated. Simple plans were created on a water phantom, and IMPT plans were calculated on two pediatric patients with a brain tumor of 28 and 3 cc, respectively, using a commercial planning system. For the phantom, a uniform dose was delivered to targets located at different depths from 10 to 20 cm with various field sizes from 2{sup 2} to 15{sup 2} cm{sup 2}. Two nominal spot sizes, 4.0 and 6.6 mm of 1 σ in water at isocenter, were used for treatment planning. The SS ranged from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ, which is 2–6 mm for the small spot size and 3.3–9.9 mm for the large spot size. Various perturbation scenarios of a single spot error and systematic and random multiple spot errors were studied. To quantify the dosimetric effects, percent dose error (PDE) depth profiles and the value of percent dose error at the maximum dose difference (PDE [ΔDmax]) were used for evaluation. Results: A pair of hot and cold spots was created per spot shift. PDE[ΔDmax] is found to be a complex function of PE, SS, spot size, depth, and global spot distribution that can be well defined in simple models. For volumetric targets, the PDE [ΔDmax] is not noticeably affected by the change of field size or target volume within the studied ranges. In general, reducing SS decreased the dose error. For the facility studied, given a single spot error with a PE of 1.2 mm and for both spot sizes, a SS of 1σ resulted in a 2% maximum dose error; a SS larger than 1.25 σ substantially increased the dose error and its sensitivity to PE. A similar trend was observed in multiple spot errors (both systematic and random errors). Systematic PE can lead to noticeable hot

  5. A Template Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Survivors’ Experiences of Animal Maltreatment: Implications for Safety Planning and Intervention

    Collins, Elizabeth A.; Cody, Anna M.; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Nicotera, Nicole; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning. Results demonstrate the potential impact of animal maltreatment exposure on women and child IPV survivors’ health and safety. PMID:29332521

  6. A Template Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences of Animal Maltreatment: Implications for Safety Planning and Intervention.

    Collins, Elizabeth A; Cody, Anna M; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Nicotera, Nicole; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning. Results demonstrate the potential impact of animal maltreatment exposure on women and child IPV survivors' health and safety.

  7. Managerialism in the university management: implications of strategic planning in the perception of managers from a public university

    Lucilaine Pascuci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the bureaucratic public administration model to a more effective managerial model requires a new kind of behavior within public universities. As a response to demands of a new more competitive for better performance there is a growing trend among universities of incorporating managerial approaches oriented by the market, and characterized as managerialism. However, such practices have identified as inappropriate losing much of its effectiveness by neglecting the organizational complexity of universities, especially the public ones. The purpose of this study is to analyze the contributions and limitations of the strategic planning incorporated by a public university. The results indicate the existence of a consensus among the central administration and the academic units related to the need for a professionalization of public management. It is also stressed that the ambiguity of public policies and overload of regulations together with the complexity of the academic organization ended up being serious barriers to the success of managerial practices like the strategic planning. The main conclusions reveal that the success of such managerial approach requires the adjustment of the rationality implicit in the model to the specificities of the academic organizations, as a condition by which the efforts can generate the expected benefits.

  8. Spatial variability and temporal changes in the trace metal content of soils: implications for mine restoration plan.

    Chandra, Rachna; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Azeez, P A

    2014-06-01

    Trace metals in soils may be inherited from the parent materials or added to the system due to anthropogenic activities. In proposed mining areas, trace metals become an integral part of the soil system. Usually, researchers undertake experiments on plant species selection (for the restoration plan) only after the termination of mining activities, i.e. without any pre-mining information about the soil-plant interactions. Though not shown in studies, it is clear that several recovery plans remain unsuccessful while carrying out restoration experiments. Therefore, we hypothesize that to restore the area effectively, it is imperative to consider the pre-mining scenario of metal levels in parent material as well as the vegetation ecology of the region. With these specifics, we examined the concentrations of trace metals in parent soils at three proposed bauxite locations in the Eastern Ghats, India, and compared them at a spatio-temporal scale. Vegetation quantification and other basic soil parameters accounted for establishing the connection between soil and plants. The study recorded significant spatial heterogeneity in trace metal concentrations and the role of vegetation on metal availability. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) directly influenced metal content, and Cu and Ni were lithogenic in origin. It implies that for effective restoration plant species varies for each geological location.

  9. Comparing the utility of the theory of planned behavior between boys and girls for predicting snack food consumption: implications for practice.

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior to explain two types of snack food consumption among boys and girls (girls n = 98; boys n = 69), which may have implications for future theory-based health promotion interventions. Between genders, there was a significant difference for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .002), but no difference for fruit and vegetable snacks. Using stepwise multiple regression, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms accounted for a large amount of the variance of intentions (girls = 43.3%; boys = 55.9%); however, for girls, subjective norms accounted for the most variance, whereas for boys, attitudes accounted for the most variance. Calories from calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks and fruit and vegetable snacks were also predicted by intentions. For boys, intentions predicted 6.4% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .03) but was not significant for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks, whereas for girls, intentions predicted 6.0% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .007), and 7.2% of the variance for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .004). Results suggest that the theory of planned behavior is a useful framework for predicting snack foods among children; however, there are important differences between genders that should be considered in future health promotion interventions.

  10. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning.

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2016-01-01

    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.

  11. Mapping social values for urban green spaces using Public Participation GIS: the influence of spatial scale and implications for landscape planning.

    Ives, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Measuring social values for landscapes is an emerging field of research and is critical to the successful management of urban ecosystems. Green open space planning has traditionally relied on rigid standards and metrics without considering the physical requirements of green spaces that are valued for different reasons and by different people. Relating social landscape values to key environmental variables provides a much stronger evidence base for planning landscapes that are both socially desirable and environmentally sustainable. This study spatially quantified residents' values for green space in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia by enabling participants to mark their values for specific open spaces on interactive paper maps. The survey instrument was designed to evaluate the effect of spatial scale by providing maps of residents' local area at both suburb and municipality scales. The importance of open space values differed depending on whether they were indicated via marker dots or reported on in a general aspatial sense. This suggests that certain open space functions were inadequately provided for in the local area (specifically, cultural significance and health/therapeutic value). Additionally, all value types recorded a greater abundance of marker dots at the finer (suburb) scale compared to the coarser (municipality) scale, but this pattern was more pronounced for some values than others (e.g. physical exercise value). Finally, significant relationships were observed between the abundance of value marker dots in parks and their environmental characteristics (e.g. percentage of vegetation). These results have interesting implications when considering the compatibility between different functions of green spaces and how planners can incorporate information about social values with more traditional approaches to green space planning.

  12. An audit of imaging test utilization for the management of lymphoma in an oncology hospital: implications for resource planning?

    Schwartz, A; Gospodarowicz, M K; Khalili, K; Pintilie, M; Goddard, S; Keller, A; Tsang, R W

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assist with resource planning by examining the pattern of physician utilization of imaging procedures for lymphoma patients in a dedicated oncology hospital. The proportion of imaging tests ordered for routine follow up with no specific clinical indication was quantified, with specific attention to CT scans. A 3-month audit was performed. The reasons for ordering all imaging procedures (X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound, nuclear scan and MRI) were determined through a retrospective chart review. 411 lymphoma patients had 686 assessments (sets of imaging tests) and 981 procedures (individual imaging tests). Most procedures were CT scans (52%) and chest radiographs (30%). The most common reasons for ordering imaging were assessing response (23%), and investigating new symptoms (19%). Routine follow up constituted 21% of the assessments (142/686), and of these, 82% were chest radiographs (116/142), while 24% (34/142) were CT scans. With analysis restricted to CT scans (296 assessments in 248 patients), the most common reason for ordering CT scans were response evaluation (40%), and suspicion of recurrence and/or new symptom (23%). Follow-up CT scans done with no clinical indication comprised 8% (25/296) of all CT assessments. Staging CT scans were under-represented at 6% of all assessments. Imaging with CT scans for follow up of asymptomatic patients is infrequent. However, scans done for staging new lymphoma patients were unexpectedly low in frequency, due to scans done elsewhere prior to referral. This analysis uncovered utilization patterns, helped resource planning and provided data to reduce unnecessary imaging procedures.

  13. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  14. Evaluation of a cross-cultural training program for Pakistani educators: Lessons learned and implications for program planning.

    Mazur, Rebecca; Woodland, Rebecca H

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we share the results of a summative evaluation of PEILI, a US-based adult professional development/training program for secondary school Pakistani teachers. The evaluation was guided by the theories of cultural competence (American Psychological Association, 2003; Bamberger, 1999; Wadsworth, 2001) and established frameworks for the evaluation of professional development/training and instructional design (Bennett, 1975; Guskey, 2002; King, 2014; Kirkpatrick, 1967). The explicit and implicit stakeholder assumptions about the connections between program resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes are described. Participant knowledge and skills were measured via scores on a pre/posttest of professional knowledge, and a standards-based performance assessment rubric. In addition to measuring short-term program outcomes, we also sought to incorporate theory-driven thinking into the evaluation design. Hence, we examined participant self-efficacy and access to social capital, two evidenced-based determinants or "levers" that theoretically explain the transformative space between an intervention and its outcomes (Chen, 2012). Data about program determinants were collected and analyzed through a pre/posttest of self-efficacy and social network analysis. Key evaluation findings include participant acquisition of new instructional skills, increased self-efficacy, and the formation of a nascent professional support network. Lessons learned and implications for the design and evaluation of cross-cultural teacher professional development programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of regional planning organizations in transportation planning across boundaries

    2014-06-11

    The Volpe Center conducted research for the Federal Highway Administration Office of Planning that explores the implications of Regional Planning Organizations (RPO) engaging in transportation planning partnerships and projects of megaregions signifi...

  16. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    Hall, William A., E-mail: whall4@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Mikell, John L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Mittal, Pardeep [Department of Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Colbert, Lauren [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Prabhu, Roshan S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kooby, David A. [Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Nickleach, Dana [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hanley, Krisztina [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Sarmiento, Juan M. [Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  17. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  18. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning

    FELIPE Z. SAITER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  19. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning.

    Saiter, Felipe Z; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; França, Glauco S; Stehmann, João R; Thomas, William W; De Oliveira-Filho, Ary T

    2015-01-01

    We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  20. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Mark eMeekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  1. HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of available data with implications for surveillance and prevention planning.

    Braunstein, Sarah L; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Nash, Denis

    2009-01-01

    HIV incidence estimation is increasingly being incorporated into HIV/AIDS surveillance activities in both resource-rich and developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the availability of HIV incidence data from sub-Saharan Africa. We examined peer-reviewed articles, conference proceedings and technical reports published from 1987-2008. Incidence estimates were classified by country, year, population group, and estimation method (prospective study or the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion; STARHS). Our search yielded HIV incidence estimates for 15 of 44 sub-Saharan African countries, with 57 studies generating 264 unique estimates. Of these, 239 (91%) were obtained via prospective studies, and 25 (9%) via the STARHS method (24 using the BED-CEIA assay). Only five countries reported population-based estimates, and less than two-thirds of studies reported risk factor information. STARHS use increased over time, comprising 20% of estimates since 2006. However, studies that compared STARHS estimates with prospectively observed or modeled estimates often found substantial levels of disagreement, with STARHS often overestimating HIV incidence. Population-based HIV incidence estimates and risk factor information in sub-Saharan Africa remain scant but increasingly available. Regional STARHS data suggest a need for further validation prior to widespread use and incorporation into routine surveillance activities. In the meantime, prevalence and behavioral risk factor data remain important for HIV prevention planning.

  2. Potential Impact on Freshwater Resources from Agrofuel Feedstock Cultivation in Thailand: Implications of the Alternative Energy Development Plan 2015

    Pariyapat Nilsalab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of water use in areas with abundant freshwater resources should not be the same as areas with limited resources. This impact is quantified as water scarcity footprint. The monthly water stress index with reference to environmental water requirement is proposed as a characterization factor. The biofuel policies of Thailand—cassava and sugarcane for bioethanol, and oil palm for biodiesel—were selected for the assessment based on land expansion and displacement scenarios. Cultivation was found to be the most water intensive phase in producing both biodiesel and bioethanol. Thus, the proposed index was applied for assessing and selecting areas having low values of the water scarcity footprint. The results showed low values for expanding oil palm plantations on abandoned land and displacing plantation areas with low yields of maize and pineapple with sugarcane and cassava. Additionally, shifting the crop calendar could be considered to reduce the stress situation such as the central region can avoid the water scarcity footprint by 38% from shifting sugarcane cultivation. Consequently mitigating this potential impact and threats to the ecosystem based on specific circumstances and context would be achieved through applying the proposed index in water resource and land suitability planning.

  3. Applying geo-spatial analysis in community needs assessment: Implications for planning and prioritizing based on data.

    Baig, Kamran; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Munoz, Oscar J

    2016-10-01

    Colonias are sub standardized and unincorporated areas located along the US-Mexico border, with severely lacking infrastructure. Residents have poor health and limited availability, accessibility and/or utilization of healthcare services in the region. Using 2006-2007 community needs assessment (CNA) surveys collected by the Center for Housing and Urban Development of Texas A&M University, 410 randomly selected surveys from Hidalgo County, Texas were analyzed. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed and Odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Out of 410 surveys, 333 were geo-coded to identify areas most in need of dental and vision care. Two hospitals existed within 5 miles radius of the mean centers for the two areas. Distance to health care facility was not statistically predictive of the need of dental care OR=0.96 (95% CI=0.855-1.078, p value=0.492) and vision care OR=1.083 (95% CI=0.968-1.212, p value=0.164). Integrating spatial analysis and CNA enhances planning to improve service accessibility and utilization in underserved areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of urban flood vulnerability in eastern Slovakia by mapping the potential natural sources of flooding - implications for territorial planning

    Lenka Gaňová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to assess the distribution of flood-risk potential (FRP at the regional scale. A progressive approach integrating geographical information system (GIS with two different methods of multicriteria analysis (MCA – analytic hierarchy process (AHP and ranking method (RM was applied in the process. In the analyses, the most causative factors for flooding were taken into account, urban spatial planning, such as soil type, daily precipitation, land use, size of the catchment and average basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Hornád and Bodrog catchments’ areas in eastern Slovakia has been employed to illustrate two different approaches. Spatial estimation of FRP should be one of the basic steps for complex geoecological evaluation and delimitation of landscape considering water resources management, groundwater pollution, prediction of soil erosion and sediment transport and some other important landscape-ecological factors. The obtained results indicate that RM method shows better results as related to the existing floods in the recent years in Bodrog and Hornád catchment than AHP method.

  5. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  6. Can the 'Assessment Drives Learning' effect be detected in clinical skills training? - Implications for curriculum design and resource planning

    Buss, Beate; Krautter, Markus; Möltner, Andreas; Weyrich, Peter; Werner, Anne; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The acquisition of clinical-technical skills is of particular importance for the doctors of tomorrow. Procedural skills are often trained for the first time in skills laboratories, which provide a sheltered learning environment. However, costs to implement and maintain skills laboratories are considerably high. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate students’ patterns of attendance of voluntary skills-lab training sessions and thereby answer the following question: Is it possible to measure an effect of the theoretical construct related to motivational psychology described in the literature – ‘Assessment drives learning’ – reflected in patterns of attendance at voluntary skills-lab training sessions? By answering this question, design recommendations for curriculum planning and resource management should be derived. Method: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of student skills-lab attendance related to voluntary basic and voluntary advanced skills-lab sessions was conducted. The attendance patterns of a total of 340 third-year medical students in different successive year groups from the Medical Faculty at the University of Heidelberg were assessed. Results: Students showed a preference for voluntary basic skills-lab training sessions, which were relevant to clinical skills assessment, especially at the beginning and at the end of the term. Voluntary advanced skills-lab training sessions without reference to clinical skills assessment were used especially at the beginning of the term, but declined towards the end of term. Conclusion: The results show a clear influence of assessments on students’ attendance at skills-lab training sessions. First recommendations for curriculum design and resource management will be described. Nevertheless, further prospective research studies will be necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors impacting students’ utilisation of voluntary skills

  7. Land use implications of future energy system trajectories—The case of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    Konadu, D. Dennis; Mourão, Zenaida Sobral; Allwood, Julian M.; Richards, Keith S.; Kopec, Grant; McMahon, Richard; Fenner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The UK's 2008 Climate Change Act sets a legally binding target for reducing territorial greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, relative to 1990 levels. Four pathways to achieve this target have been developed by the Department of Energy and Climate Change, with all pathways requiring increased us of bioenergy. A significant amount of this could be indigenously sourced from crops, but will increased domestic production of energy crops conflict with other agricultural priorities? To address this question, a coupled analysis of the UK energy system and land use has been developed. The two systems are connected by the production of bioenergy, and are projected forwards in time under the energy pathways, accounting for various constraints on land use for agriculture and ecosystem services. The results show different combinations of crop yield and compositions for the pathways lead to the appropriation of between 7% and 61% of UK's agricultural land for bioenergy production. This could result in competition for land for food production and other land uses, as well as indirect land use change in other countries due to an increase in bioenergy imports. Consequently, the potential role of bioenergy in achieving UK emissions reduction targets may face significant deployment challenges. - Highlights: • The Carbon Plan could result in significant land use change for bioenergy by 2050. • Higher Nuclear; less efficiency pathway has the highest land use change impact. • Higher Renewables; more energy efficiency pathway has the lowest land use change impact. • Transport decarbonisation via biofuels has the highest land use change impacts. • At current deployment rate only Higher Renewables pathway projections is achievable.

