WorldWideScience

Sample records for old-age welfare state

  1. The globalization of capital, the welfare state, and old age policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Carroll L; Phillipson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A new political economy is shaping the lives of present and future generations of older people. The key change has been the move from the mass institutions that defined growing old in the period from 1945 through the late 1970s to the more individualized structures--privatized pensions, privatized health and social care--that increasingly inform the current period. The authors examine the role of international governmental organizations in promoting this trend, with examples drawn from the work of the World Bank, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the relationship between international governmental organizations and the state. The article concludes with an assessment of the changes to citizenship that accompany globalization and the implications for political organization among older people themselves.

  2. [Disembedding and remoralization. Old age security and intergenerational relations in globalized welfare capitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisering, L

    2002-08-01

    The article reconstructs the changes in provision for old age since the 19th century with regard to the ensuing change in intergenerational relationships. The first finding is a broadening of the arenas of provision for old age, a historical cumulation of family (which is still relevant), welfare state and, increasingly, private provision in financial markets, adding up to a 'welfare mix' in old age. This implies a complexification of intergenerational relationships. The second finding is an ambivalent qualitative change: on the one hand relationships between generations become more anonymous and disembedded from primary social relationships; on the other hand they are politicized (they become a public issue) and remoralized. This ambivalence applies to bureaucratic provision for old age in the welfare state, i.e., to social insurance. The main thesis is that--contrary to neoliberal belief--private old-age security in global financial markets cannot be seen as individualistic and moral-free but constitutes an anonymous exchange relationship between generations on financial markets that also raises issues of intergenerational justice. We can expect that these abstract relationships between generations will be politicized and remoralized as a consequence. Welfare state and financial markets offer solutions to problems of previous forms of provision for old age but they also produce new problems of intergenerational relationships.

  3. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  4. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  5. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  6. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  7. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. © 2013.

  8. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  9. Self-perception of when old age begins for Cambodian elders living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, Nicole M

    2014-06-01

    To deepen the understanding of the life course of refugees this study explores the question: when do Cambodian elders perceive the beginning of old age? In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Cambodians, age range 53-82, who attended an elder day center in an urban setting in Massachusetts. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed that the participants primarily reported two determinants to defining when old age begins: 1) the body "has too many illnesses" due to harsh working conditions; and 2) social role transition into grandparent. This study extends research on cultural differences in aging, specifically identifying the cultural difference in the definition of when "old age" begins. Age is culturally derived and creates expectations for social roles, health, self-identity, and behavior. Understanding how refugees experience the cultural discrepancies in their expectations of aging can inform providers who serve this population.

  10. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......-governmental organizations have been coopted to serve large welfare expenditure programs that benefit the welfare coalition....

  11. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  12. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...... the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  13. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... policies are in question? And what parts of Europe are being investigated? Furthermore, the time perspective is crucial. From the perspective of the late 2000s this paper argues first that neo-liberalism in the form of the so-called Washington consensus is no longer promoted by international organizations...

  14. European welfare states in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Dräbing, V.; Vis, B.; Nelson, M.L.; Soentken, M.F.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this working paper, we assess to what extent European welfare states have moved in the direction of social investment in terms of spending and how well they are performing socio-economically, for instance in terms of unemployment, poverty-reduction and work-family life reconciliation. Moreover,

  15. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  16. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  17. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...... of those positive welfare image parties in government that implemented welfare state retrenchment. Comparative European Politics (2013) 11, 1-21. doi:10.1057/cep.2012.5; published online 11 June 2012...

  18. The reoccurance of pre-welfare state poverty profiles in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    . However immigrants and descendants are facing a pre-welfare state poverty risk profile with very high poverty rates among children, families and old age. In context the economical crisis has several consequences. One is regarding the possibilities to prevent poverty through increased public spending. Most...... forthcoming, AE 2009). My study based on public registered data on individual level of the city of Aarhus from 1983-2007 show very high and increasing poverty rates for immigrants and descendants. The pre-welfare state poverty risk situations such as old age and childhood are in general of no relevance...

  19. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  20. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  1. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  2. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  3. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare...... state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socio-economic problem pressure, political...... parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems - particularly domestic problems - contribute to an atmosphere of 'permanent austerity' which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible...

  4. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  5. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  6. Depression in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    MAŠTEROVÁ, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is theoretical and it engage in problems of the depression, in particular depression in old age. It divide in four chapters. In first chapter mentioned a characteristic deppresion. Here is a description, what is the depression and that exit some questionnaires, what make find, whether is a man it distress. Further here is mentioned it occurrence, history, mythes, causes, symptoms, types, treatment and consequences. In second chapter talk about age and growing old and their concomi...

  7. Sexual activity in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the principal factors influencing sexual activity of elderly persons. Data of foreign study and sociologic research carried out in Saratov region (2010 were used as the base for the analysis. It was revealed that the primary determinants of sexual activity in old age are the following: state of health, presence or absence of a partner, active lifestyle

  8. WOMEN IN THE PATRIARCHAL WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshi Thoradeniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the implications of the state performing a welfare function for an extended period of time in relation to the social contract between women citizens and the state. It argues that a prolonged status of ‘welfare provider’ ascribes certain patriarchal attributes to the state, which in turn reduces the position of the citizens, especially women, to a mere ‘beneficiary’ level. With the use of two specific policy documents relating to public health – Well Woman Clinic (WWC programme launched in 1996, and the Population and Reproductive Health (PRH policy designed in 1998 – it shows that in the absence of a rights based approach to public health, women have become mere beneficiaries, as opposed to active citizens, of the prolonged welfare State of Sri Lanka. This relationship has deterred women citizens from exercising the right to demand their needs from the State.

  9. The Elusiveness of Welfare-State Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel (Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2015.Incomprehensibly, the relation of architecture to society is, on the one hand, a trivial fact, and, on the other, a perplexing assumption. Trivial, because the evidence of the tight relationship is ubiquitous, screaming its existence from the tops of skyscrapers, from the basements of gloomy panopticon prisons, and from the doorsteps of Levittown houses. Perplexing, because, despite of such an abundance of evidence, the actual form of such a relationship remains contested and, mostly, obscure. This review article will interrogate the relation of architecture to society via the recently published anthology Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel. The anthology postulates that a rigorous correlation can be established between architectural design and the welfare state. The review article, in turn, posits two questions to the anthology: what is specific about the welfare state which differentiates it from other societies of the era, and how is a rigorous correlation of a specific form of architecture to the welfare state established, beyond limited notions such as zeitgeist? 

  10. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  11. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2018-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  12. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  13. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...

  14. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  15. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  16. Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...

  17. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  18. How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states

  19. Financing the Welfare State and the Politics of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Morel , Nathalie; Palme , Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In an era of 'permanent austerity' (Pierson, 2001) and financial crisis, the issue of financing welfare state provision is topical. Moreover, the future of welfare state funding in countries with ageing populations is no doubt raising increasing interest in scholarly as well as policy circles. Yet the financing side of welfare provision has traditionally been given little attention and remains somewhat of a black box of the welfare state. The fact that some of the financing mechanisms have re...

  20. The association between high levels of cumulative life stress and aberrant resting state EEG dynamics in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative experienced stress produces shortcomings in old adults' cognitive performance. These are reflected in electrophysiological changes tied to task execution. This study explored whether stress-related aberrations in older adults' electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were also apparent in the system at rest. To this effect, the amount of stressful life events experienced by 60 young and 60 elderly participants were assessed in conjunction with resting state power changes in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies during a resting EEG recording. Findings revealed elevated levels of delta power among elderly individuals reporting high levels of cumulative life stress. These differed significantly from young high and low stress individuals and old adults with low levels of stress. Increases of delta activity have been linked to the emergence of conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Thus, a potential interpretation of our findings associates large amounts of cumulative stress with an increased risk of developing age-related cognitive pathologies in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  2. An Assessment Of Importance Of Children In Old Age Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the male model, in the female model, only religion established similar relationship. The study concludes that the welfare of the elderly requires the strengthening of social security system. Keywords: Welfare, Value of children, Old age security, Extended famil. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.

  3. Youth and old age

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    85 x 115 mm. Woodburytype. A view showing a young Cypriot girl seated beside an aged relative in the open air. The portrait is in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.1, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). The photograph is annotated: 'Although it has been stated on high authority that in Cyprus aged parents are often treated harshly by their children, yet, in travelling through the island, one happily meets with examples of the t...

  4. Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    BRDIČKOVÁ, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes life satisfaction in old age. The theoretical part defines negative and positive aspects of old age, and further describes cognitive and emotional changes. The main content of the theoretical part is focused on life satisfaction, purposfulness and self-conception of seniors. The practical part includes qualitative research, which survays life satisfaction of seniors, directed on four dimensions of human life: self-conception, purpose of life, family and social relations. T...

  5. Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    look at Aarhus in the light of these theories and studies of other cities. We present some preliminary results of a study based on public registered data covering income, capital, occupation, social services, types of dwellings, localisation etc. in the municipality of Aarhus. On the one hand we paint...... a preliminary picture of Aarhus looking at the distribution of poverty and wealth showing some indicators towards inequality. Furthermore we discuss central theories, concepts and measured indicators......Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. We...

  6. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  7. Return to sender - American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, C.; Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationship between the United States of America and Norden, first showing how images of the Nordic model were constructed and reproduced in the United States from the 1920s until the 1960s. We find both utopias and dystopias in these narratives. Second, the article...... argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image...

  8. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...... to promote mobility in old age....

  9. Earned Citizenship: Labour Migrants’ Views on the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In policy and research, migration and the welfare state are often seen as being at odds. When ‘strangers’ enter the welfare state, the financial and social foundations of solidarity are said to crumble. A prominent question, therefore, is whether immigrants should have the same rights as the

  10. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  11. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.J.; Siersma, V.; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobility-related fatigue and low socioeconomic position predicts mobility limitations and disability in old age, but the interplay between these two factors is unknown. To evaluate whether mobility-related fatigue is a stronger risk factor for mobility limitations in certain...... socioeconomic groups, the aim of this study was to examine the combined effect of mobility-related fatigue and socioeconomic position on mobility limitations in a prospective study among older Danish men and women. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression models with combined exposure variables using generalised...... estimating equations were performed using four waves of data on 2874 individuals without mobility limitations at baseline from The Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: Low socioeconomic position and mobility-related fatigue are risk factors for mobility limitations in old age...

  12. Business Interests and the Development of the German Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the core of the model of the ‘Bismarckian welfare state’, for which Germany became the prototype. After giving a brief overview of the main characteristics of the German welfare state and its historical origins, the chapter analyses the attitudes of German employers towards the adoption of these four...

  13. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result...

  14. Free Movement as a Threat for Universal Welfare States?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    , especially in the area of pensions. Given the enlargement of the past 10 years and a strong increase in inter-EU migration this impact might even increase. This article, using Denmark as a case study, looks at how, over time, free movement may lead towards convergence and thereby Europeanization of welfare...... states in Europe. It focuses especially on the pressures brought to bear on the universality of the Danish welfare state, thereby moving it away from one of the distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare state model: the universal access to benefits. It also raises the question of whether...

  15. Public Pensions as the Great Equalizer? Decomposition of Old-Age Income Inequality in South Korea, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the redistributive effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality, testing whether public pensions function as the "great equalizer." Unlike the well-known alleviating effect of public pensions on old-age poverty, the effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality more generally have been less examined, particularly outside Western countries. Using repeated cross-sectional data of elderly Koreans between 1998 and 2010, we applied Gini coefficient decomposition to measure the impact of various income sources on old-age inequality, particularly focusing on public pensions. Our findings show that, contrary to expectations, public pension benefits have inequality-intensifying effects on old-age income in Korea, even countervailing the alleviating effects of public assistance. This rather surprising result is due to the specific institutional context of the Korean public pension system and suggests that the "structuring" of welfare policies could be as important as their expansion for the elderly, particularly for developing welfare states.

  16. Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zakharyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

  17. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  18. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  19. Innovation in tourism from a welfare state perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    plentiful resources, and because of close links with key actors in government, unions and employers' organisations. Co-operation with commercial tourism was, however, limited. In recent years, the ideologies have been challenged dramatically. There is no longer such a good fit between the needs......When ‘welfare’ and ‘tourism’ are mentioned together, paid holidays most often come to mind. Subsidised facilities for the less advantaged, can also be considered as core welfare ideology of the 20th century. From a broader perspective, however, welfare ideologies also have very complex indirect...... impacts on tourism. This paper addresses the influence of the welfare state, the impact welfare state interventions have had, and still have, and further implications in terms of product and service innovations. The Danish Labour Market Holiday Foundation has enforced innovations. Ever since...

  20. Institutions, culture and migrants' preference for state-provided welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Careja, Romana

    2017-01-01

    Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret this fin......Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret...... this finding as evidence that the culture of home countries does not have a time-invariant effect, and that immigrants’ welfare preferences are subject to a socializing effect of the host countries’ welfare regime....

  1. Social work and research in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and North-Western Europe more generally, there are other countries where the public spend on welfare is relatively high. The contributors to this book explore and exemplify ways in which social work and research are distinctive for advanced welfare states. This involves exploring their connection......The aim of this book is to exemplify the ways in which social work and research develop in ‘advanced’ welfare states - countries where public spending is relatively high as a proportion of GNP. While such countries have traditionally been associated with Scandinavian countries in particular...... to professional identities, histories and welfare systems, their associations with academic, theoretical and cultural traditions of collaboration between academic and social work practice, and the distinctive links with community, national policy, governmentality and agency, with respect to forms of knowledge...

  2. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  3. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  4. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  5. Welfare State Transformations and Inequality in OECD Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Editors: Melike Wulfgramm, Tonia Bieber & Stephan Leibfried This book analyzes how recent welfare state transformations across advanced democracies have shaped social and economic disparities. The authors observe a trend from a compensatory paradigm towards supply oriented social policy, and inve......Editors: Melike Wulfgramm, Tonia Bieber & Stephan Leibfried This book analyzes how recent welfare state transformations across advanced democracies have shaped social and economic disparities. The authors observe a trend from a compensatory paradigm towards supply oriented social policy...... supply orientation in most social policy fields has further contributed to social inequality. The authors work from sociological and political science perspectives, examining all of the main branches of the welfare state, from health, education and tax policy, to labour market, pension and migration...

  6. Conflicting notions of citizenship in old age: An analysis of an activation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Susan; Horstman, Klasien; Jansen, Maria; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Ageing societies and increasing healthcare expenditures are inducing Western welfare states to reform their care arrangements. In a qualitative research project, we explored how citizenship in old age is constructed in a public innovative care practice situated in the southern part of the Netherlands: the shaping of 'life cycle robust neighbourhoods'. Life cycle robustness entails a further not formally defined ideal of age-friendly places, enabling older adults to live independently for longer periods of time. Participation is being presented as an important element towards life cycle robustness. We used ethnographic methods to understand different constructions of citizenship in old age. We analysed documents and interviewed local policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors in the fields of housing, care and welfare, professionals working for these organisations, and older adults living (independently) in these neighbourhoods (n=73). Additionally, we observed formal and informal meetings and organised focus groups. Our findings demonstrate conflicting notions of old age. Policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors, professionals, and even representatives of older adults share a belief an activation policy is necessary, although they differ in how they interpret this need. Policymakers and civil servants are convinced that societal and financial incentives necessitate current reforms, managers and directors talk about quality and organisational needs, while professionals mainly strive to empower older adults (as citizens). Simultaneously, older adults try to live their lives as independent as possible. We argue that, whereas old age became a distinct category in the last century, we now recognise a new period in which this category is being more and more de-categorised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baumol's Cost Disease and the Sustainability of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Kreiner, Claus T.

    2017-01-01

    If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates into a f......If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates...

  8. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  9. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight...... of the Scandinavian welfare state ‘bumblebee’....

  11. Introduction: welfare state reform, recognition and emotional labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Grootegoed, E.; Duyvendak, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment and its corollary, the encouragement of ‘active citizenship’, are widespread phenomena in Western countries today. While public and academic debates have focused on the practical consequences of changing rules and shrinking entitlements, there has been much less attention

  12. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  13. The Odd One Out? Revisiting the Belgian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor Wagenaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ryckewaert publication Building the Economic Backbone of the Belgian Welfare State. Infrastructure, planning and architecture 1945-1973 describes the evolution of the welfare state and Belgium, more specifically its spatial characteristics. This by now historical socio-political model had decidedly collectivist traits, culminating in the provision of social security networks and a vast expansion of the public domain. If collectivism was one of the key elements of the welfare state, the absence of centralized planning appears to make the Belgian variant somewhat problematic.Whereas in countries like the Netherlands, Germany and France, modernism became the house style of the welfare state, thanks to the massive investments in public housing, this did not happen in Belgium. Here, the De Taeye Act of 1948 sponsored the construction of individual, detached houses; not surprisingly, most clients preferred traditional architecture and refrained from modern experiments. Industrial parks, office buildings and shops, on the other hand, developed into the cornerstones of Belgian modern architecture after 1945. Both the low-density sprawl and the industrial parks depend heavily on the use of the car, which was accommodated by the construction of a network of highways.

  14. The Survival of the Nordic Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    Why does free riding not escalate in the universal Nordic welfare state? How is it possible to maintain such a cooperative equilibrium where most people tend to cooperate? Our model suggests that the "missing link" is the accumulated stock of cooperation norms in terms of social trust. Arguably...

  15. Motivations and Earnings of Emigrants from a Rich Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutvaara, Panu; Munk, Martin D.

    2018-01-01

    Northern European countries lose more than ten percent of their university graduates as a result of emigration. This could undermine welfare states if the high-income earners emigrate to avoid high taxes. Register data shows that those facing a high tax burden are much more likely to emigrate. Ye...

  16. The welfare state and Baumol's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper considers a two-sector economy with a constant population: The public sector, with stable productivity, and a private sector, with productivity growth. Baumol's law says that such an economy has no steady state. It is demonstrated what this means. Two attempts to uphold a policy...

  17. Curriculum Theory and the Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Justice

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How do states make citizens? The question is as old as states themselves. Surprisingly, however, the approaches to answering it have emerged as a form of parallel play, uncoordinated (and poorly understood across fields. This essay attempts to reconcile disparate realms of social research that address the question. The first, curriculum theory, grows out of educational research that for a century has focused almost exclusively on schools, schooling, and intentional settings for academic knowledge transmission. The second realm draws primarily on research from psychology, sociology, and political science to look empirically for effects of exposure to particular kinds of social phenomena. These include, but are not exclusive to, public institutions and policies. This essay begins by developing a mainstream conception of curriculum theory. It then compares and contrasts social science traditions that engage questions related to the state’s role in civic identity formation. Finally, it offers a case study on New York City’s controversial policing strategy known as Stop, Question, and Frisk, exploring how curriculum theory (developed in the context of mass schooling can be a useful framework for understanding the educational features of a distinct social policy.

  18. The fiscal impact of EU immigration on the tax-financed welfare state: Testing the ‘welfare burden’ thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2017-01-01

    of administrative data, consisting of repeated cross sections of 100% of the EU population residing in Denmark. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution to the Danish welfare state over the long time span examined and thus reject the ‘welfare burden’ thesis for the crucial case...

  19. The Rise of the Welfare State in International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, Laust

    2015-01-01

    In this article I seek to develop a case for viewing the welfare state as a primary institution in international society. This is with particular reference to Norden (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), where in the course of the 1930s, and particularly in the post-1945 era, the welfare...... state was elevated to a core principle of legitimacy, largely defining the idea of nationhood for these countries. Furthermore, I will attempt to show how the adoption of this principle of legitimacy conditioned the Nordic countries’ interpretation of a number of other primary institutions...... in international society such as diplomacy, war and trade. A key contribution of this approach is that it aspires not only to examine the evolution of one institution in isolation, as has often been attempted in English School scholarship, but to actively explore how institutions interact with each other....

  20. Pro-Elderly Welfare States within Child-Oriented Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Robert Ivan; Vanhuysse, Pieter; Vargha, Lili

    societies, we employ National Transfer Accounts to include public and private transfers and National Time Transfer Accounts to value unpaid household labour. All three channels combined, children receive more per capita resources (73 percent of prime-age labour income) than older persons (31 percent......). Europe is a continent of pro-elderly welfare states and strongly child-oriented parents. Since children are public goods, why has investment in them not been socialized more?...

  1. When reactors reach old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischetti, M.

    1986-01-01

    While the battle over whether to build new nuclear plants has quieted in recent times, a second struggle is shaping up in the United States as reactors approach a new stage of life: retirement. Four decades into the nuclear power age, questions of how best to dismantle and dispose of a nuclear power plant remain largely unanswered. The debates have been mainly academic until now - although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning retired reactors has simply not been fully planned in this country. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first large-scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debates in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. Virtually all groups involved in decommissioning a reactor in the United States - the utility, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state public service commissions, and citizen organizations - agree that for the most part the technology to dismantle and dispose of a reactor safely is available. They disagree, however, on which technical option is the safest or cheapest and on who should pay for dismantlement. And there are further complications: Which regulations must be complied with. How much radiation exposure for workers and the public is acceptable. Even with answers to these questions, uncertainty about where to dispose of the radioactive waste and about how much residual radiation can be left at a former reactor site plagues the architects of decommissioning. This article discusses these questions

  2. Economy of the welfare state: Foundations and creation under the conditions of market transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2001-01-01

    Categorical essence, structure, and multilevel institutional and functional foundations of the welfare state are discovered in the monograph. Criteria, chronological limits, and content of the stages of arising, creation, development, and descend of the welfare state with accounting of modern tendencies are defined. Critical analysis of the Chilean pension system is presented. Necessity of creation of the welfare state in Ukraine is grounded. Mechanism of creation of the welfare state under t...

  3. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  4. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  5. Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

    2007-01-01

    One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

  6. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  7. Who Should Govern the Welfare State 2.0?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    In his thought-provoking exploration of the future of humanity, Steve Fuller envisages a new and strengthened role for the welfare state. The future transhumanist society will be inhabited by increasingly segregated classes of biological species, some of which have been successful in enhancing th......’s proactionary ethics. In this comment, I examine the foundation of justice as outlined by Fuller. I propose a new set of political positions for the post-biological age (i) biolibertarianism, (ii) bioegalitarianism and (iii) bioutilitarianism...

  8. [Welfare State and public health: the role of occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-21

    In the context of the current crisis of the Welfare State, occupational health can contribute significantly to its sustainability by facilitating decent and healthy employment throughout the working life. To this end, occupational health must take on the challenge of promoting health, preventing and managing injuries, illnesses and disability, based on better coordination of prevention services, mutual insurance companies, and health services, as well as by empowering the leadership in prevention of companies and the active participation of those who work. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. How New Economic Ideas Changed the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Andersen, Jørgen Goul

    2009-01-01

    of the independent causal effects of economic ideas because the Social Democrats pursued policies that compromised with the party's historically rooted positions and with the preferences of their electorate. Ideas and solutions did not come in one fixed package, however. But the new paradigm established some basic......The article argues that new economic ideas have exerted an independent causal effect on policy change in three major areas in the Danish welfare state; unemployment insurance, early retirement and taxation. Thereby the Danish case bears resemblance to the paradigmatic shift from Keynesianism...

  10. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  11. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  12. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with other government and voluntary welfare agencies, and welfare-related business and professional organizations and associations, in developing emergency operating plans and attaining operational readiness; (5..., as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued by...

  13. A UTILITY THEORY OF OLD AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMLIN, ROY M.

    HERZBERG'S JOB SATISFACTION MODEL SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR AN ANALYSIS OF OLD AGE. THE PATTERN VARIES AMONG INDIVIDUALS, BUT THE CAPACITY FOR ORGANIZED BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN RANDOM STRESS REDUCTION SUPPLIES EACH INDIVIDUAL WITH A TASK. THE HYPOTHESIS IS THAT IF THE OLDER INDIVIDUAL REALIZES UTILITY IN HIS YEARS BEYOND 70, HE WILL RETAIN COMPETENCE…

  14. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data o...

  15. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  16. Preparing for an "Insured" Old Age: Insurance Purchase and Self-Support in Old Age in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2018-05-21

    This article explores an emerging trend among young and middle-aged rural couples in Northeast China who have purchased recently marketized commercial insurance as a way to prepare for self-support in old age. It discusses how the commercial insurance industry has created a rural elder-care market among a population that traditionally relied on family for support in old age. It also delves into the ways in which the transformations of intergenerational exchange and family structure and a lack of health care access have contributed to the preparation for self-support in old age and have thus fostered the creation of a rural elder-care market for the insurance industry. This emerging trend reveals a transition from traditional family support to a combination of multiple ways of elder care, in particular self-support in old age. It also suggests that while the Chinese state is facing a pressing issue of supporting an increasing aging population and the Chinese family is coping with the burden of elder care, the insurance industry is playing an increasing role in elder care in China.

  17. The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.

  18. [Psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, C

    2013-02-01

    Depression in old age is common and also dangerous due to somatic comorbidity and suicide; however, it is often not recognized and not adequately treated. Psychotherapy is almost never offered to the elderly. However, clinical experience, single-case studies and some controlled trials show effectiveness--at least to the age of 75. The psychotherapist must be aware of unusual transference and countertransference between a younger therapist and elderly patient. Psychotherapy in old age requires some modifications, especially concerning special interest in biography and history, strong empathy, "container function", and focusing. In the future, psychotherapy for the elderly should be both investigated and educated more. In addition, it is hoped that psychotherapists offer to treat elderly people with depression and that more older patients accept this professional help.

  19. Social foundations of divorce in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Isaeva, Svetlana Andreevna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - to find out the main reasons for divorce in old age, to assess social perception of certain situations that lead to divorce, to trace the development later in life after the divorce of former spouse. Methodology: qualitative research on how to "double reflection" in formal means of semi-structured interviews; discourse analysis of online documents on the Internet forums for the elderly. Results - allocated substantial characteristics of divorce in the third age. 1. The causes of div...

  20. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...

  1. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a...

  2. Financial structures, firms, and the welfare states in South Korea and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.

    South Korea and Singapore display distinctive patterns of social provision. The Singaporean welfare state has served as the primary provider of social infrastructure and services, whereas the South Korean welfare state has developed its primary role in supporting income maintenance. These

  3. Building, breaking, overriding…? Migrants and institutional trust in the Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Migrants constitute an interesting case concerning the question of how trust in welfare state institutions can emerge, as one can study their newly built relationships with such institutions in a distinct way. The Danish welfare state can be considered a ‘high trust’ context in terms of social...... and institutional trust. With the help of a multi-dimensional theoretical concept this paper provides an analysis of qualitative interviews with migrants on how institutional trust in the welfare state can emerge. Among other things, it finds that a perceived experience of distributive justice is of crucial...... importance for building trust and that strong trust in the systemic checks and balances of the welfare state can ‘override’ negative experiences at its access points, that is, welfare state professionals....

  4. THE JUST DRUG DISTRIBUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktieva Tri Tjitrawati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available States have obligations to improve equitability of welfare and prosperity of the community. Pharmaceutical is one of the important and strategic industries because of its vital role to support the development of health sector. Lack of regulation on pricing-products, and diversion of social aspects in the drugs trade, either by government or industry, are associated with the paradigm that underlies regulation of the distributions. Prospective policy analysis and functional approach of law are used to find a level of balance of various interest related to the subject, and to find concepts as a basis to construct new paradigm on drugs distribution. Negara berkewajiban untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan kemakmuran masyarakat secara berkeadilan. Industri farmasi merupakan salah satu industri penting dan strategis karena perannya yang vital menunjang pembangunan bidang kesehatan.Terdapat kecenderungan kurangnya peran Pemerintah dalam pricing policy obat, serta diabaikannya aspek sosial dalam perdagangan produk farmasi, baik oleh Pemerintah maupun industri farmasi. Carut marut ini berkaitan dengan ketidakjelasan paradigma yang berujung pada ketidakjelasan kebijakan yang melandasi tatanan distribusi obat. Makalah ini menggunakan analisis kebijakan prospektif dan pendekatan fungsional hukum untuk mengkaji kebijakan distribusi obat yang bersifat multi disiplin dan menemukan konsep baru untuk menemukan titik keseimbangan dari berbagai kepentingan terkait.