  8. Factors of School Effectiveness and Performance of Selected Public and Private Elementary Schools: Implications on Educational Planning in the Philippines

    Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. Factorial analysis was also used to identify the principal components of school effectiveness of private and public elementary schools. The participants of the study were the 182 public and private elementary school principals and teachers from the 20 sampled schools. School effectiveness was measured using the seven correlates of effective schools. On the other hand, the level of school performance was gauged through the National Achievement Test (NAT results for the past three years. The qualitative part of the study focused on the school effectiveness practices and NAT practices of selected private and public elementary schools. The findings of the study revealed that the level of school effectiveness of both private and public elementary schools was excellent. However, test of difference showed that public schools exhibited stronger home-school relations than the private schools. In terms of the level of school performance, public schools perform better than the private schools for the past three years. Significantly, there exists a strong positive relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. The factorial analysis revealed that among all the correlates of school effectiveness, school leadership competency and professional collaboration influenced the performance of both schools. Recommendations of the study can help the government and school officials to plan appropriate strategies in improving the quality of

  9. Urban church forests for local temperature regulation: Implications the role of managing and incorporating urban green space in urban planning

    Tulu Tolla TURA

    2016-11-01

    , 100–200 m and 200–500 m respectively for 2010 images. The result illustrated a significant influence of green area on urban temperature in the buffering radius and implies the possibility of regulating urban temperature by planning urban green area in appropriate radius intervals. The study indicated that church forests in particular, social institution and urban green area in general have significant role in urban temperature regulation.

  10. Ten years of demographic and genetic monitoring of Stachys maritima in Catalonia (2001-2010. Implications for a recovery plan

    Massó, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachys maritima is a species typical of the coastal dunes, with a wide distribution within the Mediterranean Basin. In spite of this, the species shows a clear regression. In Catalonia, it has been observed an important reduction of its populations since early 20th century, where it has disappeared from several localities in which it was relatively common (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Herein we present the results of the demographic monitoring of the species during the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the known localities in Catalonia. Besides corroborating the disappearance (northern Sant Martí d’Empúries, the re-discovering (Llobregat Delta beach and the detection of new populations (inner dunes of the Montgrí, a large year-to-year fluctuation of the monitored populations is stated; the possible reasons are discussed. In addition, the present work also includes the results of the allozyme diversity analysis of the new detected populations as well as the rediscoveries of the period 2004-2008, which were not included in a former study of genetic diversity carried out in 2002-2003. It is necessary to emphasize that the contribution of the new populations to the genetic diversity of Stachys maritima is very small, which can be attributed to their limited population size and /or to founder effects. Despite that the species is included in the Annex 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” within the Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya (Catalogue of Endangered Flora of Catalonia, and some “soft” conservation measures have been applied at local level (signposting of the beach accesses, environmental education, etc. coupled with other more significant measures (e.g. translocation of individuals discovered in an artificial sandbank, it would be necessary the coordinated action and the scientific support of any initiative of conservation that could be carried out. The general frame to initiate actions of conservation should be the recovery plan of

  11. Comments on the paper ''Market forces and planning by regulation: conflicts and complementarities'' by Rodney Stevensopn and Dennis Ray

    Voll, S P [New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, NH (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The conflict between reliance on competitive markets and insistence on least-cost integrated planning highlights a fundamental difference in ideology, approach to regulation and assessment of the nature of the regulated industries that has developed between federal agencies and the state commissions in the USA in the last decade. While the conflict exists in the gas and telephone industries, and indeed would manifest itself in any industry subject to regulation at both the federal and state level, it is most apparent in the regulated electricity industry. The federal agencies (for electricity regulation the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)) view the state commissions as hopelessly old-fashioned in their attachment to traditional bureaucratic regulation; state regulators can argue that FERC has an unrealistic assessment of the nature of the electricity industry and an unfortunate indifference to the fate of captive ratepayers. (author)

  12. It is not old-fashioned, it is vintage: vintage fashion and the complexities of 21st century consumption practices

    Veenstra, A.; Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews consumption practices concerning vintage, a fashion style based on used or retro-style garments. Existing studies connect vintage with authenticity, nostalgia and identity. We explore how the vintage style deploys and comments on consumer culture, bypassing producers by wearing

  13. What's New in Treating Inpatients With Personality Disorders?: Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Old-Fashioned, Good Communication.

    Ritter, Sarah; Platt, Lois M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue.

    Ralf eBrisch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia.The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them, but also an outline of dopamine and it`s interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed.

  15. Concomitant contraceptive implant and efavirenz use in women living with HIV: perspectives on current evidence and policy implications for family planning and HIV treatment guidelines.

    Patel, Rena C; Morroni, Chelsea; Scarsi, Kimberly K; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Kiarie, James; Cohen, Craig R

    2017-05-11

    Preventing unintended pregnancies is important among all women, including those living with HIV. Increasing numbers of women, including HIV-positive women, choose progestin-containing subdermal implants, which are one of the most effective forms of contraception. However, drug-drug interactions between contraceptive hormones and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce implant effectiveness. We present four inter-related perspectives on this issue. First, as a case study, we discuss how limited data prompted country-level guidance against the use of implants among women concomitantly using efavirenz in South Africa and its subsequent negative effects on the use of implants in general. Second, we discuss the existing clinical data on this topic, including the observational study from Kenya showing women using implants plus efavirenz-based ART had three-fold higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants plus nevirapine-based ART. However, the higher rates of pregnancy in the implant plus efavirenz group were still lower than the pregnancy rates among women using common alternative contraceptive methods, such as injectables. Third, we discuss the four pharmacokinetic studies that show 50-70% reductions in plasma progestin concentrations in women concurrently using efavirenz-based ART as compared to women not on any ART. These pharmacokinetic studies provide the biologic basis for the clinical findings. Fourth, we discuss how data on this topic have marked implications for both family planning and HIV programmes and policies globally. This controversy underlines the importance of integrating family planning services into routine HIV care, counselling women appropriately on increased risk of pregnancy with concomitant implant and efavirenz use, and expanding contraceptive method mix for all women. As global access to ART expands, greater research is needed to explore implant effectiveness when used concomitantly with newer ART regimens. Data on how

  16. Quantitative analysis of tumor shrinkage due to chemotherapy and its implication for radiation treatment planning in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Jia-Zhou; Liu, Qi; Cheng, Jing-Yi; Zhu, Zheng-Fei; Fu, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of chemoradiotherapy in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) hasn’t been established, although evidence from studies supported that patients can benefit from early radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to quantify tumor shrinkage in response to induction chemotherapy (IC), evaluate the impact of tumor shrinkage on radiation dosimetric parameters and determine its implication for the timing of radiation therapy for patients with LS-SCLC. Twenty patients with LS-SCLC who were treated with IC followed by concomitant radiation therapy were investigated retrospectively. Ten patients received 1 cycle of IC, and 10 patients received 2 cycles of IC. Pre-IC CT imaging was coregistered with a simulation CT, and virtual radiation plans were created for pre- and post-IC thoracic disease in each case. The changes in the gross target volume (GTV), planning target volume (PTV) and dosimetric factors associated with the lungs, esophagus and heart were analyzed. The mean GTV and PTV for all of the patients decreased by 60.9% and 40.2%, respectively, which resulted in a significant reduction in the radiation exposure to the lungs, esophagus and heart. Changes in the PTV and radiation exposure of normal tissue were not significantly affected by the number of chemotherapy cycles delivered, although patients who received 2 cycles of IC had a greater decrease in GTV than those who received only 1 cycle of IC (69.6% vs. 52.1%, p = 0.273). Our data showed that targeting the tumor post-IC may reduce the radiation dose to normal tissue in patients with LS-SCLC. However, the benefit to the normal tissue was not increased by an additional cycle of IC. These findings suggest that the first cycle of chemotherapy is very important for tumor shrinkage and that initiating thoracic radiation therapy at the second cycle of chemotherapy may be a reasonable strategy for timing of radiation therapy in LS-SCLC treatment

  17. Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    closely managed by central government, through the Ministry of Civil Protection (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile - founded in 1992), who can call on the expertise of local authorities (comuni) and scientific bodies, especially the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology in Catania (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica INGV - sezione Catania). The nature of the society living on the flanks of Mount Etna has changed over the past nine decades, especially since the late 1960s, and the increasing exposure to volcanic and volcano-related hazards in the Etna Region is strengthening the need for improved communication amongst social scientists, civil defence authorities, the media and the local communities. Educating local people about how to react when a disaster strikes is viewed as an increasingly important element in Civil Defence planning, with examples of how people coped successfully in the past being used to inform people today. Effective communication both in terms of, raising awareness and ensuring that non-scientists have properly understood the associated hazard implications, and implementing emergency responses, is critical in facilitating more effective hazard prevention plans.

  18. Tools of the Future: How Decision Tree Analysis Will Impact Mission Planning

    Otterstatter, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    The universe is infinitely complex; however, the human mind has a finite capacity. The multitude of possible variables, metrics, and procedures in mission planning are far too many to address exhaustively. This is unfortunate because, in general, considering more possibilities leads to more accurate and more powerful results. To compensate, we can get more insightful results by employing our greatest tool, the computer. The power of the computer will be utilized through a technology that considers every possibility, decision tree analysis. Although decision trees have been used in many other fields, this is innovative for space mission planning. Because this is a new strategy, no existing software is able to completely accommodate all of the requirements. This was determined through extensive research and testing of current technologies. It was necessary to create original software, for which a short-term model was finished this summer. The model was built into Microsoft Excel to take advantage of the familiar graphical interface for user input, computation, and viewing output. Macros were written to automate the process of tree construction, optimization, and presentation. The results are useful and promising. If this tool is successfully implemented in mission planning, our reliance on old-fashioned heuristics, an error-prone shortcut for handling complexity, will be reduced. The computer algorithms involved in decision trees will revolutionize mission planning. The planning will be faster and smarter, leading to optimized missions with the potential for more valuable data.

  19. The articulated action plan (par in municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul State and its implications for the democratic management of basic education - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.17546

    Regina Tereza Cestari de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the implications of the Articulated Action Plan (PAR, a component of the Education Development Plan (PDE, to the democratic management of basic education, within the context of the educational policy, during President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s second government term (2007-2010. It presents research findings through the examination of documentary sources, focusing on the actions defined by the municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, within PAR’s Educational Management Dimension. These actions, in alignment with the guidelines of the plan called All for Education, indicate the limits and possibilities of building a democratic management of basic education, depending on the implementation by the municipalities, as they exercise their autonomy.  

  20. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  1. Internet plan and planning

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  2. Understanding culture in territorial management and its implications for spatial planning : The case of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions in the Netherlands and Thailand

    Rongwiriyaphanich, S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiences have shown that the implementation of planning policy does not always lead to the originally intended territorial management outcomes. This issue is particularly crucial when policy ideas, institutions, models and programmes are transferred into places with different cultural

  3. Tobacco Surcharges on 2015 Health Insurance Plans Sold in Federally Facilitated Marketplaces: Variations by Age and Geography and Implications for Health Equity.

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Graetz, Ilana; Waters, Teresa M; Kaplan, Cameron M

    2015-11-01

    In 2014, few health insurance plans sold in the Affordable Care Act's Federally Facilitated Marketplaces had age-dependent tobacco surcharges, possibly because of a system glitch. The 2015 tobacco surcharges show wide variation, with more plans implementing tobacco surcharges that increase with age. This underscores concerns that older tobacco users will find postsubsidy health insurance premiums difficult to afford. Future monitoring of enrollment will determine whether tobacco surcharges cause adverse selection by dissuading tobacco users, particularly older users, from buying health insurance.

  4. Defense Planning In A Time Of Conflict: A Comparative Analysis Of The 2001-2014 Quadrennial Defense Reviews, And Implications For The Army--Executive Summary

    2018-01-01

    the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute...each QDR, including assessments from the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office, the Congressional Research Service...cuts in modernization, readiness, and other accounts . Force Planning To assist in planning the FY19 force structure, the 2014 QDR assessed the

  5. Thoughts on the future. The perspectives of people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and the implications for advance care planning.

    de Boer, M.E.; Dröes, R.M.; Jonker, C.; Eefsting, J.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis in dementia is promoted to allow patients to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while still competent to do so and thereby to extend their autonomy into futures in which they lack decision-making capacity. However, engagement of people with dementia in ACP lags behind.

  6. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  7. The Wildcat-San Pablo Creek Flood Control Project and Its Implications for the Design of Environmentally Sensitive Flood Management Plans

    A. L. Riley

    1989-01-01

    In 1982 a coalition of neighborhood and environmental organizations used a community organizing strategy of the early 1960's, referred to as "advocacy planning" to substantially redesign a traditional structural type of joint federal and local flood control project on Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks in North Richmond, California. Using a combination of...

  8. ANCCLI White Paper V. Nuclear and territories, which roles for the CLIs? Which implication for the population in crisis management and post-accidental management planning?

    Delalonde, Jean-Claude; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This white paper first states a set of fourteen recommendations regarding crisis management planning, post-accidental management planning, waste management, and the roles of CLIs (local information commissions) in crisis and post-accidental management planning. After an introduction which proposes a presentation of roles CLIs could play in the different stage of this planning (preparation, emergency or crisis, post-accidental), and a discussion of concerned territories, this white paper discusses territory zoning (zoning in situation of emergency, in post-accidental situation) and roles of territories and CLIs. The next part addresses the issue of decontamination: pollution and contamination management (territory decontamination, issue of water resources, waste management) and discusses the roles of territories and CLIs on these issues. The third part addresses the issue of support and protection of population regarding different aspects: census, relocation, continuity of public services, continuity of economic activities, food restrictions, medical follow-up and epidemiology, and compensations. The roles of territories and CLIs on these issues are discussed. The fourth part addresses the issues of information and communication in a crisis or post-accidental situation. The fifth part discusses tools and means needed by the CLIs to cope with these situations. Short contributions from different institutions (ASN, IRSN) and members of the ANCCLI are finally proposed

  9. Sense of place as a determinant of people's attitudes towards the environment: implications for natural resources management and planning in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Larson, Silva; De Freitas, Debora M; Hicks, Christina C

    2013-03-15

    Integrating people's values and perceptions into planning is essential for the successful management of natural resources. However, successful implementation of natural resources management decisions on the ground is a complex task, which requires a comprehensive understanding of a system's social and ecological linkages. This paper investigates the relationship between sense of place and people's attitudes towards their natural environment. Sense of place contributes towards shaping peoples' beliefs, values and commitments. Here, we set out to explore how these theoretical contributions can be operationalized for natural resources management planning in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We hypothesise that the region's diverse range of natural resources, conservation values and management pressures might be reflected in people's attachment to place. To tests this proposition, variables capturing socio-demographics, personal wellbeing and a potential for sense of place were collected via mail-out survey of 372 residents of the region, and tested for relationships using multivariate regression and redundancy orientation analyses. Results indicate that place of residence within the region, involvement in community activities, country of birth and the length of time respondents lived in the region are important determinants of the values assigned to factors related to the natural environment. This type of information is readily available from National Census and thus could be incorporated into the planning of community engagement strategies early in the natural resources management planning process. A better understanding of the characteristics that allow sense of place meanings to develop can facilitate a better understanding of people's perceptions towards environmental and biodiversity issues. We suggest that the insights gained from this study can benefit environmental decision making and planning in the Great Barrier Reef region; and that sense of place

  10. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare?17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36?674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118?794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had hei...

  11. Social theory and the region: from the Regional Planning Association of America to the restructuring of sociospatial theory, with policy implications

    R Banai

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an argument is developed in support of the relevance of social theory for the region. Characterized by bridging across conceptual and methodological divides, by the increasing prominence of the role of space, context, and human agency, social theory exhibits an affinity with the regional development theory of the Regional Planning Association of America (RPAA) in the 1920s. This paper provides a brief account of the RPAA's approach to regional synthesis. The author alms to build...

  12. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  13. Smart City Planning

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  14. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Spatial environmental risk factors for pedestrian injury collisions in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2008-2009): implications for urban planning.

    Fuentes, Cesar Mario; Hernandez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of pedestrian injury collisions and analyse the environmental (social and physical) risk factors in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. More specifically, this study investigates the influence of land use, density, traffic and socio-economic characteristics. This cross sectional study is based on pedestrian injury collision data that were collected by the Municipal Transit Police during 2008-2009. This research presents an analysis of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and their spatial risk determinants using mixed methods that included (1) spatial/geographical information systems (GIS) analysis of pedestrian collision data and (2) ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to explain the density of pedestrian collisions data. In our model, we found a higher probability for pedestrian collisions in census tracts with population and employment density, large concentration of commercial/retail land uses and older people (65 and more). Interventions to alleviate this situation including transportation planning such as decentralisation of municipal transport system, investment in road infrastructure - density of traffic lights, pedestrian crossing, road design, improves lane demarcation. Besides, land use planning interventions should be implemented in commercial/retail areas, in particular separating pedestrian and vehicular spaces.

  16. Resilience and challenges among staff of gulf coast nursing homes sheltering frail evacuees following Hurricane Katrina, 2005: implications for planning and training.

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Cornman, Carol B; Davis, Courtney B; Richter, Jane V E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore experiences and responses of staff in caring for sheltered, frail, Hurricane Katrina evacuees; and (2) identify how planning and training can be enhanced for staff who may care for frail older populations during and after disasters. Individual, in-person, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 staff members in four nursing homes in Mississippi, sheltering 109 evacuees in November 2005, nine weeks after Hurricane Katrina. Twenty-four were direct care staff, including certified nursing assistants, licensed nurses, dietary aides, and social workers; 14 were support staff, including maintenance and business managers. The number interviewed in each nursing home averaged 9.5 (range 6-15). Using a discussion guide and focusing on their experiences caring for nursing home evacuees, staff were asked to describe: (1) experiences; (2) problems; (3) what helped; and (4) what was learned. Data were processed using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Responses of direct care staff differed in emphasis from those of support staff in several areas; responses from these groups were analyzed separately and together. Three of the researchers identified recurring themes; two organized themes conceptually. Staff emphasized providing emotional reassurance to evacuees as well as physical care. Many described caring for evacuees as "a blessing," saying the experience helped them bond with residents, evacuees, and other staff. However, caring for evacuees was difficult because staff members were extremely anxious and in poor physical condition after an arduous evacuation. Challenges included communicating with evacuees' families, preventing dehydration, lack of personal hygiene supplies, staff exhaustion, and emotional needs of residents, evacuees, and staff. Teamwork, community help, and having a well-organized disaster plan, extra supplies, and dependable staff helped personnel cope with the situation. Staff of nursing homes

  17. Patterns of failure after radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer - implications for radiation therapy planning after {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET imaging

    Schiller, Kilian; Sauter, K.; Dewes, S. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Eiber, M. [Technical University Munich (TUM), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maurer, T.; Gschwend, J. [Technical University Munich (TUM), Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Combs, S.E.; Habl, G. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Munich (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RPE) and lymphadenectomy (LAE) is the appropriate radiotherapy option for patients with persistent/ recurrent prostate cancer (PC). {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET imaging has been shown to accurately detect PC lesions in a primary setting as well as for local recurrence or for lymph node (LN) metastases. In this study we evaluated the patterns of recurrence after RPE in patients with PC, putting a highlight on the differentiation between sites that would have been covered by a standard radiation therapy (RT) field in consensus after the RTOG consensus and others that would have not. Thirty-one out of 83 patients (37%) with high-risk PC were the subject of our study. Information from {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET imaging was used to individualize treatment plans to include suspicious lesions as well as possibly boost sites with tracer uptake in LN or the prostate bed. For evaluation, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET-positive LN were contoured in a patient dataset with a standard lymph drainage (RTOG consensus on CTV definition of pelvic lymph nodes) radiation field depicting color-coded nodes that would have been infield or outfield of that standard lymph drainage field and thereby visualizing typical patterns of failure of a ''blind'' radiation therapy after RPE and LAE. Compared to negative conventional imaging (CT/MRI), lesions suspicious for PC were detected in 27/31 cases (87.1%) by {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET imaging, which resulted in changes to the radiation concept. There were 16/31 patients (51.6%) that received a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to a subarea of the prostate bed (in only three cases this dose escalation would have been planned without the additional knowledge of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET imaging) and 18/31 (58.1%) to uncommon (namely presacral, paravesical, pararectal, preacetabular and obturatoric) LN sites. Furthermore, 14 patients (45.2%) had a changed TNM staging result by means of {sup 68}Ga

  18. Toward an assessment of the social role of rural midwives and its implication for the family planning program: an Iranian case study.

    Beeman, W O; Bhattacharyya, A K

    1978-01-01

    An axiom of family planning programming is the importance of culturally-appropriate communicators and motivators. Traditional midwives seem ideal for this task but few studies have been done to verify this assumption by analyzing the midwife's social role as perceived by the community. 325 married women and 81 unmarried girls from a "model village" near Shiraz were interviewed by female undergraduates. 82.5% of the women are of childbearing age; 66% married before 14 years; 33% use contraception, mostly the pill, but most want large families because they expect high child mortality rates. Most of the older women are able to assist in childbirth but none, except the village's one recognized midwife, who is considered to have divine backing, will do so except in an emergency. The midwife's activities cause her to be held in low esteem by the community because 1) she has contact with a woman's sexual parts and this fact is public; 2) she has contact with vaginal excretia which are, in Islam, polluting; and 3) she is paid for her services, which labels her as a woman "without shame". The midwife is, however, widely used since women and their husbands fear the trip to the hospital and treatment by a male doctor much more than a midwife-supervised birth. The midwife in the study village had been there only 2 years and feels that she is not fully trusted. She is not consulted on birth control at all, because women expect the pill to be dispensed by doctors and consider other methods as a matter strictly between husband and wife. The midwife's role seems to complement that of the government health authorities rather than compete. The midwife's low status and circumscribed sphere of activity, the weak respect in which her advice is held and the pattern of having only 1 recognized midwife in a village at a time make the midwife a poor agent for family planning services. Her effectiveness as an agent of social change could be improved by training her in hygienic practices of

  19. Implicative Algebras

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  20. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional and local planning implications of energy policy: lessons from the past and issues from the future. [UK; 1967 to 1986

    Roberts, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper firstly examines the development of UK energy policy from 1967 to 1986; emphasis is placed upon the changing position of the coal industry, this section concludes with a consideration of the most recent energy forecasts. Following a brief examination of the relationships between energy and the regions, the paper looks in some detail at the changing patterns of coal production and employment in the UK regions. This leads to a consideration of the links between coal mining and the planning system: particular emphasis is placed upon the environmental, social and economic impacts of mining. The paper concludes with an examination of some of the key issues which may confront UK coal and the role of the coal industry in the process of regional development. 82 refs.

  2. Assessment of long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan effects on urban air quality and its implication

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Qin, Dahe; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    To solve traffic congestion and to improve urban air quality, long-lasting and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan was implemented by local government during 20 November to 26 December 2016 in urban Lanzhou, a semi-arid valley city of northwest China. The traffic control measures provided an invaluable opportunity to evaluate its effects on urban air quality in less developed cities of northwest China. Based on measured simultaneously air pollutants and meteorological parameters, the abatement of traffic-related pollutants induced by the implemented control measures such as CO, PM2.5 and PM10 (the particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm) concentrations were firstly quantified by comparing the air quality data in urban areas with those in rural areas (uncontrolled zones). The concentrations of CO, NO2 from motor vehicles and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were shown to have significant decreases of 15%-23% during traffic control period from those measured before control period with hourly maximum CO, PM2.5, and NO2/SO2 reduction of 43%, 35% and 141.4%, respectively. The influence of the control measures on AQI (air quality index) and ozone was less as compared to its effect on other air pollutants. Therefore, to alleviate serious winter haze pollution in China and to protect human health, the stringent long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan should be implemented aperiodically in urban areas, especially for the periods with poor diffusion conditions.

  3. Comparison of conventional and 3-dimensional computed tomography against histopathologic examination in determining pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor size: Implications for radiation therapy planning

    Qiu Haoming; Wild, Aaron T.; Wang Hao; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Kumar, Rachit; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Tuli, Richard; Tryggestad, Erik; Schulick, Richard D.; Cameron, John L.; Edil, Barish H.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study seeks to: (a) quantify radiologic-pathologic discrepancy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma by comparing tumor size on conventional computed tomography (C-CT) and 3-dimensional CT (3D-CT) to corresponding pathologic specimens; and (b) to identify clinico-pathologic characteristics predictive of radiologic-pathologic discrepancy to assist radiotherapy planning. Materials and methods: Sixty-three patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and preoperative C-CT and volume-rendered 3D-CT imaging within 6 weeks of resection were identified. Maximum tumor diameter (MTD) was measured on pathology, C-CT, and 3D-CT and compared for each patient as well as among different clinico-pathologic subgroups. Results: There was a trend toward C-CT underestimation of MTD compared to final pathology (p = 0.08), but no significant difference between 3D-CT MTD and pathology (p = 0.54). Pathologic tumor size was significantly underestimated by C-CT in patients with larger pathologic tumor size (>3.0 cm, p = 0.0001), smaller tumor size on C-CT ( 90 U/mL, p = 0.008), and location in the pancreatic head (p = 0.015). A model for predicting pathologic MTD using C-CT MTD and CA19-9 level was generated. Conclusions: 3D-CT may allow for more accurate contouring of pancreatic tumors than C-CT. Patients with the above clinico-pathologic characteristics may require expanded margins relative to tumor size estimates on C-CT during radiotherapy planning.

  4. Planning and Policy Implications for Renewal and Paradigm Shift in the Curriculum Contents of Vocational and Technology Education Programmes in Nigeria

    T.L. Adepoju

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocational and technology education (VTE is widely recognized as agent of technological development, industrial revolution, economic growth and voca-tional independence all over the world. In Nigeria, attempts have been made by various governments to restructure the system so as to keep pace with what operates in developed countries and to meet global competitions and best prac-tices. However, in this paper, the need for the renewal and paradigm shift in the curriculum contents of vocational and technological education is empha-sized. The paper e-rays the historical development of vocational and technolo-gy education in Nigeria from the colonial era. The paper further examines is-sues associated with implementation of a reviewed curriculum and the partici-pation of VTE in industrial revolution and vocational independence. A curvi-linear model and two equations are developed in the paper to explain the as-sumed linear correlation between curriculum renewal and technological break-through (technological development, industrial revolution, economic growth and vocational independence. The challenges facing VTE in Nigeria and the implications of the proposed curriculum renewal for stakeholders are highlight-ed in the paper.

  5. Agro-forest landscape and the 'fringe' city: a multivariate assessment of land-use changes in a sprawling region and implications for planning.

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-08-15

    The present study evaluates the impact of urban expansion on landscape transformations in Rome's metropolitan area (1500 km(2)) during the last sixty years. Landscape composition, structure and dynamics were assessed for 1949 and 2008 by analyzing the distribution of 26 metrics for nine land-use classes. Changes in landscape structure are analysed by way of a multivariate statistical approach providing a summary measure of rapidity-to-change for each metric and class. Land fragmentation increased during the study period due to urban expansion. Poorly protected or medium-low value added classes (vineyards, arable land, olive groves and pastures) experienced fragmentation processes compared with protected or high-value added classes (e.g. forests, olive groves) showing larger 'core' areas and lower fragmentation. The relationship observed between class area and mean patch size indicates increased fragmentation for all uses of land (both expanding and declining) except for urban areas and forests. Reducing the impact of urban expansion for specific land-use classes is an effective planning strategy to contrast the simplification of Mediterranean landscape in peri-urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia – implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  7. A comparison of job descriptions for nurse practitioners working in out-of-hours primary care services: implications for workforce planning, patients and nursing.

    Teare, Jean; Horne, Maria; Clements, Gill; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2017-03-01

    To compare and contrast job descriptions for nursing roles in out-of-hours services to obtain a general understanding of what is required for a nurse working in this job. Out-of-hours services provide nursing services to patients either through telephone or face-to-face contact in care centres. Many of these services are newly created giving job opportunities to nurses working in this area. It is vital that nurses know what their role entails but also that patients and other professionals know how out-of-hours nurses function in terms of competence and clinical role. Content analysis of out-of-hours job descriptions. Content analysis of a convenience sample of 16 job descriptions of out-of-hours nurses from five out-of-hours care providers across England was undertaken. The findings were narratively synthesised, supported by tabulation. Key role descriptors were examined in terms of job titles, managerial skills, clinical skills, professional qualifications and previous experience. Content analysis of each out-of-hours job description revealed a lack of consensus in clinical competence and skills required related to job title although there were many similarities in skills across all the roles. This study highlights key differences and some similarities between roles and job titles in out-of-hours nursing but requires a larger study to inform workforce planning. Out-of-hours nursing is a developing area of practice which requires clarity to ensure patient safety and quality care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implication of climate change on urban drainage systems of Chicago and Mainstream and DesPlaines (MS/DP) Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP)

    Luo, H.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.; Oberg, N.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing climate patterns and rainfall extremes on sewer system and river basin has been brought to attention to the researchers worldwide. In 1972, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to address combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems in the Chicago land area. The hydrosystem laboratory in University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed a series of numerical models accordingly to analyze the complex hydraulic behavior of the as-built TARP system. Due to the interconnected nature of City of Chicago sewer network and MS/DP TARP system, a tightly coupled hydrological and hydraulic model MetroFlow was developed to facilitate such analysis by integrating previous developed models. This study utilized MetroFlow to predict the hydrologic/hydraulic response of the system for a set of pre-determined design and historical storm events. Accordingly, combined sewer overflows (CSO) of Chicago combined sewer system and MS/DP TARP system were evaluated under current and future weather scenarios. The total CSOs from TARP system can be considered as urban point pollution source to the surrounding receiving bodies, hence the potential impact of climate change on CSO fluxes is essential reference to wastewater infrastructure design and operations of the hydraulic regulating structures under storm events to mitigate predicted risks.

  9. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  10. Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979–2008 and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy

    Wei-Chun Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr−1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr−1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr−1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr−1, 903.43 ha yr−1, and 315.72 ha yr−1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%, forest and shrub (9.12%, water (4.80%, and tidal land (2.19%. Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed.

  11. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia.

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-05-03

    To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Primary healthcare-17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; pdisadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; pdata analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Implications for high-precision dose radiation therapy planning or limited surgical resection after percutaneous computed tomography-guided lung nodule biopsy using a tract sealant

    Patricia M. de Groot, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Precision radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiation therapy and limited resection are being used more frequently to treat intrathoracic malignancies. Effective local control requires precise radiation target delineation or complete resection. Lung biopsy tracts (LBT on computed tomography (CT scans after the use of tract sealants can mimic malignant tract seeding (MTS and it is unclear whether these LBTs should be included in the calculated tumor volume or resected. This study evaluates the incidence, appearance, evolution, and malignant seeding of LBTs. Methods and materials: A total of 406 lung biopsies were performed in oncology patients using a tract sealant over 19 months. Of these patients, 326 had follow-up CT scans and were included in the study group. Four thoracic radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging, and a pathologist examined 10 resected LBTs. Results: A total of 234 of 326 biopsies (72%, including primary lung cancer [n = 98]; metastases [n = 81]; benign [n = 50]; and nondiagnostic [n = 5] showed an LBT on CT. LBTs were identified on imaging 0 to 3 months after biopsy. LBTs were typically straight or serpiginous with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm. Most LBTs were unchanged (92% or decreased (6.3% over time. An increase in LBT thickness/nodularity that was suspicious for MTS occurred in 4 of 234 biopsies (1.7%. MTS only occurred after biopsy of metastases from extrathoracic malignancies, and none occurred in patients with lung cancer. Conclusions: LBTs are common on CT after lung biopsy using a tract sealant. MTS is uncommon and only occurred in patients with extrathoracic malignancies. No MTS was found in patients with primary lung cancer. Accordingly, potential alteration in planned therapy should be considered only in patients with LBTs and extrathoracic malignancies being considered for stereotactic body radiation therapy or wedge resection.

  13. Comparative treatment planning study on sequential vs. simultaneous integrated boost in head and neck cancer patients. Differences in dose distributions and potential implications for clinical practice

    Stromberger, Carmen; Ghadjar, Pirus; Marnitz, Simone; Thieme, Alexander Henry; Jahn, Ulrich; Karaj-Rossbacher, Evis; Budach, Volker [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, Berlin (Germany); Raguse, Jan D. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Boettcher, Arne [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Communal Hospital Frankfurt Oder, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to compare sequential (SeqB) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy plans delivered with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC). SeqB and SIB plans using VMAT for 10 HNSCC patients given definitive chemoradiation were generated and analysed for differences in dose distribution, coverage, conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volumes (PTV) 1-3 and sparing of organs at risk (OAR). The mean delineated volumes ± standard deviations were 137.7 ± 44.8, 351.3 ± 83.9 and 895.6 ± 120.5 cm{sup 3} for PTV1-3. The mean volumes encompassed by the corresponding 95 % isodoses were 281 (+ 110 %) ± 73.4, 712.2 (+ 115 %) ± 146.4 and 1381.1 (+ 54 %) ± 217.3 cm{sup 3} with SeqB and 138.2 (+ 7 %) ± 40.1, 380.4 (+ 11 %) ± 91.9 and 1057.3 (+ 21 %) ± 161.4 cm{sup 3} with SIB for PTV1-3, respectively. Both strategies achieved excellent PTV coverage. SeqB provided significantly better coverage of PTV1 and 3, worse conformity for PTV1-3 and a higher mean dose than prescribed (111-115 %) to PTV2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.007). Both strategies provided satisfactory OAR sparing. This study showed significant dosimetric differences with potential clinical relevance between two VMAT boost strategies regarding coverage, conformity and dose to the PTVs. SIB might cause less toxicity. A clinical phase III/IV trial endorsed by the German Head and Neck Clinical Trials Group (IAG-KHT) will evaluate differences in acute/late toxicity as well as in locoregional recurrences between the two boost techniques. (orig.) [German] Vergleich von sequentiellem (SeqB) und simultan-integriertem Boost (SIB) mit moderner volumetrischer Arc-Therapie (VMAT) fuer Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region. Fuer 10 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region und definitiver Radiochemotherapie erfolgte eine VMAT-Planung als SeqB und SIB fuer die

  14. The Spatiotemporal Trend of City Parks in Mainland China between 1981 and 2014: Implications for the Promotion of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Planning

    Kai Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m2 of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.

  15. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    events and how characteristic methods of coping have developed to enhance resilience, and reduce vulnerability. The aim of this paper is reflective of this research frontier and with the use of Mount Vesuvius, Italy, as a case study, this paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred during the long nineteenth century (i.e. those that occurred in 1794, 1822, 1855, 1861, 1872, 1906 and 1929); the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day disaster planning. In order to reduce disaster susceptibility and increase what is termed, resilience or capacity, the more deep-rooted causes of vulnerability need to be addressed.

  16. The Spatiotemporal Trend of City Parks in Mainland China between 1981 and 2014: Implications for the Promotion of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Planning.

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-09-29

    City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m² of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.

  17. Evaluation Planning, Evaluation Management, and Utilization of Evaluation Results within Adult Literacy Campaigns, Programs and Projects (with Implications for Adult Basic Education and Nonformal Education Programs in General). A Working Paper.

    Bhola, H. S.