  5. Reforming the Welfare State: Camden 1965-73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Swenarton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The housing projects built by the London Borough of Camden in the years 1965-73 belong arguably to the most substantial investigations into the architecture of social housing undertaken in the past half-century. Under borough architect Sydney Cook, Camden aimed to establish a new kind of housing architecture based, not on the Corbusian tabula rasa, but on a radical reinterpretation of traditional English urbanism.The outcome was a series of projects, including Fleet Road, Alexandra Road, Highgate New Town, Branch Hill and Maiden Lane, designed by members of Cook’s team, including Neave Brown, Peter Tábori and Gordon Benson and Alan Forsyth, as well as projects designed by up-and-coming private architects like Colquhoun & Miller, Edward Cullinan and Farrell Grimshaw.While it began in what Hobsbawm called the ‘golden age’ of postwar capitalism, the Cook years (1965-73 saw the onset of the crisis of the 1970s and with it the rise of the New Right and the Hard Left, both of which viewed the Camden housing projects as a legitimate target for attack. Based on archival research and interviews, the paper explores the ways in which the Cook projects both mediated and articulated the emergence of these fissures within the British welfare state.

  6. Health shocks and retirement: the role of welfare state institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances of elderly male workers by 8%, and that this increase in the baseline retirement probability is not affected by eligibility to early exit programs and persists even after accounting for selection due to take-up of disability pension. Neither is it affected by the relatively long duration of sickness benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program ( fleksjob ) but this effect is on the margin of being significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark.

  7. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  8. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  9. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  10. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  11. Introduction: The Failure and Future of the Welfare State in Post-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Polese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the post-socialist welfare state evolved in two main directions. While some scholars have maintained that they would eventually converge with Western European patterns, some others have pointed at the need of a more ‘particularist’ approach, seeking to demonstrate that post-socialist states might follow a different and non-traditional path, individually or as a region in terms of welfare provision. Our current work is an attempt to contribute to the debate on the direction of post-socialist welfare state adaptation by engaging with corruption and welfare state/public sector failure in post-socialist spaces. In particular, emphasis is put on the tactics and strategies used by public workers and citizens to cope with incomplete and inadequate public social welfare provision. Rooted in different disciplinary schools, and making use of diverse methodological and theoretical approaches, the papers of this special issue provide further evidence to rechart the relationship between the public welfare sector, citizens and the current economic transition, a commonality that allows us to point at alternatives to the capitalist model that for some time has been seen as the only option. In line with our previous works, in this special issue we explore the possibility that informality and formality are complementary or that informality may ‘replace’ formal processes and structures. In other words, where the welfare state does not penetrate, welfare might be spread also through informal channels and it might redefine the very dynamics underpinning of a society.

  12. Challenges to promoting health in the modern welfare state: the case of the Nordic nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    Finland, Norway, and Sweden are leaders in promoting health through public policy action. Much of this has to do with the close correspondence between key health promotion concepts and elements of the Nordic welfare state that promote equity through universalist strategies and programs that provide citizens with economic and social security. The purpose of this article is to identify the threats to the Nordic welfare states related to immigration, economic globalization, and welfare state fatigue. Through a critical analysis of relevant literature and data this article provides evidence of the state of the Nordic welfare state and some of these challenges to the Nordic welfare state and its health promotion efforts. There is evidence of declining support for the unconditional Nordic welfare state, increases in income inequality and poverty, and a weakening of the programs and supports that have associated with the excellent health profile of the Nordic nations. This is especially the case for Sweden. It is argued that the Nordic welfare states' accomplishments must be celebrated and used as a basis for maintaining the public policies shown to be successful in promoting the health of its citizens.

  13. Old age mortality and macroeconomic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolden, Herbert J A; van Bodegom, David; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-01-01

    As mortality is more and more concentrated at old age, it becomes critical to identify the determinants of old age mortality. It has counter-intuitively been found that mortality rates at all ages are higher during short-term increases in economic growth. Work-stress is found to be a contributing factor to this association, but cannot explain the association for the older, retired population. Historical figures of gross domestic product (Angus Maddison) were compared with mortality rates (Human Mortality Database) of middle aged (40-44 years) and older people (70-74 years) in 19 developed countries for the period 1950-2008. Regressions were performed on the de-trended data, accounting for autocorrelation and aggregated using random effects models. Most countries show pro-cyclical associations between the economy and mortality, especially with regard to male mortality rates. On average, for every 1% increase in gross domestic product, mortality increases with 0.36% for 70-year-old to 74-year-old men (p<0.001) and 0.38% for 40-year-old to 44-year-old men (p<0.001). The effect for women is 0.18% for 70-year-olds to 74-year-olds (p=0.012) and 0.15% for 40-year-olds to 44-year-olds (p=0.118). In developed countries, mortality rates increase during upward cycles in the economy, and decrease during downward cycles. This effect is similar for the older and middle-aged population. Traditional explanations as work-stress and traffic accidents cannot explain our findings. Lower levels of social support and informal care by the working population during good economic times can play an important role, but this remains to be formally investigated.

  14. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He

  15. Are Aging OECD Welfare States on the Path to Gerontocracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter; Tepe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    pension efforts are significantly mediated by welfare regime type and have more fully adopted a retrenchment logic since the late 1980s. It is the politics of double fiscal and electoral straitjackets, not gerontocracy, which reigns supreme in public pension spending today. Population aging is undoubtedly...

  16. Making Precarious Immigrant Families and Weaving the Danish Welfare Nation-State Fabric 1970-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta; Moldenhawer, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the making of immigrant families as precarious elements in the governing of the population's welfare within the Danish welfare nation-state since the 1970s. The emphasis is on how immigrant families became a problem of welfare governing, and what knowledge practices...... and welfare technologies emerged as problem-solving responses. The article analyses a diverse set of national and local administrative documents advancing a polyhedron of intelligibility by which the authors discover how problem-solving complexes responsive to immigrant families change and sediment......, and ultimately, weave the fabric of a Danish welfare nation-state faced with non-Western immigration after the economic boom in the late 1960s....

  17. Shakespeare on old age and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, H

    2000-01-01

    The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.

  18. Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily. Many people experience loneliness and depression in old age, either as a result of living alone or due to lack of close family ties and reduced connections with their culture of origin, which results in an inability to actively participate in the community activities. With advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose connection with their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new networks. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in elderly people. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 55 elderly people (both men and women. The tools used were Beck Depression Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Sociability Scale by Eysenck. Results: Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness. Conclusion: Most of the elderly people were found to be average in the dimension of sociability and preferred remaining engaged in social interactions. The implications of the study are discussed in the article.

  19. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Immigrants' attitudes towards welfare redistribution : An exploration of role of government preferences among immigrants and natives across 18 European welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.

    2015-01-01

    An oft-heard concern about the sustainability of the welfare state is that generous social welfare provisions serve as an important pull factor in immigrants’ consideration of their preferred country of destination. With their accumulated social risks, immigrants are averagely more likely to claim

  1. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....

  2. Racial Insurgency, the State, and Welfare Expansion: Local and National Level Evidence from the Postwar United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Larry; Kelly, William R.

    1981-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between insurgent political action and state-supported social services, with particular emphasis on the relationship between urban riots and welfare. Findings from analysis of activism and welfare since the Second World War indicate that urban riots played an important role nationally in short-term expansion…

  3. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Awoniyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  4. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  5. Contemporary Welfare Regimes in Baltic States: Adapting Post-Communist Conditions to Post-Modern Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article revises the conventional approach to welfare state development in the post-communist world, according to which the main challenge for the Eastern European states is to catch up with Western European welfare regimes. The article argues that adjustment to the new social risks and volatile markets is more important today than the catching-up scenario. Based on social and labour market statistics for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the article analyses how the Baltic States are coping with this adjustment challenge. Adaptation to the post-modern conditions can be regarded as successful if the stability of welfare spending is accompanied by the expanding and flexible employment and by the stable or decreasing level of poverty. The findings suggest that the opportunities to increase the flexibility and equality of the labour market provided by the breakdown of the communist regime were not used. Instead, the Baltic welfare states continue to focus on protecting against the old social risks by combining neoliberal and post-communist principles. Poor performance in meeting new social risks poses a greater challenge for the post-communist welfare states than their lag in terms of gross welfare expenditure.

  6. Europe and the Welfare State – Friends, Foes, or…?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s relationship with its Member States’ national welfare systems attracts the headlines nowadays. In particular, the negotiations regarding a new settlement for the UK in a reformed European Union and the referendum to follow, which may result in a UK exit from the EU (‘Brexit’), seem to ha...... in the area. Although all three themes are strongly inter-related, the first of them may be viewed as a macro-theme; the second as a micro-theme; and the third as a more critical and normative theme serving as a kind of self-reflective wing mirror....

  7. The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare.

  8. The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work.

  9. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  10. Flexible outsourcing and the impacts of labour taxation in European welfare states

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Poutvaara, Panu

    2008-01-01

    In European Welfare States, low-skilled workers are typically unionized, while the wage formation of high-skilled workers is more competitive. To focus on this aspect, we analyze how flexible international outsourcing and labour taxation affect wage formation, employment and welfare in dual domestic labour markets. Higher productivity of outsourcing, lower cost of outsourcing and lower factor price of outsourcing increase wage dispersion between the high-skilled and low-skilled workers. Incre...

  11. Majority and Minority Nationalism in the Danish Post-Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2015-01-01

    studies of the struggle over the welfare community and meaning. The empirical material draws on two recent research projects that include narratives and perspectives from minority and majority population in Denmark. By analysing different perspectives on the nation the article intends to open up for both...... shared narratives on the welfare state but also differences in the ongoing struggle over the right to the nation...

  12. The welfare state and its distributive effects: part of the problem or part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the author presents (1) a discussion of some of the major arguments against the welfare state put forward by neoliberal forces on both sides of the Atlantic, and (2) empirical information that shows the ideological rather than scientific nature of those arguments. The author also questions the widely held belief among European neoliberal (and even on occasion progressive) forces that the Reagan Administration policies have been (1) very successful in stimulating employment and economic growth, and (2) neoliberal rather than Keynesian. The empirical information presented in this article shows that these Reagan Administration policies have followed a military Keynesianism rather than social Keynesianism, which is responsible for a rather poor economic and social performance. In the second part, the author presents alternatives to the austerity policies advocated by the anti-welfare state forces, policies based on an expansion of the universalist character of the welfare state and its democratization, with active participation of the municipalities in the administration of the welfare state services and in the development of reflationary policies aimed at guiding production and stimulating consumption. The author also shows that the full development of the welfare state is a precondition for the needed restructuring of the economy, labor mobility, and technological innovation. The welfare state, rather than being the cause of the economic crisis, is part of the resolution of this crisis. The article ends with a discussion of the political conditions for the expansion of the welfare state and for the resolution of the economic crisis.

  13. Play and optimal welfare: Does play indicate the presence of positive affective states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Espinosa, Julia; Mason, Georgia

    2017-11-16

    Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs). Furthermore, research in children suggests that beyond the frequency or total duration of play, poor welfare may additionally be reflected in qualitative aspects of this heterogeneous behaviour (e.g. display of solitary over social play; and the 'fragmentation' of play bouts) that are often overlooked in animals. There are surprisingly few studies of play in subjects with pre-existing optimal welfare or in unambiguously highly positive affective states, making it currently impossible to determine whether play can distinguish optimal or good welfare from merely neutral welfare. This therefore represents an important and exciting area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-01-01

    Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...

  15. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK What Are the Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation...

  16. The weakest link in welfare state legitimacy : European perceptions of moral and administrative failure in the targeting of social benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of welfare attitude research, generally studies examining critical attitudes toward the welfare state are rather limited. However, the existing studies find that people are most negative about the mis-targeting of welfare benefits – that is, people are particularly critical of the high

  17. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We find that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  18. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  19. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...... and previous scholarship, reactions tend to be characterised by incrementalism and 'crisis routines' rather than fundamental deviations from earlier policy patterns. For the first time, the study of domestic political dynamics following crisis is systematically embedded in the transnational policy debate...

  20. Fiscal Costs and Benefits of High Skilled Immigration to a Generous Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    We consider the fiscal impact of work related high skilled immigration to a generous welfare state. In a simple theoretical model, we show that, even though a generous welfare state tends to attract immigrants with a high demand for public services, the high skilled immigrants may still be selected...... among individuals with a relatively low demand of public services. In the empirical analysis we apply a unique Danish data set containing very detailed information on all residents in Denmark, including information on migration.Denmark is interesting, because it has one of the most generous welfare...... states in the world, and, in spite of that, it turns out that high skilled immigration gives rise to a big net fiscal surplus. Further, high skilled immigrants seem to be selected among those having a relatively low demand of public services....

  1. The Role of Business in the Development of the Welfare State and Labor Markets in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    This book assesses the role of employers in the development of welfare state and labour market institutions. Building on an in-depth analysis of Germany, a market economy known to often provide economic benefits to firms, this book explores one of the most contested issues in the comparative...... and historical literature on the welfare state. In a departure from existing employer-centered explanations, the author applies new empirical data to contend that the variation in acceptance of social reform depends more on changes in the types of political challenges faced by employers, than on changes...

  2. To What Extent Did the Financial Crisis Intensify the Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vis, Barbara; Kersbergen, Kees van; Hylands, Tom

    2011-01-01

    – it does not. Focusing on a selection of advanced welfare states (the UK, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden), we find that these countries face similar problems and that their initial response to these problems is also similar. The latter is surprising because, theoretically, we would...... expect varying responses across welfare state regime types. Rather than retrenchment, we observe a first phase of emergency capital injections in the banking sector and a second of Keynesian demand management and labour market protection, including the (temporary) expansion of social programmes...

  3. The role of globalization in the evolution of welfare state functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a set of problems of evolution of the modern state. Tendencies modification of the territorial state in the context of globalization. Explore the possibility of going to the institutions of the new world order, marked their shortcomings, not to effectively solve the accumulated social problems. It is shown that the crisis of the modern welfare state is not predetermined by the state as a social institution of society; the causes are genetic properties of a market economy.

  4. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  5. Conflito social e welfare state: Estado e desenvolvimento social no Brasil Social conflict and welfare state: state and social development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guedes Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta que no Brasil a luta de classes não alcançou dimensões profundas que pudesse engendrar a constituição do welfare state. Ao contrário, o Estado, sobretudo sua forma mais moderna, capitalista, que emergiu a partir da década de 1930, sempre se antecipou aos movimentos sociais que representassem ameaças de rupturas. De forma repressiva, o Estado brasileiro desde o Império dissipou os conflitos com o objetivo de manter uma certa harmonia em favor do processo de expansão e reprodução capitalista e a integração dos espaços regionais. O artigo, portanto, é uma tentativa, prematura, de entender o processo de constituição dos sistemas de seguridade social, analisando as experiências de alguns países e suas respectivas características, com isso confrontando alguns estudos e realizando comparações com a dinâmica da luta de classes no Brasil e a função do Estado nesse processo.This article defends the theory that the class struggle in Brazil has not been able to engender the formation of a welfare state. On the contrary, the nation which emerged in the 1930s - above all in its more modern capitalistic form - has always prevented social movements that could pose any threat of a rupture. Since when it was a monarchy, Brazil has dealt with its conflicts in a repressive fashion, with the goal of maintaining a certain harmony in the interest of the expansion and the propagation of capitalism as well as regional integration. This text, therefore, is an attempt, albeit premature, to understand the process involving the formation of the social security system in Brazil, by analyzing the experiences of a number of countries and their respective characteristics, thus examining a few studies and making comparisons with the class struggle dynamic in Brazil and the role of the State in this process.

  6. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the

  7. A just distribution of burdens? : Attitudes toward the social distribution of taxes in 26 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether people believe that tax burdens are fairly distributed is an important condition for welfare state legitimacy. This article examines how people evaluate this distribution of tax burdens in their country by using latent cluster analysis. We use 2006 International Social Survey Program data

  8. Politics of risk-taking: Welfare state reform in advanced democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, B.

    2010-01-01

    How much and in which direction have the welfare states among the Western democracies changed over the past decades? Moreover, under which conditions have governments enacted these changes? Based on insights from prospect theory, a psychological theory of choice under risk, Vis demonstrates ably

  9. Support for Ethical Consumerism and Welfare States in the Global Economy : Complements or Substitutes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Fransen, L.

    This paper explores attitudes about alternative paths to promoting labor and social standards in the global political economy: public welfare-state policy protecting workers and social standards through policy and regulation, versus private ‘red consumerism’ protecting standards through consumer

  10. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  11. Giving in the Netherlands: A strong welfare state with a vibrant nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Wiepking, P.; Handy, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has a rich philanthropic history. However, since the introduction of the welfare state during the first half of the twentieth century, the Dutch government took over responsibility for the provision of most public goods and services. In 2007, the Dutch government spent 20 per cent of

  12. The return of the family? Welfare state retrenchment and client autonomy in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootegoed, E.; van Dijk, D.

    2012-01-01

    European welfare states are cutting back their responsibilities for long-term care, emphasising ‘self-reliance’ and replacing care as an entitlement of citizenship with targeted services. But we do not know how former long-term care recipients cope with retrenchment and if they are able to negotiate

  13. When social security fails to provide emotional security: single parent households and the contractual welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Verplanke, L.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of services in the contractual welfare state is conditional. If one wants to receive a service, one has to comply with the demands of the provider. If one fails to do so, the organisation threatens to terminate its services, and indeed often does so. There are, however, people who

  14. Immigration and welfare states: A survey of 15 years of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research on immigration and Western welfare states seems to support the conclusion that immigration flows, with the average characteristics of the last 15 to 20 years' immigration, have tended not to be to the advantage of natives while advantageous for immigrants. Theory can easily...

  15. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  16. Epistemologies of Religious Education Research in the Nordic Welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is the epistemological conditions and significant features for doing research in religious education in the Nordic region. Historical and institutional conditions make up an important part of the background for understanding. The articles in this issue which...... are introduced here try to grasp and explore the conditions for scholarly knowledge production concerning the teaching of religion in the states in question: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark....

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in different European welfare state regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Watt, Richard G; Pikhart, Hynek; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2013-09-01

    There is very little information about the relationship between welfare regimes and oral health inequalities. We compared socioeconomic inequalities in adults' oral health in five European welfare-state regimes: Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern. Using data from the oral health module of the Eurobarometer 72.3 survey, we assessed inequalities in two self-reported oral health measures: no functional dentition (less than 20 natural teeth) and edentulousness (no natural teeth). Occupational social class, education and subjective social status (SSS) were included as socioeconomic position indicators. We estimated age-standardised prevalence rates, ORs, the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). The Scandinavian regime showed the lowest prevalence rates of the two oral health measures while the Eastern showed the highest. In all welfare regimes there was a general pattern of social gradients by occupational social class and education. Relative educational inequalities in no functional dentition were largest in the Scandinavian welfare regime (RII=3.81; 95% CI 2.68 to 5.42). The Scandinavian and Southern regimes showed the largest relative inequalities in edentulousness by occupation and education, respectively. There were larger absolute inequalities in no functional dentition in the Eastern regime by occupation (SII=42.16; 95% CI 31.42 to 52.89) and in the Southern by SSS (SII=27.92; 95% CI 17.36 to 38.47). Oral health inequalities in adults exist in all welfare-state regimes, but contrary to what may be expected from theory, they are not smaller in the Scandinavian regime. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms linking welfare provision and oral health inequalities.

  18. Welfare state attitudes and economic integration in the EU, 1992-2002: a multilevel investigation across 24 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study continues earlier research efforts that investigated the impact of the European Union (EU) on welfare states by examining the relationship between the welfare state attitudes of citizens and the economic dimension of European integration. Two waves from the European and World Values Study

  19. Welfare state attitudes and economic integration in the EU, 1992-2002: a multilevel investigation across 24 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2009-01-01

    This study continues earlier research efforts that investigated the impact of the European Union (EU) on welfare states by examining the relationship between the welfare state attitudes of citizens and the economic dimension of European integration. Two waves from the European and World Values Study

  20. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  1. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  2. Sexuality in old age: key issues, gender differences and future proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández-Rouco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better understanding this topic in old age are presented, with suggestions on how to improve wellbeing and care in regard to sexuality among the aging population.

  3. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  4. Do different welfare states engender different policy preferences?: opinions on pension reforms in Eastern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velladics, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the different welfare states of the European Union member states engender different policy preferences and attitudes among the population. More specifically, it investigates variations in attitudes towards population ageing and pension reforms, and variations in

  5. Welfare: Issues to Consider in Assessing Proposals for Reform. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report provides an overview of research findings on major Federal welfare system design issues. The report is based on: a review of 100 major welfare studies completed since 1975; interviews with Federal, State, and local welfare officials; the results of the General Accounting Office's (GAO) welfare work; and an analysis of the Census…

  6. Labor divided : union structure and the development of the postwar welfare state in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This book compares the process of postwar welfare state development in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom by analyzing the role of the labor union movement in the creation and expansion of social policies. It argues for a fundamental reinterpretation of the role of organized labor in welfare

  7. Trade-offs between health and absenteeism in welfare states: Striking the balance

    OpenAIRE

    Markussen, Simen

    2007-01-01

    Workers’absenteeism due to illness represents a major concern in several countries. Absenteeism are however not very well understood in economics. This paper presents a model where absenteeism is understood in relation to health. Its main predictions are (i) intermediate welfare state generosity lead to the lowest absence rates as (ii) generous regimes results in excess long-term absenteeism and (iii) strict regimes lead to excess short-term absenteeism. (iv) Maximizing health is not the same...

  8. The Role of Cultural Memory in Contemporary Migrant Activism: Staging Gender in a Transforming Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Alund, Aleksandra; Schierup, Carl Urlik

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scientific and media debates about cultural conflict and gender relations have consolidated stereotypical categorisations of female migrants as passive victims of traditional cultural values. This risks veiling agency against ethnic, gender and other kinds of discrimination inherent in contemporary transformation of Swedish welfare state. In the light of a critical review of the current debate on gender and culture, the authors discuss an alternative understanding of past m...

  9. Campaigning on the welfare state: The impact of gender and gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2017-01-01

    Social policy matters have long been considered women?s issues. Extant research has documented a strong link between gender and the policies of the welfare state in the legislative, executive and electoral arenas. Yet what determines the strength of this association has largely been left unexplored. Drawing on tokenism theory, this article proposes gender diversity at the group level as a key explanatory factor. It hypothesizes that the gender gap in social policy diminishes as the female rep...

  10. The civic turn of immigrant integration policies in the Scandinavian welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borevi, Karin; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This special issue addresses the question of how to understand the civic turn within immigrant integration in the West towards programs and instruments, public discourses and political intentions, which aim to condition, incentivize, and shape through socialization immigrants into ‘citizens’. Emp...... thesis and its descriptive and explanatory claims, and explain why studying the Scandinavian welfare states can further our understanding of the nature of the civic turn and its driving forces. Before concluding, we discuss whether civic integration policies actually work....

  11. Who Are We Now Then? The Swedish Welfare State in Political Memory and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sunnemark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Swedish welfare state underwent a crisis which led to a transformation of society that has continued up until today. The main node of this has been an adjustment to the global ideological trend of privatization and individualism with a down-sized public sector ruled by market logic. Parallel with this Sweden has also changed from being relatively mono- cultural to becoming a more multicultural nation. Throughout these processes one constant has been how the memory of the traditional Swedish welfare state has been used and fought over by different political parties. This article deals with the struggle to appropriate this memory. The Social Democrats, in power for most of the twentieth century, are seen as the architects of the Folkhem (“The Home of the People”. But it was also the Social Democrats who – under pressure from global economy – initiated the neoliberal transformation through a series of decisions in the 1980s. Rhetorically they have treated this in two ways: one is through arguing that nothing really changed and one is through pointing out how much has changed but without acknowledging their own part in it. The ruling right-wing party The Moderates has done so through changing their rhetoric from criticizing the Social Democratic welfare state to now being the only ones representing its core values and the only ones capable of adapting them to a new situation. Furthermore, the Folkhem-metaphor has also been central for the xenophobic far-right (Sweden Democrats, claiming that the demise of the welfare state is the result of excessive immigration.

  12. Liberalization by Exhaustion : Transformative Change in the German Welfare State and Vocational Training System

    OpenAIRE

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Trampusch, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that two core domains of the German coordinated market economy have undergone transformative institutional change: the welfare state and the vocational training system. We argue that this process is best described as a process of liberalization resulting from the exhaustion of traditional institutions. Exhaustion describes a mechanism of institutional change in which endogenous negative feedback effects, caused by the overextension of resources, lead to a transformation of...

  13. Norwegian public health policy: revitalization of the social democratic welfare state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Norway is part of the so-called social democratic welfare state model, which is characterized by its emphasis on solidarity and redistribution among social groups. The concepts of upstream and downstream policy measures may be useful to characterize different approaches to public health policies: upstream measures would be structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model, while downstream measures would be more targeted at individuals or groups at some sort of risk. The aim of this article is to analyze national policies in Norway and how these may be characterized in terms of upstream and downstream factors. Health promotion and public health policies have been high on the Norwegian political agenda for two decades. However, the national policy emphasis has shifted between strategies aimed at individuals and structural strategies--that is, between downstream and upstream measures. Until 2003, policies included mainly downstream measures, but since then a policy shift has taken place and current policy includes an emphasis on upstream measures. This policy was strengthened after a left-wing coalition came into government in 2005. It may be argued that the present policy represents a revitalization of universal and structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model.

  14. Georgian Welfare State: Preliminary Study Based on Esping-Andersen’s Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Asatiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the welfare state of Georgia according to the Esping-Andersen’s typology and to justify the theory of “(instable welfare states”. This article analyses different aspects of wellbeing (pension and healthcare systems, labour-market policy and family benefits in Georgia during the period of 1991-2013. The research shows the diversity of policies in different fields of social care. The results revealed that Georgian health and labour-market policies can be classified as liberal ones, while the pension system – as a social-democratic one, and finally the family benefits policy – as a conservative one. Thus, the theory of (instable welfare state can be justified in this case and Georgian state overall can be qualified as a country with a hybrid and instable social policy. However, further research is needed for the final confirmation (or rejection of this theory, once the current policy reforms, started back in 2013, would be fully implemented.

  15. Transgender, aging and old age - Do transgender people get old?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sammarco Antunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to understand transgender aging context in Brazil. Normal and abnormal were especially created by biological sciences. For being considered deviants, transgender people are not seen as human beings. They end up living in violent environments. Their life expectancy is low. Many of them do not believe to reach old age. They face a lot of prejudice and death threat. Those who get to what we call old age are considered survivals. This investigation was able to show satisfactorily their demands and needs. To be considered visible, they have to count on public policies to give them existence since their childhood. That way, we believe they will reach what we call old age with respect and dignity, already assured by the Universal Human Rights.