    Addressed to professionals involved in program evaluation, this working paper covers various aspects of evaluation planning, including the following: planning as a sociotechnical process, steps in evaluation planning, program planning and implementation versus evaluation planning and implementation, the literacy system and its subsystems, and some…

  18. Plan well, plan often

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  19. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  20. Analysis on the International Trends in Safe Management of Very Low Level Waste Based upon Graded Approach and Their Implications

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management

  1. CFD [computational fluid dynamics] And Safety Factors. Computer modeling of complex processes needs old-fashioned experiments to stay in touch with reality.

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Poirier, Michael R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Ervin, Robert C.; Giddings, Billy J.; Stefanko, David B.; Harp, Keith D.; Fowley, Mark D.; Van Pelt, William B.

    2012-10-07

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is recognized as a powerful engineering tool. That is, CFD has advanced over the years to the point where it can now give us deep insight into the analysis of very complex processes. There is a danger, though, that an engineer can place too much confidence in a simulation. If a user is not careful, it is easy to believe that if you plug in the numbers, the answer comes out, and you are done. This assumption can lead to significant errors. As we discovered in the course of a study on behalf of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina, CFD models fail to capture some of the large variations inherent in complex processes. These variations, or scatter, in experimental data emerge from physical tests and are inadequately captured or expressed by calculated mean values for a process. This anomaly between experiment and theory can lead to serious errors in engineering analysis and design unless a correction factor, or safety factor, is experimentally validated. For this study, blending times for the mixing of salt solutions in large storage tanks were the process of concern under investigation. This study focused on the blending processes needed to mix salt solutions to ensure homogeneity within waste tanks, where homogeneity is required to control radioactivity levels during subsequent processing. Two of the requirements for this task were to determine the minimum number of submerged, centrifugal pumps required to blend the salt mixtures in a full-scale tank in half a day or less, and to recommend reasonable blending times to achieve nearly homogeneous salt mixtures. A full-scale, low-flow pump with a total discharge flow rate of 500 to 800 gpm was recommended with two opposing 2.27-inch diameter nozzles. To make this recommendation, both experimental and CFD modeling were performed. Lab researchers found that, although CFD provided good estimates of an average blending time, experimental blending times varied significantly from the average.

  2. LA ADAPTACIÓN DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS AL NUEVO PLAN GENERAL CONTABLE: ANÁLISIS DE LAS PRINCIPALES IMPLICACIONES ECONÓMICAS Y FINANCIERAS/THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES TO THE NEW GENERAL ACCOUNTING PLAN: ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS

    Javier ITURRIOZ DEL CAMPO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La aprobación de la Ley 16/2007, de reforma y adaptación de la legislación mercantil en materia contable en España, así como del Plan General de Contabilidad, y del Plan General de Contabilidad para Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas, han permitido la incorporación de los nuevos criterios contables recogidos en la Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF para dar respuesta al objetivo marcado desde la Unión Europa de favorecer la comparación de los estados contables elaborados en los distintos estados miembros, para contribuir así a incrementar la transparencia de los mercados en un entorno económico cada vez más global e internacional. No obstante, en el caso de las sociedades cooperativas, todavía está pendiente de publicación la correspondiente norma sectorial. Por ello, a lo largo de este trabajo se pretende analizar las implicaciones que tienen en las sociedades cooperativas tanto las novedades contables ya publicadas como los aspectos que deben ser fijados en la citada regulación sectorial atendiendo a sus características especiales. /The Law 16/2007, of reform and adjustment of the mercantile legislation about accounting in Spain, as well as of the General Plan of Accounting, and of the General Plan of Accounting for Small and Medium Companies, they have allowed the incorporation of the new accounting criteria gathered in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS to give response to the aim marked from the European Union of favouring the comparison of the accounting forms elaborated in the different member states, to help to increase this way the transparency of the markets in an economic environment increasingly globally and internationally. Nevertheless, in case of the cooperative societies, the sectorial normative has not been published. This work centres on the analysis of the implications that have in the cooperative societies so much the accounting innovations already published as the aspects that

  3. Implications of renewables on energy planning

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Senior consultant (energy system and renewables expert) at The Boston Consulting Group, Berlin and Frankfurt, Germany Education • Master of Public Administration (MPA) on energy and renewables policies in 2009 from Columbia University in New York City...

  4. National environmental plan, development and implications

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    1996-01-01

    The causes of the environmental deterioration are analyzed in Colombia, one of them is the based on their economic development related with the inadequate exploitation of the natural resources, since very few they made it in a rational way, what has taken us to a permanent behavior, which it is necessary to modify but to modify it has to arrive to a change of attitude. It also refers to the supposition of a limited existence of the natural resources and the actions that should be carried out

  5. National Energy Plan II

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  6. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  7. Epistemic Planning

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  8. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  9. Connect the Dots in Disaster Planning.

    Knapp, Jolene; Benton, Kathy; Calhoun, Terry

    2002-01-01

    In the second article in a series on the implications of September 11 to colleges and universities, executives at the Society for College and University Planning outline an integrated approach to preparing for disasters. (EV)

  10. Forward planning

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  11. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    Bond, Alan; Cave, Ben; Ballantyne, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA

  12. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM (Interdisciplinary Research in Environmental Assessment and Management), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cave, Ben, E-mail: ben.cave@bcahealth.co.uk [Ben Cave Associates Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Rob, E-mail: robdballantyne@gmail.com [Planning and Health Consultant, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  13. Behavior Plan, Does It Work?

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  14. Inspection planning

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  15. Implicações do plano de desenvolvimento da educação para a formação de professores Implicaciones del plan de desarrollo de la educación para la formación de profesores Implications of the development plan of education for teacher training

    Gisele Masson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as principais implicações do Plano de Desenvolvimento da Educação (PDE para a formação de professores. A pesquisa utilizou fontes bibliográficas e documentais e foi fundamentada na concepção materialista histórica e dialética. A proposta para a formação de professores presente no PDE é neopragmatista, pois reforça a importância da busca de instrumentos úteis para as demandas imediatas da prática profissional e não contribui para o desenvolvimento de uma sólida e ampla formação. A prioridade dada à formação de professores como solução para os resultados negativos obtidos pelo Índice de Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica (Ideb, em vez de um investimento financeiro adequado, revela a prioridade dada às condições subjetivas na resolução dos problemas educacionais.Este trabajo analiza las principales implicaciones del Plan de Desarrollo de la Educación (PDE, Brasil, para la formación continuada de profesores. La investigación utilizó fuentes bibliográficas y documentales y se basó en la concepción materialista histórica y dialéctica. La propuesta para la formación de profesores presente en el PDE es neopragmatista, pues corrobora la importancia de la búsqueda de instrumentos provechosos para las demandas inmediatas de la práctica profesional y no contribuye para el desarrollo de una sólida y amplia formación. La prioridad dada a la formación de profesores como solución de los resultados negativos del Índice de Desarrollo de la Educación Básica (Ideb en vez de un inversión financiera adecuada pone de manifiesto la prioridad dada a las condiciones subjetivas en la solución de los problemas educacionales.This paper analyzes the main implications of the Development Plan of Education (DPE for teacher training. The research used bibliographic and documentary sources and was based on historical and dialectical materialism concepts. The teacher training education proposal presented by

  16. Communication Planning.

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  17. Conference Planning.

    Carter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  18. Systemic Planning

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  19. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  20. Marketing plan

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  1. Ontological Planning

    Ahmet Alkan

    2017-12-01

    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  2. Planning ahead

    Davies, J. [Mintec Inc. (US)

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art mine planning program that facilitates data storage and provides easy access to essential mine information. MineSight from Mintec, Inc., and the addition MineSight 3D provide a powerful tool used by major coal companies worldwide, offering modelling of different deposit types and complete planning tools including advanced surface/surface and solid/surface intersection routines. The new MineSight Operations addition helps to streamline the planning process and store raw blasthole data (in acQuire) and essential cut attribute information. 12 figs.

  3. The strategic planning of health management information systems.

    Smith, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles and functions of strategic planning of information systems in health services. It selects four specialised methodologies of strategic planning for analysis with respect to their applicability in the health field. It then examines the utilisation of information planning in case studies of three health organisations (two State departments of health and community services and one acute care institution). Issues arising from the analysis concern the planning process, the use to which plans are put, and implications for management.

  4. Planning Meals

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  5. Education plan

    Baur, J.

    1987-01-01

    There is pressing need for education of fusion people and those in the radiation effects community on the role of radiation hardening in radiation diagnostic. There is no plan at present to do this. The plan is to be proposed and developed. The education methods should include distribution of a primer, the proceedings of this workshop, and updated data compilations and talks by experts at the fusion labs, universities, and meetings

  6. business plan

    Luzan, Dmitrij

    2009-01-01

    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  7. Scenario planning.

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  8. Energy planning and management plan

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  9. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  10. Flight Planning

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  11. Environmentalism and land use planning

    Alonso, P A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation considers the research question: Can land-use planning attain the goals of environmentalism. The research question instigates the development of models for environmentalism and land use planning, test of their congruence, analysis of institutional means to joint them, case study of the specific method of lifestyle zoning for Nature conservation, international comparisons, and suggestions for the implementation of the ideology of environmentalism by the techniques of land-use planning. Comparison among the industrially advanced anglophone countries of Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States of America enable cross-cultural insight into environmentalism, land-use planning, and measures for the protection of dedicated areas. The evaluation of the fit between environmentalism and land-use planning considers their origins, values, operating principles, programs and problems. The ideological outline of contemporary environmental planning provides a framework for detailed analysis of the case study of an Environmental Living Zone on the fringe of urban Melbourne, Australia. Historical research, interpretation of planning schemes, maps and aerial photographs, interviews, and observation provided insight into the social and environmental factors in residential conservation. From the empirical and theoretical analyses, the work suggests implications for practitioners and directions for further research.

  12. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  13. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  14. Big plans.

    Fitch, Kevin F; Doyle, James F

    2005-09-01

    In Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare's capital planning method: Future replacement costs of assets are estimated by inflating their historical cost over their lives. A balanced model is created initially based on the assumption that rates of revenue growth, inflation, investment income, and interest expense are all equal. Numbers then can be adjusted to account for possible variations, such as excesses or shortages in investment or debt balances.

  15. Business plan

    Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  16. Strategic plan

    1993-01-01

    In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years' worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program's specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program's success

  17. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  18. Life sciences space biology project planning

    Primeaux, G.; Newkirk, K.; Miller, L.; Lewis, G.; Michaud, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Life Sciences Space Biology (LSSB) research will explore the effect of microgravity on humans, including the physiological, clinical, and sociological implications of space flight and the readaptations upon return to earth. Physiological anomalies from past U.S. space flights will be used in planning the LSSB project.The planning effort integrates science and engineering. Other goals of the LSSB project include the provision of macroscopic view of the earth's biosphere, and the development of spinoff technology for application on earth.

  19. Planning for Internationalization By Investing in Faculty

    Lisa K. Childress

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half century, major world events have prompted higher education institutions to develop internationalization plans. In order engage faculty in internationalization, higher education scholars and practitioners have recommended that internationalization plans include allocated resources, such as budgets for academic exchanges, faculty development workshops, and international curricular development and research grants (Olson, Green, & Hill, 2006; Paige, 2005; Siaya & Hayward, 2003. Yet, a frequently cited obstacle to faculty engagement in internationalization plans is lack of funding (Backman, 1984; Bond, 2003; Ellingboe, 1998; Green & Olson, 2003; Steers & Ungsen, 1992; Woolston, 1983. A cross-case analysis reveals that differential investment leads to faculty engagement in internationalization plans. This article discusses how two institutions developed funds from a variety of sources and institutional levels to engage faculty in an institutional planning process. This study offers implications for institutional planning, resource dependency theory, and internationalization.

  20. Planning Inequality

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...... is represented as something outside and fluid which is meant to be channelled into the territorial containers by means of regional development and spatial planning. These representations of the social suggest a territorialized culturally integrated society as the unquestioned frame of reference which has lost...

  1. Life-Cycle Finance and the Design of Pension Plans

    Zvi Bodie; Jérôme Detemple; Marcel Rindisbacher

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific literature on consumer financial decisions over the life cycle, outlining its implications for the design of pension plans. It begins with a review of advances in the theory of rational financial planning and wealth management. It then summarizes the recent empirical literature on the actual behavior of households regarding saving, investing, and insuring their consumption in old age. Finally, it briefly comments on the practical implications of the theo...

  2. Multiemployer Pension Plans

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active multiemployer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  3. Reflections on the use of the World Health Organization’s (WHO OneHealth Tool: Implications for health planning in low and middle income countries (LMICs [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    John Q. Wong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO launched the OneHealth Tool (OHT to help low and middle income countries to develop their capacities for sector-wide priority setting. In 2016, we sought to use the OHT to aid the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC, the national health insurer of the Philippines, in decisions to expand benefit packages using cost-effectiveness analyses. With technical support from the WHO, we convened health planning officers from the Philippine Department of Health (DOH and the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC conduct generalized cost-effective analyses (GCEA of selected un-financed noncommunicable disease interventions using OHT. We collected epidemiological and cost data through health facility surveys, review of literature such as cost libraries and clinical practice guidelines, and expert consultations. Although we were unable to use GCEA results directly to set policy, we learnt important policy lessons which we outline here that might help inform other countries looking to inform service coverage decisions. Additionally, the entire process and GCEA visualizations helped high-level policymakers in the health sector, who have traditionally relied on ad hoc decision making, to realize the need for a systematic and transparent priority-setting process that can continuously provide the evidence needed to inform service coverage decisions.

  4. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning

    Plant, Christopher P.; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers’ happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one’s own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning. PMID:27617042

  5. MIPPA: First Broad Changes to Medicare Part D Plan Operations.

    LeMasurier, Jean D; Edgar, Babette

    2009-04-01

    In July 2008, as part of broad Medicare reform, Congress passed the first major legislative changes to Medicare Part D since its enactment in 2003-the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. This new legislation has significant implications for how Part D plans can market and enroll Medicare beneficiaries. The new legislation also strengthened beneficiary protections, expanded the low-income subsidy provisions originally included in Part D, and expanded Part D coverage. These changes have significant implications for the operation of Part D plans and can affect those involved in benefit design, including specialty pharmacy coverage. This article discusses the major changes that took effect on January 1, 2009, and have immediate implications for Part D plan sponsors, including Medicare Advantage plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans.

  6. Organisational Problems in Planning Educational Development.

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    Papers submitted to a meeting of economists, educators, and government officials discuss the organizational implications of the link between education and economic growth. Following an introduction by Henning Friis, the authors and titles of the papers are (1) Necat Erder, "Some Administrative Problems in Educational Planning," (2) Raymond…

  7. Effect of study design on the reported effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on quantitative physiological measures: stratified meta-analysis in narrow-QRS heart failure and implications for planning future studies.

    Jabbour, Richard J; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Finegold, Judith A; Afzal Sohaib, S M; Cook, Christopher; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Whinnett, Zachary I; Manisty, Charlotte H; Brugada, Josep; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-01-06

    Biventricular pacing (CRT) shows clear benefits in heart failure with wide QRS, but results in narrow QRS have appeared conflicting. We tested the hypothesis that study design might have influenced findings. We identified all reports of CRT-P/D therapy in subjects with narrow QRS reporting effects on continuous physiological variables. Twelve studies (2074 patients) met these criteria. Studies were stratified by presence of bias-resistance steps: the presence of a randomized control arm over a single arm, and blinded outcome measurement. Change in each endpoint was quantified using a standardized effect size (Cohen's d). We conducted separate meta-analyses for each variable in turn, stratified by trial quality. In non-randomized, non-blinded studies, the majority of variables (10 of 12, 83%) showed significant improvement, ranging from a standardized mean effect size of +1.57 (95%CI +0.43 to +2.7) for ejection fraction to +2.87 (+1.78 to +3.95) for NYHA class. In the randomized, non-blinded study, only 3 out of 6 variables (50%) showed improvement. For the randomized blinded studies, 0 out of 9 variables (0%) showed benefit, ranging from -0.04 (-0.31 to +0.22) for ejection fraction to -0.1 (-0.73 to +0.53) for 6-minute walk test. Differences in degrees of resistance to bias, rather than choice of endpoint, explain the variation between studies of CRT in narrow-QRS heart failure addressing physiological variables. When bias-resistance features are implemented, it becomes clear that these patients do not improve in any tested physiological variable. Guidance from studies without careful planning to resist bias may be far less useful than commonly perceived. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Predicting use of case management support services for adolescents and adults living in community following brain injury: A longitudinal Canadian database study with implications for life care planning.

    Baptiste, B; Dawson, D R; Streiner, D

    2015-01-01

    To determine factors associated with case management (CM) service use in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a published model for service use. A retrospective cohort, with nested case-control design. Correlational and logistic regression analyses of questionnaires from a longitudinal community data base. Questionnaires of 203 users of CM services and 273 non-users, complete for all outcome and predictor variables. Individuals with TBI, 15 years of age and older. Out of a dataset of 1,960 questionnaires, 476 met the inclusion criteria. Eight predictor variables and one outcome variable (use or non-use of the service). Predictor variables considered the framework of the Behaviour Model of Health Service Use (BMHSU); specifically, pre-disposing, need and enabling factor groups as these relate to health service use and access. Analyses revealed significant differences between users and non-users of CM services. In particular, users were significantly younger than non-users as the older the person the less likely to use the service. Also, users had less education and more severe activity limitations and lower community integration. Persons living alone are less likely to use case management. Funding groups also significantly impact users. This study advances an empirical understanding of equity of access to health services usage in the practice of CM for persons living with TBI as a fairly new area of research, and considers direct relevance to Life Care Planning (LCP). Many life care planers are CM and the genesis of LCP is CM. The findings relate to health service use and access, rather than health outcomes. These findings may assist with development of a modified model for prediction of use to advance future cost of care predictions.

  9. Finding the K best synthesis plans.

    Fagerberg, Rolf; Flamm, Christoph; Kianian, Rojin; Merkle, Daniel; Stadler, Peter F

    2018-04-05

    In synthesis planning, the goal is to synthesize a target molecule from available starting materials, possibly optimizing costs such as price or environmental impact of the process. Current algorithmic approaches to synthesis planning are usually based on selecting a bond set and finding a single good plan among those induced by it. We demonstrate that synthesis planning can be phrased as a combinatorial optimization problem on hypergraphs by modeling individual synthesis plans as directed hyperpaths embedded in a hypergraph of reactions (HoR) representing the chemistry of interest. As a consequence, a polynomial time algorithm to find the K shortest hyperpaths can be used to compute the K best synthesis plans for a given target molecule. Having K good plans to choose from has many benefits: it makes the synthesis planning process much more robust when in later stages adding further chemical detail, it allows one to combine several notions of cost, and it provides a way to deal with imprecise yield estimates. A bond set gives rise to a HoR in a natural way. However, our modeling is not restricted to bond set based approaches-any set of known reactions and starting materials can be used to define a HoR. We also discuss classical quality measures for synthesis plans, such as overall yield and convergency, and demonstrate that convergency has a built-in inconsistency which could render its use in synthesis planning questionable. Decalin is used as an illustrative example of the use and implications of our results.

  10. Plan Repair as an Extension of Planning

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dynamic environments, agents have to deal with changing situations. In these cases, repairing a plan is often more efficient than planning from scratch, but existing planning techniques are more advanced than existing plan repair techniques. Therefore, we propose a straightforward method to

  11. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  12. Characterization of Pollution Transport into Texas Using OMI and TES Satellite and In Situ data, and HYSPLIT Back Trajectory Analyses: implications for TCEQ State Implementation Plans and High School/Undergraduate STEM Education

    Boxe, C.; Bella, D.; Khaimova, J.; Culpepper, J.; Ahmed, N.; Belkalai, A.; Ealy, J.; Arroyo, I.; Lahoumh, M.; Jenkins, O.; Emmanuel, S.; Andrews, J.; Fu, D.; Wu, L.; Choi, Y.; Morris, G.; Osterman, G. B.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Using an online trajectory analysis tool NASA, ArcGIS, Satellite and EPA in situ data, we assess whether high pollution events in Texas are primarily sourced locally or remotely. We focus satellite data that exemplify high O3 and NO2 over Texas's lower troposphere. Four day back trajectory analyses of all dates show that upper-, mid-, and lower-tropospheric air over Texas, containing high O3, is transported from the Gulf of Mexico, Southeast USA, Midwest USA, Northeast USA, the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Mexico, etc. Only day showed air at 1 km is sourced within Texas. Satellite data show O3 enhancements in the boundary layer and O3 and NO2 enhancements via tropospheric column profiles. These enhancements complement four-day trajectory analysis. This study provides a viable basis for more quantifiable and accurate information for developing effective air quality State Implementation Plans. STEM Impact: (i) D. Bella was an NSF-LSAMP undergraduate research mentee with me at Medgar Evers College-CUNY; she received a B.S. in Environmental Science (and a Chemistry Minor) and is now a Ph.D. graduate student at University at Albany's School of Public Health. (ii) J. Khaimova is an undergraduate Geology and Planetary Science B.S. major at Brooklyn College-CUNY. I have supported Jessica's summer internship in summer 2013 as a CUNY Summer Research Fellow, where she is currently an NSF-REU research mentee at Pennsylvania State University's Meteorology Department. (iii) J. Culpepper received his B.S. in Environmental Science from MEC-CUNY and will be a Ph.D. student, Fall 2014 at University of Iowa's Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. (iv) S. Gentle was a high school researcher with me within ACS's Project SEED Program for high school students. S. Gentle will start her undergraduate career Fall 2014 at Pennsylvania State University and seeks to attain a B.S. in Chemistry. (v). All parties, including high school and undergraduate researchers seek to attend

  13. Dose to the Bladder Neck Is the Most Important Predictor for Acute and Late Toxicity After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Implications for Establishing New Dose Constraints for Treatment Planning

    Hathout, Lara; Folkert, Michael R.; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cohen, Gil' ad N. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To identify an anatomic structure predictive for acute (AUT) and late (LUT) urinary toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From July 2002 to January 2013, 927 patients with prostate cancer (median age, 66 years) underwent LDR brachytherapy with Iodine 125 (n=753) or Palladium 103 (n=174) as definitive treatment (n=478) and as a boost (n=449) followed by supplemental EBRT (median dose, 50.4 Gy). Structures contoured on the computed tomographic (CT) scan on day 0 after implantation included prostate, urethra, bladder, and the bladder neck, defined as 5 mm around the urethra between the catheter balloon and the prostatic urethra. AUT and LUT were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version4. Clinical and dosimetric factors associated with AUT and LUT were analyzed with Cox regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis to calculate area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) (AUC). Results: Grade ≥2 AUT and grade ≥2 LUT occurred in 520 patients (56%) and 154 patients (20%), respectively. No grade 4 toxicities were observed. Bladder neck D2cc retained a significant association with AUT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.04; P<.0001) and LUT (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P=.014) on multivariable analysis. In a comparison of bladder neck with the standard dosimetric variables by use of ROC analysis (prostate V100 >90%, D90 >100%, V150 >60%, urethra D20 >130%), bladder neck D2cc >50% was shown to have the strongest prognostic power for AUT (AUC, 0.697; P<.0001) and LUT (AUC, 0.620; P<.001). Conclusions: Bladder neck D2cc >50% was the strongest predictor for grade ≥2 AUT and LUT in patients treated with LDR brachytherapy. These data support inclusion of bladder neck constraints into brachytherapy planning to decrease urinary toxicity.

  14. Strategic Planning in Education: A Guide for Policymakers.

    Cooper, Harry A.

    As defined in chapter I of this guide for policymakers, strategic planning is the method by which an organization identifies relevant trends in its environment, analyzes their potential implications, and projects an integrated strategy to address these future events and their contingencies. This process differs from formalized planning, based on…

  15. Plan Colombia

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  16. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  17. Community development planning

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  18. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  20. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  1. Intelligent robot action planning

    Vamos, T; Siegler, A

    1982-01-01

    Action planning methods used in intelligent robot control are discussed. Planning is accomplished through environment understanding, environment representation, task understanding and planning, motion analysis and man-machine communication. These fields are analysed in detail. The frames of an intelligent motion planning system are presented. Graphic simulation of the robot's environment and motion is used to support the planning. 14 references.

  2. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  3. Financial planning

    Χατζηγώγου, Αρτεμις Π.

    2003-01-01

    Σκοπός της μελέτης αυτής, είναι η συγκέντρωση όλων των στοιχείων εκείνων που συνθέτουν μια οργανωμένη διαδικασία έρευνας, που είναι γνωστή ως Financial Planning. Θα μπορούσαμε εναλλακτικά να πούμε, ότι βασικά ο χρηματοοικονομικός σχεδιασμός προγραμματίζει, εξευρίσκει και χρησιμοποιεί τα κεφάλαια με τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε η συνεισφορά τους να είναι μεγαλύτερη στην αποτελεσματική λειτουργία της οικονομικής μονάδας. Παρέχει τις γνώσεις των χρηματιστικών αγορών από όπου αντλούνται τα κεφάλαια. Οδηγεί ...

  4. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  5. Calfornia General Plans

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  6. Understanding health insurance plans

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  7. The ground based plan

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  8. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  9. 11. Strategic planning.

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  10. Social-psychological implications for recreation resource planning

    Hardeep S. Bhullar; Alan R. Everson; Scout L. Gunn

    1980-01-01

    Many claims have been made concerning the cause/effect relationship between recreation and leisure activity, and the acquisition of quality living. Studies have investigated the utility, quality, and quantity of recreation facilities. Studies of programs, leadership, members, and general classifications of users have also been conducted.

  11. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  12. Implications of Public Opinion for Space Program Planning, 1980 - 2000

    Overholt, W.; Wiener, A. J.; Yokelson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of public opinion on future space programs is discussed in terms of direct support, apathy, or opposition, and concern about the tax burden, budgetary pressures, and national priorities. Factors considered include: the salience and visibility of NASA as compared with other issues, the sources of general pressure on the federal budget which could affect NASA, the public's opinions regarding the size and priority of NASA'S budget, the degree to which the executive can exercise leverage over NASA's budget through influencing or disregarding public opinion, the effects of linkages to other issues on space programs, and the public's general attitudes toward the progress of science.

  13. Mexican Industrial Development Plans: Implications for United States Policy.

    1981-04-01

    networks and crystals. Leading purchasers are Motorola, General Electric, Industrias Sintronic, S.A., and Ingenieria de Comunicaciones , S.A. Twenty percent...industries. Two government agencies -- Telmex (Telefonos de Mexico) and Direccion General de Tele- comunicaciones , for example, together account for

  14. A Lesson Plan Incorporating Collaborative Strategic Reading

    陈江萍

    2017-01-01

    This essay is going to have an in-depth analysis of the Collaborative Strategic Reading, a four-step reading comprehen-sion strategy popular in the Western classrooms. It will start with some brief introduction about this instructional approach in company with its theoretical rationale and research evidence for its effectiveness of improving learners 'reading competence. Fo-cused on the previewing skill, the first step of the reading instruction, a modified lesson plan is designed in the Chinese high school setting, followed by justification of the major elements of the plan, and some practical implications.

  15. A Lesson Plan Incorporating Collaborative Strategic Reading

    陈江萍

    2017-01-01

    This essay is going to have an in-depth analysis of the Collaborative Strategic Reading, a four-step reading comprehen?sion strategy popular in the Western classrooms. It will start with some brief introduction about this instructional approach in company with its theoretical rationale and research evidence for its effectiveness of improving learners 'reading competence. Fo?cused on the previewing skill, the first step of the reading instruction, a modified lesson plan is designed in the Chinese high school setting, followed by justification of the major elements of the plan, and some practical implications.

  16. CREAM: Results, Implications and Outlook

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment has accumulated ∼161 days of exposure during six successful flights over Antarctica. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing scintillators, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmicray data were collected over a wide energy range from ∼ 1010 to ∼ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ∼ 38.5 km, with ∼ 3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Recent results from the ongoing analysis including the discrepant hardening of elemental spectra at ∼ 200 GeV/n are presented and their implications on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation are discussed. The project status and plans are also presented.

  17. Conditional Epistemic Planning

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) offers a solid foundation for automated planning under partial observability and non-determinism. Under such circumstances, a plan must branch if it is to guarantee achieving the goal under all contingencies (strong planning). Without...... branching, plans can offer only the possibility of achieving the goal (weak planning). We show how to formulate planning in uncertain domains using DEL and give a language of conditional plans. Translating this language to standard DEL gives verification of both strong and weak plans via model checking....... In addition to plan verification, we provide a tableau-inspired algorithm for synthesising plans, and show this algorithm to be terminating, sound and complete....

  18. Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu

    Raut, Biranjan

    2013-01-01

    Degree Thesis “Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu” demonstrates structured marketing planning process with the help of case company “Feeniks Koulu”. The central idea of Thesis is to come up with systematic marketing plan following structured process. Thesis employs qualitative research methodology following inductive reasoning approach. Thesis, initiates by outlining theoretical planning methods, which then is materialized into marketing plan with the help of empirical research. Discussion and...

  19. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    1982-06-01

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden about the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 1 describes the general background, the plans for research and development, including the necessary facilities. The time schedule and the calculated costs of the operations are presented. (G.B.)

  20. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  1. Changed planning for planned and unplanned change

    Woerkum, van C.; Aarts, N.; Herzele, Van A.

    2011-01-01

    Change, planned and unplanned, can be the product of events (change by chance), new language (change from societal interaction), and practices (track-bound change), and can involve many different societal actors. To position planning as an activity within this broader context, we present a model

  2. Action understanding as inverse planning.

    Baker, Chris L; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-12-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. The mental states that caused an agent's behavior are inferred by inverting this model of rational planning using Bayesian inference, integrating the likelihood of the observed actions with the prior over mental states. This approach formalizes in precise probabilistic terms the essence of previous qualitative approaches to action understanding based on an "intentional stance" [Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] or a "teleological stance" [Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biró, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193]. In three psychophysical experiments using animated stimuli of agents moving in simple mazes, we assess how well different inverse planning models based on different goal priors can predict human goal inferences. The results provide quantitative evidence for an approximately rational inference mechanism in human goal inference within our simplified stimulus paradigm, and for the flexible nature of goal representations that human observers can adopt. We discuss the implications of our experimental results for human action understanding in real-world contexts, and suggest how our framework might be extended to capture other kinds of mental state inferences, such as inferences about beliefs, or inferring whether an entity is an intentional agent.

  3. Planning for information systems

    King, William R

    2015-01-01

    Edited by one of the best-known and most widely respected figures in the field, ""Planning for Information Systems"" is a comprehensive, single source overview of the myriad ideas and processes that are identified with IS planning. While many chapters deal with high level strategic planning, the book gives equal attention to on-the-ground planning issues.Part I, 'Key Concepts of IS Planning', focuses on how IS planning has evolved over the years; business-IS strategic alignment; and the role of dynamic organizational capabilities in leveraging IS competencies. Part II, 'The Organizational IS P

  4. The nuclear emergency plans

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  5. The importance of socially responsible strategic planning

    Štrukelj, Tjaša

    2017-10-01

    This paper researches the importance of social responsible strategic planning regardless of the sector and shows research results on the case example of the selected tourism sector, which has economic and employment potential and social and environmental implications. Tourism sector is closely interdependent with transport sector and influences it. Therefore, the more we develop the tourism sector, the more the transport sector is developing as well. Based on Mulej’s Dialectical Systems Theory (DST) we found out that enterprises should integrate sustainability and social responsibility into their strategic planning if they want the Earth to survive. This urged the European Union, ISO International Standards Organization, many other organisations and many researchers. To make strategic planning socially responsible, enterprise’s governors should request social responsibility in business policy, which represents their governance guidelines and is implemented through the strategies set up by top managers and realised in the basic realisation process - their business operations.

  6. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  7. INDOT Technical Training Plan

    2012-04-01

    The study provides the background documents necessary for the development of a Technical Training Plan and makes recommendations : for the content and structure of such a plan for the District Operations, Operations, Capital Program Management, and E...

  8. DASH Eating Plan

    ... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    Bellini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project.......This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project....

  10. Technology Implementation Plan

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential.......The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential....

  11. Planning for Office Automation.

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  13. Planning for Pregnancy

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  14. Planning a pregnancy

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Planning ahead From choosing the crib to finding a ... care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  16. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  17. The Plan's the Thing.

    Raley, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Planning is the process of setting direction, priorities, and guidelines. A CASE survey of public relations professionals is described that notes the use of staff retreats and brainstorming sessions, among other techniques and strategies, that help professionals plan. (MLW)

  18. Holiday Meal Planning

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  19. Maine highway safety plan

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  20. Planning of nets

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  1. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  2. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Planning ahead It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding ...

  3. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ...

  4. USCG Security Plan Review

    Department of Homeland Security — The Security Plan Review module is intended for vessel and facility operators to check on the status of their security plans submitted to the US Coast Guard. A MISLE...

  5. Network development plan 1995

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    Network plan 1995 concerns several strategic problems, among others environmental policy of power transmission lines. Possibilities of restructuring aerial cable network are described. The state of the existing systems and plans for new network systems are presented. (EG)

  6. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  7. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    Pressouyre, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  8. 30 CFR 780.14 - Operation plan: Maps and plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Maps and plans. 780.14 Section... PLAN § 780.14 Operation plan: Maps and plans. Each application shall contain maps and plans as follows: (a) The maps and plans shall show the lands proposed to be affected throughout the operation and any...

  9. Training to the Nuclear emergency plans

    Vera Navascues, I.

    2003-01-01

    In 1994 the Civil Protection Directorate outlined a formation plan related to the Nuclear emergency plans with the purpose of guaranteeing for the communities involved in this material a basic and homogeneous formation. In the preparation of this Plan the following phases had been developed: 1. Study of formative needs of the different participant communities involved in nuclear plans. This has been done throw the information collected by: nuclear emergency plans and procedures that develop them, questionnaires, observation list, exercise, drills, etc. 2. With all the needs detected and in function of them was designed the objectives to teach in relation with the knowledge and the abilities that the formation can give to the participants. 3. Definition of thematic areas related with the different matters to teach, derived from the different objectives. 4. Organization: The development of the formative activities through a specific material with orientations for the professors (content of material to impart, didactic resources, etc.) and a short summary of the Didactic Units imparted to the students. The methodology is based in short theoretical classes and in the active implication through practice activities exercises and drills to train its functions and the coordination of the different implied organizations. 5. Evaluation: the implantation of the formation plan contributes new formative needs. (Author)

  10. Developing nursing care plans.

    Ballantyne, Helen

    2016-02-24

    This article aims to enhance nurses' understanding of nursing care plans, reflecting on the past, present and future use of care planning. This involves consideration of the central theories of nursing and discussion of nursing models and the nursing process. An explanation is provided of how theories of nursing may be applied to care planning, in combination with clinical assessment tools, to ensure that care plans are context specific and patient centred.

  11. Interactive Energy Planning

    Blarke, Morten Boje

    2006-01-01

    Though it is being questioned whether planning theory should be fitted into neat typologies, some have described evolving planning theory as a journey away from ethnocentrism, through the lands of rationalism, pragmatism, socio-ecological idealism, political-economic mobilization, currently...... anchoring along the shores of the land of communications and collaboration. Whether or not a particular typology is applicable, theory and praxis are establishing standpoints, which strengthens our understanding of the planning complex, and which should inspire improved energy planning methodologies...