  16. Preserved olfactory cuing of autobiographical memories in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Carter, Sarah M; Hallett, Emma L

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether olfactory cues can facilitate memory retrieval and whether they retain their effectiveness in old age. In Phase 1, 57 young and 57 old adults (mean ages of 21 and 84 years, respectively) were asked to recall autobiographical memories associated with each of six cue words. In Phase 2, the same words were presented again with instructions to recall new memories; on this second occasion, half of the words were accompanied by their appropriate odors. Both age groups recalled more than twice as many memories in Phase 2 with the odor than without the odor, providing evidence for substantial olfactory cuing that is remarkably intact in old age.

  17. Küreselleşme Kıskacındaki Refah Devletinde Sosyal Refah Harcamaları = Social Welfare Spending in the Welfare State During the Latest Globalization Upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Uğur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, employment was expanded, social rights were improved and the idea of welfare state was firmly established during the 1945 - 1975 period, so called “the golden years of the welfare state”. After the 1973 in conjunction with the first and second oil shocks, the economic, political and social pillars of the welfare state have started to evolve rapidly.Recently there have been continuous debates on the boundaries of the welfare state. What should be the state’s role? Does welfare state face fiscal crisis? Are there any socio - economic limits of the improvement of welfare state and financing need of redistribution level? In this study, we evaluate above - mentioned issues within the context of the latest rise on the globalization.

  18. Differentiation of Students in the Early Danish Welfare State: Professional Entanglements Between Educational Psychologists and Psychiatrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ydesen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, numerous contextual factors have influenced the practice of differentiating students. Scholars and practitioners consider it a context-sensitive practice subject to negotiations and entanglements among various agents, groups, interests, ideas, and values. Drawing on Foucault, this article pursues the practices, negotiations, and entanglements surrounding differentiation processes and IQ testing’s use in the early Danish welfare state. We argue that the differentiating practice of IQ testing in the Danish educational system resulted from various factors, including the increasing professionalisation of the educational system. This practice entailed an increased division of labour among professional groups; debates reflecting differing ideas about eugenics, heredity, and social equality; the schooling of psychologists and psychiatrists in Denmark; and the development of psychology and psychiatry as academic disciplines. In that sense, we will demonstrate that changes in society’s understanding of intelligence incorporating a greater use of environmental explanations can be said to reflect the emerging welfare society’s security mechanisms, and a willingness to cope with and address social inequality in an evolving and supposedly universalistic Danish welfare state.

  19. Has the Competition among Professions in the Nordic Welfare States Intensified? A Danish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storm Pedersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Has the competition among professions in the Nordic welfare states intensified in recent decades? Yes, and in a manner that has resulted in predictable classic struggles and conflicts among professions. We argue that the struggles and conflicts that arise translate into insufficient provision of welfare services for taxpayers’ money. To avoid this predicament, further developing co-operation among professions is important. Public managers, as argued in this article using a Danish case, play a significant role in achieving this. The Danish case studied shows how some public managers, in their efforts to create co-operation among professions, have developed a modern, dialogue-based management technique built on dialectical refutation, similar to Socratic elenchus.

  20. Racialized Precarious Employment and the Inadequacies of the Canadian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the rise in precarious employment within Canada is tied to the ascendancy of neoliberalism, racialized persons have long been marginalized within the Canadian workforce and relegated to precarious workforce participation. Through an exploration of the relationship between precarious employment and racialized power structures, it will be demonstrated that while the moderate Keynesian welfare policies of the post–World War II era served to mitigate the experiences of those excluded from the workplace, racialized power structures were not fundamentally altered in that era. This critique offers a response to scholarship on the impact of neoliberalism that valorizes the welfare state without paying sufficient attention to its history of racial exclusions. It proposes new strategies to address these underlying inequalities within the existing structures of the Canadian workforce.

  1. The old age security hypothesis and optimal population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, B

    1989-03-01

    The application of the Samuelson-Diamond overlapping generations framework to the old age security hypothesis indicates that government intervention schemes can influence the relationship between population growth and capital accumulation. The most direct means of optimizing population growth is through taxes or subsidies that relate to the intergenerational transfer of wealth. A pay-as-you-go social security scheme, in which payment is predicated on the number of children the receiver has and is financed by taxes levied on the working population, emerges as the most likely intervention to produce the optimal steady state equilibrium. This system is able to correct any distortions the private sector may build into it. In contrast, a child support system, in which the government subsidizes or taxes workers according to their family size, can guarantee the optimal capital:labor ratio but not the optimal population growth rate. Thus, if the government seeks to decrease the population growth rate, the appropriate intervention is to levy a lump-sum social-security tax on workers and transfer the revenues to the old; the direction should be reversed if the goal is to increase population growth. Another alternative, a lump sum social security system, can guarantee optimal population growth but not a desirable capital:labor ratio. Finally, the introduction of money as a valued commodity into an economy with a high capital:labor ratio will also serve to decrease the population growth rate and solve the intergenerational transfer problem through the private sector without any need for government intervention.

  2. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  3. Explaining Optimistic Old Age Disability and Longevity Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Costa-Font, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Biased health care decision making has been regarded as responsible for inefficient behaviours (for example, the limited insurance purchase). This paper empirically examines two sets of biases in the perception of old age disability and longevity. Particularly, we test for the existence of a so called cumulative bias and, secondly, a so called…

  4. Skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy are diminished in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Muscle loss occurs during aging. To investigate whether the hypertrophic response is attenuated at old age, we used male Fischer 344 (26 months old; n = 5) and Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6, 9, and 33 months old; n = 8, 10, and 6, respectively). Hypertrophy of the left plantaris muscle was

  5. Mobility and Well-being in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...

  6. Migration and the Problem of Old Age People in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Gautam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160

  7. The future of Old Age Psychiatry in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specially separated mental health services for older adults in rural or urban Nigerian ... African economy, social well-being or health services. Additionally ... Old age psychiatry has been granted sub-specialty status by the Health and ... Gillis LS, Elk R. Physical and mental incapacity in elderly white persons in Cape Town.

  8. Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannucci, Serena; Donnini, Ida; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2014-12-15

    The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist's interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to direct the diagnostic process when facing a patient with a suspicion of an inherited form of leukoencephalopathy and with clinical onset in middle or old age. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1990 to 2013, we identified 24 middle and old age onset inherited leukoencephalopathies and reviewed in this relation the most recent findings focusing on their differential diagnosis. We provide summary tables to use as a check list of clinical and neuroimaging findings that are most commonly associated with these forms of leukoencephalopathies. When present, we reported specific characteristics of single diseases. Several genetic diseases may be suspected in patients with middle or old age and white matter abnormalities. In only few instances, pathognomonic clinical or associated neuroimaging features help identifying a specific disease. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the characteristics of these inherited white matter diseases appears important to improve the diagnostic work-up, optimize the choice of genetic tests, increase the number of diagnosed patients, and stimulate

  9. Welfare state regimes, gender, and depression: a multilevel analysis of middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-28

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  10. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  11. Impact of Retirements and Pensions on the Social Welfare of the Households from Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo da Costa Reis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main arguments for the existence of public social security systems relates to their potential use as income distribution and welfare policy tools. In this vein, several studies have sought to evaluate the effects of social security benefits on poverty and inequality. However, the evidence obtained from Brazilian studies regarding the effects of social security remains inconclusive, and studies evaluating the impact of social security on social welfare indices are scarce. The objective of this paper is to measure the impact of retirement and pensions provided by social security programs on the welfare level of households in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological approach is based on propensity score matching, and microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD, 2009 are used. The results demonstrate that income from retirement and pensions represents an important portion of beneficiary households' income, especially lower-income beneficiary households. The results suggest that social security has a positive effect on the incomes, access to knowledge and living conditions of the households analyzed. The impact of retirement and pensions on households in low-income groups (Classes D and E tends to be more significant relative to the impact on middle class households (Class C.

  12. Distinct and yet not Separate: Revisiting the Welfare Models in the EU New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Tendera-Właszczuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the welfare state models in the EU countries and to start the discussion if the new member states (NMS, i.e. those EU member states that joined the EU in 2004/2007, fit the Sapir typology (Nordic model, Continental model, Anglo-Saxon model, Mediterranean model. The second objective is to examine the labour market situation, reduction of poverty and social inequalities in the EU countries. The third one is to open the issue if the public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Research Design & Methods: The linear regression function and correlation has been used to present effectiveness of social expenditures to reduce poverty, as well as evidence that public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Findings: This paper demonstrates more similarities can be drawn across the NMS and the EU-15 than within the NMS and EU-15, respectively. The typology of welfare state models is applied to the NMS and their effectiveness is tested. Accordingly, we classify the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus as countries of the Nordic model; Hungary, Slovakia and Malta as the Continental model; Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as the Anglo-Saxon model and, finally, Poland, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria as the Mediterranean model. Implications & Recommendations: Recent data suggest that the global crisis has caused an increase in the level of poverty and social spending in the EU countries. However, this is just a temporary situation and it does reflect the solutions of models. Contribution & Value Added: The NMS tend to be examined as a separate group of countries that – as the literature suggests – depict different qualities of the welfare models than those pursued in the EU-15.

  13. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states

    OpenAIRE

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; van Der Wel, Kjetil A.; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort–reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work–life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work–life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work–life balance between European countries. Methods: D...

  15. Welfare State Replacements: Deinstitutionalization, Privatization and the Outsourcing to Immigrant Women Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The U.S. government has a long tradition of providing direct care services to many of its most vulnerable citizens through market-based solutions and subsidized private entities. The privatized welfare state has led to the continued displacement of some of our most disenfranchised groups in need of long-term care. Situated after the U.S. deinstitutionalization era, this is the first study to examine how immigrant Filipino women emerged as owners of de facto mental health care facilities that cater to the displaced, impoverished, severely mentally ill population. These immigrant women-owned businesses serve as welfare state replacements, overseeing the health and illness of these individuals by providing housing, custodial care, and medical services after the massive closure of state mental hospitals that occurred between 1955 and 1980. This study explains the onset of these businesses and the challenges that one immigrant group faces as owners, the meanings of care associated with their de facto mental health care enterprises, and the conditions under which they have operated for more than 40 years.

  16. Intergenerational solidarity: the paradox of reciprocity imbalance in ageing welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In this article a new theoretical framework is applied to a research field that is somewhat fragmented, namely that of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. Inspired by utilitarian considerations many scholars tend to problematize the lack of reciprocity characterizing intergenerational exchanges. As some generations are longer old and more numerous they may receive excessive state-administered support of the younger generations, especially in a democratic setting. However, in reality there is limited empirical evidence of intergenerational conflict and theoretical explanations of this paradox are rare. An integrated and dynamical approach that incorporates Durkheim's solidarity theory, Honneth's intersubjective recognition theory, and the current work on reciprocal exchange is necessary in order to understand the survival of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. According to this model reciprocal recognition leading to the empathization of exchanges is the driving force of intergenerational solidarity in a prefigurative and democratized culture where the status of the young has risen dramatically. Hence, we come to the paradoxical conclusion that attempts to preserve intergenerational solidarity by openly denouncing excessive transfers and trying to bypass them institutionally sometimes might be counterproductive because they may erode their empathic underpinnings. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  17. The couple relationship - support functions and sexuality in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze: 1 couple relationships – support functions and characteristics of the relationships – and their difference by gender, and 2 changes that occur in those relationships and in sexual activity in older heterosexual adults in the 65-85 age range. The subjects of the analysis were intentionally selected and the data has been collected in structured and semi-structured interviews. The results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis show that the couple relationship in old age fulfills functions such as emotional support, companionship and cognitive advice. Analysis by gender shows significant differences in 4 out of the 5 support functions that were explored. Among the changes that take place in old age, the decrease of frequency in sexual activity appears in the first place, though the level of satisfaction is maintained; and fellowship, mutual care and positive affect in relation to the partner increase.

  18. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  19. Old-Age Financial Protection in Malaysia : Challenges and Pptions

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This policy paper presents key findings and suggestions on Malaysia s old-age financial protection system within the context of the country s broader social security framework. The trademark policy approach focusing on job creation instead of expanding social security programs served the country well to move it quickly to a high-middle income level. But to join the club of high-income coun...

  20. Old-age financial protection in Malaysia: Challenges and options

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This policy paper presents key findings and suggestions on Malaysia's old-age financial protection system within the context of the country's broader social security framework. The trademark policy approach focusing on job creation instead of expanding social security programs served the country well to move it quickly to a high-middle income level. But to join the club of high-income countries in a sustainable manner may require the country to review its approach to social security, includin...

  1. Raising the question of dignity through knowledge about tacit practices and politics: sharing learning from the Norwegian welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Synnes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this special issue is some of the main tacit policies and practices in the Norwegian welfare state. By looking at what is tacit, mute, unarticulated and neglected we will contribute to raising and presenting knowledge about the social and ethical question of dignity in welfare. This introductory article will first give a short overview of the historical background of the Norwegian welfare state and some of its current features. This will be followed by our positioning of the Norwegian welfare state as situated within complex practices, political discourses and dimensions that might be characterised as tacit, implicit or unarticulated. The article aims to discuss the concept of dignity in welfare services, at the individual and structural level, by asking ‘what kind of practices and structural conditions preserve dignity and where might dignity be violated, ignored or left out?’ The various articles in this special issue of the International Practice Development Journal illuminate what can be said and what is mute and tacit in different ways, and consider a range of practice-based responses. By revealing tacit dimensions in the Norwegian welfare this issue offers important insight into practices and discourses where dignity is at stake. It is a requirement of us all that we revisit dignity and its location and representation in our health systems to ensure it is not left behind as the state and other systems within it evolve.

  2. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  3. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  4. Children of divorce in a Scandinavian welfare state: are they less affected than US children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

    2006-02-01

    A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed.

  5. The Impact of Welfare State to Labour Market. European Submodels Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show the effects which the measures to implement welfare state have to labour market. All knows that the employment represents the most important component of the welfare state, as it supports the fulfillment of the objectives for the economic and social policies. The argument of the previous statement is very simple: the expenses for social protection are made on the basis of the returns from taxes and social contributions paid by the employed persons. The higher their number, the bigger the tax basis, and the budget for the social policy will become sustainable, even though measures for decreasing taxation would be applied to companies and to the employed population. The entire virtuous mechanism may disintegrate if a low rate of employment persists. In case of a high unemployment on a long-term, of an early exit from the labour market, of a lower integration on the labour market of women, of young persons, of aged persons and of poorly qualified persons, the social expenses will increase and the budget revenues will decrease, the result being the increase in the state’s debt.The crisis will prove whether the increase in employment recorded since 2000 was conjunctural (determined by the favorable macroeconomical evolutions or structural (induced by the reforms implemented on the labour markets and in the social protection systems.

  6. From Warfare to Welfare. Postwar Homelessness, Dislocation, and the Birth of the Welfare State in Europe: The Case of Berlin 1945–1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Oberle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins of what for years has been characterized as a European welfare consensus. It asks whether, indeed, there was a convergence of ideas, and if so, what led to it. Based on public health records from governmental, municipal, and international agencies in immediate postwar Europe, but also on sources reflecting public opinion, Allied military government discourses and policies, urban planners, medical professionals, and others, it argues that indeed there was a period in European history which generated something of a postwar convergence of ideas regarding public health and welfare. The postwar period witnessed a remarkable consensus about the importance of public planning, spending, and state involvement in the health and welfare sector. By examining the case of Berlin as one immediate postwar city and situating it in the larger European context of the time, one can point to common motivations and even actors involved. The root of this consensus was not any optimistic humanitarian ideology, nor even only a concern about public health or the spread of epidemics, though the latter was prominent. Equally important, it grew out of a shared setting marked by physical destruction and political instability. As a result, concerns about governability, social order, and political legitimacy came to the forefront, even of health and housing debates. In the case of Berlin, the public health debate was driven furthermore by a fear of the return of National Socialism.

  7. Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

    Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

  8. The impact of welfare state regimes on barriers to participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubenson, Kjell; Desjardins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative findings on barriers to participation in adult education are reviewed and some of the defining parameters that may explain observed national differences are considered. A theoretical perspective based on bounded agency is put forth to take account of the interaction...... targeted policy measures that are aimed at overcoming both structurally and individually based barriers. Features of the Nordic model of adult education and empirical results from the 2003 Eurobarometer are discussed in relation to this theoretical perspective....... between structurally and individually based barriers to participation. The model is premised on the assumption that the nature of welfare state regimes can affect a person's capability to participate. In particular, the state can foster broad structural conditions relevant to participation and construct...

  9. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis: A Dominance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We nd that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  10. Exploring the concept of optimal functionality in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algilani, Samal; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Kihlgren, Annica; Blomberg, Karin; Brummer, Robert J; Schoultz, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is characterized by loss of function and represents a perspective that puts the focus on the negative aspects of aging. Thus, it is fundamental to shift the focus from loss of function to maintaining good health and personal satisfaction through life; in other words, to promote optimal functionality at a level appropriate for older adults. However, it is not yet known what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult’s own perspective. Objective To explore the concept of optimal functionality in old age from the older adult’s perspective (ie, people over 65 years of age) in industrialized Western countries. Methods We undertook a scoping review and searched two electronic databases (PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL]) from January 2002 to July 2013 for scientific studies, using the key search term personal satisfaction. In total, 25 scientific studies were analyzed. Results Only six of the included articles applied a qualitative methodology. By analyzing the results of these articles, three major themes were identified as cornerstones in the concept of optimal functionality at old age: 1) self-related factors (eg, mental well-being); 2) body-related factors (eg, physical well-being); and 3) external factors equal to demographic and environmental factors. Conclusion There is a lack of qualitative studies in the current literature, and hence of what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult’s perspective. The results outlined in this review identify three cornerstones (self-related factors, body-related factors, and external factors) of what constitutes optimal functionality at old age. However, it is vital that these findings are taken further and are evaluated through qualitative studies to reflect older adults’ opinions. PMID:24516333

  11. Patterns and sources of personality development in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna E; Hagemeyer, Birk; Neyer, Franz J

    2015-07-01

    Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  13. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Offshoring: Impacts on the Nordic welfare states and industrial relations - Survey based evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    with much lower wages and other costs as well as less strict labour market regulation as well as other regulation e.g. environmental than found in the Nordic countries. The integration of e.g. the Chinese and Indian labour markets in the world economy, but more importantly for the Nordic economies...... (ICT) as well as transportation, this has made the process of relocation even more accessible. This adds yet another dimension to the impact internationalisation is having on national industrial relations as well as welfare state policies and general labour market regulation. Other central features...... of the more internationalised economy are increasing trade in intermediates, rising FDI and increasing competition. In this context where international relocation is increasingly accessible the phenomenon attracts much attention in both academic analysis, media reports as well as policy analysis. But our...

  15. Is a Break with Egalitarian Commitment Necessary to Sustain Europe's Welfare State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martín Artiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collectivist values, based on the ideas of egalitarian social compromise have been basic to the construction of the Welfare State, but today tend to break. Immigration and population heterogeneity thus hinder the identifi cation of citizens with collective values. By contrast, emerging new values based on individual merit, which tends to generate a polarization of attitudes. For those profi les that have been the traditional working class, the social closure is a defence mechanism against competition for redistribution, which is refl ected in negative views toward immigration. For those who make up the middle class, high level of education, high income and upper middle position, opinion on immigration and demand for solidarity is not a preferred option because they rely on the success of their individual trajectories.

  16. Campaigning on the welfare state: The impact of gender and gender diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2017-07-01

    Social policy matters have long been considered women's issues. Extant research has documented a strong link between gender and the policies of the welfare state in the legislative, executive and electoral arenas. Yet what determines the strength of this association has largely been left unexplored. Drawing on tokenism theory, this article proposes gender diversity at the group level as a key explanatory factor. It hypothesizes that the gender gap in social policy diminishes as the female representation in a political party increases. To test this argument, it examines almost 8000 press releases issued by over 600 politicians during four election campaigns in Austria between 2002 and 2013. The analysis demonstrates that women talk more about social policy issues during election campaigns than men, but that this emphasis gap disappears for parties with a more equal gender balance. These results have important implications for our understanding of the politics of gender and social policy.

  17. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  18. Caseworkers’ discretions of eligibility to social insurance in Denmark and Sweden – signs of Neoliberalism in Scandinavian welfare states?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena

    It has been argued that the Scandinavian welfare states have been resilient to trends of globalization and fiscal crises, and that the global pressure of neoliberalism has led to a partial retrenchment rather than a restructuring during last decades. This conclusion is, however, drawn without...... closer attention to the problem of implementation and the fact that many welfare state programs receive their ultimate content through street level contact between citizens and street-level bureaucrats. In this article, we address the question of whether there is an impact of neoliberal trends...... in Scandinavian social policies when paying attention to the everyday work of street level bureaucrats or whether the universal welfare regime ’protects’ against a neoliberal impact. Comparing conclusions on SLBs’ discretionary styles in sickness-benefits casework from two separate studies situated...

  19. Exploring the concept of optimal functionality in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algilani S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samal Algilani,1,* Lina Östlund-Lagerström,1,2,* Annica Kihlgren,1 Karin Blomberg,1 Robert J Brummer,1,2 Ida Schoultz1,2 1Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, 2Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aging is characterized by loss of function and represents a perspective that puts the focus on the negative aspects of aging. Thus, it is fundamental to shift the focus from loss of function to maintaining good health and personal satisfaction through life; in other words, to promote optimal functionality at a level appropriate for older adults. However, it is not yet known what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult's own perspective. Objective: To explore the concept of optimal functionality in old age from the older adult's perspective (ie, people over 65 years of age in industrialized Western countries. Methods: We undertook a scoping review and searched two electronic databases (PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL] from January 2002 to July 2013 for scientific studies, using the key search term personal satisfaction. In total, 25 scientific studies were analyzed. Results: Only six of the included articles applied a qualitative methodology. By analyzing the results of these articles, three major themes were identified as cornerstones in the concept of optimal functionality at old age: 1 self-related factors (eg, mental well-being; 2 body-related factors (eg, physical well-being; and 3 external factors equal to demographic and environmental factors. Conclusion: There is a lack of qualitative studies in the current literature, and hence of what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult's perspective. The results outlined in this review identify three cornerstones (self-related factors, body

  20. Are pro-welfare state and full-employment policies possible in the era of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    2000-01-01

    There is a widely held belief in U.S. and European economic, political, and academic circles that economic globalization has considerably diminished states' power to follow public policies identified with the social democratic tradition, such as full-employment policies, comprehensive and universal provision of welfare state services, and state regulatory interventions in labor markets and economic policies. And large sectors of the European center-left and left parties believe that European monetary integration made expansionist and full-employment policies practically impossible, except when realized at the European continental level. This article presents empirical information that questions these positions. It documents how specific governments in Europe have been able to carry out such public policies during these years of economic globalization and monetary integration. Some countries (such as Sweden and Finland) that had carried out these policies then later weakened their implementation did so in response to political changes mostly unrelated to globalization of the economy or monetary integration. The article also analyzes and documents how countries that had followed expansionist and full-employment policies have responded to the globalization of financial markets.

  1. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  2. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study...... of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing......, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive...

  3. Old age in Polish and American tv series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNA ANIOŁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The educational and socialization role of the media is not the latest novelty, however there are niches that have not been developed yet. Realizing the opinion-forming role of the mass media, which may be reflected in social behaviours, the authors of this article will analyse the content of chosen media products. The image of elderly people presented by the most popular Polish and American series will be examined. The research aims to find whether Desperate Housewives and Colours of happiness (original title: Barwy szczęścia adjust the image of old age to the social-demographic situation, which is constantly changing in the majority of countries. Does the colossus – television promote stereotypes which make age discrimination morally approved – or just the opposite – a well thought out image, shaping the recognition and respect for people in their “third age”?

  4. Endogenous coresidence and program incidence: South Africa's Old Age Pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate whether living arrangements respond to an arguably exogenous shift in the distribution of power in family economic decision-making. In the early 1990s, the South African Old Age Pension was expanded to cover most black South Africans above a sex-specific age cut-off resulting in a substantial increase in the income of older South Africans and potentially their say in the economic decisions of their families. Beneficiaries of the program are more likely to coreside with adults who have less human capital as measured by height and education. Since height and education are fixed for adults, this cannot be an effect of the pension income but reflects selective changes in living arrangements resulting from the pension. The findings highlight the endogeneity of living arrangements and illustrate the potential value of moving beyond theory and data that are confined to a spatially determined definition of the household.

  5. Old age – „how beautiful to be yourself”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Zakowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In every given period one can observe different attitudes towards old age, death and the elderly, which are shown through varied stances and ideas about this specific period of human life. The reality of the XXI century often regarded as “vision-centric” is dominated by the cult of beauty and youth which creates increasingly demanding requirements, related mainly to the attractiveness of appearance, of the body – especially the one belonging to the elderly. The increase in the number of senior citizens compared to the rest of the society that can be witnessed nowadays leads to the elderly being a more carefully examined social group. Mediated by the media discourse the images of the elderly are becoming more common and therefore the author’s attempt at reconstructing the postmodern strategy of the rendering of late adulthood seems to be an interesting and important topic to consider

  6. Cost of falls in old age: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S; Rapp, K; Rissmann, U; Becker, C; König, H-H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the evidence of the economic burden of falls in old age. This review showed that falls are a relevant economic burden. Efforts should be directed to fall-prevention programmes. Falls are a common mechanism of injury and a leading cause of costs of injury in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to review for the first time the evidence of the economic burden caused by falls in old age. A systematic review was conducted in the databases of PubMed, of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until June 2009. Studies were assessed for inclusion, classified and synthesised. Costs per inhabitant, the share of fall-related costs in total health care expenditures and in gross domestic products (GDP) were calculated. If appropriate, cost data were inflated to the year 2006 and converted to US Dollar (USD PPP). A total of 32 studies were included. National fall-related costs of prevalence-based studies were between 0.85% and 1.5% of the total health care expenditures, 0.07% to 0.20% of the GDP and ranged from 113 to 547 USD PPP per inhabitant. Direct costs occurred especially in higher age groups, in females, in hospitals and long-term care facilities and for fractures. Mean costs per fall victim, per fall and per fall-related hospitalisation ranged from 2,044 to 25,955; 1,059 to 10,913 and 5,654 to 42,840 USD PPP and depended on fall severity. A more detailed comparison is restricted by the limited number of studies. Falls are a relevant economic burden to society. Efforts should be directed to economic evaluations of fall-prevention programmes aiming at reducing fall-related fractures, which contribute substantially to fall-related costs.

  7. Well-Being in the Welfare State: The Redistributive Capacity of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Janine; Pullman, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the macro-micro interaction between institutional arrangements and individual life outcomes, this article investigates how welfare régime types impact the association between education and well-being, as measured by satisfaction with life. Theorising with Esping-Andersen's ideal-typical welfare régime typology, we hypothesise that…

  8. Of what cloth are the ties that bind? National identity and support for the welfare state across 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, M.; Reeskens, T.

    2013-01-01

    An oft-made claim is that national identity (NI) can function as social glue underpinning public support for the welfare state by encouraging the identification with co-nationals essential for redistribution. Empirical tests have largely ignored the possibility that the relationship depends on the

  9. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  10. Corporate social responsibility investment and social objectives : An examination on social welfare investment of chinese state owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment

  11. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  12. The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, P.; Schumacher, G.