  12. Sport event marketing plan

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  13. The Project of Planning

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1986-01-01

    This article contains an interview with John Friedmann. The interview covers two core areas in John Friedmann's work: (a) The history of planning, from the beginning of the industrial era till today and (b) radical planning and social mobilization. In relation to radical planning and social mobil...

  14. Planning for agroforestry

    Budd, W.W.; Duchhart, I.; Hardesty, L.N.; Steiner, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this book a selection of contributions to the international symposium "Planning for agroforestry", held at Washington State University on April 24-27, 1989, is published. First the planning for agroforestry and agroforestry diagnosis and design is viewed over. Then the planning for and

  15. Generational Pension Plan Designs

    Huang, Xiaohong; Mahieu, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    We propose a generational plan for the occupational pension provision in which people from the same generation are pooled in a generational fund. Each fund can set its own policies independently. This plan provides the benefits of differentiation missing in the prevailing collective plan and the

  16. Making a Quit Plan

    ... BACK CLOSE SMOKEFREE.GOV HOME Create My Quit Plan Quitting starts now. Make a plan . Step 1 of 7 mark Step 2 of ... boosts your chances of success. Build a quit plan to get ready and find out what to ...

  17. Making Planning Work

    Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Planning for a growth opportunity's success remains a challenge. Under which conditions does planning work, then? This exploratory study investigates the business development tasks and processes that span a growth opportunity's planning phase and its implementation phase and their unique performa...

  18. Planning for study abroad.

    Freeman, L H; Hermann, C P

    1994-01-01

    There is more to planning for study abroad than buying airplane tickets. Providing a successful course away from the host institution requires a great deal of planning by the educator. This planning includes course development, budget, marketing, travel, housing, food, and entertainment. Careful preparation provides both the educator and student a unique and enriching experience that goes beyond the traditional course.

  19. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  20. Plan Merging : Experimental results

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few

  1. Introduction to planning law

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG) [de

  2. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  3. Language Policy and Planning.

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  4. Coherence of Radial Implicative Fuzzy Systems with Nominal Consequents

    Coufal, David

    -, č. 4 (2006), s. 60-66 ISSN 1509-4553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : implicative fuzzy system * radial fuzzy system * nominal output space * coherence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Piaget's Theories and Some Possible Implications for Educational Television.

    Bliss, Joan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Details Piaget's four stages in the cognitive development of children--the sensorimotor period, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage--and discusses their implications for the planning and design of programs for instructional television, and possible effects on mental development and the cognitive…

  6. Climate plan 2004; Plan climat 2004

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  7. Transportation planning for planned special events

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  8. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    planning and environmental management strategically, functionally and operationally is ongoing .... between the built and the natural environment .... priorities as being experienced in. South Africa. 2. ... (intervention) proposals as contained.

  9. The Marshall Plan as Strategic Analogy: Implications for Post-Conflict Reconstruction Planning

    2014-12-04

    democracy, sustained peace, and stability rested not on the tactical actions or stability tasks of an army of occupation, but in a macroeconomic ...aid from the ECA had to match the US dollar amount provided with their own currency equivalent and deposit this in a specific fund as the basis for...facilitate the effective domestic implementation of a macroeconomic , Keynesian fiscal stimulus. These institutions provided monetary stabilization

  10. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  11. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  12. Configuration Management Program Plan

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has established a configuration management (CM) plan to execute the SRS CM Policy and the requirements of the DOE Order 4700.1. The Reactor Restart Division (RRD) has developed its CM Plan under the SRS CM Program and is implementing it via the RRD CM Program Plan and the Integrated Action Plan. The purpose of the RRD CM program is to improve those processes which are essential to the safe and efficient operation of SRS production reactors. This document provides details of this plan

  13. Inspection and test planning

    Miller, T.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of Quality Plan - arrangement of all necessary tests or inspections as far as possible filted to certain components or systems. Subject of Quality Plan - precise determination of tests or inspections and - according to the actual safety significance - the certificates to be done. Disposition of Quality Plan - accommodation of tests to the actual state of fabrication. Application of Quality Plan - to any component or system that is regarded. Supervision of Employment - by authorized personnel of manufacturer, customer or authority providing exact employment of quality plan. Overservance of Instructions - certificates given by authorized personnel. (orig./RW)

  14. Is long-term planning obsolete? A discussion of integrated resource planning in the Pacific Northwest U.S. and a scenario for its demise

    Morlan, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides presented at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in April 1995 dealing with integrated resource planning were provided. The creation of the Northwest Power Planning Council and the Northwest Power Act were described, including the goals that the the Act is expected to achieve. The Council's planning innovations were listed including the first regional integrated resource plan, a consistent and comprehensive treatment of demand side resources, and development of risk- averse plans through explicit treatment of uncertain demands. Resource planning analytical framework, modelling approach and resource strategy components were described. Major policy thrusts of the first regional power plan were presented. Factors promoting a competitive power supply industry, characteristics of that industry, and its effects on existing utilities were identified. Implications of integrated resource planning on long-term planning were assessed. A list of yet unanswered questions were appended to stimulate thought and discussion

  15. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  16. Issues in regional planning and development in Nigeria

    Oladayo Ramon Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Till date,Nigeria can not boast of a specific, well-formulated, clear regional development policy framework despite several urban planning, development and governance initiatives including passage of regulations at both federal and state government levels that have been undertaken since independence by successive post- colonial governments. Most of the country's claims of regional development are products of other policies, and intentions, which do not have any bearing on, deliberate regional planning policies. Policy and decision-making on development planning often do not incorporate the implications of the ways in which we use land and the consequences for different places (economic planning. The neglect of place, in particular, the way that different policies combine to affect places in different ways (regional planning, has contributed to a range of negative economic, social and environmental outcomes. This paper relies mainly on the secondary data and literature exploration to demonstrate that the little role accorded to spatial planning, especially, regional planning, in the development efforts is largely responsible for the underdevelopment, imbalance, and inequalities in the country, as well as poverty of the citizens. The conclusion of the paper is that regional planning should be an integral part and complementary to economic planning in the national development planning of the country. For regional planning to aid in the development of the country and promote the well-being of the citizens, appropriate recommendations have been included in the paper.

  17. Operating plan FY 1998

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document is the first edition of Argonne`s new Operating Plan. The Operating Plan complements the strategic planning in the Laboratory`s Institutional Plan by focusing on activities that are being pursued in the immediate fiscal year, FY 1998. It reflects planning that has been done to date, and it will serve in the future as a resource and a benchmark for understanding the Laboratory`s performance. The heart of the Institutional Plan is the set of major research initiatives that the Laboratory is proposing to implement in future years. In contrast, this Operating Plan focuses on Argonne`s ongoing R&D programs, along with cost-saving measures and other improvements being implemented in Laboratory support operations.

  18. On strategic spatial planning

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  19. Setup planning for machining

    Hazarika, Manjuri

    2015-01-01

    Professionals as well as researchers can benefit from this comprehensive introduction into the topic of setup planning, which reflects the latest state of research and gives hands-on examples. Starting with a brief but thorough introduction, this book explains the significance of setup planning in process planning and includes a reflection on its external constraints. Step-by-step the different phases of setup planning are outlined and traditional as well as modern approaches, such as fuzzy logic based setup planning, on the solution of setup planning problems are presented. Three detailed examples of applications provide a clear and accessible insight into the up-to-date techniques and various approaches in setup planning.

  20. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  1. Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare.

    Ells, Carolyn; MacDonald, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Organizational ethics is an emerging field concerned with the study and practice of the ethical behaviour of organizations. For effective application to healthcare settings, we argue that organizational ethics requires attention to organizations' special characteristics combined with tools borrowed from the fields of business ethics and bioethics. We identify and discuss several implications of this burgeoning field to healthcare organizations, showing how organizational ethics can facilitate policy making, accountability, self-evaluation, and patient and business perspectives. In our conclusion, we suggest an action plan for healthcare organizations to help them respond appropriately to their ethical responsibilities.

  2. Development Plans and Life Plans: Knowledge Sharing?

    Juan José Vieco Albarracín

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities of establishing knowledge sharing between governmental development plans and the “life plans” (planes de vida made by indigenous organizations, in particular the life plan of the Asociación de Autoridades Indígenas del Resguardo Tikuna, Cocama, Yagua (Aticoya, municipality of Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia. Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 created the ETI (Entidad Territorial Indígena,“indigenous territorial entity” as a territorial unit, just like municipalities, departments, and districts. This means that indigenous reservations (or “reserves” or “preserves” and associations should manage public funds, for which they must design a life plan. This inclusion and recognition of indigenous peoples entails that those life plans should articulate with the municipal, departmental, and national development plans. The article illustrates this situation by comparing two welfare programs –Resa (Red de Seguridad Alimentaria “Food Security Network” and Familias Guardabosques (“Forest Ranger Families”– and two income-generating productive and service (tourism projects carried out by Aticoya and the local indigenous councils of communities on the Amazon and Loretoyacu Rivers.

  3. PTTSA Action Plan Report

    1991-02-01

    The Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA) Report identified findings with respect to the way Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, (including Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Kauai Test Facility (KTF)) conducts its environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) activities. It presented Action Plan Requirements (APR) addressing these findings. The purpose of this PTTSA Action Plan Report is to assist in managing these action plan requirements by collecting, prioritizing, and estimating required resources. The specific objectives addressed by this report include: collection of requirements for the resolution of the findings presented in the PTTSA Report; consolidation of proposed Action Plan Requirements into logical Action Plan groupings for efficiency of resolution; categorization of Action Plans according to severity of the hazards represented by the findings; provision of a basis for long-range planning and issues management; documentation of the status of the proposed corrective actions; establishment of traceability of the corrective action to the original problem or issue; and integration of these plans into the existing ES ampersand H structure. The Action Plans in this report are an intermediate step between the identification of a problem or a finding in the PTTSA Report and the execution of the solution. They consist of requirements for solution, proposed actions, and an estimate of the time and (where applicable) resources required to develop the solution. This report is an input to the process of planning, resource commitment, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance of problem resolution. 2 figs

  4. Agent independent task planning

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  5. Operation planning device

    Watanabe, Takashi; Odakawa, Naoto; Erikuchi, Makoto; Okada, Masayuki; Koizumi, Atsuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention provides a device suitable for monitoring a reactor core state and operation replanning in terms of reactor operation. Namely, (1) an operation result difference judging means judges that replanning is necessary when the operation results deviates from the operation planning, (2) an operation replanning rule data base storing means stores a deviation key which shows various kinds of states where the results deviate from the planning and a rule for replanning for returning to the operation planning on every deviating key, (3) an operation replanning means forms a new operation planning in accordance with the rule which is retrieved based on the deviation key, (4) an operation planning optimizing rule data base storing means evaluates the reformed planning and stores it on every evaluation item, (5) an operation planning optimization means correct the operation planning data so as to be optimized when the evaluation of the means (4) is less than a reference value, and (6) an operation planning display means edits adaptable operation planning data and the result of the evaluation and displays them. (I.S.)

  6. Planning Schools for the Future. Publication No. BM-1.

    Weinberger, JoAnn

    In a three-year study, Research for Better Schools (RBS) was asked by the National Institute of Education to identify, analyze, and verify definitive social changes forecast for the decades ahead, and to project their implications for schools of the future. RBS reviewed the literature to extract future planning needs relevant to educational…

  7. Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO

    Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

  8. Neuronal synchronization in human parietal cortex during saccade planning

    Werf, J. van der; Buchholz, V.N.; Jensen, O.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in sensorimotor integration and saccade planning However, the temporal dynamics of the underlying physiology and its relationship to observations in non-human primates have been difficult to pin

  9. Building capacity for energy and electricity planning for sustainable development

    2008-09-01

    The IAEA, through its Planning and Economic Studies Section (PESS), assists Member States to build their capacities to perform analyses for developing alternative strategies for sustainable energy development, evaluate the energy-economic-environmental implications and assess the potential contribution of nuclear energy in securing affordable and clean supplies of energy

  10. 30 CFR 784.23 - Operation plan: Maps and plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Maps and plans. 784.23 Section... PLAN § 784.23 Operation plan: Maps and plans. Each application shall contain maps and plans as follows... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  11. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    1985-11-01

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  12. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  13. Photovoltaics in buildings: town planning considerations

    Cradick, K.

    1999-07-01

    This report explores the significance of PV specifically from a town and country planning perspective. PV will become of interest to planners for a number of reasons. Installation of PV systems on the walls, roofs and windows of buildings will have implications for the design and appearance of buildings and the wider townscape. For this reason, it would be beneficial for the planning profession to have a general awareness of the rapidly expanding range of PV building products now available. A widespread use of the technology will raise a number of other practical planning considerations, such as the need to ensure that PV-equipped buildings are not overshadowed by subsequent development or maturing trees.The use of PV could bring planning benefits. For example, use of the technology could sometimes obviate the need to route overhead power supplies through sensitive landscapes to outlying rural settlement. As a renewable source of energy, the use of PV will be in harmony with Local Agenda 21 objectives and sustainability policies in development plans. This report is written for practising planners in local government, private practice and the voluntary sector, and has regard to the regulatory context within which planners operate. It does not seek to encourage members of the profession to exceed their powers by insisting upon the use of PV in new development. Instead, the report aims to provide an introduction to the technology so that planners may be conversant with the technology and understand both its potential and its limitations. (author)

  14. Planning Public Transport

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  15. Practical Planning in COLLAGE

    Lansky, Amy L.; Getoor, Lise C.; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    COLLAGE is a domain-independent planner that differs from traditional planners in two key ways: (1) it uses a diverse and extendible set of (it action-based) plan constructions methods; and (2) it utilizes a technique called (it localization) to partition the planning problem into smaller (and potentially interacting) sub problems. In this paper, we describe these features and how they are exploited in two different real-world planning domains. The first domain, building construction planning, has served as a framework for us to investigate how localization can improve scalability. The second domain, data analysis planning, benefits from COLLAGE's unique plan construction and representation methods. In addition, we describe extensions that were necessary to tackle these real-world problems.

  16. Business plan competition

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  17. Influenza pandemic planning guide

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Management Planning In Transport

    Teodor Perić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Management planning in traffic and other activities includesa choice of missions and goals, as well as actions undertakenfor their realisation. It requires decision-making, that is,a choice among alternative trends of future actions. Therefore,planning and control are closely related.There are several types of plans: purposes or missions,goals, strategies, policies, procedures, rules, programs and calculations.Once managers become aware of the opportunities, they rationallyplan the setting of the goals and assumptions about thecurrent and future environment, finding and evaluating alternativetrends, and selecting the one that is to be followed.Therefore, planning means looking ahead and controlmeans looking backwards. The concept of overall planning,thus including traffic planning, illustrates the approach to managementwhich is based on the achieved goals.

  19. Planning Practice and Research

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning has dramatically shifted when compared with its former logics and styles. Increasingly, the dynamics of large urban agglomerations spanning multiple boundaries put significant pressure on planning institutions to scale up. In this shifting context, how can both planning theory...... and practice co- evolve in adapting to the ever-increasing transformation of cities and urban regions? In this context, Planning Practice and Research (PPR) is seeking perspectives from the young academic community in planning. We propose to publish at least one special edition of PPR with a number of short...... papers from Young Academics. The contributions should address the question of how planning theory and practice can respond to the increasing complexity of cities and regions....

  20. Utility planning for decommissioning

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  1. Nuclear physics program plan

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear physics program objectives, resources, applications and implications of scientific opportunities are presented. The scope of projected research is discussed in conjunction with accelerator facilities and manpower. 25 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  3. Regional manpower planning

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  4. Tax planning in corporation

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  5. Biodiesel Test Plan

    2014-07-01

    Biodiesel Test Plan Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited. July 2014 Report No. CG-D-07-14...Appendix C) Biodiesel Test Plan ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al. Public | July 2014 N O T I C E This...Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Biodiesel Test Plan iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al

  6. China SLAT Plan Template

    Dietrich, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This document serves as the System-Level Acceptance Test (SLAT) Plan for Site Name, City, Country. This test plan is to provide independent testing of the Radiation Detection System (RDS) installed at Site Name to verify that Customs has been delivered a fully-functioning system as required by all contractual commitments. The system includes all installed hardware and software components. The SLAT plan will verify that separate components are working individually and collectively from a system perspective.

  7. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  8. LBNL Institutional Plan, FY 1996--2001. Draft

    1995-06-01

    The FY 1996-2001 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory mission, strategic plan, core business areas, critical success factors, and the resource requirements to fulfill its mission in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that will influence the Laboratory, as well as potential research trends and management implications. The Core Business Areas section identifies those initiatives that are potential new research programs representing major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory, and the resources required for their implementation. It also summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity, science and technology partnerships, and university and science education. The Critical Success Factors section reviews human resources; work force diversity; environment, safety, and health programs; management practices; site and facility needs; and communications and trust. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory's ongoing research programs. The Institutional Plan is a management report for integration with the Department of Energy's strategic planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Communications from information contributed by the Laboratory's scientific and support divisions

  9. LBNL Institutional Plan, FY 1996--2001. Draft

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The FY 1996-2001 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory mission, strategic plan, core business areas, critical success factors, and the resource requirements to fulfill its mission in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that will influence the Laboratory, as well as potential research trends and management implications. The Core Business Areas section identifies those initiatives that are potential new research programs representing major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory, and the resources required for their implementation. It also summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity, science and technology partnerships, and university and science education. The Critical Success Factors section reviews human resources; work force diversity; environment, safety, and health programs; management practices; site and facility needs; and communications and trust. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory`s ongoing research programs. The Institutional Plan is a management report for integration with the Department of Energy`s strategic planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy`s program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Communications from information contributed by the Laboratory`s scientific and support divisions.

  10. Fund management plan

    1984-08-01

    This revision of the Fund Management Plan updates the original plan published in May 1983. It is derived from and supplements the Mission Plan of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. A major purpose in preparing this Plan is to inform the public about management of the Nuclear Waste Fund and the Interim Storage Fund. The purpose of the Interim Storage Fund is to finance the provision of the Federal interim storage capacity of up to 1900 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Fund is a separate account for all revenues and expenditures related to the geological disposal and monitored retrieval storage of civilian radioactive waste

  11. Animation of planning algorithms

    Sun, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Planning is the process of creating a sequence of steps/actions that will satisfy a goal of a problem. The partial order planning (POP) algorithm is one of Artificial Intelligence approach for problem planning. By learning G52PAS module, I find that it is difficult for students to understand this planning algorithm by just reading its pseudo code and doing some exercise in writing. Students cannot know how each actual step works clearly and might miss some steps because of their confusion. ...

  12. Reasoning about plans

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  13. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Business Plans For Dummies

    Tiffany, Paul; Barrow, Colin

    2011-01-01

    A full updated and extended second edition of an established UK bestseller Business Plans For Dummies 2nd Edition features new and updated information on formulating a solid business plan to build a secure business - even in an economic downturn. Complete with a brand new business plan template to get you started this expert guide offers fresh advice on reading the competitive marketplace and assessing your business in the current economic climate. It walks you step-by-step through every aspect of planning achievable business goals and diversification strategies, identifying trends, exploring

  15. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  16. Research Planning Process

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  17. Public Participation Plan

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to describe the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plan for involving the public in the decision-making process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The plan describes how the DOE will meet the public participation requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, as amended, and of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. It includes the UMTRA Project Office plans for complying with DOE Order 5440.1D and for implementing the DOE's Public Participation Policy for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1992) and Public Participation Guidance for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1993)

  18. Energy planning in Spain

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  19. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  20. US ITER Management Plan

    1991-12-01

    This US ITER Management Plan is the plan for conducting the Engineering Design Activities within the US. The plan applies to all design, analyses, and associated physics and technology research and development (R ampersand D) required to support the program. The plan defines the management considerations associated with these activities. The plan also defines the management controls that the project participants will follow to establish, implement, monitor, and report these activities. The activities are to be conducted by the project in accordance with this plan. The plan will be updated to reflect the then-current management approach required to meet the project objectives. The plan will be reviewed at least annually for possible revision. Section 2 presents the ITER objectives, a brief description of the ITER concept as developed during the Conceptual Design Activities, and comments on the Engineering Design Activities. Section 3 discusses the planned international organization for the Engineering Design Activities, from which the tasks will flow to the US Home Team. Section 4 describes the US ITER management organization and responsibilities during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 5 describes the project management and control to be used to perform the assigned tasks during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 6 presents the references. Several appendices are provided that contain detailed information related to the front material

  1. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  2. Enterprise Architecture Planning in developing A planning Information System: a Case Study of Semarang State University

    Budiman Kholiq

    2018-01-01

    can motivate the planner unit in realizing the budget that has been designed. It also proves that the value chain of the information planning system has brought implications for budget realization.

  3. Enterprise Architecture Planning in developing A planning Information System: a Case Study of Semarang State University

    Budiman, Kholiq; Prahasto, Toni; Kusumawardhani, Amie

    2018-02-01

    planner unit in realizing the budget that has been designed. It also proves that the value chain of the information planning system has brought implications for budget realization.

  4. Health implications of hydropower development

    Biswas, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

  5. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    1982-06-01

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden concerning the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 2 describes the waste facilities in details. The layouts and estimated costs are presented. The decomissioning of nuclear power plants and the postponement of it is discussed. (G.B.)

  6. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  7. ISS Payload Operations: The Need for and Benefit of Responsive Planning

    Nahay, Ed; Boster, Mandee

    2000-01-01

    science programs and the crew desire for flexibility; the means by which responsive plans readily accommodate ISS communications constraints; manpower efficiencies to be achieved through use of responsive plans; and the implications of responsive planning relative to resource utilization efficiency.

  8. Nuclear power planning and feasibility studies

    Streeton, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    This lecture will review the basic steps associated with planning the introduction of nuclear power. Areas covered will include power market surveys, energy resources evaluations, potential alternative strategies, organisational factors and implementational requirements. The lecture will then consider the implications and requirements associated with establishing the feasibility of a nuclear project. Among others, aspects of power systems integration, site selection reactor type evaluation, cost and economic analysis, influence of contracting strategies, comparison with alternative power generation solutions, financial impact, etc. will be discussed and reviewed. (HK) [de

  9. EMI Registry Development Plan

    Memon, S.; Szigeti, G.; Field, L.

    2012-01-01

    This documents describes the overall development plan of the EMI Registry product, the plan focuses on the realisation of the EMI Registry specification as defined in the document. It is understood that during the course of the development phase the specification will likely evolve and the changes will be fed into the specification document.

  10. Technology Planning Strategies

    Decker, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Effective planning strategies drive achievement of an overall technology goal to increase access to electronic information in real time in order to increase efficiency, productivity, and communication across campus. Planning relies on providing access, 'Anytime Anywhere' to student information, calendar, email, course management tools, and the…

  11. A landscape analysis plan

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  12. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  13. Statistical Analysis Plan

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Søgaard, Karen; Gram, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    This is the analysis plan for the multicentre randomised control study looking at the effect of training and exercises in chronic neck pain patients that is being conducted in Jutland and Funen, Denmark. This plan will be used as a work description for the analyses of the data collected....

  14. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  15. A Process for Planning.

    Gurowitz, William D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes how Division of Campus Life at Cornell University conducted long-range planning and the results of its 2-year effort. Explains 2 (strategic and organizational) by 3 (diagnosis, formulation, and execution) matrix providing systems view from describing and evaluating long-range planning. Presents 10-step process implemented at Cornell. (NB)

  16. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    Holland, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    This ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities

  17. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  18. Temporal logic motion planning

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  19. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  20. Planning for College Success

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…

  1. Sales and operations planning

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...

  2. Sales and operations planning

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...

  3. Transportation Institutional Plan

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  4. 'Plans are useless'.

    Bland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An essential element in crisis recovery is the protection and/or recovery of reputation. This calls for a crisis communications function that is of more than passing interest to the business continuity specialist and which presents two major challenges in this era of process-driven management: (1) it is an inexact science, more about common sense, psychology, empathy and 'playing it by ear' than about box ticking; (2) it does not lend itself to detailed, rigid plans, although some degree of planning is essential. This paper outlines a flexible approach that will help the crisis team to develop a workable communications plan that strikes a balance between being too detailed and too sketchy. It argues that the whole management team should be involved in developing the plan and sets a number of questions, which, on being answered, will help a realistic, achievable and effective plan to evolve.

  5. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  6. Health Workforce Planning

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  7. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    Soares, C. Guedes; Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.

    2010-01-01

    the design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document......The present document presents a framework for maintenance planning. Maintenance plays a fundamental role in counteracting degradation effects, which are present in all infrastructure and industrial products. Therefore, maintenance planning is a very critical aspect to consider both during...... is to present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  8. Effective Hull IMMR plan

    Franco, Mireille

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the Hull Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Plan is to ensure the total integrity of the Floating Production Unit. To be efficient, the Monitoring has to be part of the Hull Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Plan (IMMR). The IMMR Plan should be developed during the design and project phases and take into account the interfaces between the different systems and teams' tasks in operation. The IMMR is multidisciplinary and form part of the hand-over to ensure an efficient and early implementation. Implementation of such a complex plan requires: - Cross-functionality: take advantage of the synergies - Boldness: break the mould and think outside the box - Listening: be attentive, be available, - Mutual support: during good and bad times. This paper presents the way Total believe the Hull IMMR Plan shall be developed, implemented and followed up. (Author)

  9. Emergency plan belgian experience

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  10. Planning and Foucault

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Richardson, Tim

    In this paper we argue that the use of the communicative theory of Jürgen Habermas in planning theory is problematic because it hampers an understanding of how power shapes planning. We posit an alternative approach based on the power analytics of Michel Foucault which focuses on "what is actually...... done", as opposed to Habermas`  focus on "what should be done". We discuss how the Foucauldian stance problematises planning, asking difficult questions about the treatment of legitimacy, rationality, knowledge and spatiality. We conclude that Foucault offers a type of analytic planning theory which...... offers better prospects than does Habermas for those interested in understanding and bringing about democratic social change through planning....

  11. Planning and Foucault

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Richardson, Tim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the use of the communicative theory of Jürgen Habermas in planning theory is problematic because it hampers an understanding of how power shapes planning. We posit an alternative approach based on the power analytics of Michel Foucault which focuses on ?what is actually...... done?, as opposed to Habermas?s focus on ?what should be done?. We discuss how the Foucauldian stance problematises planning, asking difficult questions about the treatment of legitimacy, rationality, knowledge and spatiality. We conclude that Foucault offers a type of analytic planning theory which...... offers better prospects than does Habermas for those interested in understanding and bringing about democratic social change through planning....

  12. The 1986 action plan

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion covers the actions that must be taken and the standards to be met to achieve the goals of the 20 year plan. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has agreed to develop detailed work plans for achieving the objects of the plan, through a public process in consultation with the Council and interested parties. BPA work plans and activities are outlined. The Council's plan emphasizes the following priorities: (1) a stronger regional role for BPA; (2) development of the capability to acquire conservation on a regional basis; (3) strategies to make better use of the hydropower system; (4) building conservation capability in all sectors; (5) demonstrating the cost effectiveness of renewable resources so they are available before the region has to build new generating resources; (6) allocation of costs for two unfinished nuclear power plants and elimination of barriers to their completion; and (7) a study of electric power sales and purchases between regions

  13. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Matija Gulić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  14. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Kamran Sedig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  15. Planning for a Distributed Disruption: Innovative Practices for Incorporating Distributed Solar into Utility Planning

    Mill, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dong, Changgui [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett [Independent Consultant

    2016-08-19

    The rapid growth of distributed solar photovoltaics (DPV) has critical implications for U.S. utility planning processes. This report informs utility planning through a comparative analysis of roughly 30 recent utility integrated resource plans or other generation planning studies, transmission planning studies, and distribution system plans. It reveals a spectrum of approaches to incorporating DPV across nine key planning areas, and it identifies areas where even the best current practices might be enhanced. 1) Forecasting DPV deployment: Because it explicitly captures several predictive factors, customer-adoption modeling is the most comprehensive forecasting approach. It could be combined with other forecasting methods to generate a range of potential futures. 2) Ensuring robustness of decisions to uncertain DPV quantities: using a capacity-expansion model to develop least-cost plans for various scenarios accounts for changes in net load and the generation portfolio; an innovative variation of this approach combines multiple per-scenario plans with trigger events, which indicate when conditions have changed sufficiently from the expected to trigger modifications in resource-acquisition strategy. 3) Characterizing DPV as a resource option: Today’s most comprehensive plans account for all of DPV’s monetary costs and benefits. An enhanced approach would address non-monetary and societal impacts as well. 4) Incorporating the non-dispatchability of DPV into planning: Rather than having a distinct innovative practice, innovation in this area is represented by evolving methods for capturing this important aspect of DPV. 5) Accounting for DPV’s location-specific factors: The innovative propensity-to-adopt method employs several factors to predict future DPV locations. Another emerging utility innovation is locating DPV strategically to enhance its benefits. 6) Estimating DPV’s impact on transmission and distribution investments: Innovative practices are being

  16. Planning for a Distributed Disruption: Innovative Practices for Incorporating Distributed Solar into Utility Planning

    Mills, Andrew D.; Barbose, Galen L.; Seel, Joachim; Dong, Changgui; Mai, Trieu; Sigrin, Ben; Zuboy, Jarett

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of distributed solar photovoltaics (DPV) has critical implications for U.S. utility planning processes. This report informs utility planning through a comparative analysis of roughly 30 recent utility integrated resource plans or other generation planning studies, transmission planning studies, and distribution system plans. It reveals a spectrum of approaches to incorporating DPV across nine key planning areas, and it identifies areas where even the best current practices might be enhanced. (1) Forecasting DPV deployment: Because it explicitly captures several predictive factors, customer-adoption modeling is the most comprehensive forecasting approach. It could be combined with other forecasting methods to generate a range of potential futures. (2) Ensuring robustness of decisions to uncertain DPV quantities: using a capacity-expansion model to develop least-cost plans for various scenarios accounts for changes in net load and the generation portfolio; an innovative variation of this approach combines multiple per-scenario plans with trigger events, which indicate when conditions have changed sufficiently from the expected to trigger modifications in resource-acquisition strategy. (3) Characterizing DPV as a resource option: Today's most comprehensive plans account for all of DPV's monetary costs and benefits. An enhanced approach would address non-monetary and societal impacts as well. (4) Incorporating the non-dispatchability of DPV into planning: Rather than having a distinct innovative practice, innovation in this area is represented by evolving methods for capturing this important aspect of DPV. (5) Accounting for DPV's location-specific factors: The innovative propensity-to-adopt method employs several factors to predict future DPV locations. Another emerging utility innovation is locating DPV strategically to enhance its benefits. (6) Estimating DPV's impact on transmission and distribution investments: Innovative

  17. Succession planning: a call to action for nurse executives.

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Crenshaw, Jeannette T

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the organisational benefits of strategic succession planning in acute care hospital settings as a responsibility of chief nurse executives. A formal succession planning process is crucial to the financial and operational viability and sustainability of acute care hospitals. A succession plan is an essential business strategy that promotes effective leadership transition and continuity while maintaining productivity. Nursing and business literature were reviewed; reports contrasting institutions with and without succession plans were examined; and, operational implications were considered. It is imperative that chief nurse executives respond to the business benefits of an effective succession planning programme, identify common barriers and solutions, and implement best practices for a successful strategic succession planning programme. A strategic succession planning programme may offer many benefits to an acute care hospital, including improved retention rates, increased staff engagement and enhanced financial performance. Considering the ageing nursing workforce and the potential increase in demand for nursing services in the near future, nurse executives and other nurse leaders must actively engage in a formal succession planning process. A formal succession planning programme will help to provide strategic leadership continuity, operational effectiveness and improved quality of care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Supply chain planning classification

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  19. Public affairs plan

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  20. Personal strategic planning

    Rolando Juan Soliz Estrada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconciling personal skills with the demands of a globalized and competitive market has become a pre-requisite for professionals aspiring for success in their careers. The quest for personal fulfillment has encouraged people to search for tools which develop their talents and balance their efforts, in order to achieve a better, happier and healthier life. As an option, planning, which historically was restricted to being an organizational tool, today has also come to be used by individuals who desire personal success. In this way, the objective of this article is to develop a model of Personal Strategic Planning which takes into account the various operation areas and human performance. The proposed model is divided into: Individual Planning, Professional Planning, Family Planning, Personal Business Planning and Political Participation, Social and Religious/Spiritual Planning and their respective fields. In order to analyse and validate the model, exploratory research of a qualitative nature was used through primary and secondary data sources. From the results obtained by the model, it is possible to consider their importance to future research, once the studied areas can be developed in subsequent works.

  1. Public affairs plan

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  2. AECB strategic plan 1999

    1999-03-01

    This strategic plan provides the direction and focus required to successfully carry out our mandate in an efficient and effective manner over the next two to three years. It gives broad corporate direction by identifying where efforts need to be focussed, and therefore provides guidance for setting priorities and allocating resources. While we cannot ignore any aspect of our mandate, we must recognize that we will always have more work to do than can be accomplished within the resources available to us. Therefore we must set priorities and develop appropriate management systems to ensure that our major efforts and our resources are being directed towards those priorities. Our strategic plan is not a static document. We will always be faced with new challenges, and our strategies for meeting those challenges will also have to change. Therefore our strategic plan must be seen as a guide that reflects both the ever-changing environment and our ability to deal with new or evolving changes effectively. This plan is not intended to be a detailed operational plan. Each directorate must develop its own operational plans and procedures based on the directions in this strategic plan, and on corporate priorities and policies. (author)

  3. Implications of social structure

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  4. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications.

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  5. Planning for the future.

    Stiewing, Janis

    2002-01-01

    Revising the strategic plan was the beginning of a multiyear initiative that will determine the path of the JRCERT. The key word in the preceding statement is beginning. The strategic plan is an ever-changing document. Although some components, such as the values statements, will stand over time, other components will change as accreditation and educational arenas change. That is the paradox of strategic planning: Remaining true to the vision, values and mission statements requires knowing when to change to keep the JRCERT aligned with the responsive to its communities of interest.

  6. Heat pump planning handbook

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  7. Sea materials experimental plans

    1987-07-01

    This Seal Materials Performance Test Plan describes the plan for testing materials that will be used to seal a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The need for sealing and backfilling the repository and the use of various sealing materials are described. The seal materials include mined salt backfills, cementitious bulkheads and plugs, and earthen backfills. The laboratory testing program for characterizing the behavior and performance of these materials is described. This report includes plans for screening materials, evaluating candidate materials to be tested, and testing a representative set of materials

  8. Business Plan: Elpis Restaurant

    Tran, Luu Quoc Phong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create a business plan for starting up a restaurant in European – Asian style in Helsinki. While the restaurants are in European or Asian style separately, this restaurant will be unique with dishes which are based on local traditional dishes, traditional Asian dishes and mixture between them as well as creation of new dishes. This business plan is created to minimize the risk when starting up a restaurant. The plan will not only help the restaur...

  9. Environmental monitoring plan

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Considerations for using data envelopment analysis for the assessment of radiotherapy treatment plan quality.