    2016-01-01

    How do economic downturns affect citizens’ support for welfare state retrenchment? Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in

  13. Chances and limitations of "benchmarking" in the reform of welfare state structures - the case of pension policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schludi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of benchmarking, originally developed as a tool to improve the performance of business enterprises by learning from others’ "best practice", is now increasingly applied in the areas of employment and social policy. Rising internal and external pressures on national welfare states,

  14. Student Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Norway: A Challenge to the Principles of the Welfare State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsrud, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a review of extant research on student dropout in Norway, originally undertaken as part of a systematic review. The article contextualizes the foundational principle of equality as championed by the welfare state and identifies the significance of dropout in upper secondary education in Norway. The article then assesses…

  15. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  16. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  17. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  19. Changing Welfare States and the “Sandwich Generation” : Increasing Burden for the Next Generation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Künemund

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden placed on individuals aged 40 to 59 – especially on women – by competing demands from work and both older and younger family members is often addressed using the metaphor of the „sandwich gen-eration“. Based on a systematization of the definitions used in the litera-ture, empirical evidence on the frequency of such generational constella-tions and on their impact on the well-being of sandwiched adults will be presented. Analysing the second wave of the German Aging Survey shows that being sandwiched – defined as a generational constellation – is very common, but simultaneous care activities for both older and younger family members are rare, especially in combination with labour force participation, and that life satisfaction is not systematically related to being sandwiched. Implications for further research and future devel-opments will be discussed, especially with respect to changes in family structure (e.g. the beanpole family and changes in the amount of welfare state spending for the aged.

  20. Welfare Reform in California. State and County Implementation of CalWORKs in the Second Year

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klerman, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    .... California's response to PRWORA was the California Work and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program-a "work-first" program that provides support services to help recipients move from welfare to work and toward self-sufficiency...

  1. Subjective Technology Adaptivity Predicts Technology Use in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Stefan T; Lang, Frieder R; Beyer, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To date, not much is known about the psychological and motivational factors underlying technology use in late life. What are the interindividual determinants that lead older adults to invest in using technological innovations despite the age-related physiological changes that impose challenges on behavioral plasticity in everyday life? This research explores interindividual differences in subjective technology adaptivity - a general technology-related motivational resource that accounts for technology use in late life. More specifically, we investigate the influence of this factor relative to demographic characteristics, personality traits, and functional limitations in a longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults. We report results from a paper-and-pencil survey with 136 older adults between 59 and 92 years of age (mean = 71.4, SD = 7.4). Of those participants, 77 participated in a 2-year follow-up. We assessed self-reports of technology use, subjective technology adaptivity, functional limitations, and the personality traits openness to new experiences and neuroticism. Higher levels of subjective technology adaptivity were associated with technology use at the first measurement as well as increased use over the course of 2 years. Subjective technology adaptivity is a significant predictor of technology use in old age. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of interindividual differences when using technological innovation in late life. Moreover, our findings have implications in the context of user involvement and may contribute to the successful development of innovative technology for older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Multiprofessional inpatient psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, N; Kundermann, B; Franz, M; Müller, M J

    2017-11-01

    Depression is common in old age but is often underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Although psychotherapy is considered effective for treating elderly patients with depression, it is rarely applied in inpatient settings. Furthermore, treatment on inpatient units specialized for elderly patients and implementation of a psychotherapeutic treatment approach are currently more the exception. From this background, a multiprofessional inpatient behavioral treatment program (MVT) for elderly depressed patients was developed at a specialized unit of a university-affiliated regional psychiatric hospital. The MVT is based on specific and modularized group therapies accompanied by individual therapeutic interventions. While the provision of group therapies (such as psychotherapy, social skills training, relaxation training, euthymic and mindfulness-based methods, exercise and occupational therapy as well as psychoeducational sessions for relatives) is assigned to specific professional groups, a joint multiprofessional treatment planning is of central relevance. First evaluations of different treatment components support the high acceptability of the MVT and highlight that psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment programs for the elderly are feasible. Further research is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of psychotherapy in elderly depressive inpatients.

  3. The bigger the worse? A comparative study of the welfare state and employment commitment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wel, Kjetil A.; Halvorsen, Knut

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how welfare generosity and active labour market policies relate to employment commitment. As social policy is increasingly directed towards stimulating employment in broader sections of society, this article particularly studies employment commitment among groups with traditionally weaker bonds to the labour market. This is also theoretically interesting because the employment commitment in these groups may be more affected by the welfare context than is the employme...

  4. Study of psychiatric morbidity among residents of government old age homes in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The increased demand on long-term old age care homes in urban India is a result of demographic transition together with the disintegration of joint family system and changing social values which make them increasingly vulnerable to mental health problems. Aims: This study attempted to find out an array of mental health problems and associated morbidity among inhabitant of government old age homes. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study which included government run old age homes (OAHs in Delhi. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised a total of 148 elderly in four OAHs with a mean age of 72.81 years. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (QOL, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Kesseler-10 Scale were administered. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 version. Frequency distribution and cross-tabulation used to create summary tables and compare items. Results: Female constituted two-third of study population whereas one-third of subjects were illiterate and two-third without income. The study demonstrated psychiatric morbidity profile among OAH inhabitants and exhibited mild-moderate anxiety symptoms in almost 95% followed by mild-severe depression reported by 85%, mild-moderate psychotic illnesses, psychological distress, cognitive impairments, and poor QOL. Low income and education, low social connections and loss of spouse were key risk factors. Conclusions and Recommendation: Psychiatric morbidity profile and QOL among OAH residents is influenced by various psychological, social, and economic factors. This emphasized the need for better management of the government-run OAHs to ensure better overall mental health of the residents.

  5. Differential effects of enriched environment at work on cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-05-26

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how different mentally demanding work conditions during the professional life-i.e., enriched environments at work-might influence the rate of cognitive decline in old age. Individuals (n = 1,054) of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a representative population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 years and older, underwent cognitive testing via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in up to 6 measurement waves. Type and level of mentally demanding work conditions in the participants' former professional life were classified based on the O*NET job descriptor database. In multivariate mixed-model analyses (controlling for sociodemographic and health-related factors), a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence was significantly associated with a better cognitive functioning at baseline (on average 5 MMSE points higher) as well as a lower rate of cognitive decline (on average 2 MMSE points less) over the 8-year follow-up period compared with a low level. The rate of cognitive decline in old age was also significantly lower (on average 3 MMSE points less) in individuals who had a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating executive functions than those who had a low level. The results suggest that a professional life enriched with work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence and executive functions may help to sustain a good cognitive functioning in old age (75+ years). The findings thus emphasize that today's challenging work conditions may also promote positive health effects. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  7. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored.Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501; p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004.These variables accounted for approximately 57.5%of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3= 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristicsthat impact on older adults’ SOC.

  8. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.

  9. The imperial welfare state? Decolonisation, education and professional interventions on immigrant children in Birmingham, 1948–1971

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Myers, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article approaches debates about how the history of the post-1945 English welfare state might be written. It argues that professionals’ interventions on immigrant children can serve as a prism for understanding the crafting of the modern English welfare state. In this sense the article engages...... multiculturalism. Due to its influential impact on the development of immigrant education policies in England and because of its extensive education archive the article uses the Birmingham Local Education Administration (LEA) as an empirical and historical case. The significant British Nationality Act of 1948...... and the Immigration Act of 1971 serve as demarcations of the period treated. The article concludes that the immigrant child, and the child’s background, were consistently presented as educational problems and as the cause of both poor academic attainment and a more intangible unwillingness to assimilate. In this lens...

  10. DETERMINANTS OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY FOR PACKAGED WATER IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA: MAXIMIZING FIRMS ASSETS TO IMPROVE CONSUMER WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH; Etomchi Maria-stella, NJOKU

    2014-01-01

    Competition is necessary for enhanced customer welfare and efficiency. This study focused on marketing efficiency of packaged water in Imo state Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic profile of the respondents; levels of marketing efficiency of packaged water and its determinants. The study employed purposive and multistage sampling technique in the selection of location and respondents respectively from whom information were elicited. Analytically, descriptive statistics, sche...

  11. Comparative analysis of old-age mortality estimations in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bendavid

    Full Text Available Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data.Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals ((5q(x. We then compare our (5q(x estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old.We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased. WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%. However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8-7.9% and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6-15.5%. Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60.Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing countries will become increasingly important with

  12. Talking active citizenship: framing welfare state reform in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, I.; Tonkens, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews how activation policies frame citizens as individual welfare agents. The analysis focuses on the framing of feeling rules employed by governments that encourage active citizenship, in this instance in the Netherlands and England. In England, encouraging voluntarism is central to

  13. Changes in the welfare state and the ethics of early childhood educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Ethical reflection is more relevant than ever before. As a reaction to both the trend of utilitarianism in early childhood education and the changes in the organisation of welfare sevices in the Nordic countries a professional ethics of virtue must be revitalized. However, it is not an easy path...

  14. The role of European welfare states in intergenerational money transfers: a micro-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Schenk (Niels); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); I. Maas (Ineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This article uses a comprehensive theoretical framework to explain why parents send money to particular children, and examines whether intergenerational solidarity is shaped by spending on various welfare domains or provisions as a percentage of gross domestic product. The

  15. Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L

    1998-01-01

    In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being.

  16. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Be'ery

    Full Text Available Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism. We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1, American Jews (study 2, and American Catholics (study 3. The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated.

  17. The role of the welfare state and housing policies as a medium and outcome of rising inequality in the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    by their functional and morphological qualities, residential districts have come to be seen as an expression of socio-economic and symbolic differences and inequalities. From this perspective, the relative position of social groups in the occupational class structure and in the spatial structure becomes a privileged...... field of empirical inquiry for scientists concerned with inequality in all its multidimensional forms. The aim of this paper is to draw up the lines between social and spatial inequality in cities through discussion of the role of housing policies and housing markets as an outcome of the rise...... research questions concerning the role of the welfare state as a causal mechanism of social and spatial stratification. Hence what are the main differences between typologies of welfare and housing regimes regarding economic and social inequality? To what extent do they variously project socio...

  18. [Evaluating programs for preparation to old age: some theoretical thoughts and a practical example (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H D

    1977-07-01

    In the first part methodically satisfactory experimental designs for evaluating programs for preparation to old age on the basis of Cambell & Stanely (1963) are sketched including conditions which hinder the realization of the ideal notions. In the second part an experiment for comparing two preparatory courses to old age using different methods of instruction is described. It was observed that the more demanding teaching method resulted in more anxiety for old age. This led to the conclusion, that programs for preparation to old age should be planned as a sequence of several units in which the mastering of the new ideas may be learned and in which this learning process may be supervised.

  19. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored. Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501;p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004. These variables accounted for approximately 57.5% of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3 = 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristics that impact on older adults’ SOC. In ’n wêreld wat aan die verouder is, is die potensiaal van bejaardes om goed te verouder

  20. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  1. Welfare states, the Great Recession and health: Trends in educational inequalities in self-reported health in 26 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Teresa; Campos-Matos, Inês; Bambra, Clare; Russo, Giuliano; Perelman, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in health have long been observed in Europe, few studies have analysed their recent patterning. In this paper, we examined how educational inequalities in self-reported health have evolved in different European countries and welfare state regimes over the last decade, which was troubled by the Great Recession. We used cross-sectional data from the EU-SILC survey for adults from 26 European countries, from 2005 to 2014 (n = 3,030,595). We first calculated education-related absolute (SII) and relative (RII) inequalities in poor self-reported health by country-year, adjusting for age, sex, and EU-SILC survey weights. We then regressed the year- and country-specific RII and SII on a yearly time trend, globally and by welfare regime, adjusting for country fixed effects. We further adjusted the analysis for the economic cycle using GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality. Overall, absolute inequalities persisted and relative inequalities slightly widened (betaRII = 0.0313, pAnglo-Saxon countries experienced the largest increase in absolute inequalities (betaSII = 0.0032, pAnglo-Saxon countries. Educational inequalities in health have overall persisted across European countries over the last decade. However, there is considerable variation across welfare regimes, possibly related to underpinning social safety nets and to austerity measures implemented during this 10-year period.

  2. Welfare states, the Great Recession and health: Trends in educational inequalities in self-reported health in 26 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Leão

    Full Text Available Although socioeconomic inequalities in health have long been observed in Europe, few studies have analysed their recent patterning. In this paper, we examined how educational inequalities in self-reported health have evolved in different European countries and welfare state regimes over the last decade, which was troubled by the Great Recession.We used cross-sectional data from the EU-SILC survey for adults from 26 European countries, from 2005 to 2014 (n = 3,030,595. We first calculated education-related absolute (SII and relative (RII inequalities in poor self-reported health by country-year, adjusting for age, sex, and EU-SILC survey weights. We then regressed the year- and country-specific RII and SII on a yearly time trend, globally and by welfare regime, adjusting for country fixed effects. We further adjusted the analysis for the economic cycle using GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality.Overall, absolute inequalities persisted and relative inequalities slightly widened (betaRII = 0.0313, p<0.05. There were substantial differences by welfare regime: Anglo-Saxon countries experienced the largest increase in absolute inequalities (betaSII = 0.0032, p<0.05, followed by Bismarkian countries (betaSII = 0.0024, p<0.001, while they reduced in Post-Communist countries (betaSII = -0.0022, p<0.001. Post-Communist countries also experienced a widening in relative inequalities (betaRII = 0.1112, p<0.001, which were found to be stable elsewhere. Adjustment for income inequality only explained such trend in Anglo-Saxon countries.Educational inequalities in health have overall persisted across European countries over the last decade. However, there is considerable variation across welfare regimes, possibly related to underpinning social safety nets and to austerity measures implemented during this 10-year period.

  3. How kinship systems and welfare regimes shape leaving home: A comparative study of the United States, Germany, Taiwan, and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Nauck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to explain societal differences in the event of leaving the parental home as part of the transition to adulthood, in the United States, Germany, China, and Taiwan. It proposes bridge hypotheses between societal characteristics such as kinship system and welfare regime and home-leaving behavior, and tests them with nationally representative panel studies. Methods: Four panel studies (NLSY97 for the USA; PAIRFAM for Germany; CFPS for China; TYP for Taiwan were harmonized for similar cohorts, with an age span of 15 to 30 years. Testing was based on age-specific tabulations of household composition and separate discrete-time event history models. Results: The prevalence of home-leaving is highest in the United States, followed by Germany, China, and then Taiwan. Timing is earlier in the United States than in Germany, and earlier in China than in Taiwan. Gender-specific coincidence of home-leaving with entry into higher education, the work force, cohabitation, and marriage can be conclusively related to differences in kinship system and welfare regime, and regional opportunity disparities. Contribution: The empirical results point to significant cultural differences between home-leaving in collectivistic, patrilineal societies (China, Taiwan and individualistic, bilineal societies (USA, Germany. Whereas neolocal housing signifies an important step in the transition to adulthood in the latter societies, continuous intergenerational housing, or even an early return to it, is normatively supported in collectivistic cultures. Differences between the United States and Germany on the one hand, and China and Taiwan on the other, point to variation in welfare regimes and differences in urbanization.

  4. Trends in old-age mortality in seven European countries, 1950-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Different from the general observed decline in old-age mortality, for The Netherlands and Norway there have been reports of stagnation in the decline since the 1980s. We detect periods of stagnation in recent old-age mortality trends, and explore for which causes of death the recent

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Read, S.; Towriss, C.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Grundy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest

  6. Continuity and Discontinuity: The Case of Second Couplehood in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Continuity and discontinuity are controversial concepts in social theories on aging. The aim of this article is to explore these concepts using the experiences of older persons living in second couplehood in old age as a case in point. Design and Method: Based on a larger qualitative study on second couplehood in old age, following the…

  7. [Thyroid diseases in old age. Clinical aspects and therapy. Part 1: Hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, K H; Fahrenkrog, U; Jahnke, K

    1981-08-27

    The clinical signs of thyroid disease in older people may differ considerably from those in younger patients. The symptoms are often incorrectly interpreted and attributed to old age. The age is also important to the kind of therapy. The normal clinical hyperthyroidism-indices are not relevant in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in older patients. Organic symptoms predominate in old age (loss of weight, muscular asthenia, tremor, cardiac arrhythmia, stenocardia, congestive cardiomyopathy). Most of the time they are wrongly interpreted as additional symptoms of old age. Probably it is not the age that causes the difficulties in hyperthyroidism-diagnostics in old age, but the atypical symptoms of solitary or multilocular adenomas, which increase with advancing age. A special symptom of hyperthyroidism in old age, often misinterpreted, is "apathetic" hyperthyroidism. Radioiodotherapy is indicated in older patients with hyperthyroidism.

  8. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self......-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...

  9. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  10. Changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Xie Ying; Zhang Weijun; Zhao Ruixiang; Peng Xinjie; Zhang Wen; Zhang Yan; Cheng Xiuqin; Wang Longhua; Guo Yonghe; Zhou Yujie; Wen Shaojun; Liu Jielin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis function in the middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: The levels of D-Dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were detected in 92 middle-aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF group) and 60 patients with sinus rhythm (control group) by immune turbidimetry and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate analysis was used to determine the differences between two groups, and covariance analysis was used to determine the factors which might affect coagulation and fibrinolysis indexes. Results: 1)The plasma levels of D-Dimer [(0.16±0.10) mg·L -1 ] and t-PA [(42.58± 30.28) μg·L -1 ] and PAI-1 [(86.03 ± 21.43) μg·L -1 ] in AF group were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.10 ± 0.08) mg·L -1 , (26.02±13.84) μg·L -1 , (64.94±24.35) μg·L -1 ] (P<0.05 or P <0.001). The ratio of PAI-1/t-PA in AF group was higher than that in control group slightly. 2) After adjustment of the factors which included sex, age and plasma creatinine, uric acid, blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol, the levels of D-Dimer (P=0.047), t-PA (P=0.264) and PAI-1 (P=0.001) in AF group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: The middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation lose their balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the state of hypercoagulated and hypofibrinolysis. (authors)

  11. Does the association between leisure activities and survival in old age differ by living arrangement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Charlotta; Agahi, Neda; Shaw, Benjamin A

    2018-01-01

    Government policies to promote ageing in place have led to a growing frail population living at home in advanced old age, many of whom live alone. Living alone in old age is associated with adverse health outcomes, but we know little about whether it moderates the health impact of other risk and protective factors. Engagement in leisure activities is considered critical to successful ageing. We investigated whether the association between different types of leisure activities and survival in non-institutionalised older adults (aged 76 and above) differs by living arrangement and gender. We used the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old study from 2011 and the Swedish Cause of Death Register (until 30 June 2014) to conduct Cox regression analyses (n=669). Incident mortality was 30.2% during the follow-up period. Overall level of leisure activity was not significantly associated with survival in either living arrangement, but some specific leisure activities, and associations, were different across gender and living arrangement. More specifically, certain social activities (participation in organisations and having relatives visit) were associated with longer survival, but only in men living alone. In women, most results were statistically non-significant, with the exception of solving crosswords being associated with longer survival in women living with someone. In order to facilitate engagement with life, interventions focusing on leisure activities in the oldest age groups should take gender and living arrangement into consideration when determining the type of activity most needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The conception of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...... in research as well as clinical experiences from advanced welfare services might support a new model for understanding mental vulnerability....

  13. Housing of old age households in 10 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The paper is an extract of a study under the DEMHOW (Demographic Change and Housing Wealth) project financed by the under the EU Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development, which investigates the ways in which, across member states, demographic change and housing wealth...

  14. Old age pensions in Mexico: Toward universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Willmore, Larry

    2014-01-01

    This paper chronicles the rise of social pensions in Mexico. First it summarizes the pension system prior to introduction of social pensions. Next it describes how Mexico City, the federal government, and seventeen of Mexico’s 31 states initiated social pensions, a policy supported eventually by each of the three major political parties. It concludes with thoughts on what remains to be done.

  15. Políticas de Estado de Bienestar para la equidad Welfare State policies for equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Quiroga

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la evolución del gasto público en protección social en España durante el período 1991-2000 (último año para el que existen datos comparables con la Unión Europea [UE], tanto globalmente como por algunos de los capítulos que conforman este gasto: sanidad, familia, supervivencia, invalidez y vejez. Se analiza el gasto como porcentaje del PIB y el gasto per cápita en unidades de poder de compra. El artículo documenta la divergencia del gasto en protección social español con el promedio de la UE durante el período 1993-2000, aumentando el déficit del gasto público en protección social de España con la UE. También se analiza el grado de desarrollo de los servicios a las familias (escuelas de infancia y atención a las personas mayores con dependencia, por su gran influencia en las desigualdades de género.This article analyzes the evolution of public social expenditure in Spain from 1991 to 2000. It includes the analysis of the total public social expenditure as well as four of its components: sickness/health care, invalidity/old age, survivors, family/children. Expenditure is analyzed as a percentage of the GNP, and expenditure per capita in purchasing power units. This article shows that there has been an increase since 1993 in the deficit of the public expenditure on social protection in Spain representing a divergence from the average expenditure in the UE. The article also analyzes the development of care services (child care and services for dependent elderly, due their impact on gender inequalities.

  16. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  17. Coping with multimorbidity in old age – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65–85 cope with multimorbidity. Methods 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75 years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Results Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. Conclusions These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.

  18. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  19. Three silver linings in the cloud of old age: an autobiographical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2014-01-01

    Through the author's experiences as a gerontological social worker, graduate student in gerontology, and gerontology professor, the author discovered not only the cloud of old age, but three silver linings.

  20. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2015-08-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY FOR PACKAGED WATER IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA: MAXIMIZING FIRMS ASSETS TO IMPROVE CONSUMER WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Competition is necessary for enhanced customer welfare and efficiency. This study focused on marketing efficiency of packaged water in Imo state Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic profile of the respondents; levels of marketing efficiency of packaged water and its determinants. The study employed purposive and multistage sampling technique in the selection of location and respondents respectively from whom information were elicited. Analytically, descriptive statistics, schematic diagram and OLS multiple regression models were used. Results showed that the respondents were predominantly married male adults, with average household size of 7 persons. They were fairly educated and experienced in the business. The study further revealed that age, education, household size and income were the major determinants of marketing efficiency of packaged water marketing in the area. The result also showed that net income, marketing cost, and marketing margin were higher in urban area, which implies that marketer in semi-urban areas were operating below optimum efficiency levels. This study therefore suggested the need to incorporate integrated logistics management and marketing strategies as a measure to reduce unnecessary marketing costs; capacity enhancement programmes for marketers and improvement in infrastructural development as a means of addressing marketing efficiency and customer welfare.

  2. Neoliberalism and the recommodification of health inequalities: A case study of the Swedish welfare state 1980 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of neoliberalism on health inequalities through an empirical examination of the recommodification of the social determinants of health. It uses a detailed case study of changes to three specific welfare policy domains in Sweden: unemployment, healthcare, and pensions. Using time series data from the repeat cross-sectional Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1980-2011, it examines: (1) the effects of reductions in the replacement rate value of unemployment benefit on inequalities in self-reported general health between the employed and the unemployed; (2) the effects of reductions in the replacement rate value of pensions on educational inequalities in self-reported general health among pensioners; and (3) the effects of the increase in user charges on inequalities in having visited a doctor in the past 3 months by educational level. The results suggest mixed effects of welfare state recommodification on health inequalities: inequalities increased between the Swedish employed and unemployed, yet they did not increase in the retired population, and inequalities in access to healthcare also remained steady during the study period. The paper concludes that the association between recommodification and health inequalities in Sweden is stronger regarding unemployment benefits than pensions or healthcare, and that this may relate to the stigmatisation of the unemployed.

  3. Expectations on old age in the opinion of young people with regard to sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Smoleń

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Old age is a natural, individual and inherent part of life, conditioned by numerous factors. Its advent is often surprising, so it is worth to prepare for it. Poland is one of the aging countries, where the proportion of older people is increasing and life expectancy is on the rise. Aim. Determining the expectations of youth in relation to old age in terms of sociodemographic factors. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 2016 in Sanok among 360 respondents (120 students and 120 gymnasium students and 120 high school students. Diagnostic survey and survey technique were used. The research tool was the author's questionnaire survey. Statistical tests used were: the V Kramer, Chi-square and Phi tests. The significance level of p <0.05 was assumed. Results. More than half of the youth surveyed thought of their old age. A significant percentage declared that they were afraid of old age and the fear was more often expressed by women. Young people in their old age are most afraid of diseases. Main expectations regarding old age in the opinion of young people are the maintenance of health and the ability to fulfill dreams. A significant percentage of respondents indicated that in the old age they would have an excess of free time. Only about one-third of young people indicated that they had been preparing for retirement all their lives. Half of the respondents declared that when they would get older they would like te continue education. Conclusions. A conscious entry into the old age stage favors the acceptance of inevitable changes and adaptations to this period of life. This process should begin at the stage of lifelong learning.

  4. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    OpenAIRE

    Allendorf, Keera

    2014-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age sup...

  5. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at

  6. New Social Risks and Welfare State Reforms in Norway and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  7. The didn't pilot the Welfare State: on evidence and temporality in policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    for a discussion a key civil servants lament that “they did not pilot the welfare state” the paper moves on to argue that the real potential of a pilot lies not in its capacity to predict and prepare for policy outcome but in its capacity to prototype political alliances which might eventually do other work.......This paper examines the early stages of planning for a possible pilot on Universal Basic Income in Fife, Scotland. It builds on interviews with key stakeholders in the process and a number of internal and public documents related to the case. It focuses the analysis on a particular moment...... in the development of the pilot and discusses the idea of ‘piloting’, which in today’s policy-making seems to be an indispensable stage preceding radically new policy. Yet it seems there is a fundamental mismatch between ‘a pilot’ and the innovative work such are often called upon to do. Taking as is starting point...

  8. A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

  9. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970...

  10. A multifunctional social economy offer to the Danish welfare state? The case of Farming for Health in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike

    2010-01-01

    agriculture nor inside the fourth sector meet the practices of Farming for Health in Denmark. In addition it concludes that if Farming for Health should be an offer for the Danish welfare state then cooperation between for example bottom-up initiatives supported by the LEADER program and actors from......Social Farming and Farming for Health are both internationally accepted names for farms that in addition to their agricultural production offer social, medical care or educational services. Such services could for example be related to rehabilitation / reintegration of socially disadvantaged people...... to promote integration of minorities, to special education of maladjusted school pupils and to physical or mental therapeutic rehabilitation. In Europe there has in recent years been an increasing focus on this linkage between farming and social / health activities as an initiative that encourages relations...

  11. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or Four?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis

    1991-01-01

    This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.

  12. [Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Sense of autonomy - the possibility to choose and decide - is one of the markers of positive and active aging. The goal of this study was to examine the Polish adaptation of the Perceived Autonomy in Old Age (PAA) scale and to determine its internal structure and psychometric properties: reliability, as well as construct and discriminant validity. 277 seniors (female=187; male=90), without cognitive function disorders aged 60 to 100 (M=77.4; SD=9.2) took part in the study. Apart from the PAA, the ADL and IADL scales (self-reliance assessment) were used, as well as the Emotional State Questionnaire (a measure for positive and negative emotions) and the WHOQoL-Brief (a measure for health-related quality of life). As a result of an exploratory and confirmation factor analysis a one-factor tool with five items was built. Reliability coefficients of the scale measured with the internal consistency method and test-retest were ≥ 0.80. Positive correlations were found with indicators in the ADL, IADL, as well as in the somatic and psychological domain of life quality, and positive emotions. Negative correlations were found for negative emotions. The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  13. ["Young love is from earth--mature love is from heaven" (Turkish proverb). Attitudes to sexuality in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Straube, U

    1982-01-01

    The prevailing attitudes towards sexuality in old age are described in a rather phenomenological analysis: sexuality ends corresponding to the termination of reproductiveness; sexual needs in old age appear to be pathological; the elderly's sexual acts are disgusting. Empirical findings corroborate those conclusions. The situation is explained by societal circumstances, by the learning histories, and by the living conditions in old age. Examples of agreement with sexuality in old age demonstrate the often idle potentialities which are hidden in this sector of life.