    Simpson, John; Raith, Andrea; Rouse, Paul; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The operations research method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) shows promise for assessing radiotherapy treatment plan quality. The purpose of this paper is to consider the technical requirements for using DEA for plan assessment. Design/methodology/approach In total, 41 prostate treatment plans were retrospectively analysed using the DEA method. The authors investigate the impact of DEA weight restrictions with reference to the ability to differentiate plan performance at a level of clinical significance. Patient geometry influences plan quality and the authors compare differing approaches for managing patient geometry within the DEA method. Findings The input-oriented DEA method is the method of choice when performing plan analysis using the key undesirable plan metrics as the DEA inputs. When considering multiple inputs, it is necessary to constrain the DEA input weights in order to identify potential plan improvements at a level of clinical significance. All tested approaches for the consideration of patient geometry yielded consistent results. Research limitations/implications This work is based on prostate plans and individual recommendations would therefore need to be validated for other treatment sites. Notwithstanding, the method that requires both optimised DEA weights according to clinical significance and appropriate accounting for patient geometric factors is universally applicable. Practical implications DEA can potentially be used during treatment plan development to guide the planning process or alternatively used retrospectively for treatment plan quality audit. Social implications DEA is independent of the planning system platform and therefore has the potential to be used for multi-institutional quality audit. Originality/value To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published examination of the optimal approach in the use of DEA for radiotherapy treatment plan assessment.

  11. Financial planning considerations at retirement.

    Cole, R J

    1998-03-01

    The process of retirement planning is a difficult one for a physician. The Planning process should address the areas of Investment Planning, Estate Planning, and Risk Management. This article examines each of these dimensions with special emphasis on Modern Portfolio Theory as the basis for investment planning.

  12. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    ... Educators Search English Español What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth / For Parents / What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... acción contra el asma? What's an Asthma Action Plan? An asthma action plan (or management plan) is ...

  13. Teaching planning theory as planner roles in urban planning education

    Olesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Planning theory is often portrayed as a subject that urban planning students find too abstract and fail to see the relevance of. This paper advocates the perspective that planning theory can be made more student-friendly. This requires, firstly, that academic discussions about the relevance...... of planning theory for urban planning practice are integrated into the course module. If students are to appreciate planning theory, it requires that they understand how planning theory can inspire planning practice. Secondly, it requires careful considerations to the pedagogy of planning theory. The paper...... suggests that teaching planning theory as a variety of planner roles offers a helpful pedagogical approach for helping students construct their identities as urban planners. The paper builds on the author’s own experiences of teaching planning theory in a master’s urban planning programme, and has been...

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  15. Speed management program plan.

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  16. DASH Eating Plan

    ... levels declined in all three groups. The two groups that received counseling and followed a treatment plan had more weight loss than the advice-only group. However, participants who received counseling and followed the DASH diet had the greatest ...

  17. Environmental Implementation Plan

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex

  18. Watershed Planning Basins

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  19. Planning for design quality

    Marguglio, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear industry and in other high technology industries in which the Government serves as either a customer or a regulator, it is almost always required that the contractor prepare a Quality Program Plan sometimes also referred to as a Quality Program Index. Often, the Quality Program Plan is included as part of the contractor's proposal in response to the Government's or a prime contractor's Request for Proposal. At this stage, the Quality Program Plan serves to demonstrate to the prospective customer the availability of the various quality systems. It provides the customer with a commitment as to the use of these quality systems, thus giving greater assurance that the customer's overall quality and design requirements can be met. The Quality Program Plan is contributing to the salability of the proposal. 1 ref

  20. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  1. Climate plan 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO 2 each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  2. SSCL computer planning

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Laboratory is in the process of planning the acquisition of a substantial computing system to support the design of detectors. Advice has been sought from users and computer experts in several stages. This paper discuss this process

  3. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  4. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... your breastfeeding support network How to get your family on board with breastfeeding African-American celebrity moms ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' ...

  5. Licensee safeguards contingency plans

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is amending its regulations to require that licensees authorized to operate a nuclear reactor (other than certain research and test reactors), and those authorized to possess strategic quantities of plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium-235 develop and implement acceptable plans for responding to threats, thefts, and industrial sabotage of licensed nuclear materials and facilities. The plans will provide a structured, orderly, and timely response to safeguards contingencies and will be an important segment of NRC's contingency planning programs. Licensee safeguards contingency plans will result in organizing licensee's safeguards resources in such a way that, in the unlikely event of a safeguards contingency, the responding participants will be identified, their several responsibilities specified, and their responses coordinated

  6. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  7. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  8. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing ... decisions. But if you haven’t already thought about breastfeeding, now is a great time. Before your baby is here is the ...

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Don't Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week ... family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media ...

  11. Joint Operation Planning

    2006-01-01

    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  12. Elective course planning

    Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2011-01-01

    Efficient planning increasingly becomes an indispensable tool for management of both companies and public organizations. This is also the case for high school management in Denmark, because the growing individual freedom of the students to choose courses makes planning much more complex. Due...... to reforms, elective courses are today an important part of the curriculum, and elective courses are a good way to make high school education more attractive for the students. In this article, the problem of planning the elective courses is modeled using integer programming and three different solution...... for the Elective Course Planning Problem has been described in the literature before. The proposed algorithms are tested on data sets from 98 of the 150 high schools in Denmark. The tests show that for the majority of the problems, the optimal solution can be obtained within the one hour time bound. Furthermore...

  13. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    Balarezo, Jose

    level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning......This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... and strategic renewal. Empirical evidence of the various difficulties that learning flows has to overcome as it journeys through organizational and hierarchical levels are presented. Despite various cognitive and social psychological barriers identified along the way, the results show the novel...

  14. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get ... with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us ...

  16. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  17. A Planning Palimpsest

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay; Gutzon Larsen, Henrik; Olesen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article...... demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality through time and over space. These layers do not completely overlay one another, but present a palimpsest...... saturated with contradictions as well as possibilities. We propose the notion of the ‘planning palimpsest’ as a helpful metaphor for drawing attention to the historical-geographical characteristics of planning discourses and practices....

  18. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  19. Cooperative Transport Planning

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  20. Inverse planning IMRT

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  1. Business Continuity Management Plan

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014......maximum 200 words) Navy Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) lacks a business process framework for the development of Business Continuity Management

  2. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Easy An Interview About Breastfeeding: Lauren Sogor Taking Care of Your Health — and Your Baby's Subscribe ... topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  3. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  4. Planning for Higher Education.

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  5. Asthma action plan

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in ...

  7. Planning Through Incrementalism

    Lasserre, Ph.

    1974-01-01

    An incremental model of decisionmaking is discussed and compared with the Comprehensive Rational Approach. A model of reconciliation between the two approaches is proposed, and examples are given in the field of economic development and educational planning. (Author/DN)

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected ... the Call, Don't Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's ...

  9. Succession planning : phase II.

    2008-06-01

    Succession planning is an organizational investment in the future. Institutional : knowledge is a critical ingredient in the culture of an organization, and its intangible : value becomes significant when an organization is faced with the need to pas...

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Planning ahead It's Only Natural ...

  11. Environmental Implementation Plan

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  12. Environmental Implementation Plan

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay ... Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we ...

  16. Risk Management Plan Rule

    RMP implements Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, and requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a Risk Management Plan and revise/resubmit every five years. Find guidance, factsheets, training, and assistance.

  17. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Full Text Available ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we ...

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed

  19. Family planning education.

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  20. Oncentra brachytherapy planning system.

    Yang, Jack

    2018-03-27

    In modern cancer management, treatment planning has progressed as a contemporary tool with all the advances in computing power in recent years. One of the advanced planning tools uses 3-dimensional (3D) data sets for accurate dose distributions in patient prescription. Among these planning processes, brachytherapy has been a very important part of a successful cancer management program, offering clinical benefits with specific or combined treatments with external beam therapy. In this chapter, we mainly discussed the Elekta Oncentra planning system, which is the main treatment planning tool for high-dose rate (HDR) modality in our facility and in many other facilities in the United States. HDR is a technically advanced form of brachytherapy; a high-intensity radiation source (3.6 mm in length) is delivered with step motor in submillimeter precision under computer guidance directly into the tumor areas while minimizing injury to surrounding normal healthy tissue. Oncentra planning is the key component to generate a deliverable brachytherapy procedure, which is executed on the microSelectron V3 remote afterloader treatment system. Creating a highly conformal plan can be a time-consuming task. The development of Oncentra software (version 4.5.3) offers a variety of useful tools that facilitate many of the clinical challenging tasks for planning, such as contouring and image reconstruction, as well as rapid planning calculations with dose and dose volume histogram analysis. Oncentra Brachy module creates workflow and optimizes the planning accuracy for wide varieties of clinical HDR treatments, such as skin, gynecologic (GYN), breast, prostate, and many other applications. The treatment file can also be transferred to the afterloader control station for speedy delivery. The design concept, calculation algorithms, and optimization modules presented some key characteristics to plan and treat the patients effectively and accurately. The dose distribution and accuracy of

  1. Environmental implementation plan

    Peterson, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this document, the Savannah River site environmental programs and plans from DOE contractors and Westinghouse Savannah River Company divisions/departments are presented along with the environmental coordinator for each program. The objectives are to enhase communication of existing or planned programs to do the following: identify activities required for meeting environmental needs; identify needing resources and a schedule to accomplish those activities; promote share-savings and consistency in those activities

  2. NRPB corporate plan

    Clarke, Roger

    1995-01-01

    As with all non-departmental public bodies, the National Radiological Protection Board is required to prepare a Corporate Plan each year. The Plan for 1995/1996 to 1999/2000 is now available as a Board report; extracts from the introductory section are given here. They deal with the Board's statutory duty to provide advice and conduct research and with its power to provide services, all in relation to ionising and non-ionising radiations. (author)

  3. WIPP documentation plan

    Plung, D.L.; Montgomery, T.T.; Glasstetter, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Publications and Procedures Section developed a documentation plan that provides an integrated document hierarchy; further, this plan affords several unique features: 1) the format for procedures minimizes the writing responsibilities of the technical staff and maximizes use of the writing and editing staff; 2) review cycles have been structured to expedite the processing of documents; and 3) the numbers of documents needed to support the program have been appreciably reduced

  4. Data Management Plan

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Vogelsang, Stefan; Freudenberg, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the Data Management Plan (DMP) (first version), relating to RIBuild WP8, deliverable D8.1. The DMP include description of data sets, standards and metadata, data sharing and archiving and preservation of data.......This document describes the Data Management Plan (DMP) (first version), relating to RIBuild WP8, deliverable D8.1. The DMP include description of data sets, standards and metadata, data sharing and archiving and preservation of data....

  5. AUDIT plan documenting method

    Cornecsu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work describes a method of documenting the AUDIT plan upon the basis of two quantitative elements resulting from quality assurance program appraisal system function implementation degree as established from the latest AUDIT performed an system function weight in QAP, respectively, appraised by taking into account their significance for the activities that are to be performed in the period for which the AUDITs are planned. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs

  6. Management of Logistics Planning

    Bjørnar Aas; Stein W. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Logistics problems are gradually becoming more complex and a better understanding of logistics management as a subject is a key to deal with the new challenges. A core element of logistics management is logistics planning, which substitutes for low customer service levels, high waste, and the use of buffers and slacks in the execution of logistic activities. Furthermore, the availability of information and problem-solving capabilities are established as the core parts of logistics planning. B...

  7. Factor 4 planning

    Bariol-Mathais, Brigitte; Lavoillotte, Philippine; Gall-Sorrentino, Florence; Malez, Marianne; Sanna, Daniela; Marsauche, Maud; Marquet, Sarah; Debergue, Sophie; Aminu, Olufunmi; Bernard, Helene; Marchand, Jean-Michel; Blin, Frederic; Grange, Jerome; Caillierez, Sophie; Muller, Dania; Clement, Bob; Desire, Jean-Charles; Metais, Benedicte; Lannuzel, Philippe; Pezet-Kuhn, Murielle; Pons, Anne; Rivoire-Meley, Benedicte; Tissot, Heloise

    2015-07-01

    Factor 4 is the goal of cutting our greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050. Achieving this objective will necessitate radical changes in our practices, in particular concerning transport and housing; the measures currently implemented, such as positive-energy buildings, low-impact mobility and eco-neighbourhoods, will not be enough to meet this goal. These measures must be conceived in the framework of broad territorial planning that integrates environmental and energy objectives far upstream. To this end, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French network of Urban Planning Agencies (FNAU), pursuing their missions in their respective areas of competence, have joined forces to make infrastructure and land use planning an integral part of the environmental and energy transition process. In 2013, the two organisations signed a partnership agreement and compiled an inventory of practices that are relevant to Factor 4 planning. This work was led by Epures, Saint-etienne urban planning agency, along with FNAU, drawing upon the expertise of a dozen urban planning agencies in precursor territories. This inventory describes the stakes, resources and strengths for each territory, which have led to cross-sectoral territorial planning exercises with ambitious environmental and energy objectives; the importance of evaluation in attaining these goals is emphasised. Current experience, questions and available methodological tools are summarised in this document, to encourage territories and help them design their planning policies along a trajectory to achieve Factor 4 goals. The compilation also aims to be a contribution to the COP21 climate conference

  8. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  9. SCENARIO PLANNING AS LEARNING

    Antonio Lourenço Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario Planning has been increasingly used, from its introduction to the decision process as effective tools to test decisions, and improve performance in a dynamic environment (Chermack, 2005. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of an experimental Scenario Planning Model to mobilize, encourage and add more content to the organization’s decision making process – mainly with respect to Strategic Plans of two governmental institutions, a pharmaceutical company and a technology education foundation.  This study describes the application stages of a hybrid scenario-planning model – herein referred to as Planning as Learning – via action-research, showing the scenarios resulting from the experiment and describes the main results of an assessment of such practice. In order to do that, two well-established Scenario Planning models (Prospective school and Shell’s model were analyzed. They were used as a reference for the proposition and application of an experimental model in the two study objects. A questionnaire was used to assess the technique impact. It was possible to obtain high levels of reliability. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the participants. At the end, the results confirmed the model efficiency as a basis for decision making in the competitive environment in which the two institutions are inserted, also to encourage the learning process as a group, as observed throughout the work.

  10. Strategic planning for marketers.

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  11. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  12. Public affairs plan

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  13. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  14. Site 300 SPCC Plan

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-23

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  15. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998

    1992-10-01

    The FY 1993--1998 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory mission, strategic plan, scientific initiatives, research programs, environment and safety program plans, educational and technology transfer efforts, human resources, and facilities needs. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that can influence the Laboratory, potential research trends, and several management implications. The Initiatives section identifies potential new research programs that represent major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory and the resources required for their implementation. The Scientific and Technical Programs section summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity. The Environment, Safety, and Health section describes the management systems and programs underway at the Laboratory to protect the environment, the public, and the employees. The Technology Transfer and Education programs section describes current and planned programs to enhance the nation's scientific literacy and human infrastructure and to improve economic competitiveness. The Human Resources section identifies LBL staff composition and development programs. The section on Site and Facilities discusses resources required to sustain and improve the physical plant and its equipment. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory's ongoing research programs. The plan is an institutional management report for integration with the Department of Energy's strategic planning activities that is developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the National Energy Strategy and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Development from information contributed by the Laboratory's scientific and support divisions.

  16. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998

    Chew, Joseph T.; Stroh, Suzanne C.; Maio, Linda R.; Olson, Karl R.; Grether, Donald F.; Clary, Mary M.; Smith, Brian M.; Stevens, David F.; Ross, Loren; Alper, Mark D.; Dairiki, Janis M.; Fong, Pauline L.; Bartholomew, James C.

    1992-10-01

    The FY 1993--1998 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory mission, strategic plan, scientific initiatives, research programs, environment and safety program plans, educational and technology transfer efforts, human resources, and facilities needs. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that can influence the Laboratory, potential research trends, and several management implications. The Initiatives section identifies potential new research programs that represent major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory and the resources required for their implementation. The Scientific and Technical Programs section summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity. The Environment, Safety, and Health section describes the management systems and programs underway at the Laboratory to protect the environment, the public, and the employees. The Technology Transfer and Education programs section describes current and planned programs to enhance the nation`s scientific literacy and human infrastructure and to improve economic competitiveness. The Human Resources section identifies LBL staff composition and development programs. The section on Site and Facilities discusses resources required to sustain and improve the physical plant and its equipment. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory`s ongoing research programs. The plan is an institutional management report for integration with the Department of Energy`s strategic planning activities that is developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the National Energy Strategy and the Department of Energy`s program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Development from information contributed by the Laboratory`s scientific and support divisions.

  17. Climate change: potential implications for Ireland's biodiversity

    Donnelly, Alison

    2018-03-01

    A national biodiversity and climate change adaptation plan is being developed for Ireland by the Department of Communications, Climate Action, and Environment. In order to inform such a plan, it was necessary to review and synthesize some of the recent literature pertaining to the impact of climate change on biodiversity in Ireland. Published research on this topic fell within three broad categories: (i) changes in the timing of life-cycle events (phenology) of plants, birds, and insects; (ii) changes in the geographic range of some bird species; and (iii) changes in the suitable climatic zones of key habitats and species. The synthesis revealed evidence of (i) a trend towards earlier spring activity of plants, birds, and insects which may result in a change in ecosystem function; (ii) an increase in the number of bird species; and (iii) both increases and decreases in the suitable climatic area of key habitats and species, all of which are expected to impact Ireland's future biodiversity. This process identified data gaps and limitations in available information both of which could be used to inform a focused research strategy. In addition, it raises awareness of the potential implications of climate change for biodiversity in Ireland and elsewhere and demonstrates the need for biodiversity conservation plans to factor climate change into future designs.

  18. Your cancer survivorship care plan

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000822.htm Your cancer survivorship care plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... get one. What Is a Cancer Survivorship Care Plan? A cancer survivorship care plan is a document ...

  19. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  20. 2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP)

    England, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...