  14. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission......) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  15. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or ‘empower’ citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  16. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  17. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  18. Alterations and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The dissertation reviews the publications on 'The gastrointestinal tract in old age' since 1941. As in the 1941 publication by Heinrich, particular interest is taken in diagnostic radiology. The lower age limit of the cases described was set at 55 to 60 years. Oesophageal changes ranged from functional disturbances (e.g. atonia, changes in peristalsis, or dilatation) to chronic inflammation, displacement caused by the surrounding organs, and tumours (mainly carcinoma). Formation of diverticula takes an intermediate position. Of the gastric and duodenal changes, hiatal hermia and chronic atrophic gastritis were the most frequent. Ulcers caused by old age differ from 'common' ulcers in some respects, and the symptoms may be confused with those of gastric carcinoma. Early gastric carcinoma is another disease whose incidence increases with age. Thoracic and spinal changes may cause impressions on the stomach. The effects of old age on the time of passage of contrast media, on gastric tone, and on the shape of the stomach remain unclear. Changes caused by old age in the small and large intestine range from formation of diverticula and vascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic colitis and obstruction of the mesenteric vessels) to the frequent carcinoma of the large intestine and rectum. According to this study it has to be supposed that the degenerative atrophic processes of aging and previous diseases occurring increasingly in old age, favour the provocation of ratrogenic injuries. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem from young adulthood to old age. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives study, which includes 4 assessments across a 16-year period of a nationally representative sample of 3,617 individuals aged 25 years to 104 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the adult life span, increasing during young and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at about age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort differences in the self-esteem trajectory were found. Women had lower self-esteem than did men in young adulthood, but their trajectories converged in old age. Whites and Blacks had similar trajectories in young and middle adulthood, but the self-esteem of Blacks declined more sharply in old age than did the self-esteem of Whites. More educated individuals had higher self-esteem than did less educated individuals, but their trajectories were similar. Moreover, the results suggested that changes in socioeconomic status and physical health account for the decline in self-esteem that occurs in old age.

  20. Is death our business? Philosophical conflicts over the end-of-life in old age psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Duncan; Ng, Felicity; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Old age psychiatrists work with end-of-life (EOL) issues and encounter patient deaths, but death and dying have received limited focus in old age psychiatry training and research. This qualitative study explores old age psychiatrists' experience of and approach to working with patients at the EOL. Australian old age psychiatrists were purposively sampled and interviewed in-depth. Data saturation was achieved after nine participant interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed for themes, which were independently verified. Two dichotomous overarching themes were identified. Death is not our business reflected participants' experience of working in a mental health framework and incorporated four themes: death should not occur in psychiatry; working in a psychiatric treatment model; keeping a distance from death and unexpected death is a negative experience. Death is our business reflected participants' experience of working in an aged care context and incorporated four themes: death is part of life; encountering the EOL through dementia care; doing EOL work and expected death is a positive experience. Participants reported conflict because of the contradictory domains in which they work. They were comfortable working with patients at the EOL when death was expected, particularly in dementia. By contrast, they struggled with death as an adverse outcome in circumstances influenced by mental health culture, which was characterised by risk management, suicide prevention and a focus on recovery. This study has implications for models of care underpinning old age psychiatry. An integrated person-centred model of care may provide a contextually appropriate approach for practice.

  1. The Digital Society and Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Wilkinson, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The digital society has been announced and subconsequently, the digital welfare state. The digital society and the digital welfare state changes the provision of welfare services to the citizens as end-users. The article analyses how....

  2. Radiation therapy for the old aged patient suffered from carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Wada, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Since a majority of old aged patients have the troublesome complications and their physical or mental emaciation is clearly appeared, it is necessary for them to adopt a new treatment method which was considered about thier such conditions. The crude survival rate of old aged, over 71, patients suffered from carcinoma of the uterine cervix were 63.6% (7/11) for stage 1, 60% (36/60) for stage 2, 50% (53/106) for stage 3 and 28.6% (8/28) for stage 4. About 20% of patients in each stages were suffered from the complications. We considered the treatment method for the old aged patients such as follows: the radiation dose must be reduced 10% for 71 to 75 year old and 20% for 76 to 80 year old. In the case of over 81 year old, an intracavitary irradiation is only applied for the palliative aim at the out patient clinic. (author)

  3. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  4. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sanders, A E

    2009-07-01

    The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens.

  5. The old age health security in rural China: where to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen

    2015-11-04

    The huge number of rural elders and the deepening health problems (e.g. growing threats of infectious diseases and chronic diseases etc.) place enormous pressure on old age health security in rural China. This study aims to provide information for policy-makers to develop effective measures for promoting rural elders' health care service access by examining the current developments and challenges confronted by the old age health security in rural China. Search resources are electronic databases, web pages of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China on the internet, China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook, China Civil Affairs' Statistical Yearbook and China Health Statistics Yearbooks etc. Articles were identified from Elsevier, Wiley, EBSCO, EMBASE, PubMed, SCI Expanded, ProQuest, and National Knowledge Infrastructure of China (CNKI) which is the most informative database in Chinese. Search terms were "rural", "China", "health security", "cooperative medical scheme", "social medical assistance", "medical insurance" or "community based medical insurance", "old", or "elder", "elderly", or "aged", "aging". Google scholar was searched with the same combination of keywords. The results showed that old age health security in rural China had expanded to all rural elders and substantially improved health care service utilization among rural elders. Increasing chronic disease prevalence rates, pressing public health issues, inefficient rural health care service provision system and lack of sufficient financing challenged the old age health security in rural China. Increasing funds from the central and regional governments for old age health security in rural China will contribute to reducing urban-rural disparities in provision of old age health security and increasing health equity among rural elders between different regions. Meanwhile, initiating provider payment reform may contribute to

  6. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  7. Reconciling work and poverty reduction: how successful are European welfare states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the great recession, poverty has, not unexpectedly, increased in many Member States of the European Union. More worrying in view of its structural implications is the observation that in the years before the financial crisis, in most European countries poverty rates for the

  8. Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

  9. Health care policies and resisting consumers in a prototypical welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2011-01-01

    policies. The paper is based on qualitative methods comprising observations and interviews in two hearing clinics. The paper shows that rather than a „withdrawal‟ of the state there has been a process of reform with governing at distance. The data suggests that a distinguishing mark of the consumer role...

  10. State Actions to Control Fetal Abuse: Ramifications for Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent case law and state statutes for dealing with a pregnant woman's actions which negatively affect her infant. Explains how statutes and case law are applied in civil law to remove a child from the mother at birth and in criminal law to punish a mother while pregnant. (MM)

  11. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  12. Anatomy of an Oil-Based Welfare State: Rent Distribution in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam; Segal, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Oil wealth has transformed Kuwait within decades from a modest, trade-based desert emirate into a modern city-state. It has also created a relatively egalitarian economy based on an extensive distributive system that provides Kuwaiti citizens with essential services including free healthcare, education and social security. Therefore, the most important fact about Kuwait’s oil wealth is that it has been successfully used to benefit its citizens. This feat has been achieved through a broad dist...

  13. Boundaries of Welfare between the EU and Member States during the ‘Great Recession’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Pochet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    -state reform changes over time in line with socio-economic conditions as well as shifting political-party governmental coalitions in the Council. We argue that in particular the economically oriented actors, including the European Central Bank, have been successful in the context of the Great Recession. More...... recently, social priorities around notions such as social investment are becoming more central in the EU debate on economic and social policy....

  14. Negara Kesejahteraan (Welfare State: Mengembalikan Peran Negara Dalam Pembangunan Kesejahteraan Sosial di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Kiswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the system of social security in Indonesia. Social security represents the elementary rights of every citizen which is guaranteed by the state, like in section 27 article 2 UUD ' 45 and the laws of System of Social Security National (SJSN. Practically, the social security and social services prggram run by government framework not yet clearly with asocial policy which should be integral and continual Government has been trapped in current of liberalism and capitalism so that state role becomes progressively minimize. From 95 million labor force only 24,6 million obtain to get the social security, or newly 12% from resident amount. To overcome the weakness, resistance, and barricade in execution of social security Drstem in Indonesia, National Social Security needed to embrace the principle of government--bodies, deputizing stakeholders in this case competitor! worker, and government. Gathering and fee organizer require to be supported by openness, carefulness, accountability, and eficien. Entangling of various kind of stakeholders actor of vital importance as principal applying form of governance, the model executed by Indonesian government according should be to its society characteristic. Though financing system conducted by sharing across population, the government remain involved in the goodness in arrangement, observation, and also its financing.

  15. Agriculture in Ancient and its influence on Development of Agronomics and Welfare of the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Шелепов

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of literary sources history of origin and development of agriculture is rotined in Ancient. The first Civilizations arose up on fat streamside lands of the large rivers: Nile, Euphrates, tiger, Inda, Ganga and other Earths and plenty of water are fertile during an overflow, a warm climate allowed to Ancient civilizations to grow 2-3 harvests in a year. For the receipt of high harvests, a man had to study the modes of overflow of the rivers, look after heavenly bodies, determine the areas of scopes and terms of leadthrough of the field works. The decision of these questions resulted in the origin of agronomics, astronomy, mathematics. Large harvests were instrumental in the origin of peculiar, enriching of the states, to development of trade and culture on the whole. Riches of country and overpopulation resulted in the origin of wars which one states perished as a result of, second – blossomed. Scientists consider that a high culture, intensive exploitation of soils and aggressiveness of man, brought the most Ancient Civilizations over to the ecological crisis and their elimination.

  16. Spiritual activity is associated with better cognitive function in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, A W T; Lam, L C W

    2013-09-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the association between late-life spiritual activity participation and cognitive function in older Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Participants aged 60 years or older without clinical dementia or major psychiatric disorders were recruited. Dementia severity and global cognitive function were assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating and Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. Cognitive performance was measured using 10-minute delayed recall, the Category Verbal Fluency Test, Visual Aural Digit Span Test, and Modified Card Sorting Test. Psychological status was assessed using the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life scale. Activities participated in were categorised into 6 domains of physical, cognitive, social, prosocial, spiritual, and recreational activities. A total of 380 participants were enrolled. Bivariate correlation showed that the composite score of cognitive function was positively correlated with aerobic exercise (r = 0.14; p = 0.01), cognitive activity (r = 0.30; p < 0.001), and spiritual activity (r = 0.16; p = 0.002). Multiple linear regression suggested that frequent participation in cognitive activity (B = 0.87, beta = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-1.25 and p < 0.001) and spiritual activity (B = 0.45, beta = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.13-0.76 and p = 0.01) were associated with better cognitive function after controlling for age and years of education. Engagement in spiritual activity may benefit cognitive function in old age. Longitudinal studies are recommended to further examine the causal relationship of spiritual activity and cognitive function.

  17. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  18. The outer limits of the welfare state: discrimination, racism and their effect on human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershow, H J

    The European social democracies have been more generous than the United States in social provision, including services to aged. The momentum of provision has slowed down in recent years. We suggest that prosperity which has led to use of foreign laborers in menial jobs has caused this slow down. The dynamics are similar to the historical U.S. use of "non-100% Americans" as our menial workers. Changes in social policy strategies are needed: 1) universal provision, rather than programs aimed at minorities, is needed to enlist support of stable working and middle classes; 2) tax reforms, which lower progressive income-tax structures for middle incomes, and value-added tax, may be necessary to overcome anti-tax ideologies; 3) clear priorities as to most necessary services must be established by the gerontological community.

  19. The impact of old age on surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Byung Sik; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Old age is regarded as the risk factor of major abdominal surgery due to the lack of functional reserve and the increased presence of comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of old age on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This study enrolled 389 gastric cancer patients who underwent totally laparoscopic gastrectomy at Hanyang University Guri Hospital and ASAN Medical Center. The patients were classified into two groups according to age as those older than 70 years and those younger than 70 years. Early surgical outcomes such as operation time, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay were evaluated. No patient was converted to open surgery. The two groups differed significantly in terms of overall postoperative complication rate, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay. The patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy differed in incidence of postoperative ileus but not in severe postoperative complication rate. The results of this study demonstrated that old age can have an effect on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. This study especially showed that elderly patients are affected by the return of bowel movement after totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. On the other hand, however, it is presumed that old age has not had a serious impact on surgical outcomes in totally laparoscopic gastrectomy because no difference in the severe postoperative complication rate was observed.

  20. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  1. The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

  2. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  3. Cohort difference in age-related trajectories in network size in old age: are networks expanding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Huxhold, O.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. Contemporary societal views on old age as well as a rise in retirement age raise the question whether patterns of stability and/or decline in network size as found in earlier studies similarly apply to later birth cohorts of older adults. Methods. Change score models are estimated to

  4. Nutritional care in old age: the effect of supplementation on nutritional status and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequently observed in elderly people living in nursing homes and homes for the elderly. Anorexia resulting in inadequate dietary intake is often a cause of malnutrition. Malnutrition in old age affects several aspects of functioning. Earlier research has shown that a complete

  5. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  6. Shaping old age: Innovation partnerships, senior centres and billiards tables as active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade active ageing has been positioned as a solution to the problem of global ageing. While the scientific, economic and even moral arguments for pursuing a more active old age has been many, the integration of active ageing in everyday practices face challenges. This chapter ex...

  7. Symposium 2: exercise and protein nutrition obesity, sarcopenia and their functional consequences in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older persons and recent trends show a rapid increase in this prevalence. Results from observational and intervention studies (i.e. weight loss studies) show the strong negative impact of obesity on functional status in old age. There are different potential

  8. Maintaining life satisfaction at old age in spite of physical decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puvill-Strooband, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is rising fast, but not all years gained are free of disease. Therefore, many people wonder to what extent the years that we have gained are enjoyable. Studies however show that life satisfaction generally remains high at old age. We investigate this surprising phenomenon using data

  9. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.

  10. Does social policy moderate the impact of unemployment on health? A multilevel analysis of 23 welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Muntaner, Carles

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude of observable health inequalities between the unemployed and their employed counterparts differs considerably across countries. Few attempts have been made to test theoretical explanations for this cross-national variation. Moreover, existing studies suffer from important theoretical and methodological limitations. This study addresses these limitations and investigates whether differences in the generosity of social protection policies and in public attitudes towards those policies explain why unemployment-related health inequalities are steeper in some societies than in others. Multilevel logistic modelling was used to link contextual-level variables on social protection policies and public attitudes in 23 European countries to individual-level data on self-rated health from the 2012 wave of the European Social Survey. The magnitude of inequalities in self-rated health between the unemployed and their employed counterparts varies significantly across countries as a function of cross-national differences in the level of social protection awarded to the unemployed and the level of public support for the welfare state. The results provide empirical support for the claim that governments can play a more active role in mitigating unemployment-related health inequalities by expanding the generosity and scope of social protection policies. Whether such an expansion of social protection will take place in the current climate of fiscal austerity is a political question whose implications merit the attention of population health scholars. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-Rated Health of the Temporary Employees in a Nordic Welfare State: Findings From the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-02-01

    This 9-year follow-up study explores a possible association between temporary employment and declining health. Years in temporary employment from 2004 to 2008 to 2009 were measured for a cohort of 26,886 public sector employees. Self-rated health was measured by surveys in 2004 (baseline), 2008/2009 (short-term follow-up), and 2012/2013 (long-term follow-up). Compared with the permanently employed, the baseline health-adjusted odds of poor health were lower both in the short-term and long-term follow-up, but the differences became nonsignificant when adjusted for sociodemographic and work-related factors. The results would suggest that temporary employment in public sector of a Nordic welfare state does not entail health risks. Future research is needed to elucidate if this is true also among those exposed to nonpermanent employment in the private labor market, in particular those with most atypical jobs and unstable job careers.

  12. Phases of capitalism, welfare states, medical dominance, and health care in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D

    1999-01-01

    There has been a lacuna in previous studies of medicine and health care of concepts or structures relating changes in health care with their contextualizing social structures. That is, there is a need to more adequately account for health care and social structure in terms of dynamic rather than static concepts. This article reports the application of a general schema outlining the transformation of capitalism through the phases of entrepreneurial, monopoly, and global capitalism, first presented by Ross and Trachte, to help understand both the changing role of medicine in Canada and the historical trajectory of the development of health insurance. These related events are shown to be partly reflective of the transformed class dynamic involved in a changing capitalist mode of production. The recent history of challenges to medicare in Canada as well as evidence of the declining power of medicine are both related directly and indirectly to the increased power of business and the decline in the relative autonomy of the state accompanying globalization. The application of the phases of capitalism sequence does roughly fit the Canadian instance although some modifications will be required to account for the specifics of the Canadian case. The schema also helps resolve two previously competing class arguments about the rise of health insurance in Canada.

  13. The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

  14. Enhancing well-being: practice and politics. Sharing learning from the Norwegian Welfare State article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Fagertun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore discourses of public healthcare sector transformation in Norway. These discourses are part of a wider European neoliberal discursive terrain shaped by policies that focus on competition, choice and ‘integration’ in healthcare. The method applied here is a combined Foucauldian and post-Marxian discursive approach with a political theoretical focus on how issues are given meaning in specific contexts, emphasising discourse as a situated social phenomenon that encompasses a materiality constituted by and constitutive of discourse. Person-centred care has emerged as a new trend in healthcare in Western countries over the past decade, and is in Norway articulated at policy level as ‘the patient’s healthcare service’. This article recognises person-centredness as a valuable ideal in care relationships and practices at the individual level. However, the article argues that the focus of person-centredness, embedded in a broader ideological trend of individualisation, may also mask a change in the relationship between the state and its citizens that has a depoliticising effect on healthcare at the institutional and structural level of society. As a result, in Norway one of the effects of recent healthcare policy and intervention has arguably been a depoliticisation of care work. Depoliticisation through the trajectory of naturalisation, has the effect of re-informalising care work, clouding its socioeconomic value and making it ‘invisible’. This process is discussed as representing a potential challenge to the key societal value of gender equality, since care work is thereby domesticised and re-feminised. The contribution of this article regarding implications for practice development is to inspire professionals to reflect critically on both contemporary discourses and policies of healthcare and some of the potential effects on care work. Finally, the article also aims to provide practitioners with a

  15. Together and apart: a typology of re-partnering in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya

    2014-08-01

    The human need for love, friendship, and physical contact, and the fear of loneliness do not diminish with age. Widowhood and late-life divorce and increased life expectancy are likely to lead to alternative relationships, such as re-partnering. The purpose of this paper is to explore interplays between emotional and physical components of re-partnering in old age. Theoretical sampling of 20 couples included men who re-partnered at the age of 65+ years and women at the age of 60+ years, following termination of lifelong marriages due to death or divorce. Living arrangements included married or unmarried cohabitation under the same roof or in separate homes. Forty semi-structured interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The couple was the unit of analysis. Interplays between physical and emotional dimensions were examined using five abductive parameters derived from data analysis resulting in a fourfold typology of emotional and physical closeness/distance in re-partnering in old age: (1) living together (physically and emotionally); (2) living apart (physically) together (emotionally); (3) living together (physically) apart (emotionally); and (4) living apart (physically and emotionally). Findings revealed types of partner relationships that are different from lifelong marriages. The typology could help professionals working with older persons regarding what to expect in re-partnering in old age and be included in developmental theories as an option in old age. A quantitative tool for research and therapy purposes, entitled The Re-partnering in Old Age Typology Scale (RPOAT Scale), based on abductive parameters, could be established for measuring re-partnering relationship quality and classifying re-partnering couples.

  16. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  17. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  18. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  19. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  20. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  1. The Influence of Social Factors on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Miha Kaučič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is the connection between social factors and life satisfaction in old age? Purpose: The purpose of this research was to establish the influence of social factors on life satisfaction in old age. Method: The quantitative research method was used, a causal non-experimental method. As sampling data technique we used the technique of a survey questionnaire in ten statistical regions. For the analysis of causal effects and conditional associations we used the advanced statistical propensity score methods (Rubin, 2006. From the statistical set a simple random sample was chosen, we decided on proportionate stratification. For measuring life satisfaction we used Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, to which we added questions in order to study social factors. The research included 656 older adults aged 65 years and above, living in the home environment or in social care institutions. Results: Closely connected to life satisfaction in old age is the living conditions index (housing conditions, environment, financial situation, safety, whereas the lifestyle index (physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption is less closely connected. Discussion: Life satisfaction in old age is importantly influenced by social factors – suitable living conditions and less influenced by a healthy lifestyle, both of which allow for a quality life also in old age. Society: The research has an important influence on the society, as too little attention is being devoted to the phenomenon of ageing. By alerting the public we wish to contribute towards the detabuisation of ageing and ageism. For the stable healthcare system it is important that older adults remain healthy, independent and satisfied. Originality: The originality of the research is in the studying of social factor in the holistic model of satisfaction with life in the old age, which also includes physical, psychological and spiritual factors. Limitations

  2. Users of home-care services in a Nordic welfare state under marketisation: the rich, the poor and the sick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew Puthenparambil, Jiby; Kröger, Teppo; Van Aerschot, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Stricter access to public services, outsourcing of municipal services and increasing allocation of public funding for the purchase of private services have resulted in a marketisation wave in Finland. In this context of a Nordic welfare state undergoing marketisation, this paper aims to examine the use of Finnish care services among older people and find out who are using these new kinds of private services. How wide is their use and do the users of private care services differ from those who are using public services? How usual is it to mix both public and private care services? The questionnaire survey data set used here was gathered in 2010 among the population aged 75 and over in the cities of Jyväskylä and Tampere (N = 1436). The methods of analysis used include cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression. The findings showed that among those respondents who used care services (n = 681), 50% used only public services, 24% utilised solely private services and the remaining 26% used both kinds of services. Users of solely private services had significantly higher income and education as well as better health than those using public services only. The users of public services had the lowest education and income levels and usually lived in rented housing. The third group, those mixing both public and private services, reported poorer health than others. The results increase concerns about the development towards a two-tier service system, jeopardising universalistic Nordic principles, and also suggest that older people with the highest needs do not receive adequate services without complementing their public provisions with private services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Old Age, Widows, and Rural Solitude in the Eighteenth Century Central-Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current research about old age during the Ancient Regime in Spain is insufficient. And the same is the case with women, despite the large number of studies about gender and family history in the past decades. Taking, as a starting point, the analysis of widow women which became heads of households, this paper aims to know which specific characteristics had those households during their old age, composition, size, typology and the tendency to solitude; which activities and livelihood they had, paying attention to those differences as an expression of inequality; and which mechanisms and social reproduction strategies they followed to deal with the effects of aging. This paper is geografically focused in a wide rural area of central-southern Spain and aims to review the assumption that single and widow women in preindustrial age had subordinted lives. 

  4. Shaping old age: Innovation partnerships, senior centres and billiards tables as active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade active ageing has been positioned as a solution to the problem of global ageing. While the scientific, economic and even moral arguments for pursuing a more active old age has been many, the integration of active ageing in everyday practices face challenges. This chapter...... explores the ways that active ageing policies become part of everyday practices, by proposing the concept of active ageing technologies. Active ageing technologies are material and immaterial condensations of knowledge that form old age in specific ways. Through the cases of an innovation partnership, two...... activity centres and a billiards table, the author explores how active ageing policies are transformed in practice. The chapter draws on an ethnographic study of active ageing conducted at the two activity centres, as well as the author’s participation in the innovation partnership. The author uses...

  5. THE OLD AGE PENSION SYSTEM IN A TAX HAVEN: THE CASE OF THE BAHAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSŁAW POTERAJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in The Bahamas. There are four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about country, 2. the evolution of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the author’s goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by The Bahamas’ pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Bahamian approach, on the background of other countries, the typical for a tax haven attitude that the providing for the old age should be left to the prudence of each individual. The reader will learn that in the perspective of a few decades, the Bahamian pension system is endangered with insolvency. The actuarial considerations in the country seek solution to the problem in rising the compulsory rate of social insurance contribution.

  6. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of fatigue in midlife and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS: Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60...... points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS: Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from midlife to later...... to 64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60 to 64 years. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional, or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60 to 64 years using four...

  7. Adaptation in very old age: exploring the role of resources, beliefs, and attitudes for centenarians' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph

    2006-06-01

    When individuals reach very old age, accumulating negative conditions represent a serious challenge to their capacity to adapt and are likely to reduce the quality of life. By examining happiness and its determinants in centenarians, this study investigated the proposal that psychological resilience may come to an end in extremely old age. Data from the population-based Heidelberg Centenarian Study indicated high levels of happiness. Basic resources (i.e., job training, cognition, health, social network, extraversion) explained a substantial proportion of variance in happiness, but some resource effects were mediated through self-referent beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and attitudes toward life (e.g., optimistic outlook). Results challenge the view that psychological resilience reaches a critical limit or that the self-regulatory adaptation system loses its efficiency in very advanced age. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The Association Between Psychosocial Work Environment and Satisfaction With Old Age Care Among Care Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Börjesson, Ulrika; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the association between nursing assistants' perceptions of their psychosocial work environment and satisfaction among older people receiving care in nursing homes and home care. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among people receiving care ( N = 1,535) and nursing assistants ( N = 1,132) in 45 nursing homes and 21 home care units within municipal old-age care. Better psychosocial work environment was related to higher satisfaction in old-age care among the recipients. Significant and stronger associations were more common in nursing homes than in home care. Perception of mastery and positive challenges at work were associated with higher recipient satisfaction both in home care and in nursing homes: social climate, perception of group work, perception of mastery, and positive challenges at work only in nursing homes. Findings suggest that recipient satisfaction may be increased by improving the psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants, both in nursing homes and in home care.

  9. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  10. Learning and memory in mice with neuropathic pain: impact of old age and progranulin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eAlbuquerque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent neuropathic pain is a frequent consequence of peripheral nerve injuries, particularly in the elderly. Using the IntelliCage we studied if a sciatic nerve injury obstructed learning and memory in young and aged mice, each in wild type and progranulin deficient mice, which develop premature signs of brain aging and are more susceptible to nerve injury evoked nociceptive hypersensitivity and hence allow to assess a potential mutual aggravation of pain and old age. Both young and aged mice developed long-term nerve injury-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia but, in both genotypes, only aged mice with neuropathic pain showed high error rates in place avoidance acquisition tasks. Once learnt however, aged mice with neuropathic pain maintained the aversive memory longer, i.e. the extinction was significantly slowed. In addition, nerve injury in progranulin deficient mice impaired the learning of spatial sequences of awarded places, particularly in aged mice, whereas easy place preference learning was not affected by nerve injury or progranulin deficiency. The sequencing task required a discrimination of clockwise and anti-clockwise sequences and spatial flexibility to re-learn a novel sequence. The loss of spatial flexibility did not occur in sham operated mice, i.e. was a consequence of nerve injury and suggests that neuropathic pain accelerates manifestations of old age and progranulin deficiency. Neuropathic pain at old age, irrespective of the genotype, resulted in a long maintenance of aversive memory suggesting a negative alliance and possibly mutual aggravation of chronic neuropathic pain and aversive memory at old age.

  11. The Economic Legacy of Divorced and Separated Women in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn McDonald; A. Leslie Robb

    2003-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or the nature of this poverty. Like any other group of older Canadians, unattached women are not a homogenous population. The category of 'unattached' includes the separated, divorced, widowed and ever single, all of whom face different ...

  12. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Labour Supply Effects of a Subsidised Old-Age Part-Time Scheme in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaus Graf; Helmut Hofer; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of the old-age part-time scheme (OAPT) on the Austrian labour market which was a policy to allow flexible retirement options for the elderly with an aim to increase labour supply. According to our matching estimates employment probability increases slightly, especially in the first two years after entrance into the programme. Furthermore, the programme seems to reduce the measured unemployment risk. However, the total number of hours worked is significantl...

  14. Being given a cancer diagnosis in old age: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Swane, Christine E; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support e...... in clinical practice, to identify the specific meaning the turning point has for an elderly person with cancer, and to understand the particular approach he or she uses to handle the awareness of being old. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3......Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support...... elderly people in dealing with issues arising after cancer is diagnosed. Design: A descriptive phenomenological method was used to investigate the phenomenon "the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age". Participants: In total, 16 persons (aged 65+, mean age 76, range 68...

  15. Game at the old age, stories of old men from Mar del Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Paola Di Domizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This text attempts to problematise the topic of game at the old age. The author used the description of an experiment conducted in the city of Mar del Plata in the context of teacher education and whose participants were senior citizens and students in fourth year of their course of studies in Teacher Education in Physical Education in the province. The theoretical framework is provided by the bibliography studied in a Game Theory Seminar attended by the author in her journey to achieve a postgraduate degree as Master in Body Education and by other studies relevant to gerontology. Furthermore, the data obtained through interviews in the fieldwork described here is the input needed to analyze both conceptualizations about old age and aging and the ideas and preconceptions about game in senior citizens. This data also allows the analysis of the games of yesterday and today and the multiplicity of meanings they acquire at the old age, from the voices of the protagonists of the experience

  16. Predicting and detecting adverse drug reactions in old age: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A

    2012-05-01

    Increased, often inappropriate, drug exposure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, reduced homeostatic reserve and frailty increase the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the older population, thereby imposing a significant public health burden. Predicting and diagnosing ADRs in old age presents significant challenges for the clinician, even when specific risk scoring systems are available. The picture is further compounded by the potential adverse impact of several drugs on more 'global' health indicators, for example, physical function and independence, and the fragmentation of care (e.g., increased number of treating doctors and care transitions) experienced by older patients during their clinical journey. The current knowledge of drug safety in old age is also curtailed by the lack of efficacy and safety data from pre-marketing studies. Moreover, little consideration is given to individual patients' experiences and reporting of specific ADRs, particularly in the presence of cognitive impairment. Pending additional data on these issues, the close review and monitoring of individual patients' drug prescribing, clinical status and biochemical parameters remain essential to predict and detect ADRs in old age. Recently developed strategies, for example, medication reconciliation and trigger tool methodology, have the potential for ADRs risk mitigation in this population. However, more information is required on their efficacy and applicability in different healthcare settings.

  17. POLAND: NO COUNTRY FOR OLD MEN? OR: ON SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF OLD AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Stypinska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the various approaches to the phenomenon of old age in Poland from the perspective of social constructionism in sociology. It attempts to demonstrate that the defi nition of old age is not a primitive notion of essentialist character, but a set of meanings that are permanently transformed and negotiated depending on the social contexts in which they are deployed. The concept of social constructionism of Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann serves as a theoretical prism for the analysis of the empirical material. The empirical material consists of a set of texts and commentaries from the readers and users of the Internet portal GazetaWyborcza and the report “Is Poland a country for old men?”. The major guideline for the analysis of the empirical material was to identify the major themes and spheres of social life discussed among the readers and Internet users. The subsequent steps were: synthesis and interpretation of the results.The analysis showed that the main concerns regarding the topic of old age are the following: public space as a place of alienation or even perhaps “invisibility” of older people, the labour market as an area of domination of young people, media described as the “dictatorship of young faces”, and the usage of new technologies by seniors.

  18. Is midlife occupational physical activity related to disability in old age? The SNAC-Kungsholmen study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rydwik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Leisure-time physical activity (PA has been established to be related to more years lived without disability. However, less is known about the relationship between occupational PA and disability in old age. The aim of the study was 1 to investigate whether midlife occupational PA is related to late-life disability, and 2 to test the hypothesis that the association differs according to the occupational categories of blue and white collar work. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, and consisted of a random sample of 1804 subjects aged 72 and above. The association of occupational PA during the longest held occupation with disability in old age was determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between occupational PA and disability in personal or instrumental activities of daily living (ADL after controlling for demographic and health-related factors. However, in stratified analyses moderate levels of occupational PA was associated with a lower odds ratio of dependency in personal ADL amongst white collar workers, compared to low level of occupational PA (OR = 0.34 95% C1 0.12-0.98. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate levels of midlife occupational PA were associated with a decreased risk of personal ADL disability in old age among white collar workers, but not among blue collar workers. Our results highlight the importance of encouraging white collar workers to engage in physical activity during or outside work hours.

  19. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...... stability arguably allows such a self-reinforcing process over time between institutions and social trust....

  20. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group.

  1. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  2. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services...... the evidence base and inform future policy-making on marketization in general and within the welfare areas in particular....

  3. POLITIK HUKUM PENGUATAN FUNGSI NEGARA UNTUK KESEJAHTERAAN RAKYAT (Studi Tentang Konsep Dan Praktik Negara Kesejahteraan Menurut UUD 1945 / LEGAL POLICY OF STRENGTHENING STATE FUNCTIONS FOR PEOPLE’S WELFARE (Concepts And Practices Study Of Welfare State Based On The 1945 Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Riwanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Konsep negara dalam praktik ketatanegaraan menurut konstruksi konstitusi terbagi dalam dua kutub yang berlawanan, yaitu negara kesejahteraan (welfare state dan negara liberal (liberal state. Keduanya berbeda, yang pertama menuntut fungsi negara yang kuat dan luas dalam mengatur keadilan ekonomi, sedang yang kedua sebaliknya mempercayakan pada pasar bebas dalam perekonomian, sehingga fungsi negara harus dipinggirkan. Berdasarkan metode penelitian yuridis-sosiologis (socio-legal sesuai Pasal 33 UUD 1945 Pasca amandemen Indonesia menganut konsep negara kesejahteraan. Namun secara sosiologis dalam praktiknya berkecenderungan menganut negara liberal yang tak menyejahterakan rakyat. Tantangan negara kesejahteraan Indonesia adalah negara liberal yang melahirkan sistem ekonomi kapitalis. Pilihan yang tersedia untuk melawan sistem ekonomi kapitalis adalah dengan melakukan aneka usaha politik hukum (legal policy, yakni: Pertama, memfungsikan kembali peran fungsi negara dalam pengaturan dan pengendalian ekonomi. Kedua, memperbesar penghasilan negara melalui pajak dan diimbangi dengan belanja sosial yang tinggi untuk mewujudkan kesejahteraan sosial dan keadilan ekonomi. According to the constitution, the state concept in constitutional practice can be divided into two opposite poles, namely welfare and liberal state. They have different characteristics in which the first concept (welfare state requires a strong and extensive state functions to regulate an economic justice, on the contrary the second concept (liberal state relies on the free market economy which state’s role should be marginalized. Sosio-legal research is used in this article. Based on the Article 33 of Indonesian post constitutional amendment of 1945, Indonesia embraced the concept of welfare state. Yet, the practice sociologically tends to embrace a liberal state that is not suitable with the welfare of the people. There are challenges, in the context of liberal state, faced by Indonesia

  4. Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.
METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.
RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.
CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.


Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

  5. One Welfare State, Two Care Regimes: Understanding Developments in Child and Elderly Care Policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.; Becker, U.

    2012-01-01

    The different development of child and elderly care in the Netherlands reflects the hybrid character of its welfare system, which, until the 1980s, featured both social democratic and conservative elements. While public involvement in the provision of elderly care services rapidly increased after

  6. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  7. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change.

  8. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  9. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  10. EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OLD AGE AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN AN INSTITUTIONAL FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Urbanová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the research was to determine attitudes towards old age in older adults living in institutional facilities, and to compare them with the population standard. A further aim was to determine differences in attitudes towards old age by gender, age, level of education, and self-sufficiency in the older adults surveyed. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A research sample consisting of 121 elderly people living in retirement homes. Data were collected using a Czech version of the AAQ questionnaire (Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, and Barthelʼs test of Activities of daily living was used to assess levels of self-sufficiency. Results: Older adults awarded the highest score (most positive attitude in the domain of psychosocial losses. In comparison with the population standard, older adults rated the domain of physical change (p < 0.001 and psychological growth (p < 0.001 negatively. The domain of psychosocial losses was assessed more positively by men (p < 0.001 and the elderly with moderate dependence (p < 0.001; the domain of physical changes was also positively assessed by men (p = 0.001, and older adults with university education (p = 0.002; the domain of psychological growth was rated more positively by adults over 85 years (p = 0.001, and the elderly with basic education (p = 0.040. Conclusion: Determining older adults´ attitudes towards ageing in institutional care may help in the preparation of individual care plans aimed at supporting clients in areas that have been evaluated negatively. Keywords: institutional care, quality of life, attitudes, old age, ageing, self-sufficiency.

  11. Denture acceptance among newly rehabilitated elderly population in old age homes in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika S Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elders in old age homes are mainly those who have been abandoned by their family and have one or more physical or mental disabilities. It is a major challenge for the dental professional to plan oral health strategy for this group of patients. Aim of the Study: Aim of the present study is to observe and determine the acceptance of new dental prosthesis among the elderly residing as inmates of 3 old age homes in Mangalore City. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey proforma. Information regarding their experience with the new denture, 1-month, 3 months and 6 months after denture insertion was gathered. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Chi-square test with the P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: One hundred and eighty-three residents out of a total of 400 residents in 3 old age homes were denture wearers. Among them, 101 (55.2% were females, and 82 (44.8% were males. Dental prosthesis whether worn regularly, discomfort, retention, cleansing of denture during a period of 1-month, 3 months and 6 months was found to be significant satisfaction with the prosthesis, denture adhesives used, food accumulation during a period of 1-month, 3 months and 6 months was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion: The emotional makeup of the patient must be taken into consideration during the entire procedure. We must understand that the success of the prosthesis depends mainly on the patient′s confidence in the dentist rather than the quality of the prosthesis.

  12. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  13. Motor and non-motor symptoms in old-age onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Lampreia, Tania; Miguel, Rita; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel; Bugalho, Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). With population ageing it is expected that the total number of patients with PD onset at oldage increases. Information on the motor but particularly on non-motor phenotype of this late-onset population is lacking. We recruited 24 patients with PD onset at or over 75 years. Each patient was matched with 1 control patient with PD onset between the ages of 40 and 65 and matched for disease duration. Both groups were assessed with the UPDRS, the Non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and other scales to assess non-motor symptoms. Groups were compared with conditional logistic regression analysis. Old-age onset PD was, on average, 80 years at the time of PD onset while middle-age onset were 59. Disease duration was approximately 5 years in both groups. While no difference was observed in the total UPDRS-III scores, old-age onset PD was associated with higher axial symptoms (7.42 vs. 4.63, p = 0.011) and a higher frequency of dementia (7/24 vs. 0/24, p = 0.009). While no difference in the total number of non-motor symptoms was observed (6.79 vs. 6.22, p = 0.310), old-age onset patients had a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (20/24 vs. 12/24, p = 0.037). For the same disease duration, older age onset is associated with worse axial motor dysfunction and dementia in PD patients. Beside gastrointestinal symptoms, non-motor symptoms are not associated with age.

  14. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  15. Genetic and environmental links between cognitive and physical functions in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    of twins from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Cognitive function was measured using forward and backward digit span, immediate and delayed memory, and fluency tasks. Physical function was measured using self-report of ability to carry out physical activities including walking, running......In old age, cognitive and physical functions are correlated. Knowing the correlations between genetic and environmental influences underlying this correlation can help to clarify the reasons for the observable (phenotypic) correlation. We estimated these correlations in a sample of 1,053 pairs...

  16. The importance of regional availability of health care for old age survival - Findings from German reunification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Tobias C.; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article investigates the importance of regional health care availability for old age survival. Using German reunification as a natural experiment, we show that spatial variation in health care in East Germany considerably influenced the convergence of East German life expectancy...... toward West German levels. METHOD: We apply cause-deleted life tables and continuous mortality decomposition for the years 1982-2007 to show how reductions in circulatory mortality among the elderly affected the East German catch-up in life expectancy. RESULTS: Improvements in remaining life expectancy...

  17. [The relationship between neuroendocrine dysfunction and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, D B; Mingazov, A Kh; Izarovskaya, I V; Babin, K A; Sinitsky, A I

    2015-01-01

    to study the relationship between dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism. Authors examined 46 men and women, aged 60-80 years, with alcoholism. Contents of cortisol, lipid peroxidation products and the level of an oxidatively modified protein were measured. A decrease in blood cortisol content and correlations between its level and activity of free-radical oxidation were identified. The severity of neuroendocrine dysfunction in old patients was sex-related. It has been suggested that the impairment of HPA system activity may be a cause of oxidative stress and development of alcoholism.

  18. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.

    2016-01-01

     depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...

  19. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: Evidence from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child’s sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son...

  20. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Opinions of Old Age According to Residents of Polish Public Nursing Homes and Members of the Universities of the Third Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Jamiołkowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Statistical data from the turn of the 21st century shows a significant increase in the average human life span and, what follows, an extension of old age. The aim of this study was to become familiar with the opinions submitted by respondents regarding aging and old age, health problems connected with aging and preferred health behaviors. The research was conducted between January 3rd 2013 and February 15th 2014 on a group of 200 residents of public nursing homes and 200 members of the University of the Third Age using a questionnaire created by the authors. Forty-two point five per cent of the residents of PNHs and 58.0% of the members of UTAs were of the opinion that old age can be a successful period of life. Sixty-one percent of all participants stated that the elderly are needed in society. According to respondents, the factor which was most important in delaying aging was an active lifestyle (80.0% of residents of PNH vs. 90.0% of UTA members). Perceptions of elderly people by the seniors are different, complex and multidimensional. The perception of elderly people to society can variously affect (positively or negatively) quality of life in this age group. The results of the study showed small differences between the residents of public nursing homes and students of Universities of the Third Age in the perception of old age. There is a need to integrate seniors with younger generations in order to eliminate the stereotypes prevailing in society about older people.

  2. Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The health and well-being consequences of social isolation and loneliness in old age are increasingly being recognised. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of the available evidence and to highlight gaps and areas for future research. We searched nine databases for empirical papers investigating the impact of social isolation and/or loneliness on a range of health outcomes in old age. Our search, conducted between July and September 2013 yielded 11,736 articles, of which 128 items from 15 countries were included in the scoping review. Papers were reviewed, with a focus on the definitions and measurements of the two concepts, associations and causal mechanisms, differences across population groups and interventions. The evidence is largely US-focused, and loneliness is more researched than social isolation. A recent trend is the investigation of the comparative effects of social isolation and loneliness. Depression and cardiovascular health are the most often researched outcomes, followed by well-being. Almost all (but two) studies found a detrimental effect of isolation or loneliness on health. However, causal links and mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate, and further investigation is warranted. We found a paucity of research focusing on at-risk sub-groups and in the area of interventions. Future research should aim to better link the evidence on the risk factors for loneliness and social isolation and the evidence on their impact on health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sweet old things: moral complexities in old age in Muriel Spark's Memento Mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Suzanne E; Rust, Martha D

    2015-04-01

    Through the lens of Muriel Spark's dark comedic novel, Memento Mori, this paper explores questions of morality, mortality, and the moral choices and performances in old age and in the systems and places of care. Spark's elderly characters are complex moral actors - some virtuous and some decidedly not - who have been receiving mysterious phone calls telling them simply, "Remember you must die." We, the co-authors, are from two different disciplines, namely Renaissance and medieval literature, and social work and critical gerontology. Among the questions that interest us is the paradox of a master narrative that on the one hand exempts the old from moral criticism yet holds them to a higher moral standard - essentially positioning them as moral nonentities, and relieving the old, their caretakers, and society of moral responsibility. Another is the question of whether moral agency in old age has distinctive aspects, and whether consciousness of one's impending mortality effects moral reasoning and performance. In this paper we offer our individual readings of the ways the novel opens up conceptual space in aging theory, and conclude with our thoughts about what our collaboration suggests for continuing cross-disciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  5. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociomedical sequels and quality of life in patients of old age group with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Raskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sociomedical significance of osteoporosis is determined by its sequels (vertebral and peripheral skeletal fractures that are responsible for high mortality and disability rates among persons in the old age group and accordingly for high material costs in the health care system.Objective: to study sociomedical sequels and quality of life in patients with proximal femoral fractures in the old age group.Subjects and methods. 956 patients with osteoporotic fractures were followed up. Major social sequels were traced in the patients 6, 12, and 24 months after femur fractures in relation to treatment options.Results. There were 10 (8.0% and 78 (66.7% bedridden patients in the surgical and medical treatment groups, respectively. Twenty four months after fracture, recovery of function was noted in 72 (57.6% and 32 (27.35% patients receiving surgical and medical treatment, respectively.Conclusion. The findings suggest that immediate and late sequels in patients with proximal femoral fractures depend on a treatment option.

  7. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Prevalence of negative stereotypes towards old age among personnel of a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco S, Mireya; Villarreal R, Enrique; Vargas D, Emma R; Martínez G, Lidia; Galicia R, Liliana

    2010-08-01

    Social representations are value systems. Social stereotypes are a social consensus of traits associated with a specific group. Stereotypes about older subjects, generally have negative connotations. To assess the prevalence of negative stereotypes towards older subjects among health care personnel. A questionnaire about stereotypes towards old age, with Likert type questions that included health, social motivations and personality-character domains, was applied to 52 doctors, 12 residents, 80 general nurses, 36 auxiliary nurses, four social workers and 10 medical assistants, working at a general hospital. The mean age of the professionals who answered the questionnaire was 38 years (95% confidence intervals (CI) 37-39 years) and 78% were women. The prevalence of a Global negative stereotype was 65.0%(95% CI: 59.5-70.5). The figure for the health domain was 64.5% (IC95%; 59.0-70.0), for the social motivation domain was 60%(5%CI: 54.3-65.7) and for the character personality domain was 64% (95%CI: 58.4-69.6). There is a high prevalence of a negative stereotype towards old age among health care personnel.

  10. A velhice, entre o normal e o patológico Old age, normality versus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Groisman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a ascensão do envelhecimento da população brasileira ao posto de 'problema social', assistimos a um crescimento cada vez maior do número de especialistas dedicados a este 'grupo etário': os geriatras e gerontólogos, que ocupam papel de destaque na formulação das novas formas de gestão da velhice. No entanto, a gerontologia parece ter problemas internos na sua formulação como campo de saber, que parecem comprometer sua consolidação como profissão e seu reconhecimento como disciplina científica. No presente artigo, procuramos chamar atenção para as dificuldades que a gerontologia encontra para delimitar seu campo e definir seu objeto. Sustentamos que tais dificuldades parecem derivar de uma questão central, que é a impossibilidade de serem delimitadas as fronteiras entre o normal e o patológico, na velhice. Por fim, analisamos a questão sob um ponto de vista histórico, à luz do processo de constituição do saber médico sobre o envelhecimento.Since life expectancy of Brazilian population increased and aging was considered a "social problem", there has been a boom of specialists in old age. Gerontologists and geriatricians are now playing a relevant role in setting new trends to the management of issues related to old age. However, gerontology as a field of knowledge seems to have internal questions that apparently hinder its professional consolidation and its scientific recognition. In this article, the author focus the difficulties gerontology has in order to delimitate its field of action and to define the object of its studies. The author argues that such difficulties derive from a central point: the impossibility to delimitate the frontiers between what is normal and what is pathological in old age. He also analyzes the constitution of medical knowledge on aging in a historical perspective.

  11. Collapsing Worlds and Varieties of welfare capitalism: In search of a new political economy of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Schelkle

    2012-01-01

    The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies...

  12. The welfare state within the framework of the capialist system. Does it have a future or is it non-viable in the current globalized system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Cabrera Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role played by the State in the economic, political, and social field during the 20th Century has engendered some reactions in favor or against from the point of view of several ideological thinkers within capitalism. Regardless of the point of view from where it is observed, it can be said that it has had an influence on individual freedom, in the relationships generated around the development conception and, in general, in current social-economic growth. The aim of this article is to review the study of the welfare State role in the capitalist society in the 20th Century, analyzing different contributions from the point of view of those who defend this theory, as well as those who are opposed to it. It recognizes that every State must confront the complex process that generates the interaction of different social structures interaction and their outcome that affects the people.

  13. Old ages of two historical Romanian trees assessed by AMS radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrut, Adrian; Reden, Karl F. von; Lowy, Daniel A.; Patrut, Roxana T.; Lucian Vaida, D.; Margineanu, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    Two large Romanian poplars are considered to be associated with significant historical events of the past. In order to verify these claims, wood samples collected from the broken trunks of the two poplars were radiocarbon dated by AMS. The oldest radiocarbon dates were found to be 275 ± 20 bp for the black poplar of Mocod and 316 ± 22 bp for the gray poplar of Rafaila. These values correspond to calibrated ages of 365 ± 10 and 465 ± 25 years, respectively. The dating results indicate old ages for the two trees, i.e., 455 years for the Mocod poplar and 560 years for the Rafaila poplar. Such age values validate historical information on the two large Romanian trees.

  14. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  15. Dream content of Canadian males from adolescence to old age: An exploration of ontogenetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

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    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  17. The meaning of having to live with cancer in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomé, B; Esbensen, B A; Dykes, A-K

    2004-01-01

    degrees by the cancer disease. The lived experiences across the interviews were revealed in four overarching essential themes: transition into a more or less disintegrated existence, sudden awareness of the finiteness of life, redefinition of one's role in life for good and for bad, meeting disease......Little is known about how older people with cancer experience their life situation. To increase the understanding of how illness is experienced in older people with cancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of living with cancer in old age. The hermeneutic phenomenological method...... as described by van Manen and referred to as 'phenomenology of praxis' was used. Ten persons (seven women and three men) aged 75 and over, who had a diagnosis of cancer and who had just completed cancer treatment, were interviewed in their own homes. The analysis revealed a life world affected to varying...

  18. Old ages of two historical Romanian trees assessed by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrut, Adrian, E-mail: apatrut@gmail.com [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Chemistry, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Reden, Karl F. von [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Geology and Geophysics, NOSAMS Facility, 360 Woods Hole Rd., Mailstop 8, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Lowy, Daniel A. [FlexEl, LLC, 387 Technology Drive, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Patrut, Roxana T. [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Biology and Geology, Gh. Bilascu 44, 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lucian Vaida, D. [Museum of Border Regiment Nasaud, Granicerilor 19, 425200 Nasaud (Romania); Margineanu, Dragos [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Chemistry, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-01-15

    Two large Romanian poplars are considered to be associated with significant historical events of the past. In order to verify these claims, wood samples collected from the broken trunks of the two poplars were radiocarbon dated by AMS. The oldest radiocarbon dates were found to be 275 {+-} 20 bp for the black poplar of Mocod and 316 {+-} 22 bp for the gray poplar of Rafaila. These values correspond to calibrated ages of 365 {+-} 10 and 465 {+-} 25 years, respectively. The dating results indicate old ages for the two trees, i.e., 455 years for the Mocod poplar and 560 years for the Rafaila poplar. Such age values validate historical information on the two large Romanian trees.

  19. Preparations for Old Age and Well-Being in Later Life in Thailand: Gender Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Quashie, Nekehia T

    2018-06-01

    Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample ( N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.

  20. Use of antiepileptic drugs and risk of falls in old age: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasum, Ylva; Johnell, Kristina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature to investigate if use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with falls and/or recurrent falls in old age. We searched the literature for relevant articles in PubMed and Embase published up until 3rd December 2015. Studies on people aged 60 years and over with an observational design assessing the risk of fall in people exposed to AEDs compared to people not exposed to AED were included. We found 744 studies by searching Medline and Embase and an additional 9 studies by reviewing relevant reference lists. Of these studies, 13 fulfilled our predefined criteria. The articles were of various study design, sizes and follow-up times, and presented the results in different ways. Also, confounder adjustment varied considerably between the studies. Ten studies presented results for the association between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Of these studies, 6 presented adjusted estimates, of which all but one showed statistically significant associations between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Six studies investigated the association between use of any AED and recurrent falls. Of these, only 3 studies presented adjusted effect estimates of which 2 reached statistical significance for the association between use of AEDs and recurrent falls in elderly people. Our results indicate an association between use of AEDs and risk of falls and recurrent falls in older people. This finding may be clinically important given that a substantial amount of older people use these drugs. However, further research is needed to increase the knowledge about the actual risk of falls when using these drugs in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Diagnostics and multimodal treatment of depression in old age : New developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschweiler, Gerhard W

    2017-02-01

    Depressive disorders in elderly persons are frequent and can either first be manifested at a younger age and show a recurrent pattern during later life (ICD 10, F33.*) or have an onset beyond 60 years, which is termed late onset depression (LOD). This LOD has a higher tendency to chronification and implies an increased risk of progression, especially to vascular dementia. The multifactorial genesis of depression in old age includes psychosocial, vascular and metabolic factors and requires multimodal therapy modules at the biological and psychosocial level, which is now increasingly being empirically proven. Depressive disorders with executive and cognitive deficits have to be considered a defined entity with respect to prognosis and treatment. As a first step of treatment watchful waiting is appropriate, especially in depressive adjustment disorders triggered by acute psychosocial stressors (e.g. loss of relatives and conflicts). After 2-4 weeks pharmacological antidepressant therapy should be initiated, at least in a moderate depressive episode. Furthermore, the revised national guidelines for depressive disorders also explicitly recommend psychotherapy as an alternative or supplement to pharmacotherapy in the elderly. Several forms of psychotherapy are emphasized: cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and in particular problem solving, as this is a form of treatment that can also be carried out by other professional groups, thus alleviating the treatment gap caused by the lack of psychotherapists. In summary, a depressive disorder in old age should not induce therapeutic nihilism: after stepped diagnostic assessments, multimodal therapies are individually adapted to the physical, cognitive and social resources of the patients.

  2. Nursing homes as the perspective and reality of guest workers in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of research conducted as part of the “Ambivalent nostalgia in the cultural heritage of gastarbeiters” project of the Ethnological-anthropological society of Serbia. The research was conducted in Kučevo and Wienna in 2014. The research focused on older guest workers or gastarbeiters who are mostly in the status of disabled pensioners, and seniors whose family members work abroad. An important criterion for determining the gasterbeiter population was entering into the sphere of work in an active capacity, specified by the assumed “temporality” in the country of work; the determination of “seniority” is based on the criteria of exiting the active sphere of work. In this way a new kind of old person, a new kind of pensioner was formed – the foreign currency pensioner whose operating strategies are partly in the focus of this paper. Aside from these strategies, the paper analyzes the strategies employed by the family members of gastarbeiters facing the old age of their relatives who reside in their country of origin either permanently or on a semi-permanent basis; as well as the strategies which the Gerontological Society of Serbia tried to develop in cooperation with the former Ministry of Diaspora RS with the aim of attracting aging gastarbeiters to domestic nursing homes, as well as stimulating the diaspora to invest in such institutions in Serbia. In short, the life experiences and attitudes of 14 pensioners interviewed in Kučevo and Vienna on issues of old age, possible – or ongoing life in a nursing home, the differences and/or similarities between them and other old folks they encountered abroad or at home, as well as experiences with working with the aging gastarbeiter population shared by six employees in a private as well as a public nursing home in Kučevo, will be the object of analysis in this paper.

  3. Welfare Technology and Surveillance in Care Work for Elderly Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Kamp, Annette; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment (Finansmini......‘Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment...

  4. Percepciones sobre las consecuencias sociales del estado del bienestar y su futuro (Perceptions on the social consequences and the future of welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Tortosa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las actitudes ciudadanas ante el estado del bienestar van a ser en el futuro motivo de gran interés debido a los proyectos de reforma que se prevee realizar. Los valores y los intereses personales son el conjunto de factores que influyen decisivamente en la opinión de los ciudadanos. Este trabajo pretende dilucidar en que medida los valores representados por la idea de igualdad, de autoridad y de mérito, la posición política y la percepción de los efectos del estado del bienestar permiten determinar la opinión de los individuos sobre la situación futura del sistema de pensiones.Abstract: Citizens’ attitudes to the welfare state will be in the future of great interest because of the draft reform envisaged. The values and interests personal are all factors that strongly influence in the opinion of citizens. This paper seeks to ascertain to what extent values represented by the idea of equality, authority and merit, political position and perceptions of the effects of state welfare for determining the views of individuals on the future status of the pension system.

  5. O tornar-se cuidadora na senescência Conviertendo cuidador en la vejez Becoming caregiver in the old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Braz

    2009-06-01

    , carried out in the district of Cascavel in the state of Parana, with caregivers in the old age of domicile elderly dependents, in which aimed to verify the reasons that had taken them to perform the role of caregivers in the old age. The qualitative methodology was applied and as for means of theory Social Representation was elected. The criteria included for this study was being female sex, age 60 or superior, domicile caregivers mainly of elderly dependents, for the equivalent or a superior period of three months. Data collection occurred within the months from November, 2006 to January, 2007. The crew was composed by 13 caregivers, whose 46, 1 % were housewives, to which the trully social representation was atributed. Social representation is also related to the figure of a woman, generally being the oldest of the family, widow or single. Out of resources and aids, and treated with inequality by the society, the elderly caregiver and in this case the female elderly caregiver in the old age, becomes another vulnerable point in our society.

  6. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  7. Medico-Artistic Complicities on Swedish Stages: The Boys in the Band and the Regulation of Gay Male Representation in the Welfare State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage.

  8. A STUDY OF ELDERLY LIVING IN OLD AGE HOMES AND FAMILY IN PUNE DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra KrishnaAhiwale

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The older generation is caught between the decline in traditional values on one hand and the absence of adequate social security system on the other. The elderly citizens are in need of urgent attention. They don’t need our pity, but the understanding, love and care of their fellow human beings. It is our duty to see that they don’t spend the twilight years of their life in isolation, pain and misery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in elderly living in two old age homes and some families of general population living in Pune, in July-2017. The data was collected from a sample of hundred and twenty elderly people, after a random selection, sixty from old-age homes (OAHs and sixty were from the families. These data were collected from two OAHs using a specially designed Interview schedule and observation technique through a house to house survey for those residing in the family. These informations thus obtained were collected, analysed, tabulated, and finally presented in the form of numbers and percentages. RESULTS Our present study shows that out of total 60 respondents taken from families, 33.3% belongs to 60-65 yrs. of age group, 47% from 65-70 yrs., 13.3% from 70-75 yrs., and 6.6% were from above 75 yrs. of age group. Out of other 60 respondents living in OAHs, these data were 3.3%, 16.6%, 47%, and 33.3% respectively. Majority of the respondents (43.3% living in the families preferred a company with their family members. Majority of the elderly (53.3% were more comfortable to make their social relationship with their inmates. Among those elderly living in OAHs, 86.6% were visiting religious places, and 3.3% were resorting to meditation. CONCLUSION It could be concluded from our present study that the general feelings of the elderly living in the families had better position than that of the elderly living in OAHs. Older persons are in need of vital support that will keep important aspects of their lifestyles

  9. Personality and Suicidal Behavior in Old Age: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szücs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSuicide rates generally peak in the second half of life and are particularly high in older men; however, little is known about the contribution of dispositional factors to late-life suicide. Maladaptive personality traits have been strongly implicated in suicide among younger adults, but the extent to which they continue to play a role in late-life suicidal behavior is unclear. We also do not know whether specific personality profiles interact with the stressors of aging to cause suicidal behavior.MethodsWe sought to synthesize the data on personality pathology in late-life suicidal ideation and behavior via a systematic review using the PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycInfo, Scopus, Ovid, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane search engines. The included key words related to three descriptors: “personality,” “suicide,” and “elderly.” Included articles evaluated personality based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM or ICD/DSM diagnostic criteria in older samples with minimum age cutoffs of 50 years or older. Our original search identified 1,183 articles, of which 31 were retained.ResultsIncluded studies were heterogeneous in their design and personality measurements. Studies of categorical personality disorders were particularly scarce and suggested a stronger association with late-life suicidal ideation than with death by suicide. Only obsessive–compulsive and avoidant personality traits were associated with death by suicide in old age, but only in studies that did not control for depression. All personality constructs were positively linked to suicidal ideation, except for histrionic personality, which emerged as a negative predictor. Studies employing the FFM also indicated that older adults who died by suicide were less likely to display a maladaptive personality profile than elderly suicide attempters and younger suicide victims, having both lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of conscientiousness than these

  10. Old age and vulnerability between first, second and third person perspectives. Ethnographic explorations of aging in contemporary Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Lone

    2016-12-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable. After a short introduction to anthropological and social gerontological literature on characteristics of "Western" aging: medicalization, successful, healthy and active aging, I present findings from both phases of this ethnographic fieldwork arguing that the ethnographic approach reveals the composite and complex nature of vulnerability in old age and the constant interactions between first, second and third person perspectives. Through these methodological and analytical moves a complex and empirically tenable understanding of vulnerability in old age has emerged which 1. moves beyond rigid dichotomies that have characterized the study of old age, 2. integrates individual experience, social interaction and the structural and discursive context into the analysis, and 3. reveals the complex interplay between vulnerability and agency in diverse situations and settings of old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  12. Mapping European Welfare Models: State of the Art of Strategies for Professional Integration and Reintegration of Persons with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Scaratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons with chronic diseases (PwCDs often experience work-related problems, and innovative actions to improve their participation in the labor market are needed. In the frame of the European (EU Pathways Project, the aim of the study is to compare existing strategies (policies, systems, and services for professional (re-integration of PwCDs and mental health conditions available at both European and national level between different European welfare models: Scandinavian, Continental, Anglo-Saxon, Mediterranean, and “Post-Communist”. Method: The European strategies were identified by an overview of relevant academic and grey literature searched through Medline and internet searches, while national strategies were explored through questionnaires and in-depth interviews with national relevant stakeholders. Results: The mapping of existing strategies revealed that, both at European and national level, PwCDs are often considered as part of the group of “persons with disabilities” and only in this case they can receive employment support. European countries put in place actions to support greater labor market participation, but these differ from country to country. Conclusion: Strategies targeting “persons with disabilities” do not necessarily address all the needs of persons with chronic diseases. Countries should consider the importance of employment for all to achieve smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

  13. Mapping European Welfare Models: State of the Art of Strategies for Professional Integration and Reintegration of Persons with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaratti, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde; Silvaggi, Fabiola; Ávila, Carolina C; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Burger, Helena; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Sabariego, Carla; Esteban, Eva; Gruber, Sonja; Svestkova, Olga; Halvorsen, Rune; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Ferraina, Sabrina

    2018-04-17

    Background: Persons with chronic diseases (PwCDs) often experience work-related problems, and innovative actions to improve their participation in the labor market are needed. In the frame of the European (EU) Pathways Project, the aim of the study is to compare existing strategies (policies, systems, and services) for professional (re-)integration of PwCDs and mental health conditions available at both European and national level between different European welfare models: Scandinavian, Continental, Anglo-Saxon, Mediterranean, and “Post-Communist”. Method : The European strategies were identified by an overview of relevant academic and grey literature searched through Medline and internet searches, while national strategies were explored through questionnaires and in-depth interviews with national relevant stakeholders. Results : The mapping of existing strategies revealed that, both at European and national level, PwCDs are often considered as part of the group of “persons with disabilities” and only in this case they can receive employment support. European countries put in place actions to support greater labor market participation, but these differ from country to country. Conclusion : Strategies targeting “persons with disabilities” do not necessarily address all the needs of persons with chronic diseases. Countries should consider the importance of employment for all to achieve smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

  14. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  15. Communication beliefs about youth and old age in Asia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Youngsun; Anas, Ann P; Luh, Jessica J

    2004-12-01

    Two cross-cultural studies compared beliefs in Asia and Canada about communication in later life. With an expanded version of the Language in Adulthood Questionnaire, respondents rated a young or old adult target on communication skills selected to elicit both negative and positive stereotypes. Chinese, Chinese-Canadian, and Canadian participants were compared in Study 1 while younger and older respondents from South Korea and Canada were contrasted in Study 2. All groups showed negative beliefs about hearing and memory in old age. Positive communication beliefs were also evident for empathy, storytelling and social skills. Participants in Asia showed less stereotyping overall, for both negative and positive beliefs. Significant age interactions in Study 2 reflected positive communication beliefs only for the older participants. In line with recent investigations of the multidimensional impact of Eastern traditions, greater positivity toward older adults was not observed in Asia. This work highlights the importance of assessing both positive and negative age beliefs in cross-cultural comparisons.

  16. The meaning of having to live with cancer in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, B; Esbensen, B A; Dykes, A-K; Hallberg, I R

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about how older people with cancer experience their life situation. To increase the understanding of how illness is experienced in older people with cancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of living with cancer in old age. The hermeneutic phenomenological method as described by van Manen and referred to as 'phenomenology of praxis' was used. Ten persons (seven women and three men) aged 75 and over, who had a diagnosis of cancer and who had just completed cancer treatment, were interviewed in their own homes. The analysis revealed a life world affected to varying degrees by the cancer disease. The lived experiences across the interviews were revealed in four overarching essential themes: transition into a more or less disintegrated existence, sudden awareness of the finiteness of life, redefinition of one's role in life for good and for bad, meeting disease and illness. To provide individual support and appropriate care to older people with cancer it is important for health care professionals to identify and take care of disabilities and to support the reorientation in the disintegrated life situation. It is also important to have preparedness to meet the old person's thoughts about death. Thus, it is important to encourage the old person to describe her/his illness experience to increase understanding about what is meaningful for her/him.

  17. Is There a Reversal in the Effect of Obesity on Mortality in Old Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiska Cohen-Mansfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of obesity and its relationship with mortality risk in older persons have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to examine the age-related associations between obesity and mortality in older persons. Data were drawn from the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS, a national survey of a random sample of older Jewish persons in Israel conducted during 1989–1992. Analyses included 1369 self-respondent participants aged 75–94 from the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS. Mortality data at 20-year followup were recorded from the Israeli National Population Registry. Obesity was significantly predictive of higher mortality for persons aged 75–84, but from age 85 onwards, obesity had a protective effect on mortality albeit at a nonsignificant level. Being underweight was consistently predictive of mortality. Findings suggest that the common emphasis on avoiding obesity may not apply to those advancing towards old-old age, at least as far as mortality is concerned.

  18. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  19. Attitudes of old people towards old age homes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T; Luk, J K; Lau, E; Woo, J

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of older people towards old age homes (OAH) in Hong Kong and the factors which influenced their attitudes were investigated. A total of 197 non-institutionalised older subjects were interviewed with a standard questionnaire. A quarter of them admitted to having thought about going into an OAH, though most had never visited one. Half of them would consider an OAH if they lived alone with no family support, while only a few would consider it if they were living with family. If they became disabled and required help from family, a third would consider an OAH. If family support was not available, two-thirds would consider an OAH, while a few opted for social services. If advised to go into an OAH by doctors or family, about a half of the subjects would comply. On stepwise logistic regression, independent predictors of the desire for an OAH were agreeing with OAH placement if it was affordable and if one was living alone with visits from family, admitting to be happy in an OAH, and previous experience with an OAH. We concluded that older people in Hong Kong were not in favour of an OAH unless there were physical disabilities and lack of family support. They were, however, vulnerable to external pressures.

  20. Association of financial and health literacy with cognitive health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A; Boyle, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that higher financial and health literacy is associated with better cognitive health in 755 older persons who completed a literacy measure (M = 67.9, SD = 14.5) and then had annual clinical evaluations for a mean of 3.4 years. In proportional hazards models, higher literacy was associated with decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's disease (n = 68) and results were similar for financial and health literacy subscales and after adjustment for potential confounders. In mixed-effects models, higher literacy was related to higher baseline level of cognition and reduced cognitive decline in multiple domains. Among the 602 persons without any cognitive impairment at baseline, higher literacy was associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline and risk of developing incident mild cognitive impairment (n = 142). The results suggest that higher levels of financial and health literacy are associated with maintenance of cognitive health in old age.

  1. Health, body image, gender, and migration status: their relationship to sexuality in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Darya; Iecovich, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between gender, migration status, perceived health, body image, and sexual activity and satisfaction among older adults. It was hypothesized that men and those who are long-standing residents in Israel will report better perceived health, a positive body image, and these will be associated with greater sexuality, compared with women, new immigrants with poorer perceived health and a negative body image. The sample included 200 respondents who were 60 years and older, functionally independent and living with a spouse or a partner for at least one year, heterosexual, and living in the community in Israel. Respondents were recruited through community-based services for older persons and snowballing. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine differences by groups of respondents and to identify the best predictors of the outcome variables. The majority had some kind of sexual activity. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to perceived health, body image, sexual activity and satisfaction, but significant differences were found between new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries and long-standing residents in Israel. Mental health, age, and migration status were significant in explaining sexual activity, while age, education, and sexual activity were significant in explaining sexual satisfaction. A variety of factors play a role with regard to sexuality in old age, in particular immigration status. Appropriate interventions can help older adults cope with the determinants that negatively affect their mental health and sexual life.

  2. Precarity in late life: rethinking dementia as a 'frailed' old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Lloyd, Liz; Phillipson, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Approaches to ageing that are organised around productivity, success, and active late life have contributed to views of dementia as an unsuccessful, failed or 'frailed' old age. Operating through dominant frameworks, socio-cultural constructs and organisational practices, the 'frailties' of the body and mind are often used to mark the boundaries of health and illness in late life, and shape responses accordingly. Our concern is that both the taken for granted and the 'imagined' can further marginalise persons who occupy the locations of dementia and disablement. This article analyses the extent to which frailty and dementia are better understood in the context of new forms of insecurity affecting the life course. Drawing on the concept of 'precarity', this article shifts debates on the 'fourth age' away from age or stage-based thinking, into a recognition of the shared vulnerability and responsibilities for care. The argument of this article is that 'precarity' represents a 'new form of ageing', notably as regards its impact on the upper extremes of the life course. The article concludes with a call for a response that is grounded in an acknowledgement of the fragility and limitations which affect human lives, this requiring grounding in inclusive forms of citizenship. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: Evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child’s sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son’s death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers’ health is not adversely affected by a son’s death. There is little evidence that a daughter’s death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. PMID:24054310

  4. Sleep quality and cognitive function in healthy old age: the moderating role of subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child's sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son's death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers' health is not adversely affected by a son's death. There is little evidence that a daughter's death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Stigma and old age: essays on the manipulation of the deteriorated age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa Rodrigues Andrade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the aging it is a subject handled by several sciences and knowledges. Before, the study in this area was a rarity, with the contribution of what has become a social problem, this category has received relative importance in academic arenas, television and in various areas of socialization, and as output, the purposes of third age. Among several approaches that are configured on it, we have issues of identity, social roles and stigma. This study aims to analyze the stigmatizing by which pass the elderly and how this phenomenon is interesting to reflect on the relationships between them and the other individuals in society. It was used books and articles available on the Internet, coming from authors who highlight in the subject, based on the study by Erving Goffman in his book Stigma: Notes on the management of the deteriorated image. It Will be discussed, the comprehension of stigma in Goffman, the social construction of old age and relationship with the social stigma, as they are referred to some elements, such as: social identity, visibility, concealment, techniques of information control and biography, which are relevant to reflect about concepts from stigma applyed by Goffman. Thus, this study establishes a connection between aging and stigma to not only increase knowledge on the subject, but also encourage the study and research on the topic for researchers and other interested parties.

  8. Good news about the effects of bad old-age stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates whether the confrontation with negative, age-stereotyped information leads to a deterioration of older adults' self-perceptions as suggested by the labeling theory, or whether older adults protect their self-perceptions against deterioration as suggested by theories of the resilience of the aging self. Self perceptions, as well as peer-perception of other older adults in general were assessed in a pre-post design. In the experimental group, 60 older adults received negative information about competence in old age. The control group of 40 older adults received neutral information. In the experimental condition, the general perceptions of other older adults worsened whereas their self-perception improved. In the control condition, only small changes emerged. Furthermore, the change of self-perceptions varied by the perceived applicability of the negative information for oneself. We conclude that older adults use negative age stereotypes more as a standard of reference for downward comparison rather than integrating them into their self-perceptions.

  9. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  10. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036. Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis. No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  11. Concrete and formal operational thought processes in young adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, V; Overton, W F

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the role of concrete and formal operations in a young and old population. In addition, the present study explored the relation between operational thought and Cattell's concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence, as well as the role of differential living arrangements in maintaining operational thought. Eighty females from three age groups (18-20 years, 60-70 years and 70-80 years of age) were tested on a series of Piagetian tasks and indices of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The findings supported the notion that age-related performance differences occur in the area of formal operational thought prior to the time they occur in concrete operational thought. Except for the young sample, the operational tasks were found to be unrelated to fluid intelligence at the age levels represented in this study. Living independently as opposed to living in an old age home did not appear to be a significant factor in maintaining operational thought. Discussion focused on the necessity of identifying those factors which influence the developmental course of formal operational thought across the life span.

  12. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  13. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    demographic patterns, with more elderly persons in need of both care and support, coupled with smaller working-age populations to deliver that care and support. Mapping and comparing the combinations of welfare regarding care for the elderly in China and Denmark reveals serious inequalities of class, gender...... and generation. Both states are in principle fully committed to the wellbeing of all citizens through universal welfare state protection, but in reality both rely very much on market and civil society solutions, which leaves the population strongly differentiated and polarized, not only when it comes to gender...... and generation, but also with respect to class. The conclusion is that Denmark and China are converging towards a model of welfare combinations set within an overall framework of universalism. The most important lines of conflict revolve around generation, though class and gender also remain influential....

  14. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . The authors' impressive analysis of causal factors, including political elites' strategic use of social policy, makes the book an original and important contribution to the comparative welfare state literature.'- Professor Linda J. Cook, Brown University“ 'This edited volume is extraordinarily good...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...

  15. Youth and Old Age Contrast in Nezami’s Images with Respect to Color Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    n Safabakhsh

    2012-05-01

    Old age and Youth are examples of concepts which have been the focus of many poets’ attention and Nezami in particular. These concepts have been beautifully depicted in Nezami’s poems through the color element. The poet has beautifully depicted the young and old generation’s appearance characteristics using his poetic talent and colorful elements of nature. On one hand, white, black and red are examples of the colors used to describe young generation directly or indirectly. On the other hand, old age is described with respect to yellow and white colors. Nezami’s description of youth and old age is well elaborated in this research with aims at analyzing these concepts with regard to the element of color.

  16. Falling into the Light-using music and poetry as complementary modes of understanding falls in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Clausen, Nina

    that a broader understanding of falls in old age in the health care system might help health professionals to understand the complexity of falls and by this inspire older persons to prevent falls in different ways. Using poetry and music in our performance we seek to open up for a broader understanding of falls......: irresponsible behavior, disease, destiny, desire to remain independent in old age, appearing elegant/aesthetical and being physical active. One of the interviews was selected and transformed it into a poem (2-3). The poem was then translated into music by the second author. First we present the six...... understandings of falls in old age then we read the poem and finally a musical interpretation of the poem is performed by song and cello. The music is written for soprano and cello and created with direct inspiration from the poem. The fall is reproduced in a series of descending tones coming back as a "chorus...

  17. The mortality experience of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled - and semiskilled labour groups in Fredericia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Jeune, B

    1980-01-01

    Survival of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled and semiskilled labourers was compared with the employed workers from the same local trade union. All members receiving early old-age or disability pensions during the period October 1, 1969 to September 30, 1973 were assigned...... to the index group provided they were still alive September 30, 1973. 2 active workers were selected as controls for each pensioner according to the closest age match. The pensioners had about 7 times higher mortality risk than their active fellow workers in the follow-up period from September 30, 1973...

  18. Vejez, Sabidurías y Administración Old Age, Wisdom and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrillón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Sofofobia¹ en la Administración? Los efectos negativos de las dinámicas económicas y de las prácticas de gestión actuales indican la ausencia de sensatez en múltiples dimensiones de la Administración contemporánea. Con el propósito de contribuir a contrarrestar dichas disfuncionalidades, la primera parte de este artículo exhorta a descubrir la sabiduría inspirada en la vejez, exponiendo diversas ventajas de tal aproximación. La segunda parte, aplica evocaciones concretas de la vejez para abordar problemáticas organizacionales a nivel praxeológico, epistemológico, axiológico y ontológico. Cada una de estas dimensiones, se discute en una sección en la cual se advierten posibles desviaciones patológicas, y donde también se proponen ejemplos y reflexiones de sabiduría derivados de la vejez; que esperamos permitan enriquecer, de manera creativa, las prácticas y teorías de la Administración.Sophophobia² in management? The negative effects caused by economic dynamics and of the current management practices; indicate the absence of prudence in multiple dimensions of contemporary administration. In order to help counter these disfunctions, the first part of this article exhorts readers to discover the wisdom inspired by aging, presenting several advantages of such approximation. The second part of the article, applies concrete evocations of old age to approach organizational problems at different levels: praxeological, epistemological, axiological, and ontological. For each one of these dimensions, there is a section that discusses latent pathological deviations, and also proposes wise examples and reflections related to ageing, which hopefully would enrich, in a creative manner, the theories and practices of administration.

  19. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-07-06

    There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  20. DOES PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AT A YOUNG AGE REALLY MEAN A HEALTHIER ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Škof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical education in schools endeavours to develop life patterns through encouraging regular physical activity and sports in childhood and youth, so as to establish a life-long goal that will reflect in an active, healthy lifestyle and consequently in a higher quality of life also in adulthood and old age. This, however, also raises an important question: Are these goals in fact achieved? The purpose of this paper is based on a review of available - particularly longitudinal - studies and aims at determining the extent of the impact of an active lifestyle and an appropriate level of physical fitness in youth on the health, physical activity and lifestyle in later stages of life. Despite the great interest in academic research of the issue, this question has not yet obtained a completely clear answer. The overall conclusion of most significant longitudinal studies around the world is that a physically active lifestyle developed during childhood and adolescence generally transfers to adulthood; however, the links between practising sports / doing physical activity during childhood/adolescence and adulthood are low (r = 0.09 to 0.25. The relationship between the individual stages of life decreases with an increase of the age interval under observation. On the other hand, more advanced training programmes for young people have a greater impact on the physical activity and health status of the same people in later periods of life. Many more extensive longitudinal studies will be required in order to clarify this issue. Nevertheless, a basic finding is clear: only regular and systematic physical activity both in youth and later periods can contribute to better fitness and better health.

  1. The Temporal Association Between Executive Function and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Eronen, Johanna; Pynnönen, Katja; Eriksson, Johan G; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2018-05-09

    Life-space mobility, an indicator of community mobility, describes person's movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement, and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is a higher-order cognitive function that supervises motor control and plays a key role in a person's ability to function independently. Cognitive impairment often co-occurs with restricted life-space mobility; however, the direction of the longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal associations between EF and life-space mobility among community-dwelling older people. One hundred eight community-dwelling persons aged 76 to 91 years participated in the 2 year follow-up study. EF was measured with the Trail Making Test. The Life-Space Assessment (range 0-120, higher scores indicate more mobility) was used to assess life-space mobility. Cross-lagged model design was used to examine longitudinal relationship between EF and life-space mobility. The model was adjusted for age and gender. Average age of participants at baseline was 82.2 (SD 4.1) years and 59% were women. Better EF at baseline predicted higher life-space mobility at follow-up (path coefficient = 3.81, 95% confidential interval; 0.84, 6.78, p = .012), whereas baseline life-space mobility did not predict EF at follow-up. EF was a determinant of life-space mobility. Supporting EF may enhance maintaining independence and active participation in old age.

  2. Actuarial status of the old-age and survivors insurance and disability insurance trust funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, H C

    1982-06-01

    The 1982 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Funds indicates sever financial problems in both the short and the long range. The short-range financial status is significantly worse than was estimated last year, after enactment of the 1981 legislation, because of continuing unfavorable economic conditions. The estimated long-range deficit is the same as the deficit that was estimated last year before the 1981 legislation and is therefore somewhat worse than was estimated immediately after enactment of the legislation. Under present law, which authorizes temporary interfund borrowing amount the OASI, DI, and Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Funds, the OASI Trust Fund would become unable to pay benefits on time by July 1983. The assets of the DI Trust Fund, on the other hand, are expected to grow rapidly in both the short and long range. If the assets of both the OASI and DI Trust Funds were combined, however, the two funds would still become unable to pay benefits on time by the latter half of 1983, based on all four sets of economic and demographic assumptions in the 1982 report. Even if the temporary interfund borrowing authority in present law were extended, the combined assets of the OASI, DI, and HI Trust Funds would become insufficient to pay benefits on time by 1984, based on the two less favorable sets of assumptions in the 1982 report. Based on the other two, more favorable, sets of assumptions, the three combined funds could pay benefits on time through the 1980's but there would be little or no margin of safety to permit timely payment of benefits if economic conditions are even slightly less favorable.

  3. Food activities and identity maintenance in old age: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Nicola Ann; Atwal, Anita; Gilhooly, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Services provided to older people should be developed based on active ageing policies. Nutrition is one aspect of active ageing, but little is known about how food activities contribute to psychological well-being in later life. This is a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research that answers the question 'What is known about the relationship between food activities and the maintenance of identities in old age?'. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines and used quality assessment parameters to complete a systematic review and narrative synthesis. Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO databases were searched. We initially identified 8016 articles, of which 167 full-text articles were screened for inclusion. Twenty-two articles were included in the review. There was moderate evidence from nine qualitative and two quantitative studies, of variable quality, that food activities contribute to the maintenance of women's gendered identities, the ethnic identities of men and women, and community identities. There was moderate evidence from 10 qualitative studies, of variable quality, that a change in food choice and deteriorating health changed food activity participation. These changes threatened identities. Most studies included both younger adults and older adults. In later life, there are many life experiences leading to change. Further research is needed to develop understanding of how identity and mental well-being are maintained, despite changes in everyday activities like cooking and eating. This may enable health care professionals to meet psychological needs alongside biological needs during nutritional interventions.

  4. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  5. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  6. Health and well-being in old age: the pertinence of a gender mainstreaming approach in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Hutchison, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The demographic and societal changes of the past decades, such as longevity and improvements in public health, have created new and often very distinct realities for men and women. However, these diversities have only marginally and fragmentally been the topic of research endeavours. There is a growing awareness of the societal phenomenon 'feminization of old age', yet the topic and its psychosocial and health-related consequences have not attracted the scientific interest they deserve. Due to scientific neglects and limitations, state of the art research in the field of gender, health and ageing is still sketchy and often contradictory. In the present article, the complex pattern of roles and values that define what is thought of as 'masculine' and 'feminine' and its significant impact on health-related lifestyles will be examined. Based on current research, we try to give answers to questions such as: 'Do older women really have more physical and mental health problems than older men, or are these findings influenced by a gender bias, due to a different awareness and understanding of health and illness?' It will be shown that it is impossible to find satisfactory answers to such questions without considering the cultural and social contexts of the individuals studied. The inclusion of gender as a social reality in the broadest sense is therefore an absolute prerequisite for gaining valid information. Gender has played only a marginal role in the hitherto existing geriatric and gerontological research and practice. Therefore, a gender-fair approach in research and practice is indicated, i.e. an approach that takes into account differences and commonalities of women and men and considers their differing circumstances and specific problems (gender mainstream). Gender mainstreaming entails on the one hand horizontal justice (denoting equal treatment and benefits for equal needs of men and women) and on the other hand vertical justice (indicating differential

  7. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  8. ‘Successful Ageing’ in Practice: Reflections on Health, Activity and Normality in Old Age in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Alftberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the critical examination of the notions of health and activity, and to discuss how these cultural and social constructs have impact on elderly people’s lives. An ethnographic perspective gives fruitful inputs to explore how old people deal with the image of old age as one of decay and decline, while they simultaneously relate to the normative idea of so-called successful ageing. The focus is thus on how elderly people create meaning, and how they manage and make use of the contradictory cultural beliefs that are both understood as normality: old age as a passive period of life involving decline and disease, and activity as an individual responsibility in order to stay healthy. The study sample is created with two different methods, qualitative interviews and two different questionnaires, and the majority of the respondents are 65+ years old. The article demonstrates the intersection between old age and a health-promoting active lifestyle. The notion of activity includes moral values, which shape the beliefs and narratives of being old. This forms part of the concept of self-care management, which in old age is also called successful ageing. The idea that activities are health promoting is the framework in which activities are performed, but significance and meaning are rather created from practice.

  9. Falls in old age: pills, the heart and beyond: Withdrawal of drugs and screening for cardiovascular causes in older fallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFall incidents are common in old age, with a rising injury rate with increasing age. Falling is not a diagnosis per se, but a symptom that can result from a number of diseases and abnormalities. However, even though there are abundant studies addressing possible causes of fall

  10. A study on quality of life between elderly people living in old age home and within family setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Panday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing in the new millennium will be greatly influenced by both global and region specific factors, although increasing numbers as well as significant changes in the socio-cultural milieu are responsible for the recent emphasis on studies pertaining to older adults in India. This has resulted in the caregiver issue becoming a growing concern for national policy makers. The family as a single unit is undergoing changes leading to significant adjustments in accommodating and caring for older adults in the family, making them more vulnerable to illness and psychosocial strains in the absence of familial support network. Aim: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL between elderly people living in old age home and within the family setup. Methods and materials: A cross sectional research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted at two old age homes and two areas of Ranchi - Kantatoli and Kanke. The sample comprised of 80 participants who were further divided into 40 participants from old age homes and 40 participants from family. Tools such as socio-demographic data sheet and QOL scale were administered to obtain the data. Result and conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that QOL was better of those elderly people who were living in old age home in comparison of those elderly people who were living within family setup.

  11. Public health against a centralized state: institutions and welfare services in the province of Mendoza during the first Peronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hirschegger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the state action in public health during the first Peronism and engages on some factors that determined the success or failure of policies at provincial level. The work also refers , through concrete examples , to smaller territorial units such as municipalities , while application areas of public policy or executors of them. Some of the questions that were attempted to answer what extent the new changes in the state structure were accompanied by concrete actions that have a bearing on the living conditions of the population? What obstacles limited government action? the realization of public works will be included in this analysis by the state , staff in charge , as well as investments in other resources necessary for adequate medical care.

  12. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  13. The "Cantankerous Old People" Next Door : How Old Age Is Represented in Serbian Television Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are based belong for the most part to the corpus of negative stereotypes of elderly people as hopelessly behind the times, feeble, lonely, irritating, cantankerous, etc. Some positive stereotypes are also evident, but they are mostly limited to a perception of elderly people as kindly givers of useful advice. It is interesting to note that the "cantankerous people next door" are as a rule anonymous elderly people, as are those "lost in time and space", who are mostly elderly women. In contrast, those who let their careers and images be associated with a certain product, in order to pass on their great experience and knowledge, are as a rule famous persons. Just as it is possible to make a distinction between commercials depending on whether or not the products advertised are targeted at the elderly – which they rarely are – and whether elderly people appear in leading or supporting roles, in order to make viewers laugh or annoy them, so it is possible to distinguish between the "real-life principle", which involves the translation of the society’s dominant attitudes into commercials, and "commercial reality", which either makes old age invisible or "masks" it so that it is pleasant to the eye. The reason that old people are absent from television commercials or are mostly represented in a negative light is to be found in the low purchasing power of this age group, but also in the fact that advertising in Serbia developed practically overnight, and

  14. Evaluation on the implementation of respiratory protection measures in old age homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana TF Lee,1 Doris Yu,1 Margaret Ip,2 Jennifer YM Tang3 1The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, 3Sau Po Centre on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong Purpose: Old age homes (OAHs represent a vulnerable community for influenza outbreaks. Effective implementation of respiratory protection measures has been identified as an effective prevention measure to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by such outbreaks. Yet, relatively little is known about this aspect in these homes. This study evaluated the implementation of respiratory protection measures among infection control officers (ICOs and health care workers (HCWs in these homes in Hong Kong.Patients and methods: A territory-wide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 OAHs. A total of 87 ICOs and 1,763 HCWs (including nurses, health workers, care workers, allied HCWs and assistants completed the questionnaires that evaluated the implementation at the organizational level and individual level, respectively. Generalized estimating equations with unstructured working correlation matrix were used to analyze the simultaneous influence of organizational and individual factors on the implementation.Results: At the organizational level, all homes had a policy on respiratory protection and implementation of such measures was generally adequate. Basic resources such as paper towels/hand dryers and equipment disinfectants, however, were rated as most inadequate by HCWs. Training opportunities were also identified as grossly inadequate. Only less than half of the ICOs and HCWs participated in training on infection control either at the initiation of employment or on a regular basis. Twenty-five percent of HCWs even indicated that they had never participated in any infection control training. At the individual level, hand hygiene, among other

  15. Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2017-09-26

    Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic

  16. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the SNARE protein interactome is associated with faster cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Miguel, Alfredo; Jones, Andrea A; Sawada, Ken; Barr, Alasdair M; Bayer, Thomas A; Falkai, Peter; Leurgans, Sue E; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Honer, William G

    2018-06-01

    The molecular underpinnings associated with cognitive reserve remain poorly understood. Because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complexity of human brain aging, postmortem studies from well-designed cohorts are crucial to unmask mechanisms conferring cognitive resistance against cumulative neuropathologies. We tested the hypothesis that functionality of the SNARE protein interactome might be an important resilience factor preserving cognitive abilities in old age. Cognition was assessed annually in participants from the Rush "Memory and Aging Project" (MAP), a community-dwelling cohort representative of the overall aging population. Associations between cognition and postmortem neurochemical data were evaluated in functional assays quantifying various species of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) machinery in samples from the inferior temporal (IT, n = 154) and middle-frontal (MF, n = 174) gyri. Using blue-native gel electrophoresis, we isolated and quantified several types of complexes containing the three SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, SNAP25, VAMP), as well as the GABAergic/glutamatergic selectively expressed complexins-I/II (CPLX1/2), in brain tissue homogenates and reconstitution assays with recombinant proteins. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between IT and MF neurochemical data (SNARE proteins and/or complexes), and multiple age-related neuropathologies, as well as with multiple cognitive domains of MAP participants. Controlling for demographic variables, neuropathologic indices and total synapse density, we found that temporal 150-kDa SNARE species (representative of pan-synaptic functionality) and frontal CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio of 500-kDa heteromeric species (representative of inhibitory/excitatory input functionality) were, among all the immunocharacterized complexes, the strongest predictors of cognitive function nearest death. Interestingly, these two neurochemical

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in gait speed and associated characteristics in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouvier, S; Carton, M; Cyr, D; Sabia, S; Leclerc, A; Zins, M; Descatha, A

    2016-04-23

    A few studies have documented associations between socioeconomic position and gait speed, but the knowledge about factors from various domains (personal factors, lifestyle, occupation…) which contribute to these disparities is limited. Our objective was to assess socioeconomic disparities in usual gait speed in a general population in early old age in France, and to identify potential contributors to the observed disparities, including occupational factors. The study population comprised 397 men and 339 women, aged 55 to 69, recruited throughout France for the field pilot of the CONSTANCES cohort. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Socioeconomic position was based on self-reported occupational class. Information on personal characteristics, lifestyle, comorbidities and past or current occupational physical exposure came either from the health examination, from interview or from self-administered questionnaire. Four groups were considered according to sex-specific distributions of speed (the two slowest thirds versus the fastest third, for each gender). Logistic regression models adjusted for health screening center and age allowed to the study of cross-sectional associations between: 1- slower speed and occupational class; 2- slower speed and each potential contributor; 3- occupational class and selected potential contributors. The association between speed and occupational class was then further adjusted for the factors significantly associated both with speed and occupational class, in order to assess the potential contribution of these factors to disparities. With reference to managers/executives, gait speed was reduced in less skilled categories among men (OR 1.21 [0.72-2.05] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 1.95 [0.80-4.76] for Clerks, Sale/service workers, 2.09 [1.14-3.82] for Blue collar/Craftsmen) and among women (OR 1.12 [0.55-2.28] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 2.33 [1.09-4.97] for Clerks, 2.48 [1.18-5.24] for Sale/service workers/Blue collar

  18. The "Culture" of Migrant Pupils: A Nation- and Welfare-State Historical Perspective on the European Refugee Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Culture seems to function as a central explanation when refugees and other migrants are framed as a risk and a challenge in European and national politics across the member states, including educational politics. Based on the case of Denmark during the 1970s, the article unfolds how education historically has been an arena for the internal…

  19. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  20. A velhice: algumas considerações teóricas e conceituais The old age: some theoretical and conceptual considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes de Siqueira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se ao exame de algumas obras que discutem o envelhecimento, buscando analisar as diferentes perspectivas de análise: na perspectiva "biológico/comportamentalista" discutem-se aqueles estudos que se ocupam do processo de envelhecimento fisiológico. Na perspectiva "economicista" analisa-se o impacto econômico do envelhecimento social, discutindo questões relativas à demanda por serviços de saúde e benefícios previdenciários. Na perspectiva "sociocultural", a velhice é entendida como uma construção social e se reflete sobre as possíveis formas de representações desta. A quarta perspectiva, "transdisciplinar", representa uma dimensão que se esforça em contemplar o conjunto dos aspectos (biológico, econômico, sociocultural apontados nas perspectivas anteriores. Considerando o grau de complexidade da realidade acerca da velhice e as dificuldades teóricas e metodológicas de contemplá-la na sua totalidade, este trabalho conclui por um impasse sobre qual seria a perspectiva mais apropriada para analisá-la, e aponta para a necessidade de se ampliar e aprofundar o debate sobre as implicações teóricas e práticas relativas de cada perspectiva.In this study, a discussion is accomplished on some papers concerning to the aging phenomenon, whereas looking for the identification of different analysis perspectives: on the "biological/behavioral" perspective are those studies fundamentally related to the physiologic aging process. The "economicist" perspective is focused on the economic impact of the social aging, by analyzing the matters related to the demand for health services and social welfare benefits. On the perspective of the "sociocultural" character, the old age is understood as a social construction, and the papers discuss the possible forms for its representation. The fourth perspective, "transdisciplinary", represents a dimension trying to contemplate a set of different-natured aspects (biological

  1. Welfare State e emprego em saúde nos países avançados desde o Pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial Welfare State and employment in health activities in developed countries since the Post-Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcos de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the economic importance of the health activities in the developed countries in the last decades of the twentieth century. It takes into consideration the evolution of the weight of the employment in the health activities in European countries' and also in the United States' labour markets, which will be compared in an historical perspective. The evolution and the weight of the public expenditure in the health activities will also be taken into account so as to analyze the economic importance of the sector in the last decades of twentieth century. The role played by the political, economic and social context of the Post-Second World War in the construction of the system of social protection (Welfare State and its effects over the health activities will be also considered.

  2. Review A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chulayo, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Increased public concern for animal welfare in the logistics chain has .... still complain about poor management of animals and state that ... assurance of good animal welfare and healthier foods to all participating supply chains, animal genetics has ...... Toward a global perspective on farm animal welfare.

  3. The end of capitalism and its future: Hegel as founder of the concept of a welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieweg Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key part of Hegel’s practical philosophy is his theory of civil society and the idea of a rational regulation of the market. This is the foundation of Hegel’s theory of a social state. The copyright on the notion of a modern society of freedom and a rational, social state belongs to Hegel. Hegel proves himself to be the thinker who until now has provided the most convincing foundation for freedom in modernity. The theoretical foundation and at the same time bone of contention of Hegel’s political thought is to be found in his concept of ethical life (Sittlichkeit, in particular in his theory of civil society. The current shipwreck of deregulated capitalism does not mean the foundering of our journey towards a free society. Nevertheless the deficiencies and unsustainability of both traditional models - socialist collective ownership and market fundamentalism - exhibit two contradictory claims to a share of the wealth of nations. To take up Hegel’s project is, in essence, to aim at a new conception of an environmentally and socially sustainable and just society, and a corresponding world order. It is to further Hegel’s philosophy of freedom.

  4. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  5. 37 Subjective Welfarism, Communitarian Paternalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    debate between the advocates of liberal welfarism and ... Once the first step is taken towards the emergence of the state, ... power once this division of power or collaboration of ..... compromise the existence of future generation yet unborn.

  6. Living in old age: contributions to active aging in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Antunes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The intervention here described resulted from a research / intervention work developed with the elderly who attended an adult education workshop, which purpose was to promote active aging by means of sociocultural animation. It involved a group of 22 participants aged between 67 and 92 years. The authors developed a participatory action-research, applying the interpretive-hermeneutic paradigm and resorting to sociocultural animation techniques - methodologies that usually foster motivation and participation on the target population. Based on the interests, needs and potential of the participants seven workshops were developed: Manual and Decorative Arts; Preventive Health; Gardening; Cooking; Musical Expression; Gymnastics; and Religious Activities. Various types of activities (physical, cognitive, recreational, social, emotional and spiritual were fostered, which allowed the development of the elderly’s functional abilities (e.g. mobility, memory, creativity, critical reflection; the fostering of interactional and interpersonal processes, valuing the traditions and fomenting spirituality. The intervention had positive results as the final evaluation revealed: the participants highlighted the benefits of the project, in particular, the levels of physical and psychological well-being, the augment of the quality of their relationships with others and the acquisition of new apprenticeships. This project reiterated the importance of social and cultural activities regarding the elderly’s learning processes, welfare and quality of life.

  7. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  9. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  10. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  11. Sustainable Development in China’s Coastal Area: Based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Welfare-Response Framework and the Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of China’s coastal areas is being constrained by resources and the environment, with sustainable development being the key to solving these problems. The data envelopment analysis (DEA model is widely used to assess sustainable development. However, indicators used in the DEA model are not selected in a scientific and comprehensive manner, which may lead to unrepresentative results. Here, we use the driver-pressure-state-welfare-response (DPSWR framework to select more scientific and comprehensive indicators for a more accurate analysis of efficiency in China’s coastal area. The results show that the efficiencies of most provinces and cities in China’s coastal area have a stable trend. In the time dimension, efficiency was rising before 2008, after which it decreased. In the spatial dimension, China’s coastal provinces and cities are divided into three categories: high efficiency, low efficiency, and greater changes in efficiency. By combining DPSWR and DEA, we produce reliable values for measuring efficiency, with the benefit of avoiding the incomplete selection of DEA indicators.

  12. Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state: The role of labor-market status, country of origin, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person's civil status, citizenship, and country of origin. We investigate the extent to which the associations of parents' labor-market status with childbearing in Sweden differ between women and men and by country of origin. We find that the patterns of association are fairly similar on both of these individual dimensions. As measured by the way the labor-market activity of parents is related to their subsequent childbearing, we find evidence of equality by gender and at least some evidence of integration of immigrants into the dynamics of Swedish society.

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839–874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates. PMID:26052178

  14. Welfare state, labour market inequalities and health. In a global context: an integrated framework. SESPAS report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo; Edwin, N G; Schrecker, Ted

    2010-12-01

    Since the nineteen seventies, high- and low-income countries have undergone a pattern of transnational economic and cultural integration known as globalization. The weight of the available evidence suggests that the effects of globalization on labor markets have increased economic inequality and various forms of economic insecurity that negatively affect workers' health. Research on the relation between labor markets and health is hampered by the social invisibility of many of these health inequalities. Empirical evidence of the impact of employment relations on health inequalities is scarce for low-income countries, small firms, rural settings, and sectors of the economy in which "informality" is widespread. Information is also scarce on the effectiveness of labor market interventions in reducing health inequalities. This pattern is likely to continue in the future unless governments adopt active labor market policies. Such policies include creating jobs through state intervention, regulating the labor market to protect employment, supporting unions, and ensuring occupational safety and health standards. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years) and old age (75-90 years). However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory ...

  16. The Association of Leisure Activities in Middle Adulthood with Cognitive Performance in Old Age: The Moderating Role of Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Baeriswyl, Marie; Guichard, Eduardo; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for gerontological research is how to maintain and promote intact cognitive functioning in old age. Previous research revealed that high educational level, good health status, and an active lifestyle during adulthood seem to be protective against cognitive impairment in old age. However, up to now, a detailed examination of the interaction of these relations based on a broader variety of activities and considering past and current activities is missing. The present study set out to extend the literature by investigating in more detail the interactions of educational level and health status with a broad variety of past and current leisure activities in their association with cognitive functioning in a large sample of older adults with a wide age range. A total of 2,812 older adults (aged 65-101 years) served as the sample for the present study. A test on verbal abilities and one on processing speed were applied. In addition, individuals were retrospectively interviewed regarding their educational level, current general health status, and 18 leisure activities (in terms of currently performed activities and those that had been carried out at the age of 45 years). Regressions indicated that engaging in more current activities and in more activities at the age of 45 years (both analyzed as an overall activity measure) was related to better cognitive performance in old age (r values up to 0.39, p values <0.001). These associations were more pronounced in individuals with a low (compared to a high) educational level. Present results suggest that an active lifestyle during middle adulthood may be related to better cognitive functioning in old age, particularly in individuals with a low educational level. These findings are discussed with respect to models of cognitive aging. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Episodic and semantic memory functioning in very old age: Explanations from executive functioning and processing speed theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether age-related episodic and semantic memory impairments are better explained by decline in processing speed or executive functioning (or both, rather than directly in terms of memory components. The models tested were based on an extensive review of the literature on cognitive decline in normal aging, up to very old age. A computerized test battery, measuring episodic memory (free and cued recall; recognition, semantic memory (fluency; naming accuracy and latencies, processing speed and executive functioning, was administered to 234 elderly persons ranging from young-old to very old age (55–96 years. To avoid large variance in response times due to physical instead of cognitive limitations, no motor responses were required from participants. Age-related decline in episodic and semantic memory performance was found to be the consequence of declines in processing speed and executive functioning. Processing speed mainly mediated decline of semantic memory, whereas executive functioning mainly mediated episodic memory decline. The most parsimonious model showed that both processing speed and executive functioning attributed to memory decline but independent from one another. The results suggest that at very old age, the impact of executive dysfunctions on episodic memory performance exceeds the influence of cognitive slowing.

  18. Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Christina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-11-24

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength-estimated by grip strength-may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life.

  19. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  20. Health economic choices in old age: interdisciplinary perspectives on economic decisions and the aging mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Phillips, John W R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an integrative review of psychological and neurobiological differences between younger and older adults that might impact economic behavior. Focusing on key health economic challenges facing the elderly, it offers perspectives on how these psychological and neurobiological factors may influence decision-making over the life course and considers future interdisciplinary research directions. We review relevant literature from three domains that are essential for developing a comprehensive science of decision-making and economic behavior in aging (psychology, neuroscience, and economics), consider implications for prescription drug coverage and long-term care (LTC) insurance, and highlight future research directions. Older adults face many complex economic decisions that directly affect their health and well-being, including LTC insurance, prescription drug plans, and end of life care. Economic research suggests that many older Americans are not making cost-effective and economically rational decisions. While economic models provide insight into some of the financial incentives associated with these decisions, they typically do not consider the roles of cognition and affect in decision-making. Research has established that older age is associated with predictable declines in many cognitive functions and evidence is accumulating that distinct social motives and affect-processing profiles emerge in older age. It is unknown how these age differences impact the economic behaviors of older people and implies opportunities for path-breaking interdisciplinary research. Our chapter looks to develop interdisciplinary research to better understand the causes and consequences of age-related changes in economic decision-making and guide interventions to improve public programs and overall social welfare.

  1. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  2. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  3. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  4. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  5. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  6. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  7. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  8. O segredo da longevidade segundo as percepções dos próprios longevos The secret of longevity in the perception of the old-aged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pavão Patrício

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos apontam fatores que podem aumentar a longevidade; no entanto, muitas questões pertinentes a este tema ainda não foram elucidadas. Percepções do próprio longevo a respeito dos fatores contribuintes para longevidade são importantes, permitindo levantamento de cada fator e suas interações com demais variáveis que promovem a longevidade. O presente artigo relata dados da investigação sobre "o segredo da longevidade", segundo percepções dos próprios longevos, analisados pelo referencial metodológico da grounded theory. Foram entrevistados trinta ferroviários longevos do município de Botucatu (SP. A análise das falas dos longevos possibilitou determinar que a percepção dos fatores se aglutina em torno de categorias progressivamente abrangentes que culminam na representação coletiva de que a longevidade é dependente do embate entre fatores prejudiciais que aniquilam a vida e fatores saudáveis que geram e preservam a vida, sobre o qual a falta de controle social e do Estado torna pessimista a visão do futuro.Many studies point to factors capable of increasing longevity but many questions regarding this subject were still not elucidated. The perceptions of the old aged themselves with respect to factors that contribute to longevity are important, allowing to identify each factor and its interactions with other variables promoting longevity. This article presents the results of an investigation about "the secret of longevity", according to old-aged themselves, analyzed through grounded theory. Thirty old-aged men, former railroad workers, were interviewed in the city of Botucatu (SP. The analysis of their discourse led to the conclusion that the perception of the factors can be grouped around progressively inclusive categories that culminate in the collective representation that longevity depends on the balance between negative life-destroying factors and healthy, life-generating and life-preserving factors. The lack of

  9. Outsourcing, Unemployment and Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of labor intensive activities challenges the welfare state and undermines the protection of low-skilled workers. The stylized facts are that profits are concentrated among the high-skilled, involuntary unemployment is mostly among the low-skilled, and private unemployment insurance is missing. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of redistribution and insurance policies when heterogeneous firms can outsource labor intensive components to low-wage economies. The main results are: ...

  10. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  11. Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality--is there evidence for mortality selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Peeters, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts. DESIGN AND

  12. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  13. Parents of the welfare state:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida; Kjær, Bjørg; Palludan, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    institutions have a fundamental role to play. It would seem to be here – as well as within the family – that the foundation is laid for all that is to come. It has therefore also become a political mantra across the globe that a well-functioning partnership between parents and ECEC institutions is a necessity...... (Bach & Christensen 2016/7). Numerous studies have already shown how parents all over the world are increasingly expected to take an active role at their children’s schools (Axelvoll 2016, Dannesboe), but this seemingly also now applies to ECEC. Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in three ECEC...... institutions and interviews with staff and parents, in this article, we discuss the relationship between parents and ECEC institutions in a Danish context. More specifically, we examine the role played by staff at ECEC institutions when parents ‘do’ parenting. Are they a helping hand and a friend in the hour...

  14. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  15. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  16. O declínio do welfare state e a emergência do estado prisional: tempos de um novo puritanismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seilbel, Erni José

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O debate sobre o declínio do welfare state e a identificação do delineamento de novas formas de proteção social é uma questão que adquiriu um relativo grau de maturidade nas agendas de pesquisa e na produção acadêmica. Os termos político - sociais dessa transição, de uma forma clássica de proteção para formatos institucionais ainda não muito definidos é que a nosso ver carecem de uma observação mais apurada e sistemática. Queremos propor neste trabalho, de caráter ensaístico, que a transição referida vem acontecendo no âmbito de um movimento con contornos de um neopuritanismo com a função de regular um processo seletivo e excludente de um novo perfil de trabalhador. Salientamos que este processo se dá nos moldes da transição de trabalhador. Salientamos que este processo se dá nos moldes da transição que ocorreu no movimento de transformação das relações capitalistas no inicio do século XX, quando se acontece a passagem do modelo de produção manufatureira para a forma fabril, em outras palavras, a introdução da produção nos moldes taylorista-fordista

  17. Performatividade, privatização e o pós-Estado do Bem-Estar Performativity, privatisation and the Post-Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Ball

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, primeiramente, será discutido, ainda que de maneira breve, o processo e a implicação do acordo do pós-Estado do Bem-Estar para o Estado, para o capital, para as instituições do setor público e para os cidadãos. Uma das principais questões na análise desse processo está baseada em dois pontos relacionados: a privatização e a mercantilização do setor público são crescentemente complexas e totalizadoras e formam parte de um novo acordo político global. Os valores do mercado privado são celebrados em quase todos os Estados do ocidente, dando legitimação e impulso para certas ações e compromissos - espírito empresarial, competição e excelência -, e inibindo e deslegitimando outros - justiça social, eqüidade, tolerância. Em particular, este trabalho tenta enfatizar a inserção de hábitos da produção privada, e de suas sensibilidades comerciais e "moral utilitária", na prática educacional.In this article, firstly, it will be discussed briefly the process and the implication of the Post-Welfare State settlement for the State, for capital, for public sector institutions and for citizen. One of the main questions in the analysis of this process is based in two related points: that privatisation and commodification in the public sector is increasingly complex and increasingly totalizing and they form part of a new global political settlement. The values of the private market are celebrated by the States of almost all western societies give legitimation and impetus to certain actions and commitments - enterprise, competition, excellence - and inhibit and de-legitimize others - social justice, equity, tolerance. In particular this paper tries to emphasize the insertion of the habitus of private production and its commercial sensibilities and "utilitarian morality" into educational practices.

  18. Association between midlife health behaviours and transitions out of employment from midlife to early old age: Whitehall II cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Hagger-Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to determine whether unhealthy behaviours might influence transitions out of employment from midlife to old age, given the anticipated need for adults to work for longer. Our aim was to determine the association between repeated assessments of cigarette smoking, heavy/problem alcohol drinking, low physical activity and poor diet at midlife, in relation to work exit from midlife to old age. Methods Data from 7704 participants (5392 men from the Whitehall II cohort study in employment at midlife were used to evaluate the association between unhealthy behaviours and a subsequent transition out of work during 22 years follow-up, using logistic regression models. Results Men who smoked cigarettes, consistently drank alcohol heavily, or reported problem drinking, were more likely to leave employment over follow-up. Women with a consistently poor diet were more likely to leave employment. Associations were stronger when the reason for leaving was health grounds, and stronger among those with persistently unhealthy behaviours over follow-up. The size of the effects were broadly equivalent to one advancing year of age on employment. Physical health functioning over follow-up only partly accounted for the associations with work exit, whereas physical and mental functioning accounted for most of the associations with work exit on health grounds. Conclusions Unhealthy behaviours in midlife are associated with transitions out of employment into old age. Promoting healthy behaviours at midlife might support current policy initiatives aimed at extending working life. Future research should consider possible mechanisms that link behaviours to transitions out of employment, and consider sex differences in larger cohorts.

  19. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  20. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Analyses of Serum Uric Acid in Middle and Old-Aged Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Chunsheng

    2018-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA), as the end product of purine metabolism, has proven emerging roles in human disorders. Here based on a sample of 379 middle and old-aged Chinese twin pairs, we aimed to explore the magnitude of genetic impact on SUA variation by performing sex-limitation twin modeling analy...... involved in functional genes and regulatory domains that mediate SUA level. Our findings provide clues to further elucidate molecular physiology of SUA homeostasis and identify new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for hyperuricemia and gout....